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1

Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in Jeopardy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Debate in the US Senate began today on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) scheduled for a vote on Tuesday. The treaty would ban not only atmospheric testing, but also underground testing for the nations that sign and ratify it. Currently, with Senate Republicans united in their opposition, the treaty is far short of the 67 votes needed for passage. As a result, the White House and leading senate Democrats are seeking to delay the vote rather than have the treaty go down to defeat. Internationally, the treaty is still far short of sufficient support to be put into effect, needing ratification in another 21 countries before it would be considered binding. Despite the strong Senate opposition to ratification, the United States has actually observed the terms of the treaty since 1992. The sites listed provide information about the test ban treaty and the debate.

Charbonneau, David D.

2

The Test Ban Challenge: Nuclear Nonproliferation and the Quest for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past sixty years, a number of American presidents have attempted to craft a working comprehensive nuclear test ban. This digital collection from The National Security Archive at The George Washington University brings together a host of documents from the U.S. State Department and other agencies to illustrate how "nonproliferation goals shaped U.S. internal discussions of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) from the 1950s through the late 1970s." There are eleven key documents here, dating back to the 1957 draft background paper which identifies nuclear proliferation as the "fourth country" problem. The "fourth country" concept arose as the next country after the United States, Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom to obtain nuclear devices would be the so-called "fourth country". The collection was edited by William Burr and released in August 2010, and it is one that policy experts and diplomacy types will find very intriguing.

3

Capability to Monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 1996, the United States was the first country to sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), an international agreement to ban all nuclear test explosions, now signed by 177 nations. The treaty is intended to impede the development of nuclear weapons as part of the international nonproliferation regime. The treaty is not yet in effect because it has not been ratified by enough countries-including the United States. As a result, many of its verification provisions have not yet been fully implemented. When implemented, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the Seismological Society of America (SSA) are confident that the combined worldwide monitoring resources will meet the verification goals of the CTBT.

2008-01-01

4

Comprehensive test ban negotiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United States concerned about the problem of possible Soviet cheating and the USSR concerned about the protection of its national sovereignty. In addition, internal bureaucratic politics have played a major role in preventing the successful conclusion of an agreement. Despite these problems, the superpowers have concluded several significant partial meausres: a brief (1958-1961) total moratorium on nuclear weapons tests; the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, banning tests in the air, water and outer space; the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (150 KT limit on underground explosions); and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976 (150 KT limit on individal PNEs). Today, the main U.S. objections to a CTBT center is the nuclear weapons laboratories, the Department of Energy, and the Pentagon, who all stress the issues of stockpile reliability and verification. Those who remain committed to a CTBT emphasize and the potential political leverage it offers in checking both horizontal and vertical proliferation.

Grab, G. Allen; Heckrotte, Warren

1983-10-01

5

Xenon monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

How do you monitor (verify) a CTBT? It is a difficult challenge to monitor the entire world for nuclear tests, regardless of size. Nuclear tests 'normally' occur underground, above ground or underwater. Setting aside very small tests (let's limit our thinking to 1 kiloton or more), nuclear tests shake the ground, emit large amounts of radioactivity, and make loud noises if in the atmosphere (or hydroacoustic waves if underwater)

Bowyer, Theodore W. [Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2014-05-09

6

Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1,000 squared kilometers. In active mining districts this area could include several different mining operations. So, an OSI could be disruptive both to the mining community and to the US Government which must host the foreign inspection team. Accordingly, it is in the best interest of all US parties to try and eliminate the possible occurrence of false alarms. This can be achieved primarily by reducing the ambiguity of mine-induced seismic signals, so that even if these remain visible to the IMS they are clearly consistent with recognizable mining patterns.

Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

1998-12-09

7

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

Graham, Thomas, Jr.

2014-05-01

8

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

Graham, Thomas Jr. [7609 Glenbrook Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

2014-05-09

9

Modeling Noble Gas Transport and Detection for The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detonation gases released by an underground nuclear test include trace amounts of 133Xe and 37Ar. In the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, On Site Inspection Protocol, such gases released from or sampled at the soil surface could be used to indicate the occurrence of an explosion in violation of the treaty. To better estimate the levels of detectability from an underground nuclear test (UNE), we developed mathematical models to evaluate the processes of 133Xe and 37Ar transport in fractured rock. Two models are developed respectively for representing thermal and isothermal transport. When the thermal process becomes minor under the condition of low temperature and low liquid saturation, the subsurface system is described using an isothermal and single-gas-phase transport model and barometric pumping becomes the major driving force to deliver 133Xe and 37Ar to the ground surface. A thermal test is simulated using a nonisothermal and two-phase transport model. In the model, steam production and bubble expansion are the major processes driving noble gas components to ground surface. After the temperature in the chimney drops below boiling, barometric pumping takes over the role as the major transport process.

Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

2014-03-01

10

Detection and analysis of xenon isotopes for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty international monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the xenon isotopes for detection of nuclear explosions is of great interest for monitoring compliance with the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). Recently, the automated radioxenon sampler-analyzer (ARSA) was tested at the Institute for Atmospheric Radioactivity (IAR) in Freiburg, Germany to ascertain its use for the CTBT by comparing its results to laboratory-based analyses, determining its detection sensitivity

Ted W. Bowyer; C. Schlosser; Keith H. Abel; M. Auer; James C. Hayes; Tom R. Heimbigner; Justin I. McIntyre; Mark E. Panisko; Paul L. Reeder; H. Satorius; J. Schulze; W. Weiss

2002-01-01

11

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

Richards, Paul G.

2014-05-01

12

Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

E-print Network

On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

C. E. Aalseth; A. R. Day; D. A. Haas; E. W. Hoppe; B. J. Hyronimus; M. E. Keillor; E. K. Mace; J. L. Orrell; A. Seifert; V. T. Woods

2010-08-04

13

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

Richards, Paul G. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States)

2014-05-09

14

Nuclear weapons test detection: Ensuring a verifiable treaty. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development program 1995 progress report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has an active program to provide technologies for monitoring and verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). DOE technologies will significantly increase the nation`s capability to identify potential nuclear explosions with high confidence and with minimal false alarms. This report presents the highlights of the first year of this program. The primary objectives of the CTBT monitoring system are to deter nuclear explosions in all environments (underground, underwater, or in the atmosphere) and, if such an explosion does occur, to detect, locate, and identify its source. The system is designed to provide credible evidence to national authorities to aid in resolving ambiguities and to serve as the basis for appropriate action. To collect this evidence, one must develop technologies that can detect and identify the signals from a nuclear test against a background of hundreds of thousands of benign events. The monitoring system must have high sensitivity to detect the events of interest and, to minimize false alarms, it must identify those events with a high level of confidence.

NONE

1995-12-31

15

Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD\\/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD\\/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force

James W

2000-01-01

16

Maintaining the US stockpile of nuclear weapons during a Low-Threshold or Comprehensive Test Ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review here results of several classes of US nuclear weapons tests conducted withith the principal strengths and weaknesses of nuclear weapons themselves. It is found that a high degree of confidence in the reliability of the existing stockpile is justified, and that it is sufficiently robust to permit confidence in the reliability of remanufactured warheads in the absence of

Kidder

1987-01-01

17

On-Site inspections as a tool for nuclear explosion monitoring in the framework of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-site inspections (OSIs) constitute the final verification measure under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs are launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out, thus they are conducted to verify States' compliance with the Treaty. During such an inspection, facts are gathered within a limited investigation area of 1000 Km2 to identify possible violators of the Treaty. Time scale (referring both to the preparation of the inspection as well as to the conduct of an OSI itself) is one of the challenges that an inspection team has to face when conducting an OSI. Other challenges are the size of the team - which is limited to 40 inspectors - and political limitations imposed by the Treaty in the use of allowed techniques. The Integrated Field Exercise 2008 (IFE08) recently conducted in Kazakhstan was the first large-scale, as well as the most comprehensive, on site inspection exercise ever conducted by the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The exercise took place in a deserted area south east of Kurchatov, within the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. In this paper we will provide an overview of the technical activities conducted by the inspection team during IFE08 in order to collect evidence for a hypothetical nuclear explosion test. The techniques applied can be distributed in four different blocks: visual observation (to look for man-made changes in the geomorphology as well as anthropogenic features related to an underground nuclear explosion, UNE); passive seismic monitoring (to identify possible aftershocks created by the UNE); radionuclide measurements (to collect evidence for radionuclide isotopes related to a nuclear explosion); and finally geophysical surveys (to identify geophysical signatures related to an UNE in terms of changes in the geological strata, to the hydrogeological regime, and in terms of the shallow remains of the infrastructure deployed during the preparation and monitoring of the test). The data collected during IFE08, together with data from previous exercises, set the fundaments of a database of invaluable value to be used by CTBTO in the future for a better understanding of the phenomenology related to a nuclear explosion.

Arndt, R.; Gaya-Pique, L.; Labak, P.; Tanaka, J.

2009-04-01

18

Sakharov and the nuclear test ban  

SciTech Connect

US-Soviet test ban policies evolved in an atmosphere of secrecy so that the ideas of people like Sakharov were not available for general consideration by the West. Because two sets of concerns were debated on the world stage, that mankind was threatened by a nuclear arms race and by radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests, this led to both anti-war and anti-test activities. A review of the literature quotes Sakharov's position on nuclear arms control measures and points out the basic problems of negotiation between an open democracy and a centrally-controlled state, noting failures on both sides. In view of the restraints, success should be granted to what progress has already been accomplished, however inadequate. The author feels that efforts by the early leaders to contain the arms race should be examined honestly and whatever actions are needed should be made courageously. 12 references. (DCK)

York, H.F.

1981-11-01

19

The comprehensive test ban treaty: Hanging in the balance  

SciTech Connect

The prospect of the Comprehensive Test Ban (CBT) treaty being successfully completed looks positive, but the price may be a treaty that sites indefinitely in limbo. The Conference on Disarmament ended its contentious second session of 1996 with a draft on the table. The author examines the issues and status of negotiations.

Johnson, R.

1996-07-01

20

Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Nichols, James W., LTC [Editor

2000-09-15

21

Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future  

SciTech Connect

This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

Sweeney, J.

1999-04-01

22

Gamma-Ray Bursts Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963  

E-print Network

Lecture 18 Gamma-Ray Bursts #12;Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963 First Vela satellite pair launched and their predecessors, Vela 4, discovered the first gamma-ray bursts. The discovery was announced by Klebesadel, Strong, and Olson (ApJ, 182, 85) in 1973. #12;First Gamma-Ray Burst The Vela 5 satellites functioned from July, 1969

Harrison, Thomas

23

Technical Challenges for a Comprehensive Test Ban: A historical perspective to frame the future (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 1958 scientists from the Soviet block and the US allies met in Geneva to discuss what it would take to monitor a forerunner to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty at the 'Conference of Experts to Study the Possibility of Detecting Violations of a Possible Agreement on Suspension of Nuclear Tests'. Although armed with a limited resume of observations, the conference recommended a multi-phenomenology approach (air sampling, acoustics, seismic and electromagnetic) deployed it a network of 170 sites scattered across the Northern Hemisphere, and hypothesized a detection threshold of 1kt for atmospheric tests and 5kt for underground explosions. The conference recommendations spurred vigorous debate, with strong disagreement with the stated detection hypothesis. Nevertheless, the technical challenges posed lead to a very focused effort to improve facilities, methodologies and, most importantly, research and development on event detection, location and identification. In the ensuing 50 years the various challenges arose and were eventually 'solved'; these included quantifying yield determination to enter a Limited Threshold Test Ban, monitoring broad areas of emerging nuclear nations, and after the mid-1990s lowering the global detection threshold to sub-kiloton levels for underground tests. Today there is both an international monitoring regime (ie, the International Monitoring System, or IMS) and a group of countries that have their own national technical means (NTM). The challenges for the international regime are evolving; the IMS has established itself as a very credible monitoring system, but the demand of a CTBT to detect and identify a 'nuclear test' of diminished size (zero yield) poses new technical hurdles. These include signal processing and understanding limits of resolution, location accuracy, integration of heterogeneous data, and accurately characterizing anomalous events. It is possible to extrapolate past technical advances to predict what should be available by 2020; detection of coupled explosions to 100s of tons for all continental areas, as well as a probabilistic assessment of event identification.

Wallace, T. C.

2013-12-01

24

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force  

SciTech Connect

This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

NONE

1998-06-01

25

Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

Russell, S; Vaidya, S

2009-07-30

26

A systems perspective of Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring and verification  

SciTech Connect

On September 24, 1996, after decades of discussion and more than two years of intensive international negotiations, President Clinton, followed by representatives of (to date) more than 125 other countries, including the other four declared nuclear weapons states, signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Each signatory now faces a complex set of technical and political considerations regarding the advisability of joining the treaty. Those considerations vary from country to country, but for many countries one of the key issues is the extent to which the treaty can be verified. In the case of the US, it is anticipated that treaty verifiability will be an important issue in the US Senate Advice and Consent Hearings. This paper will address treaty verifiability, with an emphasis on the interplay between the various elements of the International monitoring regime, as prescribed in the CTBT Treaty Text and its associated Protocol. These elements, coupled with the National regimes, will serve as an integrated set of overlapping, interlocking measures to support treaty verification. Taken as a whole, they present a formidable challenge to potential testers who wish not to be caught.

Walker, L.S.

1996-11-01

27

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development FY95-96 program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the United States Government`s (USG) research and development (R&D) functions for monitoring nuclear explosions in the context of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This responsibility includes the November 1993 transfer of the Department of Defense`s (DoD) CTBT R&D responsibility to DOE. The DOE research program builds on the broad base of USG expertise developed historically and includes R&D for detecting, locating, identifying, and characterizing nuclear explosions in all environments. The Office of Research and Development (NN-20), within the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, formulates and executes the efforts necessary to meet the Department`s responsibilities. The following DOE laboratories as a team will support NN-20 in implementing the program plan: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. DOE has committed to a cooperative program that draws upon the core competencies of the national laboratories and upon the strengths of other government agencies and the private sector (academia and industry). The integration of resources under a common direction will allow the program to be flexible and responsive to changing technical and policy requirements while maximizing the effectiveness of funding appropriations. DOE will develop and demonstrate appropriate technologies, algorithms, procedures, and integrated systems in a cost-effective and timely manner. The program comprises seismic, radionuclide, hydroacoustic, and infrasound monitoring; on-site inspection; space-based monitoring; and automated data processing elements.

None

1994-11-01

28

A Discussion of Procedures and Equipment for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection Environmental Sampling and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is intended to serve as a scientific basis to start discussions of the available environmental sampling techniques and equipment that have been used in the past that could be considered for use within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspections (OSI). This work contains information on the techniques, equipment, costs, and some operational procedures associated with environmental sampling that have actually been used in the past by the United States for the detection of nuclear explosions. This paper also includes a discussion of issues, recommendations, and questions needing further study within the context of the sampling and analysis of aquatic materials, atmospheric gases, atmospheric particulates, vegetation, sediments and soils, fauna, and drill-back materials.

Wogman, Ned A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Onishi, Yasuo; Hayes, James C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2011-02-01

29

Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes  

SciTech Connect

To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

1996-03-01

30

From Alamogordo to the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After W.W.II., the U.S. continued its program for the development of nuclear weapons. Winds carried radioactive debris far beyond the Nevada test site, and these fission products were deposited by rain, to enter the human food chain. The isotopes of greatest concern were Sr90 and I131, that, after ingestion, become concentrated in bone and thyroid respectively. There was a growing public anxiety about possible heath hazards posed by radiation from this fallout. In March 1958, the Greater St. Louis Citizens' Committee for Nuclear Information (C.N.I.) was formed. Among the leaders of C.N.I. were E. U. Condon and Barry Commoner. The aim of C.N.I. was ``to collect and distribute in the widest possible manner information which the public requires to understand the present and future problems which arise from potential large-scale use of nuclear weapons in war; testing of nuclear weapons; and nonmilitary uses of nuclear energy.'' In accordance with its objectives, members of C.N.I. gave many nontechnical talks, where we described the various forms of radiation and what was then known about the biological effects of radiation. Some of our members testified at Congressional committee hearings. We published a newsletter, initially titled Nuclear Information, and later Scientist and Citizen. In this presentation, I will describe some of the activities of this idealistic organization.

Friedlander, Michael

2008-04-01

31

Mapping and Imaging Methodologies within the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's On-Site Inspection Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-site inspection (OSI) is the final verification measure of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs rely heavily on geologic and geophysical investigations. The objective is to apply methods that are effective, efficient and minimally intrusive. We present a general overview of the OSI as provisioned in the CTBT, specifying the allowed techniques and the timeline for their application. A CTBT OSI relies on many geological, geophysical and radiological methods. The search area for an OSI is mostly defined by uncertainty in the location of a suspect event detected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) and reported through the International Data Center and can be as large as 1000 km2. Thus OSI methods are fundamentally divided into general survey methods that narrow the search area and more focused, detailed survey methods to look for evidence of a potential underground explosion and try to find its location within an area of several km2. The purpose and goal of a CTBT OSI, as specified in the Article IV of the Treaty, is 'to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty' and to 'gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator.' Through the use of visual, geophysical, and radiological techniques, OSIs can detect and characterize anomalies and artifacts related to the event that triggered the inspection. In the context of an OSI, an 'observable' is a physical property that is important to recognize and document because of its relevance to the purpose of the inspection. Potential observables include: (1) visual observables such as ground/environmental disturbances and manmade features, (2) geophysical techniques that provide measurements of altered and damaged ground and buried artifacts, and (3) radiological measurements on samples. Information provided in this presentation comes from observations associated with historical testing activities that were not intended to go undetected. Every CTBT OSI will be different, and the observables present and detectable within an Inspection Area (IA) will depend on many factors, such as location, geology, emplacement configuration, climate, and the time elapsed after the event before the deployment of the Inspection Team (IT). A successful OSI is contingent on familiarity with potential observables, the suitability of the equipment to detect and characterize relevant observables, and the team's ability to document and integrate all the information into comprehensive, logical, and factual reports. In preparation for an OSI, a variety of types, scales, and generations of open-source digital imagery can be compared using geographic information systems (GIS) to focus on areas of interest. Simple image comparison from various open sources within GIS afford the opportunity to view anthropogenic and natural changes to locations of interest over time, thus remotely elucidating information about a site's use and level of activity.

Hawkins, W.; Sussman, A. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Wohletz, K. H.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.

2013-12-01

32

Slimhole drilling and directional drilling for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban: An initial assessment  

SciTech Connect

On Site-Inspection (OSI), under the Comprehensive Test Ban being negotiated in the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, may include drilling at the site of a suspected clandestine underground nuclear explosion to recover radioactive samples. It is in the interest of the drilling party to operate as light and compact a system as possible because it is likely that the drilling equipment will first be airlifted to the country being inspected, and then will be carried by air or surface to the inspection site. It will be necessary for the inspection party to have the capability for more than vertical drilling since there may not be a drilling site available vertically above the suspected nuclear cavity location. This means having, the ability to perform directional drilling and to obtain accurate positioning of the drilling tool. Consequently, several directions may be explored from a single surface drilling pad. If the target depth is expected to be at or less than 600 m (2000 ft), slant drilling may be required to a length well in excess of 600 m. Clearly, the operation must be designed with health and safety features to prevent radioactive exposure if the drilling encounters a nuclear source region. The DOE/LLNL community has developed a strong expertise in this regard. In this initial assessment we focus on the portability and directionality of drilling systems.

Heuze, F. E.

1995-07-01

33

Challenges for mining explosion identification under a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: Quantification of the problem and discussion of synergetic solutions  

SciTech Connect

Seismic networks provide the primary technology for monitoring compliance with a comprehensive test ban treaty. The design goal of the network is the identification of possibly clandestine explosions detonated below the earth`s surface and possible in the oceans. Complementary technologies such as infrasonic, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring supplement the seismic monitoring covering explosions in the atmosphere and oceans. This paper will focus on the problems or ambiguities that can arise in the identification process for chemical explosions. Key questions addressed include: How many mining explosions produce seismograms at regional distances that will have to be detected, located and ultimately identified by the National Data Center? What are the waveform characteristics of these particular mining explosions? Can discrimination techniques based on empirical studies be placed on a firm physical basis so that they can be applied to other regions where we have little monitoring experience? With this information, can evasion capabilities be assessed in a region? Can large scale chemical explosions be used to calibrate source and propagation path effects to regional stations? Can source depth of burial and decoupling effects be studied in such a controlled environment?

Stump, B.W.

1994-11-01

34

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions from seismic surface waves: Compliance with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty  

PubMed Central

Magnitudes of the larger Soviet underground nuclear weapons tests from the start of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1976 through 1982 are determined for short- and long-period seismic waves. Yields are calculated from the surface wave magnitude for those explosions at the eastern Kazakh test site that triggered a small-to-negligible component of tectonic stress and are used to calibrate body wave magnitude-yield relationship that can be used to determine the sizes of other explosions at that test site. The results confirm that a large bias, related to differential attenuation of P waves, exists between Nevada and Central Asia. The yields of the seven largest Soviet explosions are nearly identical and are close to 150 kilotons, the limit set by the Threshold Treaty. PMID:16593440

Sykes, Lynn R.; Cifuentes, Inés L.

1984-01-01

35

Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.

1996-01-01

36

Nuclear Arms Control Treaties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section contains summaries of all the major arms-control treaties including: Limited Test Ban Treaty, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I (Interim Agreement), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Threshold Test Ban Treaty, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty - INF, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty.

Christopher Griffith

37

Academe defends its role in Test Ban Treaty monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent jockeying for control of congressional seismic research funds has left the U.S. scientific research community uneasy about future cooperation with the federal government in the development of comprehensive nuclear test ban monitoring systems.Even though the language in a Defense authorization bill for fiscal year 1995, which cleared the Senate June 30, will likely be toned down in the House and Senate conference, the “aggressive” maneuvering that ensued to tentatively dispose the bulk of power over the interagency seismic network to the Defense Department, critics say, raises new questions about how science policy decisions are made in the United States and how committed the Congress and some federal agencies are to “reinventing” government under the Clinton-Gore plan. And for now, a hefty chunk of funding for academic seismic research is no longer a sure thing.

Wakefield, J.

38

The National Security Archive: The Limited Test Ban Treaty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest electronic briefing book from the National Security Archive at George Washington University brings together some fascinating documents related to the 1963 accord outlawing nuclear testing in the atmosphere, under water, and in space. This treaty was called the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) and for decades many wondered if the nations that signed onto this document might have violated its terms. Here, visitors can look over 26 documents, including internal memos from the CIA, reports from the Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Committee, and State Department documents related to China's first nuclear test. Section F is a real gem, as it contains a wealth of materials related to government responses and thoughts on the test ban during the 1970s.

2013-08-02

39

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive  

E-print Network

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty David Bowers and Neil D. Selby discrimination methods, underground explosion source, earthquake source Abstract One application of forensic facing the forensic seismologist is to discriminate between the many thousands of earthquakes

Jellinek, Mark

40

Data visualization for comprehensive test ban treaty monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Data Visualization Project at Sandia Labs is to prototype and evaluate new approaches to the presentation of data for CTBT monitoring applications. The great amount of data expected to be available, and the complex interrelationships in that data, make this a promising area for scientific data visualization techniques. We are developing a powerful and flexible prototyping environment with which to explore these possibilities. A user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) should be an integral part of any data visualization tools developed. The GUI is necessary to select which data to visualize, and to modify and explore the displays that are the result of data visualization. Using our prototyping environment, we have produced data visualization displays of various kinds of data and have also experimented with different GUIs for controlling the visualization process. We present here an overview of that work, including promising results, lessons learned, and work in progress. To better understand what is needed, we have identified several data processing/analysis scenarios which we think will be important in CTBT monitoring. These scenarios help us identify what types of information we should display (together or in sequence), and help us focus on isolating the underlying goals. Each display we have produced is put in the context of one or more processing scenarios to help explain why and how it could be useful.

Simons, R.W.; Young, C.J.; Edwards, T.L.

1996-08-01

41

Statistical algorithms for a comprehensive test ban treaty discrimination framework  

SciTech Connect

Seismic discrimination is the process of identifying a candidate seismic event as an earthquake or explosion using information from seismic waveform features (seismic discriminants). In the CTBT setting, low energy seismic activity must be detected and identified. A defensible CTBT discrimination decision requires an understanding of false-negative (declaring an event to be an earthquake given it is an explosion) and false-position (declaring an event to be an explosion given it is an earthquake) rates. These rates are derived from a statistical discrimination framework. A discrimination framework can be as simple as a single statistical algorithm or it can be a mathematical construct that integrates many different types of statistical algorithms and CTBT technologies. In either case, the result is the identification of an event and the numerical assessment of the accuracy of an identification, that is, false-negative and false-positive rates. In Anderson et al., eight statistical discrimination algorithms are evaluated relative to their ability to give results that effectively contribute to a decision process and to be interpretable with physical (seismic) theory. These algorithms can be discrimination frameworks individually or components of a larger framework. The eight algorithms are linear discrimination (LDA), quadratic discrimination (QDA), variably regularized discrimination (VRDA), flexible discrimination (FDA), logistic discrimination, K-th nearest neighbor (KNN), kernel discrimination, and classification and regression trees (CART). In this report, the performance of these eight algorithms, as applied to regional seismic data, is documented. Based on the findings in Anderson et al. and this analysis: CART is an appropriate algorithm for an automated CTBT setting.

Foote, N.D. [ed.; Anderson, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.; Hagedorn, D.N.

1996-10-01

42

Authentication of data for monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

The important issue of data integrity in the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS) is discussed and a brief tutorial on data authentication techniques is offered. The utilization of data authentication as a solution to the data integrity problem is evaluated. Public key data authentication is recommended for multilateral monitoring regimes such as the CTBT. The ramifications and system considerations of applying data authentication at various locations in the IMS, or not at all, are reviewed in a data surety context. The paper concludes with a recommendation of authenticating data at all critical monitoring stations.

Craft, R.L.; Draelos, T.J.

1996-05-01

43

Visualization tools for comprehensive test ban treaty research  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on tools used in Data Visualization efforts at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy CTBT R&D program. These tools provide interactive techniques for the examination and interpretation of scientific data, and can be used for many types of CTBT research and development projects. We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the tools to display and analyze CTBT scientific data. While the tools may be used for everyday applications, our discussion will focus on the use of these tools for visualization of data used in research and verification of new theories. Our examples focus on uses with seismic data, but the tools may also be used for other types of data sets. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Edwards, T.L.; Harris, J.M.; Simons, R.W. [and others

1997-08-01

44

Nuclear weapons testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the history of efforts to ban, or at least constrain, nuclear tests. The issue has been marked by shifts in attitude by the superpowers in recent times. The Reagan Administration sees a comprehensive test ban only as a very long-term goal for the U.S. The Soviets, on the other hand, have been pushing extremely hard lately for

Heylin

1988-01-01

45

Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994  

SciTech Connect

To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

Denny, Marvin D

1994-01-01

46

Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Marv A Wetovsky; Julio Aguilar-Chang; Dale Anderson; Marie Arrowsmith; Stephen Arrowsmith; Diane Baker; Michael Begnaud; Hans Harste; Monica Maceira; Howard Patton; Scott Phillips; George Randall; Charlotte Rowe; Richard Stead; Lee Steck; Rod Whitaker; Xiaoning Yang

2009-01-01

47

Legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines international treaties in relation to the threat or use of nuclear weapons including the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. It can be concluded that the effect of the aforesaid international treaties is still in doubt without explicit enforcement mechanisms and penalty for non-compliance. This paper also reviews the International Court of

Yen-Chiang Chang

2009-01-01

48

The DOE CTBT R&D effort at Livermore: calibrating to enhance international monitoring for clandestine nuclear explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which was signed in 1996 and still needs to be ratified by the US, forbids all nuclear tests and creates an international monitoring system (IMS) to search for evidence of clandestine nuclear explosions. As specified in the treaty, the IMS will consist of 170 seismic stations that record underground elastic waves, 60 infrasound stations to

S Myers; D Harris; K Mayeda; A Rodgers; C Schultz; W Walters; J Zucca

1999-01-01

49

Politics of motherhood: the case of Women Strike for Peace and the test ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation is a narrative history and organizational study of the formative years of Women Strike for Peace (1961-1963) and its campaign for a nuclear test ban treaty. WSP, a grass roots, participatory movement of American Women, was born on November 1, 1961 when an estimated 50,000 women in 60 communities across the nation walked out of their kitchens and off their jobs in a one day protest against Russian and American nuclear policies. In the process of transforming this one day strike into a national woman's movement, WSP developed a feminine political style characterized by an anti-heirarchical, anti-organizational format, simple, womanly rhetoric, and spontaneous, innovative national and international direct action. At a time when foreign policy dissenters were dismissed by the press and the public either as commies or kooks, the image that WSP projected to respectable middle-class, middle-aged peace mothers wearing white gloves and flowered hats while picketing the White House to save their children from nuclear holocaust caught the favorable attention of large sections of the media, the public, and even the President. Through an investigation of the program, internal debates, rhetoric, organizational structure, and tactics of WSP, along with the backgrounds of its leaders and members, this study uncovers the political and gender consciousness of the women who joined the movement.

Swerdlow, A.G.

1984-01-01

50

Nuclear test monitoring system detected meteor explosion over Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound waves from the Chelyabinsk meteor, which exploded over Russia on 15 February 2013, were detected by 20 infrasound stations that are part of the international monitoring system operated by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The fireball was the most energetic event observed since the 1908 Tunguska meteorite impact and is the most energetic event detected by the CTBTO network.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-10-01

51

75 FR 43198 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...displays a currently valid OMB control number. DATES: You must submit...Clearance Officer, 2150-C Centre Avenue, Fort Collins, CO...gov (e-mail). Use OMB Control Number 1028-0059 in the subject...calendar year. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028-0059....

2010-07-23

52

Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

2013-05-01

53

Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Norbo Underground Nuclear Test in U8c, Nevada Nuclear Security Site, and the Impact on Stability of the Ground Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Norbo underground nuclear test in U8c to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This request is similar to one made for the Salut site

Pawloski

2012-01-01

54

Satellite Earth Observations Support CTBT Monitoring: A Case Study of the Nuclear Test in North Korea of Oct. 9, 2006 and Comparison with Seismic Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty prescribes the use of seismic stations and arrays as the main measure for verification\\u000a of Treaty compliance. Since the inception of the Treaty, a vast amount of open source earth observation satellite data has\\u000a become available. This paper investigates the potential for combining seismic and satellite data for more effective monitoring\\u000a and response. With data acquired

J. Schlittenhardt; M. Canty; I. Grünberg

2010-01-01

55

75 FR 11136 - Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Nuclear Command and Control System Comprehensive Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Nuclear Command and Control System Comprehensive Review Committee; Charter Termination...terminating the charter for the U.S. Nuclear Command and Control System Comprehensive Review Committee. FOR FURTHER...

2010-03-10

56

Rapid Deployment Drilling System for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban Preliminary Engineering Design  

SciTech Connect

While not a new drilling technology, coiled-tubing (CT) drilling continues to undergo rapid development and expansion, with new equipment, tools and procedures developed almost daily. This project was undertaken to: analyze available technological options for a Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) CT drilling system: recommend specific technologies that best match the requirements for the RDDS; and highlight any areas where adequate technological solutions are not currently available. Postshot drilling is a well established technique at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Drilling provides essential data on the results of underground tests including obtaining samples for the shot zone, information on cavity size, chimney dimensions, effects of the event on surrounding material, and distribution of radioactivity.

Maurer, W.C.; Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Cohen, J.H. [Maurer Engineering, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Heuze, F.E.; Butler, M.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-09-01

57

Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations  

SciTech Connect

The essence of this paper is to enlighten the consistency achieved nowadays in nuclear data and uncertainties assessments in terms of compound nucleus reaction theory from neutron separation energy to continuum. Making the continuity of theories used in resolved (R-matrix theory), unresolved resonance (average R-matrix theory) and continuum (optical model) rangcs by the generalization of the so-called SPRT method, consistent average parameters are extracted from observed measurements and associated covariances are therefore calculated over the whole energy range. This paper recalls, in particular, recent advances on fission cross section calculations and is willing to suggest some hints for future developments.

Bouland, O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hale, G M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lynn, J E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bernard, D [FRANCE; Litaize, O [FRANCE; Noguere, G [FRANCE; De Saint Jean, C [FRANCE; Serot, O [FRANCE

2010-01-01

58

Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap  

SciTech Connect

This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

Casey, Leslie A.

2014-01-13

59

Earthquakes or Nuclear Explosions?: Seismic Clues to Dirty Deeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity requires students to read an article about earthquakes and nuclear explosions and answer questions about it. They discover that both earthquakes and nuclear explosions generate seismic waves that can be detected thousands of kilometers away and from the 1960s to the 1990s about one underground nuclear explosion was carried out each week. Students learn that this was how nations tested their nuclear weapons and certified them as ready for deployment. Seismology was often the only way to learn if a foreign power was developing nuclear weapons. Students will also realize that scientists pick up the seismic waves at monitoring stations and these seismic signals allow scientists to locate the explosion or earthquake and to tell the difference between the two. Students also learn about the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) outlawing nuclear weapon tests that was signed by 150 nations, although by 1999 it had only been ratified by 19 of the 44 countries which had nuclear power reactors.

60

Impact of contributions of Glenn T. Seaborg on nuclear science  

SciTech Connect

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-199) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten U.S. presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights the profound impact of his contributions on nuclear science, both in the U.S. and in the international community.

Hoffman, Darleane C.

2000-12-26

61

History of Nuclear India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

Chaturvedi, Ram

2000-04-01

62

Nuclear Energy and the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

63

Soviet nuclear testing: The Republics say no  

SciTech Connect

Massive protests are taking place in Russia against nuclear weapons testing. Efforts have been mounted to stop all testing at Kazakhstan test site near the town of Semipalatinsk, site of the first nuclear detonation in 1949 and of more than 500 test conducted since. Boris Yeltsin proposed just after his election as president of the federation the elimination of testing grounds for nuclear and biological weapons on Russian territory. The central government in Moscow has announced that it is considering closing the Semipalatinsk site. Reaction has also been strong to testing at the Arctic island of Novaya Zemlya, and severe constraints, such as Arctic cold, frozen rocks, high winds, difficult access, and protests by Greenpeace activists and USSR's Nordic neighbors do not make this site attractive. The author feels that this movement in the USSR has set in motion a politically dynamic situation that makes for the best chance for a comprehensive test ban treaty yet witnessed.

Carter, L.J.

1990-11-16

64

Developing a Comprehensive and Articulated Nuclear Training Curriculum--The Westinghouse Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After conducting a comprehensive evaluation of its curriculum, staff at the Westinghouse Nuclear Training Center in Zion, Illinois, undertook a research and development project aimed at upgrading the center's curriculum to the competency-based format. Included among the main activities of the curriculum development process were the following:…

Widen, William C.

65

Discrimination of nuclear explosions against civilian sources based on atmospheric xenon isotopic activity ratios  

SciTech Connect

A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will be used to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of nuclear explosions, empirical data for both test and reactor releases as well as observations by measurement stations of the International Noble Gas Experiment (INGE) are used to provide a proof of concept for the isotopic ratio based method for source discrimination.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Axelssson, A.; Bean, Marc; Blanchard, X.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Brachet, G.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Peters, Jana; Pistner, Christoph; Raith, Maria; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, P. R.; Schlosser, C.; Stocki, Trevor J.; Taffary, T.; Ungar, R. Kurt

2010-05-01

66

Overhead Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions by Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty allows for Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging from an aircraft and on the ground to help reduce the search area for an underground nuclear explosion from the initial 1,000 km2. Satellite data, primarily from Landsat, have been used as a surrogate for aircraft data to investigate whether there are any multi-spectral features associated with the nuclear tests in Pakistan, India or North Korea. It is shown that there are multi-spectral observables on the ground that can be associated with the nominal surface ground zero for at least some of these explosions, and that these are likely to be found by measurements allowed by the treaty.

Henderson, John R.; Smith, Milton O.; Zelinski, Michael E.

2014-03-01

67

Szilard Prize Lecture: Seismic Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic monitoring of the more than 2000 nuclear test explosions since 1945 has been vigorously pursued, both to track the weapons development of potential adversaries, and to support initiatives in nuclear arms control, including various test ban treaties. Major funding from the US Department of Defense built up new global seismographic networks and over several decades established practical capability in monitoring nuclear explosions ``teleseismically'' (i.e. from distances more than about 1500 km), for tests that the testing nation did not attempt to conceal. What then is the capability to monitor compliance with, for example, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) of 1996, particularly if evasion scenarios are considered? Note that the CTBT, though not ratified by some countries (including the US), is now being monitored by networks that include seismographic stations at ``regional'' distances (< 1500 km) from candidate explosion locations. Years of R and D have shown that regional signals can be used to monitor down to yields significantly lower than can be detected and identified teleseismically. A US National Academy of Sciences study in 2002 concluded that ``an underground nuclear explosion cannot be confidently hidden if its yield is larger than 1 or 2 kt.'' About 1000 earthquakes and chemical explosions are now detected per day, and documented via seismic data, providing plenty of challenges for nuclear explosion monitoring organizations. Explosion monitoring capability will improve in many parts of the world, due to the growth of networks that monitor even small earthquakes to study seismic hazard. But political problems can impede improved international explosion monitoring, due to national restrictions on data access.

Richards, Paul

2006-04-01

68

Nuclear testing: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined the experimental and analytic bases for understanding the performance of each of the weapon types that are currently planned to remain in the US enduring nuclear stockpile. They have also examined whether continued underground tests at various nuclear yield thresholds would add significantly to the confidence in this stockpile in the years ahead. The starting point for this examination was a detailed review of past experience in developing and testing modern nuclear weapons, their certification and recertification processes, their performance margins, and evidence of aging or other trends over time for each weapon type in the enduring stockpile. The findings, as summarized in Conclusions 1 through 6, are consistent with US agreement to enter into a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) of unending duration, that includes a standard ``supreme national interest`` clause. Recognizing that the challenge of maintaining an effective nuclear stockpile for an indefinite period without benefit of underground tests is an important and also a new one, the US should affirm its readiness to invoke the supreme national interest clause should the need arise as a result of unanticipated technical problems in the enduring stockpile.

Drell, S.; Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F. [and others

1995-08-01

69

Ionospheric detection of the 25 May 2009 North Korean underground nuclear test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total electron content (TEC) measurements of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) revealed traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) that locate North Korea's underground nuclear explosion (UNE) of 25 May 2009 to within about 3.5 km of its seismically determined epicenter. The random chance for this pattern of TIDs to register across the eleven GNSS stations is roughly 1 in 19 billion. Monte Carlo analysis of nearly 1,300 TIDs from a 7-station subset of the 11 GNSS stations supports the statistical strength of the array's signature. The UNE was also detected by seismic stations and possibly a local infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), but no radionuclide evidence was found. Thus, global GNSS infrastructure enables mapping spatial and temporal variations of TEC that augment and complement other methods of detecting and locating clandestine UNEs.

Park, Jihye; von Frese, Ralph R. B.; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; Morton, Yu; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.

2011-11-01

70

Nuclear Tests in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News discusses the recent nuclear tests in India and the world's reaction to those tests. The ten resources discussed offer analysis, commentary, and background information from a variety of perspectives. On May 11, 1998, India confirmed what the world already knew by conducting three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran Mountain Range in the Rajasthan Province. On May 13 two more sub-kiloton devices were exploded and the government announced that the planned series of tests was complete. Although India has indicated it may now be ready to sign on to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), reaction from the world community has been extremely negative. In the vanguard of this chorus of dissaproval has been the US, which announced over $20 billion in economic sanctions against India on May 13. The strongest critic of the tests, however, has been India's neighbor and rival Pakistan, which has fought three wars with India since 1947. Domestic pressure on Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to respond has been enormous and many commentators believe a Pakistani nuclear test is imminent. In India, however, the BJP-dominated government has been widely lauded. Many Indians have expressed pride and dismiss foreign criticism as a hypocritical holdover of colonial mentalities. While US sanctions are unlikely to have any large-scale effect on India, the end results of these tests on Indo-Pakistani relations and their ongoing missile race is yet to be seen.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

1998-01-01

71

UTEX modeling of xenon signature sensitivity to geology and explosion cavity characteristics following an underground nuclear explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce anthropogenic isotopes that can potentially be used in the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Several isotopes of radioactive xenon gas have been identified as radionuclides of interest within the International Monitoring System (IMS) and in an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Substantial research has been previously undertaken to characterize the geologic and atmospheric mechanisms that can drive the movement of radionuclide gas from a well-contained UNE, considering both sensitivities on gas arrival time and signature variability of xenon due to the nature of subsurface transport. This work further considers sensitivities of radioxenon gas arrival time and signatures to large variability in geologic stratification and generalized explosion cavity characteristics, as well as compares this influence to variability in the shallow surface.

Lowrey, J. D.; Haas, D.

2013-12-01

72

Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO).

Christoudias, Theodoros; Lelieveld, Jos

2013-04-01

73

A comprehensive characterization of the nuclear microRNA repertoire of post-mitotic neurons  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with important functions in the development and plasticity of post-mitotic neurons. In addition to the well-described cytoplasmic function of miRNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation, recent studies suggested that miRNAs could also be involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory processes in the nuclei of proliferating cells. However, whether miRNAs localize to and function within the nucleus of post-mitotic neurons is unknown. Using a combination of microarray hybridization and small RNA deep sequencing, we identified a specific subset of miRNAs which are enriched in the nuclei of neurons. Nuclear enrichment of specific candidate miRNAs (miR-25 and miR-92a) could be independently validated by Northern blot, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). By cross-comparison to published reports, we found that nuclear accumulation of miRNAs might be linked to a down-regulation of miRNA expression during in vitro development of cortical neurons. Importantly, by generating a comprehensive isomiR profile of the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, we found a significant overrepresentation of guanine nucleotides (nt) at the 3?-terminus of nuclear-enriched isomiRs, suggesting the presence of neuron-specific mechanisms involved in miRNA nuclear localization. In conclusion, our results provide a starting point for future studies addressing the nuclear function of specific miRNAs and the detailed mechanisms underlying subcellular localization of miRNAs in neurons and possibly other polarized cell types. PMID:24324399

Khudayberdiev, Sharof A.; Zampa, Federico; Rajman, Marek; Schratt, Gerhard

2013-01-01

74

An Overview of Comprehensive Inspection Technologies Under Investigation at Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive Inspection Technologies (CIT) under investigation include methods that might be of use in detecting a clandestine underground nuclear test. These include techniques for detecting noble gases, visual observation methods, hyperspectral imaging, controlled- and passive-source seismic surveys, and other geophysical methods. Noble gas detection studies include a series of experiments called the Noble Gas Migration (NGM) experiments, that explore the fundamental parameters that determine the capability to detect radioxenon isotopes and 37Ar produced in underground nuclear tests. These isotopes are of interest to both the International Monitoring System (IMS) global monitoring and On-Site Inspection (OSI) regimes. Through a unique combination of field experiments, sampling of radioactive noble gas from a legacy underground nuclear test, large-scale hydrogeologic computer simulations, and a regimen involving carefully designed field-sampling techniques, the experiments are providing information about the production, release, and sampling challenges that determine the ability to detect these two important noble gases. Other CIT experiments explore and validate geophysical (controlled-source and passive-source seismic, gravity, electrical, magnetic, etc.) and optical techniques (both visual and instrument-based) that greatly enhance the understanding of the efficiency of these techniques for OSI, including how to better integrate the various technologies with each other and individually at different physical scales. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25936--1840.

Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.

2013-12-01

75

Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management-global radiocontamination and information disaster.  

PubMed

The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the "Fukushima Health Management Survey Project" for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management. PMID:25425958

Yamashita, Shunichi

2014-06-01

76

Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Comprehensive Health Risk Management—Global Radiocontamination and Information Disaster  

PubMed Central

The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the “Fukushima Health Management Survey Project” for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management. PMID:25425958

2014-01-01

77

Subsurface nuclear tests monitoring through the CTBT xenon network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first evaluation of the atmospheric xenon network to be installed as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the frame of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). We show that this network should, by itself, provide a significant contribution to the total efficiency of the IMS. For this evaluation, we introduce an inverse approach based upon

Frédéric Hourdin; J.-P. Issartel

2000-01-01

78

Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

1987-12-01

79

Ionospheric Effects of Underground Nuclear Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Telemetry from the Russian INTERCOSMOS 24 satellite recorded ELF and VLF electromagnetic disturbances in the outer ionosphere from an underground nuclear explosion that was detonated at Novaya Zemlya Island on 24 October 1994. The IC24 satellite observations were obtained at about 900 km altitude within a few degrees of ground zero. The disturbances were interpreted for magnetohydrodynamic excitation of the ionosphere’s E layer by the acoustic wave. Electrons are accelerated along the magnetic force lines to amplify longitudinal currents and magnetic disturbances that may be measured by magnetometers at ground-based observatories and on-board satellites. The underground nuclear test near P’unggye, North Korea on 25 May 2009 provides a further significant opportunity for studying the utility of ionospheric disturbances for characterizing ground zero. Of the seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide detection elements of the International Monitoring System (IMS) established by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), only the first two elements detected this event. However, the event also appears to have been recorded as a direct traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) in the slant total electron content (TEC) observations derived from a network of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. The TID was observed to distances of at least 600 km from the explosion site propagating with a speed of about 281m/s. Thus, the global distributions and temporal variations of the TEC, may provide important information to help detect and characterize clandestine underground nuclear explosions.

Park, J.; von Frese, R. R.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; Morton, Y.

2010-12-01

80

Nuclear Explosions Conducted for Peaceful Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a After 1963, when the Limited Test Ban Treaty went into effect, nuclear explosions were implemented near the surface of the\\u000a earth for “peaceful purposes” by the USA and the USSR.1) These nuclear explosions caused great amounts of nuclear pollution on the earth’s surface in addition to releasing much radioactive\\u000a material into the atmosphere. Approximately 100 “peaceful nuclear explosions” were conducted

Jun Takada

81

Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Norbo Underground Nuclear Test in U8c, Nevada Nuclear Security Site, and the Impact on Stability of the Ground Surface  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Norbo underground nuclear test in U8c to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This request is similar to one made for the Salut site in U8c (Pawloski, 2012b). Review of the Norbo site is complicated because the test first exhibited subsurface collapse, which was not unusual, but it then collapsed to the surface over one year later, which was unusual. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Norbo detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeology due to the nuclear detonation. Aviva Sussman from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has also proposed work at this site. Both proposals require physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and focus on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow and deep geophysical surveys.

Pawloski, G A

2012-06-18

82

Nuclear Explosion Monitoring History and Research and Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within a year after the nuclear detonations over Hiroshima and Nagasaki the Baruch Plan was presented to the newly formed United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (June 14, 1946) to establish nuclear disarmament and international control over all nuclear activities. These controls would allow only the peaceful use of atomic energy. The plan was rejected through a Security Council veto primarily because of the resistance to unlimited inspections. Since that time there have been many multilateral, and bilateral agreements, and unilateral declarations to limit or eliminate nuclear detonations. Almost all of theses agreements (i.e. treaties) call for some type of monitoring. We will review a timeline showing the history of nuclear testing and the more important treaties. We will also describe testing operations, containment, phenomenology, and observations. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which has been signed by 179 countries (ratified by 144) established the International Monitoring System global verification regime which employs seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring techniques. The CTBT also includes on-site inspection to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty. The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Nuclear Security Agency's Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Program supports research by US National Laboratories, and universities and industry internationally to detect, locate, and identify nuclear detonations. This research program builds on the broad base of monitoring expertise developed over several decades. Annually the DOE and the US Department of Defense jointly solicit monitoring research proposals. Areas of research include: seismic regional characterization and wave propagation, seismic event detection and location, seismic identification and source characterization, hydroacoustic monitoring, radionuclide monitoring, infrasound monitoring, and data processing and analysis. Reports from the selected research projects are published in the proceedings of the annual Monitoring Research Review conference.

Hawkins, W. L.; Zucca, J. J.

2008-12-01

83

Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2006-09-19

84

Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2010-09-21

85

Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2007-09-25

86

Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-09-23

87

Proceedings of the 23rd Seismic Research Symposium: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 23rd Seismic Research Review: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions, held 2-5 October, 2001 in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Warren, N. Jill [Editor; Chavez, Francesca C. [Editor

2001-10-02

88

Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

2011-09-13

89

Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Roadmap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk reviews research and development highlights and accomplishments (https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/mrr) as well as future research directions of the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D (GNEM R&D) program within the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection, NA-222. GNEM R&D's mission is "…to develop, demonstrate, and deliver advanced technologies and systems to operational monitoring agencies to fulfill US monitoring requirements and policies for detecting, locating, and identifying nuclear explosions."* Work sponsored by GNEM R&D and collaborators is conducted by world-class scientists and engineers in national laboratories, universities, and private industry. In the past ten years, significant progress has been made in detection, location and identification with substantial improvements yet possible. There is increasing interest in GNEM R&D technology particularly in light of its relevance to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. GNEM R&D direction is captured in roadmaps: waveform technologies, including seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasound and radionuclide monitoring. The roadmaps have the same four areas: source physics, signal propagation, sensors, and signal analysis. Within each area illustrative R&D themes, program metrics, and future R&D directions will be presented. The goals of the R&D program are to: perform innovative scientific research, deliver capability-enhancing technologies to monitoring agencies and to motivate and nurture human capital to meet future monitoring challenges. * Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program Strategic Plan, DOE/NNSA/NA-22-NEMRE-2004, https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/cgi-bin/prod/nemre/index.cgi?Page=Strategic+Plan

Casey, Leslie; Ziagos, John; Rodgers, Arthur; Bell, Randy

2010-05-01

90

COMPREHENSIVE PROGRESS REPORT FOR FOURIER TRANSFORM NMR (NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE) OF METALS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Interactions of the metals cadmium and selenium with various biologically important substrates were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cadmium-113 NMR was used for a critical examination of three metalloproteins: concanavalin A, bovine superoxide dismutase ...

91

Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-09-21

92

The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

Nordyke, M.D.

1996-10-01

93

Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Salut Underground Nuclear Test in U20ak, Nevada National Security Site, and the Impact of Stability of the Ground Surface  

SciTech Connect

At the request of Jerry Sweeney, the LLNL Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Salut underground nuclear test in U20ak to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Review of the Salut site is complicated because the test experienced a subsurface, rather than surface, collapse. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Salut detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeologogy due to the nuclear detonation. Sweeney's proposal requires physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Test Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site), and focuses on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow, and deep geophysical surveys.

Pawloski, G A

2012-04-25

94

Development of a comprehensive seismic yield-estimation system for underground nuclear explosions. Scientific report no. 3  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress which has been achieved during the past year in the development of a comprehensive new seismic yield estimation system (YES) for underground nuclear explosions. Specifically, a prototype version of YES which is applicable to explosions at the Soviet Shagan River and Novaya Zemlya test sites is described in detail. In its current configuration, the YES encompasses a database of more than 10,000 digital seismograms recorded at stations of the USAEDS, GDSN, CDSN and IRIS networks from explosions at these two test sites. For both test areas, information regarding the explosion source environment is presented to the analyst in the context of SPOT (tm) satellite images of the sites, together with associated surface and subsurface geologic information and DMA topographic data. The on-line database for YES also contains a wide variety of tabular information including complete event and station location files containing both classified and unclassified locations, standard travel-time tables for the seismic arrivals used for yield estimation, propagation path and station corrections for use in magnitude determinations and a comprehensive instrument response database. The capabilities and functionality of the current version of the YES system are graphically illustrated in Section 2 using displays of the screens encountered by an analyst in a typical processing session.

Murphy, J.R.; Jenab, J.N.

1992-03-01

95

Managing Terrorism or Accidental Nuclear Errors, Preparing for Iodine-131 Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review  

PubMed Central

Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world’s leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15–30 mg or 1–2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations. PMID:24739768

Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Loeffke, Bernard; Baker, Robert; Kreuk, Florian; Yang, Samantha Peiling; Hurley, James R.

2014-01-01

96

Managing terrorism or accidental nuclear errors, preparing for iodine-131 emergencies: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world's leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15-30 mg or 1-2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations. PMID:24739768

Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Loeffke, Bernard; Baker, Robert; Kreuk, Florian; Yang, Samantha Peiling; Hurley, James R

2014-04-01

97

Gas Transport and Detection Following Underground Nuclear Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some extremely rare radioactive noble gases are by-products of underground nuclear explosions, and the detection of significant levels of these gases (e.g., Xe-133 and Ar-37) at the surface is a very strong indicator of the occurrence of an underground nuclear event. Because of their uniqueness, such noble gas signatures can be confirmatory of the nuclear nature of an event while signatures from other important detection methods, such as anomalous seismicity, are generally not. As a result, noble gas detection at a suspected underground nuclear test site is considered to be the most important technique available to inspectors operating under the On-Site-Inspection protocol of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. A one-kiloton chemical underground explosion, the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), was carried out at the Nevada Test Site in 1993 and represented the first On-Site-Inspection oriented test of subsurface gas transport with subsequent detection at the surface using soil gas sampling methods. A major conclusion of the experiment was that noble gases from underground nuclear tests have a good possibility of being detected even if the test is well contained. From this experiment and from computer simulations, we have also learned significant lessons about the modes of gas transport to the surface and the importance of careful subsurface sampling to optimize the detected noble gas signature. Understanding transport and sampling processes for a very wide range of geologic and testing scenarios presents significant challenges that we are currently addressing using sensitivity studies, which we attempt to verify using experiments such as the NPE and a new subsurface gas migration experiment that is now being undertaken at the National Center for Nuclear Security. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.; Wagoner, J. L.; Zucca, J. J.

2011-12-01

98

Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Deal with Canada's Nuclear Legacy Liabilities  

SciTech Connect

The Government of Canada nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development (R and D) carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are largely located at AECL research sites, and consist of shutdown research buildings (including several prototype and research reactors), a wide variety of buried and stored wastes, and contaminated lands. The shutdown buildings and contaminated lands need to be safely decommissioned to meet federal regulatory requirements, and long-term solutions need to be developed and implemented for management of the wastes. More than half of the liabilities are the result of Cold War activities during the 1940's, 50's and early 60's. The remaining liabilities stem from R and D for medical isotopes and nuclear reactor technology, as well as national science programs. About 70 percent of the liabilities are located at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in Ontario, and a further 20 percent are located at AECL's shutdown Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba. The remaining 10 percent relate largely to three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec, which were key to the developmental stage of Canada's CANDU reactor technology. The inventory of legacy waste includes spent fuel, high-level, intermediate-level and low-level solid and liquid radioactive waste, and wastes (largely contaminated soils) from site clean-up work across Canada. Most of the wastes are in raw, unconditioned form, and limited characterization information is available for the wastes generated in past decades. In many cases unique and potentially costly solutions will be required to recover, handle and process the wastes. In conclusion: the Government of Canada has initiated a program to deal with nuclear legacy liabilities dating back to the Cold War and the birth of nuclear technologies and medicine in Canada. The 5-year start-up phase will address immediate health, safety and environmental priorities, as well as provide the facilities, studies and plans required for subsequent phases. Over the next few years, the long-term strategy will be further developed and refined, and public consultations are planned to inform this work and decisions on the next phase of the strategy.

Brown, Peter; Metcalfe, Douglas; Blanchette, Marcia [Natural Resources Canada, 580 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E4 (Canada); Dolinar, George; Halpenny, Steven; Purdy, Chris; Smith, David; Kupferschmidt, William [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2008-01-15

99

Isotopic Characterization of Radioiodine and Radioxenon in Releases from Underground Nuclear Explosions with Various Degrees of Fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both radioxenon and radioiodine are possible indicators for a nuclear explosion. Therefore, they will be, together with other relevant radionuclides, globally monitored by the International Monitoring System in order to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies the temporal development of radioxenon and radioiodine activities with two different assumptions on fractionation during the release from an underground test. In the first case, only the noble gases are released, in the second case, radioiodine is released as well while the precursors remain underground. For the second case, the simulated curves of activity ratios are compared to prompt and delayed atmospheric radioactivity releases from underground nuclear tests at Nevada as a function of the time of atmospheric air sampling for concentration measurements of 135I, 133I and 131I. In addition, the effect of both fractionation cases on the isotopic activity ratios is shown in the four-isotope-plot (with 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe) that can be utilized for distinguishing nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Liao, Yen-Yo

2014-03-01

100

Subsurface mass transport affects the radioxenon signatures that are used to identify clandestine nuclear tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground nuclear tests produce anthropogenic isotopes that provide the only definitive means by which to determine whether a nuclear explosion has taken place. Verification of a suspected test under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty often relies on ratios of radioxenon isotopes. Gas samples are gathered either on-site or off-site with certain ranges of xenon isotope ratios considered to be a signature of a weapons test. It is well established that below ground transport can affect the rate at which Noble gasses will reach the surface. However, the relative abundance of anthropogenic isotopes is has long been assumed to rely solely on fission yield and decay rate. By including in subsurface transport models the effects of mass dependent diffusion, and a time dependent source term for the decay of radioiodine precursors, we show here that this assumption is not true. In fact, certain combinations of geology and atmospheric conditions can alter xenon isotope ratios sufficiently for a weapons test going unconfirmed under the current standards.

Deinert, M. R.

2012-12-01

101

Categorization of Used Nuclear Fuel Inventory in Support of a Comprehensive National Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy - 13575  

SciTech Connect

A technical assessment of the current inventory [?70,150 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) as of 2011] of U.S.-discharged used nuclear fuel (UNF) has been performed to support decisions regarding fuel cycle strategies and research, development and demonstration (RD and D) needs. The assessment considered discharged UNF from commercial nuclear electricity generation and defense and research programs and determined that the current UNF inventory can be divided into the following three categories: 1. Disposal - excess material that is not needed for other purposes; 2. Research - material needed for RD and D purposes to support waste management (e.g., UNF storage, transportation, and disposal) and development of alternative fuel cycles (e.g., separations and advanced fuels/reactors); and 3. Recycle/Recovery - material with inherent and/or strategic value. A set of key assumptions and attributes relative to the various disposition options were used to categorize the current UNF inventory. Based on consideration of RD and D needs, time frames and material needs for deployment of alternative fuel cycles, characteristics of the current UNF inventory, and possible uses to support national security interests, it was determined that the vast majority of the current UNF inventory should be placed in the Disposal category, without the need to make fuel retrievable from disposal for reuse or research purposes. Access to the material in the Research and Recycle/Recovery categories should be retained to support RD and D needs and national security interests. This assessment does not assume any decision about future fuel cycle options or preclude any potential options, including those with potential recycling of commercial UNF. (authors)

Wagner, John C.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Mueller, Don E.; Gehin, Jess C.; Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Bldg. 5700, MS-6170, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Bldg. 5700, MS-6170, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Taiwo, Temitope; Nutt, Mark; Williamson, Mark A. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Todosow, Mike [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Wigeland, Roald [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory (United States); Halsey, William G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Omberg, Ronald P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)

2013-07-01

102

Tenth Warren K. Sinclair keynote address-the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management.  

PubMed

Just two years have passed since the Tokyo Electric Power Company-Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, a multidimensional disaster that combined to destroy the local infrastructure on which the safety system depended and gave a serious impact to the world. Countermeasures including evacuation, sheltering, and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese government. However, there is a clear need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection and also in the management of the radiation health risk during and even after the accident. To date there have been no acute radiation injuries. The radiation-related physical health consequences to the general public, including evacuees, are likely to be much lower than those arising from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, because the radiation fallout and the subsequent environmental contamination were much more limited. However, the social, psychological, and economic impacts of the Fukushima NPP accident are expected to be considerable. Currently, continued monitoring and characterization of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are vital for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the areas already radiocontaminated and returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is permitted; it is also important to perform a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. We are currently implementing the official plans of the Fukushima Health Management Survey, which includes a basic survey for the estimation of the external doses that were received during the first 4 mo after the accident and four more detailed surveys (thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and life-style survey, and survey of pregnant women and nursing mothers), with the aim to take care of the health of all of the residents of the Fukushima Prefecture for a long time. Introduction of the Sinclair Lecture (Video 2:01, http://links.lww.com/HP/A24). PMID:24378490

Yamashita, Shunichi

2014-02-01

103

Geologic constraints on clandestine nuclear testing in South Asia  

PubMed Central

Cavity decoupling in salt is the most plausible means by which a nation could conduct clandestine testing of militarily significant nuclear weapons. The conditions under which solution-mined salt can be used for this purpose are quite restrictive. The salt must be thick and reasonably pure. Containment of explosions sets a shallow limit on depth, and cavity stability sets a deep limit. These constraints are met in considerably <1% of the total land area of India and Pakistan. Most of that area is too dry for cavity construction by solution mining; disposal of brine in rivers can be detected easily. Salt domes, the most favorable structures for constructing large cavities, are not present in India and Pakistan. Confidence that they are adhering to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is enhanced by their geological conditions, which are quite favorable to verification, not evasion. Thus, their participation in the CTBT is constrained overwhelmingly by political, not scientific, issues. Confidence in the verification of the CTBT could be enhanced if India and Pakistan permitted stations of the various monitoring technologies that are now widely deployed elsewhere to be operated on their territories. PMID:10500134

Davis, Dan M.; Sykes, Lynn R.

1999-01-01

104

Pulse and Fourier transform surface nuclear magnetic resonance: comprehensive modelling and inversion incorporating complex data and static dephasing dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in this paper an alternative approach to modelling and inversion of surface nuclear magnetic resonance (sNMR) data that has numerous attractive characteristics. By considering the forward and inverse problem in the frequency-domain (FD) it is possible to heavily truncate the band-limited data set with no appreciable loss of information. Furthermore, it introduces a natural method of signal demodulating and sidesteps the rotating frame transformation, which can be difficult to apply to large volumes. By instead remaining in the laboratory frame, phase shifts due to off-resonance transmission and static variation in the Larmor frequencies become simpler to account for. For these reasons, we present the first practical scheme for comprehensively inverting the complex sNMR data set. The use of complex data allows for improved depth and decay constant resolution. However, it requires the knowledge of subsurface electrical conductivity, and by corollary the ability to accurately model those effects in the sNMR record. Finally, the complex FD signal is sensitive to dephasing of the sNMR record due to static magnetic field inhomogeneity. We illustrate the ability to detect dephasing in synthetic and field data and demonstrate an effective inversion which is able to solve for static dephasing effects. This results in better estimation of meaningful decay constants as well as reduced error in extrapolated initial signal amplitude. Both of these parameters are critical for using sNMR in applications requiring estimation of hydraulic parameters.

Irons, Trevor P.; Li, Yaoguo

2014-12-01

105

Estimation of Ground-Level Radioisotope Distributions for Underground Nuclear Test Leakage  

SciTech Connect

On-site inspections (OSI) will be an important process to deter and help verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An important tool in narrowing the possible locations to collect evidence of a nuclear test during an on-site inspection may be over-flights of the general area using aerial gamma spectroscopy which can measure the energy and intensity of gamma radiation and help identify areas that may warrant further investigation of areas of high concentrations of radioactivity. This paper will investigate the capabilities of gamma ray detectors that are typically used in aerial searches. Modeling and simulation results of the detector response for radionuclide species for an OSI will be presented for a variety of assumed releases, depositions on the ground, and times after a suspected Treaty violation for typical over flight heights and speeds. This data will provide information on the possible applicability for airborne spectroscopy and the challenges and limitations of this tool for OSI. Of particular interest will be analysis of the data for gross count, regions of interest, and isotope identification types of algorithms and the characteristics of each.

Ely, James H.; Fast, James E.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Warren, Glen A.

2009-06-19

106

Multi-Use seismic stations offer strong deterrent to clandestine nuclear weapons testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the United States and other nations push for the signing of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, representatives are meeting in Geneva this year to develop an International Seismic Monitoring System to verify compliance with the treaty's restrictions. In addition to the official monitoring system, regional networks developed for earthquake studies and basic research can provide a strong deterrent against clandestine testing. The recent release of information by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) on previously unannounced nuclear tests provides an opportunity to assess the ability of multi-use seismic networks to help monitor nuclear testing across the globe.Here we look at the extent to which the formerly unannounced tests were recorded and identified on the basis of publicly available seismographic data recorded by five seismic networks. The data were recorded by networks in southern Nevada and northern California at stations less than 1500 km from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and two networks in the former Soviet Union at stations farther than 1500 km from the NTS.

Hennet, C. B.; Van der Vink, G. E.; Richards, P. G.; Adushkin, V. V.; Kopnichev, Y. F.; Geary, R.

107

MACHINE LEARNING AT THE CTBTO. TESTING, AND EVALUATION OF THE FALSE EVENTS IDENTIFICATION (FEI) AND VERTICALLY INTEGRATED SEISMIC ASSOCIATION (VISA)  

E-print Network

2 , and Vera Miljanovic 1 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization1 and the University adaptation to the operational environment and modifications to improve efficiency, the prototype is ready

Russell, Stuart

108

Dynamics of phosphate head groups in biomembranes. Comprehensive analysis using phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance lineshape and relaxation time measurements.  

PubMed Central

Phospholipid head group dynamics have been studied by pulsed phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) of unoriented and macroscopically aligned dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine model membranes in the temperature range, 203-343 K. Lineshapes and echo intensities have been recorded as a function of interpulse delay times, temperature and macroscopic orientation of the bilayer normal with respect to the magnetic field. The dipolar proton-phosphorus (1H-31P) contribution to the transverse relaxation time, T2E, and to lineshapes was eliminated by means of a proton spin-lock sequence. In case of longitudinal spin relaxation, T1Z, the amount of dipolar coupling was evaluated by measuring the maximum nuclear Overhauser enhancement. Hence, the results could be analyzed by considering chemical shift anisotropy as the only relaxation mechanism. The presence of various minima both in T1Z and T2E temperature plots as well as the angular dependence of these relaxation times allowed description of the dynamics of the phosphate head group in the 31P-NMR time window, by three different motional classes, i.e., intramolecular, intermolecular and collective motions. The intramolecular motions consist of two hindered rotations and one free rotation around the bonds linking the phosphate head group to the glycerol backbone. These motions are the fastest in the hierarchy of time with correlation times varying from less than 10(-12) to 10(-6) s in the temperature range investigated. The intermolecular motions are assigned to phospholipid long axis rotation and fluctuation. They have correlation times ranging from 10(-11) s at high temperatures to 10(-3) s at low temperatures. The slowest motion affecting the 31P-NMR observables is assigned to viscoelastic modes, i.e., so called order director fluctuations and is only detected at high temperatures, above the main transition in pulse frequency dependent T2ECP experiments. Comprehensive analysis of the phosphate head group dynamics is achieved by a dynamic NMR model based on the stochastic Liouville equation. In addition to correlation times, this analysis provides activation energies and order parameters for the various motions, and a value for the bilayer elastic constant. PMID:1540698

Dufourc, E J; Mayer, C; Stohrer, J; Althoff, G; Kothe, G

1992-01-01

109

Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Nuclear disarmament after the cold war  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now that the cold war is long over, our thinking of nuclear weapons and the role that they play in international security has undergone serious changes. The emphasis has shifted from superpower confrontation to nuclear proliferation, spread of weapon materials, and to the dangers of countries developing nuclear weapon capability under a cover of a civilian program. At the same time, the old cold-war dangers, while receded, have not disappeared completely. The United States and Russia keep maintaining thousands of nuclear weapons in their arsenals, some of them in very high degree of readiness. This situation presents a serious challenge that the international community has to deal with. Although Russia and the United States are taking some steps to reduce their nuclear arsenals, the traditional arms control process has stalled -- the last treaty that was signed in 2002 does not place serious limits on strategic forces of either side. The START Treaty, which provides a framework for verification and transparency in reduction of nuclear arsenals, will expire at the end of 2009. Little effort has been undertaken to extend the treaty or renegotiate it. Moreover, in recent years Russia has stepped up the efforts to modernize its strategic nuclear forces. The United States has resisted joining the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and has been working on controversial new nuclear weapon development programs. The U.S. missile defense program makes the dialogue between Russia and the United States even more difficult. The reluctance of Russia and the United States to engage in a discussion about drastic reductions of their nuclear forces undermines the case of nuclear nonproliferation and seriously complicated their effort to contain the spread of nuclear weapon technologies and expertise. One of the reasons for the current lack of progress in nuclear disarmament is the contradiction between the diminished role that nuclear weapons play in security of nuclear weapon states and the inertia of cold-war institutions that are involved in their development and support. Dealing with this contradiction would require development of new mechanisms of cooperation between nuclear weapons states and their strong commitment to the cause of nuclear nonproliferation. One important area of cooperation is development of a framework that would prevent the spread of nuclear materials and technology at the time when increasing number of countries is turning toward expanded use of nuclear power to cover their energy needs.

Podvig, Pavel

2008-04-01

110

Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO). We calculated that about 80% of the radioactivity from Fukushima which was released to the atmosphere deposited into the Pacific Ocean. In Japan a large inhabited land area was contaminated by more than 40 kBq m-2. We also estimated the inhalation and 50-year dose by 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I to which the people in Japan are exposed.

Christoudias, T.; Lelieveld, J.

2013-02-01

111

Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions -- OSI research final report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s.

Sweeney, J. J.

1996-12-01

112

Modeling nuclear explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

2012-10-01

113

Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

2014-03-01

114

Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach  

SciTech Connect

Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear weapons? Many competing objectives have been stated across the spectrum of political, social, and military thought. These objectives include goals of ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, recommitment to further downsizing of the nuclear arsenal, embracing a long-term goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons, limitations on both the production complex and upgrades to nuclear weapons and delivery systems, and controls and constraints to limit proliferation of nuclear materials and weapons, particularly to rogue states and terrorist groups.

Martz, Joseph C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Patrice A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Branstetter, Linda [SNL; Hoover, Edward [SNL; O' Brien, Kevin [SNL; Slavin, Adam [SNL; Caswell, David [STANFORD UNIV

2010-01-01

115

Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 1, Discussion and glass durability data  

SciTech Connect

The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. Data collected throughout the world are included in the data base; current emphasis is on waste glasses and their properties. The goal is to provide a data base of properties and compositions and an analysis of dominant property trends as a function of composition. This data base is a resource that nuclear waste producers, disposers, and regulators can use to compare properties of a particular high-level nuclear waste glass product with the properties of other glasses of similar compositions. Researchers may use the data base to guide experimental tests to fill gaps in the available knowledge or to refine empirical models. The data are incorporated into a computerized data base that will allow the data to be extracted based on, for example, glass composition or test duration. 3 figs.

Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

1987-12-01

116

Seismic identification analyses of cavity decoupled nuclear and chemical explosions. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Successful seismic monitoring of any eventual Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty will require development of a capability to identify signals from small cavity decoupled nuclear explosions from among numerous signals to be expected from earthquakes, rockbursts and chemical explosion (CE) events of comparable magnitude. The investigations summarized in this report focus on preliminary studies which have been carried out in an attempt to distinguish between decoupled nuclear explosions and CE events though analyses of observed and simulated seismic data for these two source types in both the U.S. and former Soviet Union. Near-regional seismic data recorded from the U.S. nuclear cavity decoupling test STERLING and the nearby tamped CE test STERLING HE are compared in Section II in an attempt to identify diagnostic differences between these two source types. This is followed in Section III by an analysis in which short-period P wave data recorded at NORSAR from Soviet nuclear tests conducted in salt cavities at Azgir site north of the Caspian Sea are systematically compared with corresponding data recorded at the same stations from presumed CE events of comparable size which have been located in the vicinity of Azgir site. In Secion IV, broadband seismic data recorded at near-regional Soviet stations from an Azgir nuclear cavity decoupling test are theoretically scaled to 1 kt fully decoupled level and compared with data recorded at the nearby IRIS station KIV from well-documented CE events. The results of these preliminary comparison studies indicate that seismic discrimination between these two explosion source types is not trivial and suggest that a reliable discrimination strategy will have to be based on detailed analysis of data.

Murphy, J.R.; Barker, B.W.

1994-01-01

117

Infrasound and the infrasonic monitoring of atmospheric nuclear explosions: A literature review. Final report, 7 September 1995-28 February 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews unclassified past work in infrasound and atmospheric acoustics deemed relevant to current interests in monitoring compliance with a CTBT(Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty). The report is one of four resulting from a DOE sponsored seventeen month investigation and review of past work in infrasound. The purpose of the report is to update previous reviews and to provide members of the research and development and governmental policy making communities, with an interest in or responsibility for monitoring compliance to CTBT, with a thorough and relatively self-contained document summarizing the primary essentials of current and past work in infrasonic research. Following a background section, the report reviews: (1) the measurement of infrasound; (2) early work in infrasound and atmospheric acoustics; (3) propagation and explosive source modeling; (4) various natural and man made sources of infrasound and (5) data and waveforms from a number of nuclear and chemical explosions. The report contains one Appendix which provides waveforms of atmospheric nuclear explosions recorded on Columbia University`s Lamont-Doherty Laboratory`s microbarograph arrays as originally published by Donn and Ewing (1967).

McKisic, J.M.

1997-02-28

118

Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

2014-03-01

119

Development of a comprehensive seismic yield estimation system for underground nuclear explosions. Final report, 17 January 1989-15 April 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research which has been carried out in conjunction with the development of a comprehensive new seismic yield estimation system (YES) for underground nuclear explosions. Specifically, it provides a detailed description of the final version of YES which has been implemented at the ARPA Center for Seismic Studies (CSS) to estimate seismic yields of explosions at the Shagan River and Novaya Zemlya test sites of the former Soviet Union. In its current configuration, the YES encompasses a database of more than 15,000 digital seismograms recorded at stations of the USAEDS, GDSN, CDSN and IRIS networks from explosions at these two test sites. For both test areas, information regarding the explosion source environment is presented to the analyst in the context of SPOT(TM) satellite images of the sites, together with associated surface and subsurface geologic information and DMA topographic data. Nuclear Explosions, Software System, X Window, Yield Estimation, Shagan River, YES, Seismic, Novaya Zemlya, CSS.

Murphy, J.R.; Stevens, J.L.; O'Neill, D.C.; Barker, B.W.; McLaughlin, K.L.

1993-05-01

120

Comprehensive Assessment of Host Responses to Ionizing Radiation by Nuclear Factor-?B Bioluminescence Imaging-Guided Transcriptomic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the host responses to ionizing radiation by nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) bioluminescence imaging-guided transcriptomic tool. Transgenic mice carrying the NF-?B-driven luciferase gene were exposed to a single dose of 8.5 Gy total-body irradiation. In vivo imaging showed that a maximal NF-?B-dependent bioluminescent intensity was observed at 3 h after irradiation and ex vivo

Chung-Ta Chang; Ho Lin; Tin-Yun Ho; Chia-Cheng Li; Hsin-Yi Lo; Shih-Lu Wu; Yi-Fang Huang; Ji-An Liang; Chien-Yun Hsiang

2011-01-01

121

Comprehension syntax  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syntax of comprehensions is very close to the syntax of a number of practical database query languages and is, we believe, a better starting point than first-order logic for the development of database languages. We give an informal account of a language based on comprehension syntax that deals uniformly with a variety of collection types; it also includes pattern

Peter Buneman; Leonid Libkin; Dan Suciu; Val Tannen; Limsoon Wong

1994-01-01

122

Numerical modeling for underground nuclear test monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symposium for Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring was held March 23-25 in Durango, Colo. Funded by the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (OACN) and hosted by the Source Region Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the meetings's purpose was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test-ban monitoring. In particular, we wished to focus on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems.The concept for the meeting arose through discussions with Marv Denny, who was on assignment at Department of Energy Headquarters from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In these conversations, the following question was discussed: how are numerical modeling techniques being used to understand the effects of explosion- source phenomenology on test-ban treaty monitoring? Numerical studies are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of capabilities for proliferation monitoring; this trend has accelerated with the curtailment of the nuclear testing program. During these discussions, the issue of the uniqueness and limitations of numerical models arose. It was decided to address these questions by convening a group of experts to present and discuss the problems associated with modeling of close-in data from explosions.

Taylor, Steven R.; Kamm, James R.

123

Guidelines on the scope, content, and use of comprehensive risk assessment in the management of high-level nuclear waste transportation  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the scope of risk assessment strategies in the management of the transport of high-level radioactive wastes. In spite of the shortcomings of probabilistic risk assessment(PRA), the Transportation Needs Assessment recommended this as the preferred methodology to assess the risks of high level nuclear waste (HLNW) transportation. A PRA also will need to heed the lessons learned from the development and application of PRA elsewhere, such as in the nuclear power industry. A set of guidelines will aid this endeavor by outlining the appropriate scope, content, and use of a risk assessment which is more responsive to the uncertainties, human-technical interactions, social forces, and iterative relationship with risk management strategies, than traditional PRAS. This more expansive definition, which encompasses but is not totally reliant on rigorous data requirements and quantitative probability estimates, we term Comprehensive Risk Assessment (CRA) Guidelines will be developed in three areas: the limitations of existing methodologies and suggested modifications; CRA as part of a flexible, effective, adaptive risk management system for HLNW transportation; and, the use of CRA in risk communication.

Golding, D.; White, A. [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States). Center for Technology, Environment, and Development

1990-12-01

124

Comprehensive safety analysis code system for nuclear fusion reactors I: Model and analyses of overpower events for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive safety analysis code system has been proposed for the quantitative investigation of the safety of nuclear fusion reactors such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). As a first step, the plasma dynamics and the thermal characteristics of the core internal structures have been developed by a one-point model and a time-dependent one-dimensional heat transfer model, respectively. The thermal behavior of ITER during overpower events caused by thermal instability of the plasma has been analyzed. In a truly ignited operation (Q [approximately] [infinity]), the plasma reaches the beta limit in [approximately]6.5 (3.5) s after insertion of a + 10% fluctuation in fuel density, when the ITER89-L power law (the offset-linear law) is applied. The surface temperature of the divertor tiles rises to [approximately]1900[degrees]C, which may result in damage from erosion and thermal stress. On the other hand, the outboard and inboard structures maintain their integrity during overpower events if the cooling systems function normally. The code system will be integrated step by step to provide overall safety analyses for nuclear fusion reactions. 37 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Honda, T.; Uda, T.; Maki, K.; Okazaki, T. (Hitachi Energy Research Laboratory (Japan)); Seki, Y.; Aoki, I. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka-gun (Japan))

1994-07-01

125

The Chloroplast Function Database II: a comprehensive collection of homozygous mutants and their phenotypic/genotypic traits for nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins.  

PubMed

The Chloroplast Function Database has so far offered phenotype information on mutants of the nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins in Arabidopsis that pertains to >200 phenotypic data sets that were obtained from 1,722 transposon- or T-DNA-tagged lines. Here, we present the development of the second version of the database, which is named the Chloroplast Function Database II and was redesigned to increase the number of mutant characters and new user-friendly tools for data mining and integration. The upgraded database offers information on genome-wide mutant screens for any visible phenotype against 2,495 tagged lines to create a comprehensive homozygous mutant collection. The collection consists of 147 lines with seedling phenotypes and 185 lines for which we could not obtain homozygotes, as well as 1,740 homozygotes with wild-type phenotypes. Besides providing basic information about primer lists that were used for the PCR genotyping of T-DNA-tagged lines and explanations about the preparation of homozygous mutants and phenotype screening, the database includes access to a link between the gene locus and existing publicly available databases. This gives users access to a combined pool of data, enabling them to gain valuable insights into biological processes. In addition, high-resolution images of plastid morphologies of mutants with seedling-specific chloroplast defects as observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are available in the current database. This database is used to compare the phenotypes of visually identifiable mutants with their plastid ultrastructures and to evaluate their potential significance from characteristic patterns of plastid morphology in vivo. Thus, the Chloroplast Function Database II is a useful and comprehensive information resource that can help researchers to connect individual Arabidopsis genes to plastid functions on the basis of phenotype analysis of our tagged mutant collection. It can be freely accessed at http://rarge.psc.riken.jp/chloroplast/. PMID:23230006

Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Akiyama, Kenji; Tomonaga, Yumi; Kato, Aya; Sato, Yuka; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo

2013-02-01

126

Towards a Comprehensive Seismic Velocity Model for the Broader Africa-Eurasia Collision Region, to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

We report on progress towards a new, comprehensive three-dimensional model of seismic velocity in a broad region encompassing the Middle East, northern Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, the Turkish-Iranian Plateau, Indus Valley, and the Hindu Kush. Our model will be based on regional waveform fits, surface wave group velocity measurements, teleseismic arrival times of S and P waves, receiver functions, and published results from active source experiments. We are in the process of assembling each of these data sets and testing the joint inversion for subsets of the data. Seismograms come from a variety of permanent and temporary seismic stations in the region. Some of the data is easily accessible through, for example, IRIS, while collection of other data is more involved. This work builds on ongoing work by Schmid et al. (GJI, 2004, and manuscript in preparation). In these proceedings we highlight our data sets and their inferences, demonstrate the proposed new data-inversion modeling methodology, discuss results from preliminary inversions of subsets of the data, and demonstrate the prediction of arrival times with three-dimensional velocity models. We compare our preliminary inversion results to the results of Schmid et al., and the predicted arrival times to ground-truth data from the NNSA Knowledge Base. Our data sets are simultaneously redundant and highly complementary. The combined data coverage will ensure that our three-dimensional model comprises the crust, the upper mantle, including the transition zone, and the top of the lower mantle, with spatially varying, but useful resolution. The region of interest is one of the most structurally heterogeneous in the world. Continental collision, rifting and sea-floor spreading, back-arc spreading, oceanic subduction, rotating micro plates, continental shelf, and stable platforms, are just some of the region's characteristics. Seismicity and the distribution of seismic stations are also geographically heterogeneous. The crustal thickness ranges from near 20 to near 45 km under dry places in the Mediterranean region alone, which contains at least seven of the fourteen types of crust defined globally by Mooney et al. (1998). The S-velocity varies laterally by an entire 1 km/s over 1000 km within the uppermost mantle. On average the S-velocity is 50 to 150 m/s slower, between a depth of 150 km and the Moho, than global model iasp91. These lowered S velocities reflect the high amount of tectonic activity in the study region. In the transition zone the S-velocity is roughly 150 m/s higher than iasp91. These heightened S velocities likely reflect the numerous fragments of oceanic lithosphere that subducted in the study region during geologically relatively recent times.

der Lee, S v; Flanagan, M P; Rodgers, A J; Pasyanos, M E; Marone, F; Romanowicz, B

2005-07-13

127

LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)  

SciTech Connect

Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the first arriving P-phase travel-time residuals for all distances ({Delta} = 300-2300 km). A grid search approach was used in the minimization. The most significant features of this model are the negative lid-gradient and a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle between the depths of 100-200 km; precise location of the LVZ is poorly constrained by the travel time data. We will extend our investigation to additional PNE lines to further investigate the amplitude and travel-time variations in eastern and central Eurasia. Finally, the dense station spacing of the PNE profiles allows us to model the spatial correlation of travel times and amplitude ratios through variogram modeling. The statistical analysis suggests that the correlation lengths of the travel-time and amplitude measurements are 12{sup o} and 10{sup o}, respectively.

Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

2000-07-14

128

Reading Comprehension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an exercise in reading comprehension and following directions. Please make sure you read and re-read before asking for help. See how much work you can do all on your own and do your very best. Good luck, have fun and learn something new! 1. Click Here Be a Critical Reader : answer all 10 questions.Do not go on until you have answered all 10 correctly. At this time please stand and silently wave both your arms around as if you are trying to swat a fly for 5 seconds. Thank you :) 2. Click "CONTINUE" to go ...

Mrs. Devitry

2010-03-02

129

Global seismic monitoring as probabilistic inference Nimar S. Arora  

E-print Network

The CTBT aims to prevent the proliferation and the advancement of nuclear weapon technology by banning all of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), primarily through detection and localization of seismic events. We nuclear explosions. A global network of seismic, radionuclide, hydroacoustic, and infrasound sensors

Russell, Stuart

130

NET-VISA: Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis by Nimar S. Arora, Stuart Russell,*  

E-print Network

the risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. To monitor compliance with the treaty, the Prepara and local- ize seismic events is a central tool in both geophysics and nuclear treaty verification of the International Monitoring System (IMS), a global sensor network developed for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban

Russell, Stuart

131

INFRASOUND SIGNAL SEPARATION USING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important element of monitoring compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is an infrasound network. For reliable monitoring, it is important to distinguish between nuclear explosions and other sources of infrasound. This will require signal (event) classification after a detection is made. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using neural networks to classify various infrasonic events. However, classification of

Fredric M. Ham; Nizar A. Faour

132

A robust neural network classifier for infrasound events using multiple array data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integral part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Monitoring System is an infrasound monitoring network. This network has the capability to detect and verify infrasonic signals-of-interest, e.g., nuclear explosions, from other unwanted infrasound noise sources. The paper presents classification results of infrasonic events using a robust neural network

Fredric M. Ham; Sungjin Park

2002-01-01

133

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

2012-12-12

134

INMM 54th Annual Meeting, July 14-18, 2013, JW Marriott Desert Springs, Palm Desert, California USA Comprehensive Nuclear Material Surveillance with a  

E-print Network

INMM 54th Annual Meeting, July 14-18, 2013, JW Marriott Desert Springs, Palm Desert, California USA, IL 60439 1 U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585 ABSTRACT Comprehensive monitoring. * Proc. INMM 54th Annual Meeting, Palm Desert, CA, July 14-18, 2013. The submitted manuscript has been

Kemner, Ken

135

An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bogazici University and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is acting as the Turkish National Data Center (NDC) and responsible for the operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) Primary Seismic Station (PS-43) under Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center for the verification of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) since February 2000. The NDC is responsible for operating two arrays which are part of the IMS, as well as for transmitting data from these stations to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. The Belbasi array was established in 1951, as a four-element (Benioff 1051) seismic array as part of the United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS). Turkish General Staff (TGS) and U.S. Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) under the Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement (DECA) jointly operated this short period array. The station was upgraded and several seismometers were added to array during 1951 and 1994 and the station code was changed from BSRS (Belbasi Seismic Research Station) to BRTR-PS43 later on. PS-43 is composed of two sub-arrays (Ankara and Keskin): the medium-period array with a ~40 km radius located in Ankara and the short-period array with a ~3 km radius located in Keskin. Each array has a broadband element located at the middle of the circular geometry. Short period instruments are installed at depth 30 meters from the surface while medium and broadband instruments are installed at depth 60 meters from surface. On 25 May 2009, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) claimed that it had conducted a nuclear test. Corresponding seismic event was recorded by IMS and IDC released first automatic estimation of time (00:54:43 GMT), location (41.2896°N and 129.0480°E) and the magnitude (4.52 mb) of the event in less than two hours time (USGS: 00:54:43 GMT; 41.306°N, 129.029°E; 4.7 mb) During our preliminary analysis of the 25th May 2009 DPRK event, we saw a very clear P arrival at 01:05:47 (GMT) at BRTR SP array. The result of the f-k analysis performed in Geotool software, installed at NDC facilities in 2008 and is in full use currently, was also indicating that the arrival belongs to the DPRK event. When comparing our f-k results (calculated at 1-2 Hz) with IDC-REB, however, we have noticed that our calculation and therefore corresponding residuals (calculated with reference to REB residuals) are much better in comparison to REB. The reasons of this ambiguity have been explored and for the first time a comprehensive seismological analysis of a Nuclear Test has been conducted in Turkey. CTBT has an important role for the implementation of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and it is a key element for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. In this study, we would like to reflect the technical and scientific aspects of the 25 May 2009 DPRK event analysis, together with our involvement in CTBT(O) affairs, which we believe it brings new dimensions to Turkey especially in the area of Geophysics.

Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

2009-12-01

136

This article was originally published in the Comprehensive Nuclear Materials published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the author's benefit and  

E-print Network

Molecular dynamics simulation NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiment nn Nearest-neighbor distance NPT structure CSD Central symmetry deviation EAM Embedded Atom Method potential FS Finnis­Sinclair potential MD

Cai, Wei

137

Nuclear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

138

Forecast for Plume's Path Is a Function of Wind and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated map is based on a forecast by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization. The map shows how weather patterns might disperse radiation from a continuous source in Fukushima, Japan. The forecast does not show actual levels of radiation.

The New York Times

139

Meeting Report: The CTBT and advances in earth science  

Microsoft Academic Search

David Booth and Peter Maguire report on a two-day meeting organized by the Royal Astronomical Society and the British Geophysical Association, that showed how scientific challenges generated by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty have been addressed, and how they continue to stimulate advances in earth science. David Booth and Peter Maguire were joint organizers of this meeting. Meeting programme,

David Booth; Peter Maguire

2002-01-01

140

climate research and seismology department KoninklijkNederlandsMeteorologischInstituut  

E-print Network

aspects of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 39 Current projects Predictability Research 57 and Scenarios 116 Seismology 123 National and international policy related activities 134 Appendices Externally to reach us 159 2 #12;5 Preface Preface · From 1999 the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (knmi

Haak, Hein

141

Current projects Introduction  

E-print Network

of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 39 Current projects Predictability Research 57 Oceanographic Research 70 National and international policy related activities 134 Appendices Externally funded projects 141 Theses 146 Acronyms 147 Organisational scheme 154 List of employees 1997-1998 156 How to reach us 159 2 #12

Haak, Hein

142

Regional Model Calibration for Improving Seismic Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate seismic event location is integral to the effective monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as being a fundamental component of earthquake source characterization. To account for the effects of crustal and mantle structure on seismic travel times, and to improve seismic event location in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), we are developing a set

J. L. Swenson; C. A. Schultz; S. C. Myers

2000-01-01

143

Integrating diverse calibration products to improve seismic location  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of nuclear explosions on a global basis requires accurate event locations. As an example, under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the size of an on-site inspection search area is 1,000 square kilometers or approximately 17 km accuracy assuming a circular area. This level of accuracy is a significant challenge for small events that are recorded using a sparse

Craig A. Schultz; Steven C. Myers; Jennifer L. Swenson; Megan P. Flanagan; Michael E. Pasyanos; Joydeep Bhattacharyya; D Dodge

2000-01-01

144

LLNL's 3-D A Priori Model Constraints and Uncertainties for Improving Seismic Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate seismic event location is key to monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and is largely dependent on our understanding of the crust and mantle velocity structure. This is particularly challenging in aseismic regions, devoid of calibration data, which leads us to rely on a priori constraints on the velocities. We investigate our ability to improve seismic event location in

M P Flanagan; S C Myers; C A Schultz; M E Pasyanos; J Bhattacharyya

2000-01-01

145

WOSMIP II- Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production  

SciTech Connect

Medical and industrial fadioisotopes are fundamental tools used in science, medicine and industry with an ever expanding usage in medical practice where their availability is vital. Very sensitive environmental radionuclide monitoring networks have been developed for nuclear-security-related monitoring [particularly Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) compliance verification] and are now operational.

Matthews, Murray; Achim, Pascal; Auer, M.; Bell, Randy; Bowyer, Ted W.; Braekers, Damien; Bradley, Ed; Briyatmoko, Budi; Berglund, Helena; Camps, Johan; Carranza, Eduardo C.; Carty, Fitz; DeCaire, Richard; Deconninck, Benoit; DeGeer, Lars E.; Druce, Michael; Friese, Judah I.; Hague, Robert; Hoffman, Ian; Khrustalev, Kirill; Lucas, John C.; Mattassi, G.; Mattila, Aleski; Nava, Elisabetta; Nikkinin, Mika; Papastefanou, Constantin; Piefer, Gregory R.; Quintana, Eduardo; Ross, Ole; Rotty, Michel; Sabzian, Mohammad; Saey, Paul R.; Sameh, A. A.; Safari, M.; Schoppner, Michael; Siebert, Petra; Unger, Klaus K.; Vargas, Albert

2011-11-01

146

Acknowledgments: Part of this work was funded by the Dutch Science Foundation (NWO). The CTBTO and station operators are thanked for the high quality data. Figures were made with the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT, http://gmt.soest.hawaii.edu). Delft Universi  

E-print Network

(GMT, http://gmt.soest.hawaii.edu). 2 Delft University of Technology, Acoustic Remote Sensing Group.0 Ml The array is part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Open pit mines are located near the array. The size of the shadow zone The size

Evers, Läslo G.

147

141A. Le Pichon et al. (eds.), Infrasound Monitoring for Atmospheric Studies, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-9508-5, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010  

E-print Network

into force. The International Monitoring System (IMS) began construction shortly after the treaty was opened and Monitoring Infrasound and longer-period acoustic gravity waves have been of considerable interest since as interest in global seismology increased. In 1996, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) opened

Vernon, Frank

148

Atmospheric xenon radioactive isotope monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) organisation is implementing a world-wide monitoring network in order to check that the State Signatories comply with the treaty. One of the monitoring facilities consists of an atmospheric noble gas monitoring equipment. According to the requirements annexed in the treaty, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) developed a device, called SPALAXTM, which automatically

J.-P. Fontaine; F. Pointurier; X. Blanchard; T. Taffary

2004-01-01

149

Improving regulatory effectiveness in Federal\\/State siting actions. Environmental planning and the siting of nuclear facilities: the integration of water, air, coastal, and comprehensive planning into the nuclear siting process. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as a positive tool for effective nuclear facilities siting is suggested as a means of assuring that States do not ignore the national interest in energy facilities siting when formulating their environmental programs. Also, the Study includes a legal\\/institutional analysis of four major Federal programs which affect the siting of nuclear

J. B. Noble; J. T. Epting; M. C. Blumm; S. Ackerman; D. W. Laist

1977-01-01

150

Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report.  

SciTech Connect

The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors to consider in repository design and optimization were then discussed. Japan is considering various alternatives and options for the geologic disposal facility and the framework for future analysis of repository concepts was discussed. Regarding the advanced waste and storage form development, waste form technologies developed in both countries were surveyed and compared. Potential collaboration areas and activities were next identified. Disposal system optimization processes and techniques were reviewed, and factors to consider in future repository design optimization activities were also discussed. Then the potential collaboration areas and activities related to the optimization problem were extracted.

Nutt, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-05-25

151

A comprehensive analysis of sequence variants and putative disease-causing mutations in photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor NR2E3  

PubMed Central

Purpose The photoreceptor-specific orphan nuclear receptor NR2E3 is a key regulator of transcriptional events during photoreceptor differentiation in mammalian retina. Mutations in NR2E3 are associated with enhanced S-cone syndrome and related retinal phenotypes that reveal characteristic excess of S-cone function. This study was undertaken to determine biochemical as well as functional consequences of reported sequence variants and disease-causing mutations in NR2E3. Methods Twenty-five different mutations in the wild-type NR2E3 expression construct were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and performed nuclear localization, gel-shift, rhodopsin promoter activity assays, and co-immunoprecipitation in cultured mammalian cells. Results Of the 25 mutant proteins, 15 mislocalize at least partially to the cytoplasm. Eight of the nine changes in the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and 12 of the 14 mutations in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of NR2E3 exhibited reduced DNA-binding and transcriptional activation of the rhodopsin promoter. Moreover, these mutations dramatically altered the interaction of NR2E3 with NRL as well as with CRX. Two NR2E3 variants between DBD and LBD showed no effect on any biochemical or functional parameter tested. Conclusions These data provide a better understanding of sequence variants, validate disease-causing mutations, and demonstrate the significance of DBD and LBD in mediating NR2E3 function. These studies contribute to molecular mechanisms underlying retinal phenotypes caused by NR2E3 mutations. PMID:19898638

Swaroop, Anand

2009-01-01

152

Backtracking of Noble Gas Measurements Taken in the Aftermath of the Announced October 2006 Event in North Korea by Means of PTS Methods in Nuclear Source Estimation and Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The announced October 2006 nuclear test explosion in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) has been the first real test regarding the technical capabilities of the verification system built up by the Vienna-based Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) to detect and locate a nuclear test event. This paper enhances the resolution of the DPRK events' xenon source reconstruction published by S aey et al. (2007, "A long distance measurement of radioxenon in Yellowknife, Canada, in late October 2006", GRL, Vol. 34, L20802) that was based solely on radio-xenon measurements taken at the remote radionuclide station in Yellowknife, Canada by involving additional measurements taken by a mobile noble gas system deployed quite close to the event location in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Moreover the horizontal resolution of the forward and backward atmospheric transport modelling methods applied for the source scenario reconstruction has been enhanced appropriately to reflect the considerably shorter source-receptor distances examined in comparison to the previously published source reconstruction. It is shown that the 133Xe measurements in Yellowknife could register 133Xe traces from the nuclear explosion during the first 3 days after the event, while the mobile measurements were rather sensitive to releases during days 2-4 after the explosion. According to the analysis, the most likely source scenario would consist of an initial (possibly up to 21 h delayed) venting of 1 × 10-15 Bq 133Xe during the first 24 h, followed by a two orders of magnitude weaker seepage during the following 3 days. Both measurements corroborate the scenario of a rather rapid venting and soil diffusion of the 133Xe yielded during the explosion. While the Swedish mobile measurements were crucial to enhancement of the reconstruction of the source scenario, given the installation status of the IMS xenon network at the time of the event, a sensitivity analysis revealed that the fully developed network would have been able to detect 133Xe traces from the Korean explosion at a number of stations and allowed for an even better constraint on the release function. The station Ussuriysk, Russia, being in operation in 2006, would have registered 133Xe within 1 day and with a three orders of magnitudes stronger signal compared to the detection at Yellowknife.

Becker, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, Paul R. J.

2010-05-01

153

Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey, in situ measurements with high-purity germanium (HPGe) and hand-held LaBr3 systems, soil sampling with a variety of tools, and laboratory gamma spectrometric analysis of those samples. A further benefit of the measurement campaign was to gain familiarity with the many logistical aspects of performing radiological field work at NNSS ahead of the PRex. Many practical lessons concerning the proper methodologies and logistics of using the surveying and sampling equipment were noted. These Lessons Learned are compiled together in Appendix A. The vehicle-based survey was successful in that it found a previously unknown hotspot (determined to be 232Th) while it demonstrated that a better method for keeping a serpentine track without staking was needed. Some of the soil sampling equipment was found to be impractical for the application, though core sampling would not be the correct way to take soil samples for a fresh vent deposit (as opposed to an old site like DILUTED WATERS). Due to the site’s age, 137Cs was the only fission radioisotope identified, though others were searched for. While not enough samples were taken and analyzed to definitively link the 137Cs to DILUTED WATERS as opposed to other NNSS activities, results were consistent with the historical DILUTED WATERS plume. MDAs were compared for soil sampling and in situ measurements.

Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

2012-11-01

154

UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Established in 1971, the University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center (UAB), received its NCI designation in the same year. The Center has grown to include a membership of more than 330 physicians and researchers and remains the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in Alabama.

155

Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1980, the Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Iowa received its NCI designation in 2000 and Comprehensive designation in 2001. The Center is dedicated to bringing the finest cancer care and research to Iowa and beyond. Holden ensures that all the cancer research, clinical service, and education at Iowa are interdependent.

156

Spectrum of Physics Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured…

Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

2012-01-01

157

Assessing Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many instruments designed to assess reading comprehension reflect instructional tasks that have not clearly been shown to be a part of the process of comprehension. If the measurement instruments are to have construct validity, however, they must be created to reflect what we know about cognitive processing. Recent work in cognitive psychology has…

Schreiner, Robert

158

Application of Geophysical Techniques in Identifying UNE Signatures at Semipalatinsk Test Site (for OSI Purposes)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes geological and geophysical studies of an underground nuclear explosion area in one of the boreholes at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan. During these studies, the typical elements of mechanical impact of the underground explosion on the host medium—fracturing of rock, spall zones, faults, cracks, etc., were observed. This information supplements to the database of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology and can be applied in fulfilling on-site inspection tasks under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

Belyashov, A.; Shaitorov, V.; Yefremov, M.

2014-03-01

159

COMMUNICATION A comprehensive  

E-print Network

COMMUNICATION A comprehensive communication degree from the Elliott School of Communication relations, or applied communication. Our program is interdisciplinary in nature, reflecting the contemporary belief that all communication media are engaged in essentially the same functions--gathering information

160

Hemispheric Asymmetry & Joke Comprehension  

E-print Network

importance of background knowledge for comprehension & development of expectations · Reveals flexibility the money we were saving to buy a new car and blew it all at the (casino 18%) Straight: tables. Joke: movies

Coulson, Seana

161

Comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and application of comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods in the field of rotorcraft technology are described. These large scale analyses and the resulting computer programs are intended to treat the complex aeromechanical phenomena that describe the behavior of rotorcraft. They may be used to predict rotor aerodynamics, acoustic, performance, stability and control, handling qualities, loads and vibrations, structures, dynamics, and aeroelastic stability characteristics for a variety of applications including research, preliminary and detail design, and evaluation and treatment of field problems. The principal comprehensive methods developed or under development in recent years and generally available to the rotorcraft community because of US Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (ARTA) sponsorship of all or part of the software systems are the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation (C81), Dynamic System Coupler (DYSCO), Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis Program (SIMVIB), Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD), General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), and Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS).

Stephens, Wendell B.; Austin, Edward E.

1988-01-01

162

Improving Science Reading Comprehension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lend your struggling readers a helping hand with strategies that will enhance their comprehension of science reading materials. This article offers a few easy-to-implement strategies that teachers can use before, during, and after reading.

Jill Caton Johnson

2005-03-01

163

OTEC - A comprehensive energy analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive energy analysis is presented for a proposed Gulf-Stream-based Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system designed to supply upon demand 148 billion kWh to New England by 1990. Basically, the system consists of one hundred and six 400-MW power plants, with factors of 0.93, generating hydrogen on-board which is transported by underwater pipe to deep-water storage or to terminals onshore for reconversion to electricity. The results of a net energy-input-output analysis show that the OTEC system compares favorably with other energy conversion systems: e.g. for the same net electric energy output it uses from 36 to 53 percent less fossil fuel than the two nuclear power plant systems used for comparison. A dynamic energy analysis indicates energy payoff times from 4.7 to 6.2 years and on-line times of 17 to 35 years.

Carlson, T. C. G.

1980-01-01

164

Nuclear Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

165

Nuclear fission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of the book is to provide a comprehensive account of present ; understanding of nuclear fission. While it is written at an introductory level ; for students of the physics and chemistry of fission, it also attempts to cover ; recent developments at a sufficient depth to make the volume valuable to research ; scientists. The theoretical framework

R. Vandenbosch; J. R. Huizenga

1973-01-01

166

Mapping Crustal Heterogeneity Using Lg Propagation Efficiency Throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we describe a technique for mapping the lateral variation ofLgcharacteristics such asLgblockage, efficientLgpropagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions.Lgis used in a variety of seismological applications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring\\u000a compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These applications can

D. E. McNAMARAl; W. R. Walter

167

Intercomparison experiments of systems for the measurement of xenon radionuclides in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive xenon monitoring is one of the main technologies used for the detection of underground nuclear explosions. Precise and reliable measurements of 131mXe, 133gXe, 133mXe, and 135gXe are required as part of the International Monitoring System for compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). For the first time, simultaneous testing of four highly sensitive and automated fieldable radioxenon measurement systems

M. Auer; A. Axelssson; X. Blanchard; Ted W. Bowyer; G. Brachet; I. Bulowski; Y. Dubasov; K. Elmgren; J. P. Fontaine; W. Harms; James C. Hayes; Tom R. Heimbigner; Justin I. McIntyre; Mark E. Panisko; Y. Popov; Anders Ringbom; H. Sartorius; S. Schmid; J. Schulze; Clemens Schlosser; T. Taffary; W. Weiss; B. Wernsperger

2004-01-01

168

Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

2014-01-01

169

Case Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The Case Comprehensive Cancer Center (Case CCC) at Case Western Reserve University was both founded and became an NCI-designated cancer center in 1987. It was recognized as an NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center 11 years later. In 2004, the institutional and membership base from the founding partnership between Case Western Reserve and Ireland Cancer Center of University Hospitals (UH) expanded to include the Cleveland Clinic. Cancer research and care at these three institutions are now unified under the leadership of the Case CCC.

170

Support for comprehensive reuse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reuse of products, processes, and other knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demands. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows comprehensive reuse of all kinds of software-related experience could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. A comprehensive framework of models, model-based characterization schemes, and support mechanisms for better understanding, evaluating, planning, and supporting all aspects of reuse are introduced.

Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

1991-01-01

171

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling for Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Proceedings Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part A, 28(3):251­268. doi:10.1016/0198- 0149(81)90066-2 [] Aagaard, K., 1989

172

Comprehensive Irrigation Management  

E-print Network

Key drivers to excess consumption ? Soil characteristics ? Environmental conditions ? Landscape cultural practices ? Irrigation system performance Comprehensive Irrigation Management ? Restoration of antiquated irrigation systems... ? Remote flow control ? Leak identification alerts ? Automatic zone depressurization ? Site weather station data ? Predictive and actual precipitation data ? Algorithms integrated into schedule Leak management Rain event management...

Cook, K.

2011-01-01

173

Writing for Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators continue to treat reading and writing as separate subjects. In response to this observation, the authors offer four research-based writing strategies that teachers can use to improve student reading comprehension through writing. The writing strategies--"About/Point", "Cubing", "Four Square Graphic Organizer", and "Read," "Respond",…

Wallace, Randy; Pearman, Cathy; Hail, Cindy; Hurst, Beth

2007-01-01

174

Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

In the late 1960s, a group of scientists and volunteers at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) came together to develop a cancer center they hoped would become renowned for excellence in research, education and patient care. In 1976, the group was awarded NCI designation and became UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC).

175

A Comprehensive Planning Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key to long-term institutional effectiveness is a comprehensive planning process that identifies a few vital goals that can be measured by an institution. Effective strategic planning involves five key elements: process-based planning, a systemic approach, integration with the budget process, an effective deployment process, and appropriate…

Rieley, James B.

176

The Comprehensive Health Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains information from a fall 1991 health occupations assessment of 1,021 health-related employers in Eastern Iowa and the Illinois Quad Cities area. Twelve chapters present comprehensive results of all surveys; results of 10 labor market survey instruments developed for chiropractic offices, dentists' offices, emergency medical…

Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport.

177

A Comprehensive Educator's Resource  

E-print Network

the same sound quality. Only IMAX technology lets you feel as if you're really there. More than 700 millionA Comprehensive Educator's Resource Guide Lessons and activities to help you bring the thrilling. There is no doubt that science, engineering, technology and teamwork play a major role in NASCAR stock car racing

Mathis, Wayne N.

178

Washington County Comprehensive plan  

E-print Network

Washington County Comprehensive plan · 2010 4. makIng The Case for PlannIng 17 Collective vs. Individual Inventory & Assessment - Bodies of Water: Lakes, Rivers, and Streams 81 Inventory & Assessment - Forests and Parkland 82 Inventory & Assessment - Wetlands 82 Inventory & Assessment - Agricultural/Farmland 82

179

Seismic recordings in the northeastern United States of the Shagan River nuclear test of 14 September 1988. Final report, 1 Oct 88-30 Sep 89  

SciTech Connect

On 14 September, the USSR conducted an announced nuclear test as part of the US-USSR Joint Verification Experiment (JVE) called for in the protocols of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974. The test, code named SHAGAN, was detonated at the Shagan River test area in eastern Kazakh SSR. For this nuclear test, a small-aperture array in New Hampshire and a small five station network located in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State were operated. The following report describes the data taken during this experiment and preliminary analysis of the arrival time and magnitude estimates from the data. The results of this analysis are consistent with those from previous studies.

Battis, J.C.; Cipar, J.J.

1991-01-07

180

Lakeway Comprehensive Plan  

E-print Network

-5 Sidewalks and Bicycle Paths 9-5 TABLE OF TABLES COMPREHENSIVE PLAN OF LAKEWAY, TEXAS iii TABLE OF TABLES Table 1.1: Projected Population of ETJ Developments 1-14 Table 1.2: State and Regional Projected Populations, 1990-2020 1-15 Table 3...-motorized transportation option to travel to commercial, recreational, residential, and educational destinations. ? Provide supporting facilities and amenities for non-automotive transportation, such as bicycle racks, at strategic locations. BACKGROUND AND BASIC...

1999-01-01

181

Comprehension Monitoring and Reading Comprehension in Bilingual Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored comprehension monitoring, use of reading strategies and reading comprehension of bilingual students at different levels of perceived proficiency in Italian. The participants were bilingual fifth to eighth-grade elementary school students from four Italian schools in Rijeka, Croatia. Students' reading comprehension was assessed.…

Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana; Bajsanski, Igor

2007-01-01

182

Reading Comprehension Tests: Multiple Guess?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study was designed to determine whether certain commercial 10-item multiple-choice reading comprehension tests were vulnerable to guessing. It was concluded that more valid comprehension tests could be developed if items were tested for guessability. (Author)

Fischer, Robert F.

1973-01-01

183

CPMs: A Kinesthetic Comprehension Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a study to determine whether primary grade students can learn comprehension processes via hand motions to portray these mental processes. Comprehension Process Motions (CPMs) were designed to provide students with a way to make abstract comprehension processes more consciously accessible and also to give teachers a way to…

Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.

2008-01-01

184

Putting the Comprehension in Metacomprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to integrate some current theories of text comprehension with the body of work on metacomprehension, and especially the calibration of comprehension monitoring. This article explores some important methodological and conceptual issues, inspired by current theories in the text comprehension literature, which suggest that the nature of the texts used for metacomprehension studies may

Jennifer Wiley; Thomas D. Griffin; Keith W. Thiede

2005-01-01

185

Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Walter, W.R.; Hunter, S.L.; Glenn, L.A.

1996-01-01

186

Web Application Design Using Server-Side JavaScript  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the application design philosophy for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Research & Development Web Site. This design incorporates object-oriented techniques to produce a flexible and maintainable system of applications that support the web site. These techniques will be discussed at length along with the issues they address. The overall structure of the applications and their relationships with one another will also be described. The current problems and future design changes will be discussed as well.

Hampton, J.; Simons, R.

1999-02-01

187

Deep infrasound radiated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrasound arrays in the Pacific and Indian oceans that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) recorded distinct signatures associated with the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M\\/9, http:\\/\\/earthquake.usgs.gov\\/) and tsunami. Although the radiation of infrasound from large continental earthquakes is established [e.g., Le Pichon et al., 2003], the results presented

M. Garcés; P. Caron; C. Hetzer; A. Le Pichon; H. Bass; D. Drob; J. Bhattacharyya

2005-01-01

188

The comprehensive peptaibiotics database.  

PubMed

Peptaibiotics are nonribosomally biosynthesized peptides, which - according to definition - contain the marker amino acid ?-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and possess antibiotic properties. Being known since 1958, a constantly increasing number of peptaibiotics have been described and investigated with a particular emphasis on hypocrealean fungi. Starting from the existing online 'Peptaibol Database', first published in 1997, an exhaustive literature survey of all known peptaibiotics was carried out and resulted in a list of 1043 peptaibiotics. The gathered information was compiled and used to create the new 'The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database', which is presented here. The database was devised as a software tool based on Microsoft (MS) Access. It is freely available from the internet at http://peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at and can easily be installed and operated on any computer offering a Windows XP/7 environment. It provides useful information on characteristic properties of the peptaibiotics included such as peptide category, group name of the microheterogeneous mixture to which the peptide belongs, amino acid sequence, sequence length, producing fungus, peptide subfamily, molecular formula, and monoisotopic mass. All these characteristics can be used and combined for automated search within the database, which makes The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database a versatile tool for the retrieval of valuable information about peptaibiotics. Sequence data have been considered as to December 14, 2012. PMID:23681723

Stoppacher, Norbert; Neumann, Nora K N; Burgstaller, Lukas; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer

2013-05-01

189

Comprehensive national energy strategy  

SciTech Connect

This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

NONE

1998-04-01

190

Comprehensive Cost Estimation Method for Decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) played a leading role in basic research in the field of atomic energy research and development, while Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) did a major role in FBR cycle development and high level waste disposal. According to Japanese government's decision in December 2001, JAERI and JNC was merged as of October 1, 2005. The new organization, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is an institute for comprehensive R and D for atomic energy, and which is the largest research and development institute among Japanese Governmental organization. Its missions are basic research on atomic, R and D for nuclear fuel cycle, decommissioning and disposal for own facilities and waste, contribution to safety and non-proliferation, etc. The JAEA owns a number of nuclear facilities: research reactors such as JRR-2 and Joyo, prototype reactors such as ATR 'Fugen' and FBR 'Monju', fuel cycle plants such as Uranium Enrichment Demonstration Plant at Ningyo-toge, MOX fuel plants at Tokai, Reprocessing Plant at Tokai, and Hot Laboratories such as JRTF and FMF. As a part of preparation of the mergence, JNC and JAERI have jointly developed a comprehensive cost estimation method for decommissioning, based on decommissioning and upgrading experiences of JAERI and JNC. This method has adopted more estimation formulae for typical decommissioning activities than ever, so as to be more reliable. JAERI and JNC had estimated by using the comprehensive estimation method for decommissioning, and concluded the total cost for decommissioning would be 600 billion yen (approx. 5 billion USD). (authors)

Kenji Kudo; Shinji Kawatsuma; Hiroshi Rindo; Kozo Watabe; Hiroyuki Tomii; Kunio Shiraishi; Naoto Yagi; Tadashi Fukushima; Tomohisa Zaitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

2006-07-01

191

An Important Issue: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Facts and Philosophy: In August, 1947, I participated in a secret meeting concerning the validity and use of a hydrogen bomb. I vigorously supported a ``Super Manhattan Project" to build an ``H" bomb. My philosophy at the time was `bigger and better,' to ensure that no nation attacked the U.S. Our retaliation with ``H" bombs vs. ``A" bombs would be too overwhelming for any nation to risk attacking us should they obtain their own ``A" bombs. Thus, all nations would be forced to use diplomacy. I am older and wiser, and am now convinced that World Test Ban Treaties, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and space free of any military weapons is the best policy for all nations and humanity. With current nuclear testing at nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada, Vandenberg AF/Missile site, Cal Tech, etc., I therefore propose that our new APS California Division form a three-person committee to tabulate all pertinent data and submit it to a qualified expert for review and further action. Comments and suggestions are invited.

Castellano, Doc

2001-03-01

192

The Acquisition of Reading Comprehension Skill  

E-print Network

;the correlation between scores on reading comprehension and listening comprehension tests reaches r comprehension and spoken language comprehension increase and then level out by high school (Sticht & James, 1984

193

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) as a public-use data base with the goal of broadening independent access to data collected during studies of the health effects of exposure to radiation and other physical or chemical agents associated with the production of nuclear materials. This catalog is intended for use by any individual interested in obtaining information about, or access to, CEDR data. This catalog provides information that will help users identify and request data file sets of interest.

NONE

1995-05-01

194

ANNUAL COMPREHENSIVE SITE COMPLIANCE EVALUATION  

E-print Network

#12;#12;ANNUAL COMPREHENSIVE SITE COMPLIANCE EVALUATION Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ......................................................................................................................................................1 2.0 SITE COMPLIANCE EVALUATION ........................................................................................................................2 2.3 STORM WATER SAMPLING

195

Comprehensive facilities plan  

SciTech Connect

The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Facilities Plan (CFP) document provides analysis and policy guidance for the effective use and orderly future development of land and capital assets at the Berkeley Lab site. The CFP directly supports Berkeley Lab`s role as a multiprogram national laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The CFP is revised annually on Berkeley Lab`s Facilities Planning Website. Major revisions are consistent with DOE policy and review guidance. Facilities planing is motivated by the need to develop facilities for DOE programmatic needs; to maintain, replace and rehabilitate existing obsolete facilities; to identify sites for anticipated programmatic growth; and to establish a planning framework in recognition of site amenities and the surrounding community. The CFP presents a concise expression of the policy for the future physical development of the Laboratory, based upon anticipated operational needs of research programs and the environmental setting. It is a product of the ongoing planning processes and is a dynamic information source.

NONE

1997-09-01

196

Reading Comprehension Strategy: Rainbow Dots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An action research study was conducted using the Rainbow Dots strategy to evaluate its effectiveness on reading comprehension skills in a third-grade class with students both with and without a specific learning disability. Results of the study indicated that students' overall performances in reading comprehension have increased. Students also…

Moore, Claire; Lo, Lusa

2008-01-01

197

Extensive Reading: Speed and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measured both reading speeds and comprehension in two groups of learners exposed to intensive and extensive reading programs. The extensive group was exposed to a regime of graded readers, while the intensive group studied short texts followed by comprehension questions. Results indicate that subjects exposed to extensive reading achieved both…

Bell, Timothy I.

2001-01-01

198

Expectation-Based Syntactic Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple information-theoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension,…

Levy, Roger

2008-01-01

199

Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

200

Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center (HICCC) at Columbia University Medical Center was founded in 1911 as the Institute for Cancer Research. In 1972, it became an NCI-designated cancer center, and it was awarded comprehensive status in 1979. The HICCC is the University’s organizational component for the conduct of basic, clinical, and population-based cancer research and patient care.

201

Retrieval mechanisms in sentence comprehension  

E-print Network

This work investigates the nature of the memory mechanisms utilized in language comprehension. Through the use of the Speed Accuracy Tradeoff (SAT) paradigm (Wickelgren, 1977), healthy young adults were studied for the use ...

Whitlock, Jordan Ashley

2014-01-01

202

Paraphrasing: An Effective Comprehension Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paraphrasing, somewhat different from retelling and summarizing, helps students monitor their understanding and incorporate new knowledge with what they already know about a topic. Paraphrasing helps students realize that comprehension is the goal of reading.

Kletzien, Sharon B.

2009-01-01

203

Comprehensive Solutions for Urban Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehensive school reform (CSR) models build consistency throughout a district while addressing the needs of individual schools. The high-quality CSR programs offer a most effective option for urban education reform.

Kilgore, Sally

2005-01-01

204

Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The University of California, Irvine (UCI) Cancer Center was established in 1989 as a university-based cancer center. In 1994, it became an NCI-designated cancer center, and it achieved comprehensive cancer center status in 1997. Soon after, it was renamed in honor of the Chao family as the Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center (CFCCC), operating fully integrated research, prevention, diagnostic, treatment, and rehabilitation programs.

205

UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill received NCI-designation in 1975, becoming a comprehensive cancer center in 1990. With research that spans from the laboratory to the bedside to the community, UNC Lineberger works to understand the causes of cancer at both the genetic and environmental level, to conduct groundbreaking research and to translate that research into innovative treatment and prevention measures.

206

UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The University of California Comprehensive Davis Cancer Center (UCDCCC) was founded in 1991 and received its NCI designation in 2002. In 2012, it attained comprehensive status. The Center is part of the UC Davis Health System. Center members include scientists and physicians drawn from UC Davis School of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, College of Biological Sciences, College of Engineering, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

207

Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

In 1971, the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center (Georgetown Lombardi) was established at Georgetown University, becoming an NCI-designated cancer center in 1974. The Center achieved NCI comprehensive status in 1990. Georgetown Lombardi is part of Georgetown University Medical Center and Georgetown University Hospital. The mission of the Center is to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer through innovative basic science, clinical research, patient care, community outreach, and the training of cancer specialists of the future.

208

Huntington Countywide Comprehensive Plan Table of Contents  

E-print Network

#12;Huntington Countywide Comprehensive Plan Table of Contents Introduction Introduction 1: Statistical Data - 2000 Census #12;#12;Introduction 1 Huntington Countywide Comprehensive Plan #12;Introduction 2 Introduction: Comprehensive Planning Since April 2000, Huntington County has been in the process

209

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-01-01

210

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-11-01

211

UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology  

E-print Network

UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Comprehensive Examination Guidelines 20132014 #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Table #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines

Strynadka, Natalie

212

Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension  

PubMed Central

Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829–839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension—the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance—long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory. PMID:23319178

Waters, Gloria

2013-01-01

213

A model of poetic comprehension  

SciTech Connect

This article introduces an account of aesthetic comprehension and experience together with an implemented miniature which generates analogical interpretations from a semi-automatic parse of Wordsworth`s {open_quotes}Lines Written in Early Spring{close_quotes}. In our account, a poem serves as an analogy teaching machine by using formal structure to cue the formation of novel analogies. This account builds on an analogical model of comprehension previously applied to large corpora of newspaper summaries. In the miniature, an automatic grammatical and semantic analysis of the text is augmented with information about rhyme and rhythm. These formal cues allow the system to determine analogies which it would not otherwise consider. The article describes the comprehension framework, the annotated piece, and the matcher`s performance on the piece. It closes with a discussion of possible objections to aspects of the thesis or experiment and suggested directions for future work.

Haase, K. [MIT Media Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

214

Test report for the infrasound prototype: For a CTBT IMS station  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Infrasound Prototype Development Test and Evaluation (DT&E). During DT&E the infrasound prototype was evaluated against requirements listed in the System Requirements Document (SRD) based on the Conference on Disarmament/Ad Hoc Committee on a Nuclear Test Ban/Working Papers 224 and 283 and the Preparatory Commission specifications as defined in CTBT/PC/II/1/Add.2, Appendix X, Table 5. The evaluation was conducted during a two-day period, August 6-7, 18997. The System Test Plan (STP) defined the plan and methods to test the infrasound prototype. Specific tests that were performed are detailed in the Test Procedures (TP).

Breding, D.R.; Kromer, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitaker, R.W.; Sandoval, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-11-01

215

Overview of a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program: The role of fish and wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about the effects of potential releases from nuclear and non-nuclear activities on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington has evolved over four decades into a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. The program includes field sampling, and chemical and physical analyses of air, surface and ground water, fish and wildlife, soil, foodstuffs, and natural vegetation.

Gray

1988-01-01

216

Describing Comprehension: Teachers' Observations of Students' Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' observations of student performance in reading are abundant and insightful but often remain internal and unarticulated. As a result, such observations are an underutilized and undervalued source of data. Given the gaps in knowledge about students' reading comprehension that exist in formal assessments, the frequent calls for teachers'…

Vander Does, Susan Lubow

2012-01-01

217

Help with Teaching Reading Comprehension: Comprehension Instructional Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents five instructional frameworks demonstrated by research as being effective in teaching reading comprehension: (1) The Scaffolded Reading Experience (SRE); (2) Questioning the Author (QtA); (3) Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR); (4) Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS); and (5) Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction…

Liang, Lauren Aimonette; Dole, Janice A.

2006-01-01

218

Guidelines for Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines are designed to assist local school districts and their Boards of Education in developing and implementing comprehensive guidance and counseling services in thier school systems. The components of the comprehensive guidance program are comprehensive guidance services, certified personnel, and comprehensive guidance facilities.…

Stefkovich, Jacqueline; And Others

219

Story Comprehension in Children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of research is available examining children's story comprehension. However, little attention has been directed toward understanding the story comprehension of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present paper attempts to integrate the developmental literature on children's story comprehension with the little that is known about the story comprehension processes of children with ADHD. This review is

Elizabeth Pugzles Lorch; Richard Milich; Rebecca P. Sanchez

1998-01-01

220

Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension  

PubMed Central

This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

2008-01-01

221

Nuclear Reactor Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

Stacey, Weston M.

2001-02-01

222

Indo-US Nuclear Agreement and IAEA Safeguards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear transfers to a non-nuclear weapon state (NNWS) are conditioned on IAEA safeguards on all current and future peaceful nuclear activities, what are called the full-scope safeguards (FSS) or comprehensive safeguards. Since India is a NNWS according to the NPT definition, the NSG Guidelines as currently implemented would, therefore, invoke FSS if India seeks nuclear technology or nuclear power plants

R Ramachandran

2005-01-01

223

A multidisciplinary study of DPRK nuclear tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Democratic People Republic of Korea announced two underground nuclear tests carried out in their territory respectively on October 9th, 2006 and May 25th, 2009. The scarce information on the precise location and the size of those explosions has stimulated various kinds of studies, mostly based on seismological observations, by several National Agencies concerned with the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification. We analysed the available seismological data collected through a global high quality network for the two tests. After picking up the arrival times at the various stations, a standard location program has been applied to the observed data. If we use all the available data for each single event, due to the different magnitude and different number of available stations, the locations appear quite different. On the contrary, if we use only the common stations, they happen to be only few km apart from each other and within their respective error ellipses. A more accurate relative location has been carried out by the application of algorithms such as Double Difference Joint Hypocenter Determination (DDJHD) and waveform alignment. The epicentral distance between the two events obtained by these methods is 2 km, with the 2006 event shifted to the ESE with respect to that of 2009. We then used a dataset of VHR TerraSAR-X satellite images to detect possible surface effects of the underground tests. This is the first ever case where these highly performing SAR data have been used to such aim. We applied InSAR processing technique to fully exploit the capabilities of SAR data to measure very short displacements over large areas. Two interferograms have been computed, one co-event and one post-event, to remove possible residual topographic signals. A clear displacement pattern has been highlighted over a mountainous area within the investigated region, measuring a maximum displacement of about 45 mm overall the relief. Hypothesizing that the 2009 nuclear test had been carried out close to the area where the displacement has been observed through the DInSAR technique, its relation with the epicenter location obtained through seismological processing has been discussed as a possible alternative hypothesis with respect to the preferred solutions reported by the Nuclear Explosion Database (NEDB). The distance of about 10 km between the two places can be considered acceptable in light of the possible systematic location shifts commonly observed in the seismological practice over a global scale.

Materni, Valerio; Bignami, Christian; Giuntini, Alessandra; Chiappini, Stefano; Carluccio, Roberto; D'Ajello Caracciolo, Francesca; Pignatelli, Alessandro; Stramondo, Salvatore; Console, Rodolfo; Chiappini, Massimo

2013-04-01

224

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1973, the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University received its NCI designation that same year. The mission of the Kimmel Cancer Center is to go beyond the cutting edge in science and medicine to perform the most advanced research and offer patients the very best therapies for their disease.

225

Anaphoric Relations, Comprehension and Readability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between anaphoric nominal substitution and reading comprehension was studied. The Diagnostic Reading Test and the Substitution Test were administered to 80 college juniors, seniors, and graduate students in teacher certification courses, and to 92 college freshmen seeking assistance in improving their reading skills. Positive and…

Dutka, Julia To

226

with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans  

E-print Network

with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding and employer. April 2009 PA-2015 H elping People H elp t h e Lan d Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding the best use of manure or poultry litter while also protecting water quality. Storing, handling, and using

Mukhtar, Saqib

227

Medicinal Marijuana: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbo oks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on

R. Jan Gurley; Richard Aranow; Mitchell Katz

1998-01-01

228

Preschool Children's Comprehension of Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new methodology for testing preschool children's comprehension of television is described and the results of the first experiment with this method are presented. Original program material was created by filming 30 second animated stories in color and transferring them to videotape for subsequent editing and addition of sound. Thirty-five…

Smith, Robin

229

@Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major.  

E-print Network

@Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major. From the basic laws of physics to the resulting emergent behavior, physics studies what the universe is made of and how it works. As a Physics major that surrounds us, to the structure and evolution of the entire universe. We offer three degrees in Physics

Yoo, S. J. Ben

230

USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1971, the University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center (USC Norris) received its NCI designation in 1973. The Center is committed to investigating the complex origins and progression of cancer, developing treatment and prevention strategies, and searching for cures.

231

Leisure Resources. Its Comprehensive Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for professional planners and recreation and park administrators as well as for classroom use, this comprehensive planning guide for leisure resources includes: (1) a planning process overview with emphasis on the necessity of both citizen and professional involvement; (2) practical administrative and organizational needs for undertaking…

Bannon, Joseph J.

232

A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

2013-01-01

233

Comprehensive Schools and the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that comprehensive reorganisation was not a one-off policy reform but a complex, bottom-up campaign for equity and fairness in education, with varied consequences and outcomes. Recent battles over student fees, free schools and academies show that the quest for democratic education does not lead to a permanent achievement but…

Barker, Bernard

2012-01-01

234

SCUP 32: Comprehensive Enrollment Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive enrollment management (CEM) ensures that academic, student, and fiscal planning are done in concert in order to acknowledge the turbulence confronting an institution. A four-phase model of CEM has been developed that can be replicated at any college or university. In phase 1 of the model, the past 25 years of institutional enrollment…

McIntyre, Chuck

235

IN THIS ISSUE Comprehensive Characterization  

E-print Network

, endothelial, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal ­are present in adult human liver, and showed how these cells can increasing. The study of stem cells is expected to increase our knowledge of the pathogenesis of liver, these intrahepatic compartments have not been comprehensively characterized at the stem cell level. Porretti and co

Schwarz, Ulrich

236

Conflict of Interest Comprehensive Policy  

E-print Network

Conflict of Interest Comprehensive Policy I. INTRODUCTION The Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University ("Einstein"), one of the nation's premier institutions for medical education, basic of Interest. In addition to medical education, a central academic activity of Einstein is discovery

Emmons, Scott

237

Metacomprehension During Rare Word Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine metacomprehension during comprehension, undergraduates (n = 133) were asked to provide descriptions of how they determined the meaning of four rare words presented in short passages. Content analysis of these written descriptions revealed task-specific metacomprehension reflecting lexical, textbase, and situation model processes. Cluster analysis yielded four metacomprehension groups with differing emphases on textbase and situation model processes. Participants

Debra Mcginnis; Nikola N. Saunders; Ryan J. Burns

2007-01-01

238

Metacomprehension during Rare Word Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine metacomprehension during comprehension, undergraduates (n = 133) were asked to provide descriptions of how they determined the meaning of four rare words presented in short passages. Content analysis of these written descriptions revealed task-specific metacomprehension reflecting lexical, textbase, and situation model processes.…

Mcginnis, Debra; Saunders, Nikola N.; Burns, Ryan J.

2007-01-01

239

Comprehensive school suicide prevention programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses responses to suicide by school systems and proposes a comprehensive suicide prevention program. It is suggested that programs must consist of prevention, intervention, and postvention. Prevention refers to program efforts that aim to prevent or inhibit the development of the problem. Intervention refers to reducing the level and duration of the problem at an early phase so

Roger Tierney; Richard Ramsay; Bryan Tanney; William Lang

1990-01-01

240

Anti-nuclear liberals and the bomb: A comparative history of Kampf dem Atomtod and the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, 1957-1963  

SciTech Connect

The premises of Kampf dem Atomtod (KdA) and Citizens for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) were based on nineteenth century traditions of liberal peace advocacy. Both groups gained substantial public support for their goals to prevent the nuclear armament of the Bundeswehr and to stop nuclear testing. Both organizations won well-educated middle-class and mostly white supporter. The dissertation examines the role of women: whether housewife or doctor, women stressed their special concerns as mothers. Both KdA and SANE had troubled relations with the labor movement. Their leaders hoped to gain government leaders' respect by winning a respectable, non-Communist constituency and claiming their goals were reasonable ones. Government officials attacked KdA and SANE as dupes of Moscow. Many supporters left the organizations because of their strict anti-Communism. Local groups accused their leaders of lacking initative. KdA and SANE's leaders wasted time and energy rehashing issues and postponing decisions. After a period of providing initiatives and ideas local committees disintegrated. Both organizations considered education their paramount goal but their arguments primarily reached the converted, who often preferred more political action. KdA and SANE's leaders instead chose to support respectable projects based on humanitarian ideals. Since these projects offered little in the way of concrete action agendas, supporters defected to more active organizations or slipped into apathy. Neither organization achieved its national goals. Both governments generally denied them access to the policymaking process, ignored them as irrelavant, or attacked them as Communist sympathizers. While SANE and KdA were heard by those concerned by nuclear policy, and while members of SANE's National Board did help muster support for the Partial Test Ban Treaty, both organizations failed to make liberal peace values productive in the nuclear decisionmaking process.

Thiede, B.

1992-01-01

241

Soviet nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

This book assesses both Western and Soviet literature on Soviet nuclear weapons policy. The author discusses the development of the various Western schools of interpretation and their effect on U.S. policy and provides an introduction to Soviet sources (Russian language as well as translated material). Analytical chapters are followed by comprehensive annotated listings of a broad range of civilian and military publications.

Green, W.C.

1987-01-01

242

Nuclear medicine review syllabus  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive review of the major scientific and clinical advances that have occurred in nuclear medicine since the early 1970s is given. The chapters include Radiopharmacology, Instrumentation, Radiation Effects and Radiation Protection, Cardiovascular, Central Nervous System, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Genito-Urinary System. Hematology-Oncology, Pulmonary, Radioassay, and the Skeletal System.

Kirchner, P.T. (ed.)

1980-01-01

243

Nuclear Science References Database  

E-print Network

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

B. Pritychenko; E. B?ták; B. Singh; J. Totans

2014-07-08

244

Nuclear Science References Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

Pritychenko, B.; B?ták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

2014-06-01

245

Young children's comprehension of montage.  

PubMed

2 studies examined children's comprehension of brief stop-animation televised segments incorporating elements of cinematic montage such as pans, zooms, and cuts. Children reconstructed the action and dialogue in these segments using the same dolls and settings depicted. In Study 1, there was no effect of cinematic techniques on reconstruction performance of 3- and 5-year-olds as compared to control segments filmed without these techniques. The results challenged the assumption that the use of such techniques per se contributes to young children's poor comprehension of television shows. In Study 2, 12 new segments were produced in which comprehending the montage required inferences of character perspective, implied action sequences, spatial relationships, and simultaneity of different actions. Averaging across all segments, 62% of the 4-year-olds and 88% of the 7-year-olds demonstrated clear comprehension of the montage. Inferences concerning implied action sequences were easiest for both ages. Inferences of simultaneity were most difficult for 4-year-olds, whereas inferences of character perspective were most difficult for 7-year-olds. Preschool children are thus capable of understanding cinematic events conveyed through camera techniques and film editing, despite previous assertions to the contrary. This ability nevertheless substantially increases with age. PMID:4042754

Smith, R; Anderson, D R; Fischer, C

1985-08-01

246

77 FR 3242 - Comprehensive Centers Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...resources across Comprehensive Centers...schools. 4. Evaluation. Each center...focus on continuous improvement...and leader evaluation and support...and sustain comprehensive district...methods of evaluation will provide continuous...

2012-01-23

247

Comprehensive Vocational Rehabilitation and the School Psychologist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe the comprehensive vocational rehabilitation center concept and their roles as school psychologists on the comprehensive rehabilitation center team. Also discussed are training considerations in preparing for employment in such a center. (Editor/CT)

Shelton, Kenneth L.; Prout, H. Thompson

1982-01-01

248

Jasper County Comprehensive Plan Adoption Draft  

E-print Network

Jasper County Comprehensive Plan Adoption Draft Comprehensive Plan Jasper County, IN #12;#12;Table Mandate.......................................vii Jasper County's Fulfillment of the Mandate of Major Needs for Jasper County ...............5 Additional Opportunities

249

On the importance of listening comprehension.  

PubMed

The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills (i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities. PMID:24833426

Hogan, Tiffany P; Adlof, Suzanne M; Alonzo, Crystle N

2014-06-01

250

Research Article Comprehensive feature analysis for sample  

E-print Network

Research Article Comprehensive feature analysis for sample classification with comprehensive two- dimensional LC Comprehensive two-dimensional LC (LC Â LC) is a powerful tool for analysis of complex information-rich, but complex, chromatograms, which require advanced data analysis to produce useful

Reichenbach, Stephen E.

251

Working Memory Resources and Children's Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the relationship between working memory capacity and reading comprehension in fourth-grade children and the nature of the working memory resources involved in reading comprehension. Shows that working memory capacity was a direct predictor of reading comprehension when contrasted with vocabulary and decoding skills. Discusses the reasons…

Seigneuric, Alix; Ehrlich, Marie-France; Oakhill, Jane V.; Yuill, Nicola M.

2000-01-01

252

Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

2004-01-01

253

University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center (UMCCC) was founded in 1986. UMCCC received its NCI designation as a cancer center in 1988 and its comprehensive designation in 1991. The Center is also a founding member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, a consortium of 25 of the nation's premier centers, which develops national guidelines for the delivery of effective, quality care.

254

UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

In 1948, the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) established the Cancer Research Institute, a precursor to consolidation of its cancer activities in more recent decades. NCI designation as a comprehensive cancer center came in 1999 and the Center was renamed the UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2007. The Center is a member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

255

Assessing Narrative Comprehension in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the creation and validation of the Narrative Comprehension of Picture Books task (NC task), an assessment of young children's comprehension of wordless picture books. Creates and tests assessment materials and procedures that can be used with young children, whether or not they can decode print. Discusses how narrative comprehension is…

Paris, Alison H.; Paris, Scott G.

2003-01-01

256

Nuclear illusion and reality  

SciTech Connect

Lord Zuckerman describes how we can extricate ourselves from nuclear dread. Reviewing the history, technology, the strategies and threats of nuclear weaponry, he argues that the inability to unlearn how to split the atom does not mean there is either sanity or safety in further stockpiling or refining of nuclear weapons. He challenges our beliefs that the use of tactical nuclear weapons in Europe cannot be kept from excalating, our fear of sudden superweapons and defenses, and the premise that scientists, technologists, and arms makers should keep the race going rather than the military because of their vested interests. Given the political will, he contends, a comprehensive ban should not be a difficult treaty to agree to, although efforts to slow down the nuclear arms race have been admittedly disappointing. 92 references.

Zuckerman, S.

1982-01-01

257

FENDL: International reference nuclear data library for fusion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IAEA Nuclear Data Section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an internationally available Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the engineering design activity (EDA) of

A. B. Pashchenko; H. Wienke; S. Ganesan

1996-01-01

258

Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere.

Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

1984-05-01

259

Comprehensive geriatric assessment in oncology.  

PubMed

The incidence of cancer increases with advanced age and the majority of cancer deaths are in patients aged ? 65. The geriatric population is a heterogeneous group and a patient's chronologic age does not always correlate with underlying physiologic status. Oncologists need to be able to obtain information on physiologic and functional capacity in older patients in order to provide safe and effective treatment recommendations. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is a compilation of validated tools that predict morbidity and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. The various components of the CGA have also been shown to influence clinical decision-making and predict outcomes in older cancer patients. The combined data from the CGA can be used to stratify patients into risk categories to better predict their tolerance to treatment and risk for chemotherapy toxicity. However, the CGA is a comprehensive tool requiring significant time and training to perform. A variety of screening tools have been developed which may be useful in the general oncology practice setting to identify patients that may benefit from further testing and intervention. This chapter will review the components and predictive value of CGA in older cancer patients, with emphasis on how CGA can practically be incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:23503518

Mohile, Supriya G; Magnuson, Allison

2013-01-01

260

Mycobacterial endocarditis: a comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Objective A systematic analysis was made in view of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and main outcomes of mycobacterial endocarditis. Methods The data source of the present study was based on a comprehensive literature search in MEDLINE, Highwire Press and Google search engine for publications on mycobacterial endocarditis published between 2000 and 2013. Results The rapidly growing mycobacteria become the predominant pathogens with Mycobacterium chelonae being the most common. This condition has changed significantly in terms of epidemiology since the 21st century, with more broad patient age range, longer latency, prevailed mitral valve infections and better prognosis. Conclusion Mycobacterial endocarditis is rare and the causative pathogens are predominantly the rapidly growing mycobacteria. Amikacin, ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin are the most frequently used targeted antimicrobial agents but often show poor responses. Patients with deep infections may warrant a surgical operation or line withdrawal. With periodic multidrug therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing, and surgical managements, patients may achieve good therapeutic results. PMID:25859873

Shi-Min, Yuan

2015-01-01

261

The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database  

PubMed Central

The field of antibiotic drug discovery and the monitoring of new antibiotic resistance elements have yet to fully exploit the power of the genome revolution. Despite the fact that the first genomes sequenced of free living organisms were those of bacteria, there have been few specialized bioinformatic tools developed to mine the growing amount of genomic data associated with pathogens. In particular, there are few tools to study the genetics and genomics of antibiotic resistance and how it impacts bacterial populations, ecology, and the clinic. We have initiated development of such tools in the form of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca). The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences. This unique platform provides an informatic tool that bridges antibiotic resistance concerns in health care, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:23650175

McArthur, Andrew G.; Waglechner, Nicholas; Nizam, Fazmin; Yan, Austin; Azad, Marisa A.; Baylay, Alison J.; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Canova, Marc J.; De Pascale, Gianfranco; Ejim, Linda; Kalan, Lindsay; King, Andrew M.; Koteva, Kalinka; Morar, Mariya; Mulvey, Michael R.; O'Brien, Jonathan S.; Pawlowski, Andrew C.; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Spanogiannopoulos, Peter; Sutherland, Arlene D.; Tang, Irene; Taylor, Patricia L.; Thaker, Maulik; Wang, Wenliang; Yan, Marie; Yu, Tennison

2013-01-01

262

Retroperitoneal liposarcoma: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Retroperitoneal liposarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumors of the retroperitoneum that typically present with advanced disease and often carry a poor prognosis. Because of their rarity and anatomic location, these malignant tumors can cause a diagnostic dilemma and present several therapeutic challenges. They are usually associated with a high rate of recurrence despite grossly complete resection, thus requiring long-term and often indefinite follow-up. Relevant data on this topic was procured and synthesized with the aid of a comprehensive Medline search in addition to oncologic, pathologic, urologic, radiologic, and surgical literature review on retroperitoneal sarcomas. This article provides an in-depth review into the natural history, pathology, clinical manifestations, and prognostic features of retroperitoneal liposarcomas. It also discusses the reliability of diagnostic procedures and novel curative approaches that are currently being evaluated for the disease. PMID:24136142

Vijay, Adarsh; Ram, Lakshmi

2015-04-01

263

Geospatial Analysis - A comprehensive guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text of "Geospatial Analysis - A comprehensive guide" is provided on this website. It covers the full spectrum of analytical techniques that are provided within modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related software products.Click here for a PDF extract (first 55 pages).Topics covered in detail include: * Geospatial analysis concepts * Core components of geospatial analysis, including distance and directional analysis, geometrical processing, map algebra, and grid models * Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) and spatial statistics, including spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression * Surface analysis, including surface form and flow analysis, gridding and interpolation methods, and visibility analysis * Network and locational analysis, including shortest path calculation, travelling salesman problems, facility location and arc routing Geocomputational methods, including agent-based modelling, artifical neural networks and evolutionary computing

Michael J. de Smith

264

Comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Primary sarcopenia is considered to be age-related when no other cause is evident, other than ageing itself. Secondary sarcopenia should be considered when one or more other causes are evident, such as activity-, disease-, or nutrition-related sarcopenia. In this narrative review that focused on human studies, we summarize the pharmaceutical therapies (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrogen, growth hormone, ghrelin, vitamin D, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and eicosapentaenoic acid) and nonpharmaceutical therapies (resistance training, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking) for counteracting primary sarcopenia. Testosterone and growth hormone improve muscle mass and muscle strength, but have several side effects. Although there are some intriguing pharmaceutical therapies to combat sarcopenia, resistance training combined with supplements containing amino acids are the most effective for preventing and treating age-related muscle wasting and weakness. The etiology of sarcopenia in the elderly is multi-factorial. Patients with disuse syndrome and deconditioning often complicate the diagnosis, of not only activity-related sarcopenia, but also age-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia. In these cases a comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking. The effect of pharmaceutical therapies for sarcopenia can be enhanced by this comprehensive approach. Future research on pharmaceutical therapies for counteracting sarcopenia should consider non-pharmaceutical therapies and also the causes of sarcopenia. PMID:24219006

Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

2014-05-01

265

Listening comprehension across the adult lifespan  

PubMed Central

Short Summary The current study provides the first systematic assessment of listening comprehension across the adult lifespan. A total of 433 participants ranging in age from 20-90 listened to spoken passages and answered comprehension questions following each passage. In addition, measures of auditory sensitivity were obtained from all participants to determine if hearing loss and listening comprehension changed similarly across the adult lifespan. As expected, auditory sensitivity declined from age 20 to age 90. In contrast, listening comprehension remained relatively unchanged until approximately age 65-70, with declines evident only for the oldest participants. PMID:21716112

Sommers, Mitchell S.; Hale, Sandra; Myerson, Joel; Rose, Nathan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent

2011-01-01

266

Community Colleges Need Comprehensive Career Assistance Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges currently offer fragmented services that marginalize disadvantaged students. A comprehensive career-assistance center could provide integrated academic, career, and personal services. (SK)

Davies, Timothy Gray; Feller, Rich

1999-01-01

267

Nuclear material operations manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

Tyler, R.P.

1981-02-01

268

LUNA: Nuclear Astrophysics Deep Underground  

E-print Network

Nuclear astrophysics strives for a comprehensive picture of the nuclear reactions responsible for synthesizing the chemical elements and for powering the stellar evolution engine. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory the cross sections of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The salient features of underground nuclear astrophysics are summarized here. The main results obtained by LUNA in the last twenty years are reviewed, and their influence on the comprehension of the properties of the neutrino, of the Sun and of the Universe itself are discussed. Future directions of underground nuclear astrophysics towards the study of helium and carbon burning and of stellar neutron sources in stars are pointed out.

Broggini, Carlo; Guglielmetti, Alessandra; Menegazzo, Roberto

2010-01-01

269

LUNA: Nuclear Astrophysics Deep Underground  

E-print Network

Nuclear astrophysics strives for a comprehensive picture of the nuclear reactions responsible for synthesizing the chemical elements and for powering the stellar evolution engine. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory the cross sections of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The salient features of underground nuclear astrophysics are summarized here. The main results obtained by LUNA in the last twenty years are reviewed, and their influence on the comprehension of the properties of the neutrino, of the Sun and of the Universe itself are discussed. Future directions of underground nuclear astrophysics towards the study of helium and carbon burning and of stellar neutron sources in stars are pointed out.

Carlo Broggini; Daniel Bemmerer; Alessandra Guglielmetti; Roberto Menegazzo

2010-10-20

270

An Analysis of a Commercial Furniture Refinisher: A Comprehensive Introductory NMR Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment designed to introduce undergraduate organic chemistry students to measurement/interpretation of NMR parameters. Students investigate chemical shift analysis, spin-spin coupling, peak integrations, effect of deuterium oxide extraction, and comparisons with literature spectra;…

Markow, Peter G.; Cramer, John A.

1983-01-01

271

Comprehensive low-level radioactive waste management plan for the Commonwealth of Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I of the Comprehensive Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for the Commonwealth of Kentucky discusses the alternatives that have been examined to manage the low-level radioactive waste currently generated in the state. Part II includes a history of the commercial operation of the Maxey Flats Nuclear Waste Disposal Site in Fleming County, Kentucky. The reasons for closure of the

R. M. Carr; D. Mills; C. Perkins; R. Riddle

1984-01-01

272

CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

Not Available

1993-08-01

273

Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

2012-07-01

274

Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis), lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors) or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma). Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities. PMID:23858317

Rodriguez, Erika F.; Monaco, Sara E.; Khalbuss, Walid; Austin, R. Marshall; Pantanowitz, Liron

2013-01-01

275

A Multidisciplinary Study of the DPRK Nuclear Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Democratic People Republic of Korea announced two underground nuclear tests carried out in their territory respectively on October 9th, 2006 and May 25th, 2009. The scarce information on the precise location and the size of those explosions has stimulated various kinds of studies, mostly based on seismological observations, by several national agencies concerned with the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification. We analysed the available seismological data collected through a global high-quality network for the two tests. After picking up the arrival times at the various stations, a standard location program has been applied to the observed data. If we use all the available data for each single event, due to the different magnitude and different number of available stations, the locations appear quite different. On the contrary, if we use only the common stations, they happen to be only few km apart from each other and within their respective error ellipses. A more accurate relative location has been carried out by the application of algorithms such as double difference joint hypocenter determination (DDJHD) and waveform alignment. The epicentral distance between the two events obtained by these methods is 2 km, with the 2006 event shifted to the ESE with respect to that of 2009. We then used a dataset of VHR TerraSAR-X satellite images to detect possible surface effects of the underground tests. This is the first ever case where these highly performing SAR data have been used to such aim. We applied InSAR processing technique to fully exploit the capabilities of SAR data to measure very short displacements over large areas. Two interferograms have been computed, one co-event and one post-event, to remove possible residual topographic signals. A clear displacement pattern has been highlighted over a mountainous area within the investigated region, measuring a maximum displacement of about 45 mm overall the relief. Hypothesizing that the 2009 nuclear test had been carried out close to the area where the displacement has been observed through the DInSAR technique, its relation with the epicenter location obtained through seismological processing has been discussed as a possible alternative hypothesis with respect to the preferred solutions reported by the nuclear explosion database (NEDB). The distance of about 10 km between the two places can be considered acceptable in light of the possible systematic location shifts commonly observed in the seismological practice over a global scale. The difference between the m b magnitudes of the two tests could reflect differences in geological conditions of the two test sites, even if the yield of the two explosions had been the same.

Carluccio, R.; Giuntini, A.; Materni, V.; Chiappini, S.; Bignami, C.; D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Pignatelli, A.; Stramondo, S.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.

2014-03-01

276

Cognitive Aids for Guiding Graph Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to improve students' comprehension of scientific graphs by adapting scaffolding techniques used to aid text comprehension. In 3 experiments involving 121 female and 88 male college students, some students were shown cognitive aids prior to viewing 4 geography graphs whereas others were not; all students were then asked to write a…

Mautone, Patricia D.; Mayer, Richard E.

2007-01-01

277

A Janus Look at Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that researchers in the fields of cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and linguistics are taking a constructivist view of reading comprehension, this paper undertakes a comparison of that view with views concerning comprehension that have been expressed at the Claremont Reading Conferences over the past 50 years. The first…

McNeil, John D.

278

Comprehensive Education Portfolio with a Career Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many types of student portfolios used within academia: the prior learning portfolio, credentialing portfolio, developmental portfolio, capstone portfolio, individual course portfolio, and the comprehensive education portfolio. The comprehensive education portfolio (CEP), as used by the authors, is a student portfolio, developed over…

Kruger, Evonne J.; Holtzman, Diane M.; Dagavarian, Debra A.

2013-01-01

279

Metaphor Comprehension in Alzheimer's Disease: Novelty Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehension of non-literal language was investigated in 20 probable Alzheimer's disease (pAD) patients by comparing their performance to that of 20 matched control subjects. pAD patients were unimpaired in the comprehension of conventional metaphors and idioms. However, their performance was significantly lower in the case of…

Amanzio, Martina; Geminiani, Giuliano; Leotta, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano

2008-01-01

280

Comprehensive Community Initiatives: A Rural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article challenges the notion that the comprehensive community initiative (CCI) is a singularly urban intervention strategy by comparing a rural comprehensive initiative with the literature on urban CCIs. Characteristics of CCIs in urban settings are discussed and compared with Warren Family Institute (WFI), a demonstration project in rural…

Messinger, Lori

2004-01-01

281

Fingerprint Matching Based on Global Comprehensive Similarity  

E-print Network

Fingerprint Matching Based on Global Comprehensive Similarity Yuliang He, Jie Tian, Senior Member in the representation of a fingerprint. Finally, we model the relationship between transformation and the comprehensive similarity between two fingerprints in terms of histogram for initial parameter estimation. Through

Tian, Jie

282

A Dynamic Developmental Link between Verbal Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) and Reading Comprehension: Verbal Comprehension-Knowledge Drives Positive Change in Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intelligence and general academic achievement have a well-established relation, but the interrelated development of the two constructs over time is less well-known. In this study, the dynamic developmental relation between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension was examined by applying bivariate dual change score models…

Reynolds, Matthew R.; Turek, Joshua J.

2012-01-01

283

Reading Strategies or Comprehension Monitoring Strategies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to probe the relationship between reading strategies and comprehension monitoring strategies and how they function to help readers in comprehension process, the present study utilizes think-aloud and retrospective verbal reports to examine 20 EFL readers' performances in reading texts. The results reveal that the engagement of reading…

Yang, Yu-Fen

2006-01-01

284

The Comprehension Approach to Foreign Language Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehension approach to second language education emphasizes acquisition of listening comprehension prior to and as a vehicle for acquisition of other language skills. The following articles on this approach are collected here: (1) "Nonlinear Learning and Language Teaching" (Winitz); (2) "Aital cal aprene las lengas…

Winitz, Harris, Ed.

285

Aural Comprehension in the Second Language Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of incorporating aural comprehension activities in the second language classroom is discussed. In addition, both the theoretical models upon which the listening comprehension research is based and the operational definitions employed by the researchers are examined. It is suggested that research demonstrates the value of emphasizing…

Moss, Wayne

1983-01-01

286

Comprehensive Teacher Education: A Handbook of Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1992, AACTE and the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund have worked in partnership to advance the knowledge base of comprehensive teacher education. The AACTE/DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund's Comprehensive Teacher Education National Demonstration Project is grounded in the mutual belief that preparation of classroom teachers must…

American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

287

Writing Composition Activities to Enhance Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program of written composition based on reading comprehension can help students gain greater in-depth understanding of reading materials. Once the reading comprehension skill has been clearly defined for the class, the writing activity can provide clarification by allowing for analysis of the definition through written manipulation of language.…

Gold, Janet T.

288

Components of Reading Comprehension and Scholastic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to understand whether the reading comprehension process is better explained by a single or by multiple factors. 184 students (9 to 13 years old) were presented with a recently devised battery of tests, that measure ten aspects of reading comprehension. Structural equation modelling showed that a two factors model better…

Meneghetti, Chiara; Carretti, Barbara; De Beni, Rossana

2006-01-01

289

Lexical Competition in Nonnative Speech Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electrophysiological studies consistently find N400 effects of semantic incongruity in nonnative (L2) language comprehension. These N400 effects are often delayed compared with native (L1) comprehension, suggesting that semantic integration in one's second language occurs later than in one's first language. In this study, we investigated whether…

FitzPatrick, Ian; Indefrey, Peter

2010-01-01

290

Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

First established at Northwestern University in 1974, the cancer center was dedicated to Robert H. Lurie in 1991. In 1997, the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University received its “comprehensive” designation from the NCI. The Lurie Cancer Center is committed to being an international leader in the battle to overcome cancer.

291

12 CFR 217.209 - Comprehensive risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Comprehensive risk. 217.209 Section 217.209 Banks and Banking...CAPITAL ADEQUACY OF BOARD-REGULATED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Market Risk § 217.209 Comprehensive risk. (a)...

2014-01-01

292

12 CFR 3.209 - Comprehensive risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Comprehensive risk. 3.209 Section 3.209 Banks and Banking...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Market Risk § 3.209 Comprehensive risk. (a)...

2014-01-01

293

12 CFR 324.209 - Comprehensive risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Comprehensive risk. 324.209 Section 324.209 Banks and Banking...CAPITAL ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Market Risk § 324.209 Comprehensive risk. (a)...

2014-01-01

294

Comprehensibility Improvement of Tabular Knowledge Bases  

E-print Network

to be a serious burden for the knowledge engineers who must manage knowledge bases. Purpose of this research and only method to improve the comprehensibility of a knowledge base was to simplify the conceptComprehensibility Improvement of Tabular Knowledge Bases Atsushi Sugiuray Maximilian yC&C Systems

Riesenhuber, Maximilian

295

Fission for Program Comprehension Jeremy Gibbons  

E-print Network

Fission for Program Comprehension Jeremy Gibbons Oxford University Computing Laboratory Wolfson at the cost of clarity. Fission is the same transformation, in reverse: creating structure, ex nihilo. We explore the use of fission for program comprehension, that is, for reconstructing the design of a program

Gibbons, Jeremy

296

Performance in Reading Comprehension — product or process?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article initially reviews the related research literature accounting for the extent to which perceptions about what constitutes reading influence approaches to the evaluation of students’ performance in reading comprehension. The comprehension testing view and the metacomprehension view, underscoring product and process respectively, are mentioned. The recent interest in the research field, relative to the concept of metacognition, has tended

Samuel S. Myers

1991-01-01

297

MB3a Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated a new infrasound sensor, the MB3a, manufactured by Seismo Wave. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by researchers at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the technology was recently licensed to Seismo Wave for production and sales. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, seismic sensitivity, and self- calibration ability. The MB3a infrasound sensors are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

Merchant, Bion J.; McDowell, Kyle D.

2014-11-01

298

Construction of a Shallow Underground Low-background Detector for a CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The International Monitoring System (IMS) is a verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and in addition to a series of radionuclide monitoring stations, contains sixteen radionuclide laboratories capable of verification of radionuclide station measurements. This paper presents an overview of a new commercially obtained low-background detector system for radionuclide aerosol measurements recently installed in a shallow (>30 meters water equivalent) underground clean-room facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Specifics such as low-background shielding materials, active shielding methods, and improvements in sensitivity to IMS isotopes will be covered.

Forrester, Joel B.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.

2013-05-01

299

Aging of nuclear plant resistance temperature detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive research and development project was performed over a 30 month period to quantify the effects of normal aging on performance of nuclear safety-related Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs). The work involved laboratory testing of 72 nuclear grade RTD elements representing several from each of the four US manufacturers. The limit for the initial accuracy of these RTDs was established

H. M. Hashemian; D. D. Beverly; D. W. Mitchell; K. M. Petersen

1990-01-01

300

Semiconductor nuclear radiation detector studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a problem that arose with regard to the availability of germanium for lithium-drifted germanium detectors (Ge(Li) detectors), a comprehensive program was undertaken aimed toward the development of a method for the rapid specification of germanium quality for nuclear radiation detector use, and the determination of factors affecting germanium quality. Measurements on a large number of germanium crystals,

A. H. Sher

1974-01-01

301

The Nuclear Science References Database  

E-print Network

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

Pritychenko, B; Singh, B; Totans, J

2013-01-01

302

Test Differences in Diagnosing Reading Comprehension Deficits  

PubMed Central

We examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. We had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, we found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are due to weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables - word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill – to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed. PMID:22442251

Keenan, Janice M.; Meenan, Chelsea E.

2012-01-01

303

Test differences in diagnosing reading comprehension deficits.  

PubMed

The authors examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. They had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, the authors found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are the result of weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables-word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill-to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed. PMID:22442251

Keenan, Janice M; Meenan, Chelsea E

2014-01-01

304

A New Comprehensive Final Exam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instructors aspire for students to master all the material covered. The final exam should assess the breadth and depth of their learning and be a significant basis for the final grade. I insist on a comprehensive final because I want students to review early material in light of later topics. I believe that this helps students create connections, integrate understanding, and retain knowledge for the long term. For non-science majors, reviewing and retaining the large amount of astronomy material is daunting. I experimented with a final exam format that calmed their fears and encouraged thorough review. It is only practical for a class of about twenty students or less. I provided a number of challenging conceptual and problem solving questions (at least as many as there were students), crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. The order of the questions reflected the sequence in which the topics had been discussed. Students received these questions in ample time to prepare prior to the final. A student could bring up to 5 standard sheets of notes to the final. At the final, each student picked a number out of a hat. This was the question they had to answer in a 5-minute presentation. They were allowed 15 minutes for a final preparation during which they could use their 5 pages of notes. The presentations were given in order, 1- 20. Written comments on at least 10 other talks, explaining what was missed or correcting a mistake were required. They were graded both on their talk and on their comments. This format required students to be prepared for any question and encouraged interaction and communication while studying. Knowing the questions beforehand provided a guide to their studying as well as allayed their fears about what could be asked. The students also received guidance to what constituted a good answer, namely accuracy (correct scientific argument, appropriate facts, no irrelevant material), thoroughness (answered the complete questions, covered relevant material) and the quality of the presentation (polished, professional, use of demonstrations, graphs, pictures etc. and time appropriately to present a clear answer). I will describe this first attempt.

Bhavsar, Suketu P.

2015-01-01

305

Nuclear Data Evaluation for Generation IV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation activities are crucial steps to combine experimental data from microscopic experiments into coherent and comprehensive nuclear data sets for nuclear energy system applications. The nuclear data group of the CEA/DEN is involved in the elaboration of the European library JEFF since the beginning of the project. New evaluated files for fission products and actinides rather than successive revisions of previous evaluations are planned to satisfy GEN-IV issues.

Noguere, G.; Bouland, O.; Courcelle, A.; Dupont, E.; Serot, O.; Sublet, J. C.

2006-04-01

306

Nuclear Weapon  

MedlinePLUS

http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation What is a nuclear weapon? A nuclear weapon is a device that uses ... radioactive and can contaminate anything it lands on. NUCLEAR WEAPON What are the main dangers of a nuclear ...

307

Shopping spree softens test-band sorrows  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy, over the past year, has proposed a $2 billion wish list of new facilities to help conduct non-nuclear tests on nuclear weapons by their weapons laboratories. Surprisingly, some comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTB) partisans seem to support this approach. When a CTB treaty is finally submitted to the Senate for ratification, convervative senators will want assurances that the United States is not letting its nuclear stockpile fall apart. However, letting the laboratories proceed on the new hardware and facilities issue could be of concern to other nations and stall CTB negotiations. The new stockpile stewardship program was designed to help the laboratories maintain the nuclear arsenal, and the necessary expertise, without nuclear tests. The weapons laboratories are already equipped to conduct sophisticated tests. We can have a CTB and still maintain high confidence in the nuclear arsenal without spending billions on new facilities.

Collina, T.Z. [Institute for Science and International Security, Washington, DC (United States); Kidder, R.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-07-01

308

Mycoinsecticides: comprehensive list and current status  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study aimed to assemble a comprehensive list of mycoinsecticides developed worldwide. A variety of sources, including scientific publications, personal communications, and websites from manufacturers and regulatory agencies, was accessed. During the last four decades, ca. 80 companies worldwide...

309

June 30, 2013 ComprehensiveAnnual  

E-print Network

Communications The Solar Zone at the UA Tech Park has been designed to embed all elements of solar energy development COMPREHENSIVE ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT For the year ended June 30, 2013 Tucson, AZ Prepared by the Financial

Wong, Pak Kin

310

Improving Comprehension in the Content Areas: Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introduction to the special issue on reading comprehension in content areas notes the articles' emphasis on integration of research into practice, process orientation, development of metacognitive strategies, and the value of discussion. (DB)

Hollander, Sheila K., Ed.

1991-01-01

311

16 CFR 1018.43 - Comprehensive review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Records, Annual Reports and Audits § 1018.43 Comprehensive review...Commission established or utilized advisory committees shall be made annually in...

2010-01-01

312

Comprehensive Savings in Condensate Return Systems  

E-print Network

COMPREHENSIVE SAVINGS IN CONDENSATE RETURN SYSTEMS Eugene 1. Viola Market Specialist Swagelok Solon, Ohio ABSTRACT Every steam system is plagued by problems from malfunctioning steam traps. Effects of such problems can easily lead to downtime...

Viola, E. J.

313

COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE SOUTH CAROLINA  

E-print Network

COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE SOUTH CAROLINA AGRIBUSINESS CLUSTER Prepared for MarketSearch July.............................................................................................................................. 18 South Carolina Natural Resources.......................................................................................... 47 The Long-Term Growth of South Carolina Agriculture

Duchowski, Andrew T.

314

Intonation in Oral Reading and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study that investigated the relationship between intonation in oral reading and reading comprehension of Black West Indies college students. Concludes that there were no significant relationships and outlines procedures for future research. (FL)

Karlin, Andrea

1985-01-01

315

THE COMPREHENSIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA RESOURCE (CEDR)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) is a Department of Energy (DOE) public-use repository of data collected for DOE-sponsored epidemiologic, environmental, and related health studies....

316

A History of Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A history of the development of rotorcraft comprehensive analyses is presented. Comprehensive analyses are digital computer programs that calculate the aeromechanical behavior of the rotor and aircraft, bringing together the most advanced models of the geometry, structure, dynamics, and aerodynamics available in rotary wing technology. The development of the major codes of the last five decades from industry, government, and universities is described. A number of common themes observed in this history are discussed.

Johnson, Wayne

2013-01-01

317

The relationship between comprehension and metacomprehension ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between the ability to comprehend text and the ability to predict future performance and\\u000a to assess past performance on text. Subjects were poor at predicting performance, which may be why prediction accuracy did\\u000a not relate to measures of comprehension ability. Measures of comprehension ability did relate to the accuracy with which subjects\\u000a assessed their performance on

Ruth H. Maki; Dawn Jonas; Mary Kallod

1994-01-01

318

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2013-10-01

319

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2011-10-01

320

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2010-10-01

321

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2014-10-01

322

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2012-10-01

323

Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?  

PubMed Central

This study’s hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of the 2nd grade, children (n = 206; on average, 7 years, 6 months) were assessed on general language comprehension, working memory, nonlinguistic reasoning, processing speed (a control variable), and foundational skill (arithmetic for WPs; word reading for text comprehension). In spring, they were assessed on WP-specific language comprehension, WPs, and text comprehension. Path analytic mediation analysis indicated that effects of general language comprehension on text comprehension were entirely direct, whereas effects of general language comprehension on WPs were partially mediated by WP-specific language. By contrast, effects of working memory and reasoning operated in parallel ways for both outcomes. PMID:25866461

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.

2015-01-01

324

48 CFR 1602.170-3 - Comprehensive medical plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 true Comprehensive medical plan. 1602.170-3 Section 1602...REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-3 Comprehensive medical plan. Comprehensive Medical Plan...

2010-10-01

325

48 CFR 1602.170-3 - Comprehensive medical plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Comprehensive medical plan. 1602.170-3 Section 1602...REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-3 Comprehensive medical plan. Comprehensive Medical Plan...

2013-10-01

326

48 CFR 1602.170-3 - Comprehensive medical plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Comprehensive medical plan. 1602.170-3 Section 1602...REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-3 Comprehensive medical plan. Comprehensive Medical Plan...

2014-10-01

327

48 CFR 1602.170-3 - Comprehensive medical plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Comprehensive medical plan. 1602.170-3 Section 1602...REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-3 Comprehensive medical plan. Comprehensive Medical Plan...

2012-10-01

328

48 CFR 1602.170-3 - Comprehensive medical plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive medical plan. 1602.170-3 Section 1602...REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-3 Comprehensive medical plan. Comprehensive Medical Plan...

2011-10-01

329

The Yeast Nuclear Pore Complex: Composition, Architecture, and Transport Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of how the nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic exchange requires a comprehensive inventory of the molecular components of the NPC and a knowledge of how each component contributes to the overall structure of this large molecular translocation machine. Therefore, we have taken a comprehensive approach to classify all components of the yeast NPC (nucleoporins). This in- volved

Michael P. Rout; John D. Aitchison; Adisetyantari Suprapto; Kelly Hjertaas; Yingming Zhao; Brian T. Chait

2000-01-01

330

An equal-opportunity NPT. [NPT (Non-Proliferation Treaty)  

SciTech Connect

The international community must decide how to fit the three de facto nuclear states--Israel, India, and Pakistan, whose perceived need for a nuclear deterrent could be greater than that of the Western powers--into the framework of the Non-Proliferation Treaty's framework when it comes up for extension in 1995. This article describes a way of developing a universal non-discriminatory nuclear restraint regime without altering the present NPT. In essence, a supplementary treaty could be adopted that would bring all nuclear installations (in both nuclear-weapon and non-weapon states) under a universal verification regime similar to that of the chemical weapons treaty. The treaty could prohibit all future manufacture of nuclear weapons, impose a comprehensive test ban, and institute an intrusive, non-discriminatory verification regime on all countries. The United Nations would be assigned mandatory retaliatory measures in case of a breach.

Subramanyam, K.

1993-06-01

331

Prediction in Language Comprehension beyond Specific Words: An ERP Study on Sentence Comprehension in Polish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, several ERP studies have shown that the human language comprehension system anticipates words that are highly likely continuations of a given text. However, it remains an open issue whether the language comprehension system can also make predictions that go beyond a specific word. Here, we address the question of whether readers predict…

Szewczyk, Jakub M.; Schriefers, Herbert

2013-01-01

332

Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first- through fifth-grade classrooms, a total of 751 minutes (or 25% of instructional time) was

Molly Ness

2011-01-01

333

Deconstructing Comprehensibility: Identifying the Linguistic Influences on Listeners' L2 Comprehensibility Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensibility, a major concept in second language (L2) pronunciation research that denotes listeners' perceptions of how easily they understand L2 speech, is central to interlocutors' communicative success in real-world contexts. Although comprehensibility has been modeled in several L2 oral proficiency scales--for example, the Test of English…

Isaacs, Talia; Trofimovich, Pavel

2012-01-01

334

Comparison of the Efficiency of Reading Comprehension Strategies on Iranian University Students' Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of the strategies used by English as a foreign language (EFL) or second language (ESL) readers can help instructors teach these techniques and thereby enhance their students' reading comprehension. The present study compared three categories of reading comprehension strategies (metacognitive, cognitive, and socio-affective) to determine…

Fotovatian, Sepideh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

2007-01-01

335

Improving Reading Comprehension by Predicting, Monitoring Comprehension, Remediation, and Personal Response Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving inconsistent reading comprehension. The targeted population consisted of first, third, and fifth grade classrooms in a diverse middle class community located in Illinois. The problems of low academic achievement were documented through teacher observation, reading comprehension test scores, and low…

Jacobucci, Leanne; Richert, Judy; Ronan, Susan; Tanis, Ariana

336

Cognitive Control and Discourse Comprehension in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits across a wide range of domains have been consistently observed in schizophrenia and are linked to poor functional outcome (Green, 1996; Carter, 2006). Language abnormalities are among the most salient and include disorganized speech as well as deficits in comprehension. In this review, we aim to evaluate impairments of language processing in schizophrenia in relation to a domain-general control deficit. We first provide an overview of language comprehension in the healthy human brain, stressing the role of cognitive control processes, especially during discourse comprehension. We then discuss cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia, before turning to evidence suggesting that schizophrenia patients are particularly impaired at processing meaningful discourse as a result of deficits in control functions. We conclude that domain-general control mechanisms are impaired in schizophrenia and that during language comprehension this is most likely to result in difficulties during the processing of discourse-level context, which involves integrating and maintaining multiple levels of meaning. Finally, we predict that language comprehension in schizophrenia patients will be most impaired during discourse processing. We further suggest that discourse comprehension problems in schizophrenia might be mitigated when conflicting information is absent and strong relations amongst individual words are present in the discourse context. “There is no “centre of Speech” in the brain any more than there is a faculty of Speech in the mind. The entire brain, more or less, is at work in a man who uses language”William JamesFrom The Principles of Psychology, 1890“The mind in dementia praecox is like an orchestra without a conductor”Kraepelin, 1919 PMID:22970364

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Carter, Cameron S.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2012-01-01

337

In Praise of Wiggle Room: Locating Comprehension in Unlikely Places  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension has often been conceptualized in ways that privilege either the "right" understanding of a text (comprehension-as-outcome), or getting to that "right" understanding (comprehension-as-procedure). This article makes a case that we should, instead, teach with an eye toward fostering comprehension-as-sense-making--a socially purposeful…

Aukerman, Maren

2008-01-01

338

The relationship between comprehension and metacomprehension ability.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between the ability to comprehend text and the ability to predict future performance and to assess past performance on text. Subjects were poor at predicting performance, which may be why prediction accuracy did not relate to measures of comprehension ability. Measures of comprehension ability did relate to the accuracy with which subjects assessed their performance on tests. Better and faster comprehenders judged their relative levels of test performance over sections of text more accurately than did poorer and slower comprehenders. PMID:24203422

Maki, R H; Jonas, D; Kallod, M

1994-03-01

339

Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

Badawi, Ramsey D.

2001-01-01

340

Nuclear Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection explores the state of the world's current nuclear arsenals, including those of the five acknowledged nuclear powers. India and Pakistan have not formally placed their nuclear arsenal on a delivery system.

Christopher Griffith

341

Nuclear Engineering Nuclear Criticality Safety  

E-print Network

, and neutron spectra. The NE nuclear criticality safety (NCS) capabilities are based on a staff with decadesNuclear Engineering Nuclear Criticality Safety The Nuclear Engineering Division (NE) of Argonne National Laboratory is experienced in performing criticality safety and shielding evaluations for nuclear

Kemner, Ken

342

A Comprehensive Plan for Global Energy Revolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no dearth of information regarding the grave crises faced by humanity in the 21st century. There is also growing consensus that the wholesale burning of fossil fuels must come to an end, either because of climate change or other still-salient reasons such as air pollution or major conflicts over dwindling reserves of cheaply recoverable oil and gas resources. At the same time, global demographics predict with disquieting certainty a world with up to 9 or 10 billion souls by mid-century. The vast expansion of energy consumption that this population represents, along with further increases in already-unacceptable levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, demands that we quickly develop almost limitless sources of clean, economical power. What is sorely lacking in the public debate are realistic solutions. Expanding wind and solar generating capacity is an important near-term goal, but neither of these technologies represents a viable solution for generating base load power at the vast scales that will be required. Energy efficiency measures are likewise well-directed, but the combination of rising population along with increasingly energy-intensive economic activity by the large fraction of Earth's current population residing in developing nations suggests that absolute energy demand will continue to rise even with radically improved energy efficiency. Fortunately we have the technologies available to provide virtually unlimited clean energy, and to utilize and recycle our resources so that everyone can improve their standard of living. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), developed at the Argonne National Laboratory in the 80's and 90's and currently championed by General Electric, is a technology that fills the bill on every count, and then some. IFRs are safe, environmentally clean, economical, and free of conflict over fuel supply. IFRs can safely consume as fuel the nuclear waste from the current installed base of light-water reactors, as well as utilize the world's prodigious stockpiles of depleted uranium to supply all of humanity's energy needs for hundreds of years. Not only will IFR operations produce no greenhouse gas emissions, but even their construction will create several times less emissions per megawatt than wind and solar projects. Commercial development of zero-emission energy carriers for vehicle transport (such as hydrogen or boron) can assure that we efficiently translate IFR- generated power to our transportation infrastructure while eliminating the choking pollution of the world's ever- expanding vehicle fleet. If we make the decisions that must be made to deploy these new technologies, we stand at the threshhold of a post-scarcity era even as the starkness of our population dilemma would seem to indicate the opposite. Here is the blueprint for that new era, a comprehensive plan to provide limitless clean energy that can be implemented at less expense than taking a business-as-usual approach.

Blees, T.

2009-05-01

343

An assessment of antineutrino detection as a tool for monitoring nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The antineutrino is the only real-time nuclear signature from a fission explosion that propagates great distances through air, water, and ground. The size and sensitivity of antineutrino detectors has increased dramatically in the last decade, and will continue to do so in the next, thanks in part to the renewed interest in neutrino physics brought on by the recent discovery that neutrinos may have mass. The evolution of antineutrino detectors, and the evident interest of the signature as a means for monitoring nuclear tests motivates this review of the capabilities of existing and possible future detectors as test ban verification tools. The authors find that existing liquid scintillator ionization detectors, operating a few tens of meters below the Earth's surface and containing a few thousand tons of active material, could be used to monitor an area of a few square kilometers for nuclear explosions at the 1 kt level. Purified water Cerenkov detectors of sizes comparable to existing detectors (50,000 m{sup 3}) could be used to detect 1 kt explosions at distances of a few tens of kilometers. If neutron-absorbing dopants such as sodium chloride or gadolinium could be added to purified water, the resulting background reduction would allow extension of the range for sensitivity to a pulse of 10 antineutrino events from a 1 kt explosion out to approximately 1000 km. Beyond 1000 km, backgrounds from the world's nuclear reactors would become prohibitively large. The engineering hurdles for such detectors would be formidable. The size of a doped detector operating at the 100 km range, suitable for cooperative monitoring of existing nuclear test sites, is about 60 times that of the largest existing water detector, and would require a factor of several dozen more photomultiplier tubes than what is now used in large scale physics experiments. At a price per phototube of $1000, capital costs would amount to several billions of dollars, even for a detector at this modest range. This cost is perhaps the key obstacle to construction, along with excavation requirements and the requirement of high radiopurity for large volumes of water and dopant. Detectors sensitive to a 1 kt explosion at a few kilometer distance would still cost tens of millions of dollars, and are unlikely to be useful except in the context of confidence-building measures.

Adam Bernstein; Todd West; Vipin Gupta

1999-06-01

344

Special lecture in memory of Glenn Theodore Seaborg (19 April 1912 - 25 February 1999) Glenn T. Seaborg's multi-faceted career  

SciTech Connect

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-1999) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten US presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights his profound influence on nuclear science, both in the US and in the international community.

Hoffman, Darleane C.

2001-11-01

345

Discourse Comprehension and Sources of Individual Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses discourse comprehension with respect to individual differences. First, some general principles of discourse structure and the processing of discourse are presented. These principles emphasize the role of sentence and thematic structure. Second, possible sources of individual differences in discourse processing are discussed.…

Perfetti, Charles A.; Lesgold, Alan M.

346

A Comprehensive Enzyme Kinetic Exercise for Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme kinetics strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. Kinetic parameters are obtained for the stable…

Barton, Janice S.

2011-01-01

347

Comprehensive College Plan for 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document describes San Antonio College's (Texas) strategic goals and objectives for 2000-2001. San Antonio College's comprehensive planning and evaluation process monitors the achievement of college-wide goals and initiatives supporting the college's Vision and Mission Statement and the Alamo Community College District's Strategic Plan. The…

San Antonio Coll., TX.

348

Comprehension of Passives in Broca's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drai and Grodzinsky have statistically analyzed a large corpus of data on the comprehension of passives by patients with Broca's aphasia. The data come, according to Drai and Grodzinsky, from binary choice tasks. Among the languages that are analyzed are Dutch and German. Drai and Grodzinsky argue that Dutch and German speaking Broca patients…

Bastiaanse, Roelien; van Zonneveld, Ron

2006-01-01

349

Comprehension Instruction. 2000 Edition. Texas Reading Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is no exaggeration to say that how well students develop the ability to comprehend what they read has a profound effect on their entire lives. A major goal of reading comprehension instruction, therefore, is to help students develop the knowledge, skills, and experiences they must have if they are to become competent and enthusiastic readers.…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

350

Business Process Management: A Comprehensive Survey  

E-print Network

Business Process Management: A Comprehensive Survey Wil M.P. van der Aalst Department. Business Process Management (BPM) research resulted in a plethora of methods, techniques, and tools to support the design, enactment, management, and analysis of operational business processes. This survey

Aalst, W.M.P.van der

351

Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

2007-01-01

352

Draft Action Plan for the Comprehensive  

E-print Network

and transformation of the energy efficiency market and the delivery of substantial energy savings and greenhouse gas CA| Draft Action Plan for the Comprehensive Energy Efficiency Program for Existing Buildings June 2013 California Energy Commission Efficiency and Renewable Energy Division #12; DISCLAIMER

353

Correspondence Quantification in Comprehensive Two-Dimensional  

E-print Network

Correspondence Quantification in Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Stephen E 68588-0115 This correspondence corrects the description in a recent paper by Mondello et al., "Quantification in Comprehen- sive Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography" [Mon- dello, L.; Herrero, M.; Kumm, T

Reichenbach, Stephen E.

354

Comprehensive Family Services and Customer Satisfaction Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive Family Services (CFS) is a strengths-based and partnership-oriented approach to casework implemented through multiple initiatives. This study examines the relationship between the practice of CFS and satisfaction of clients, foster parents, and community partners. CFS indicators are paired with statewide customer satisfaction survey…

Huebner, Ruth A.; Jones, Blake L.; Miller, Viola P.; Custer, Melba; Critchfield, Becky

2006-01-01

355

Developing Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the development and promotion of reading comprehension in primary school students, in the context of the implementation of an educational programme called "Learning Together" (LT). The programme, which centred on collaborative learning activities, was designed to promote oral and written communication in…

Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Mazón, Nancy; Littleton, Karen; Vélez, Maricela

2014-01-01

356

Spirituality and Comprehensive School Counseling Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive school counseling programs (CSCPs) have evolved into well-articulated organizational frameworks that will successfully guide school counseling practice for years to come (American School Counselor Association [ASCA], 2003; Gysbers & Henderson, 2000, 2005). At their heart, CSCPs emphasize that as society and families continue to…

Sink, Christopher A.

2004-01-01

357

A Comprehensive Analysis of Marketing Journal Rankings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive assessment of journal standings in Marketing from two perspectives. The discipline perspective of rankings is obtained from a collection of published journal ranking studies during the past 15 years. The studies in the published ranking stream are assessed for reliability by examining internal…

Steward, Michelle D.; Lewis, Bruce R.

2010-01-01

358

Web-Based CALL to Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated effectiveness of Web-based CALL on listening comprehension. Both students' academic performance and attitudes were examined. T-tests were used to analyze the results of students' academic performance. Descriptive statistics interpreted students' attitudes toward this learning. Students' participation was also recorded.…

Chen, Li-Mei; Zhang, Ruiming

2010-01-01

359

Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

Zhang, Hong-yan

2011-01-01

360

World knowledge Driving Young Readers' Comprehension Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal in this project is to develop a better understanding of young readers' difficulties in comprehending text, and how those difficulties vary as a function of reader aptitudes and text genre. Therefore, we examined the effects of reading decoding abilities and world knowledge (assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement) on 61 third-grade readers' comprehension of narrative and

Danielle S. McNamara; Randy G. Floyd; Rachel Best; Max Louwerse

361

Comprehensible rendering of 3-D shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new rendering technique that produces 3-D images with enhanced visual comprehensibility. Shape features can be readily understood if certain geometric properties are enhanced. To achieve this, we develop drawing algorithms for discontinuities, edges, contour lines, and curved hatching. All of them are realized with 2-D image processing operations instead of line tracking processes, so that they can

Takafumi Saito; Tokiichiro Takahashi

1990-01-01

362

Comprehensive Essays for World History Finals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a novel approach to comprehensive questions in world history examinations. Recommends using current events as illustrative reference points for complex subjects such as nationalism, liberalism, and international trade. Students receive information packets on the events for several weeks and must relate the subjects to these events. (MJP)

Feldman, Martha J.

1997-01-01

363

Self-Explanation Training Improves Proof Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we report 3 experiments demonstrating that a simple booklet containing self-explanation training, designed to focus students' attention on logical relationships within a mathematical proof, can significantly improve their proof comprehension. Experiment 1 demonstrated that students who received the training generated higher…

Hodds, Mark; Alcock, Lara; Inglis, Matthew

2014-01-01

364

Pregnancy and addiction A comprehensive care model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of substance abuse in pregnancy is a major public health dilemma. Effective comprehensive care of drug addicted women has been shown to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. The Center for Addiction and Pregnancy (CAP) combines the disciplines of pediatrics, substance abuse treatment, obstetrics\\/gynecology, and family planning in an effort to reduce the barriers to care often presenting in

Lauren M. Jansson; Dace Svikis; Jana Lee; Patricia Paluzzi; Peter Rutigliano; Florence Hackerman

1996-01-01

365

Cue-Dependent Interference in Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of interference as a primary determinant of forgetting in memory has long been accepted, however its role as a contributor to poor comprehension is just beginning to be understood. The current paper reports two studies, in which speed-accuracy tradeoff and eye-tracking methodologies were used with the same materials to provide converging…

Van Dyke, Julie A.; McElree, Brian

2011-01-01

366

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The Ohio State University Cancer Research Center was established in 1973 and received National Cancer Institute designation in April 1976 as a comprehensive cancer center (OSUCCC). The patient care arm of the OSUCCC is the Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute.

367

A comprehensive meteorological modeling system—RAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a range of applications of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a comprehensive mesoscale meterological modeling system. Applications discussed in this paper include large eddy simulations (LES) and simulations of thunderstorms, cumulus fields, mesoscale convective systems, mid-latitude cirrus clouds, winter storms, mechanically- and thermally-forced mesoscale systems, and mesoscale atmospheric disperision. A summary of current RAMS options

R. A. Pielke; W. R. Cotton; R. L. Walko; C. J. Tremback; W. A. Lyons; L. D. Grasso; M. E. Nicholls; M. D. Moran; D. A. Wesley; T. J. Lee; J. H. Copeland

1992-01-01

368

Comprehensive Achievements: All Our Geese Are Swans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools in England are radically changing their organization and governance, casting aside the founding principle of the 1944 Education Act that education is a public service and abandoning the ideal of education as nurturing a sense of community. This book presents a portrait of a successful comprehensive school, between the years 1980 and 2000.…

Imison, Tamsyn, Ed.; Heilbronn, Ruth, Ed.; Williams, Liz, Ed.

2013-01-01

369

Instructional Approaches that Significantly Increase Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the most widely used literacy instructional approaches on the reading comprehension of Grade 2-6 students. Participants (N = 660) were enrolled in 4 districts in the United States; 53% were male (n = 348) and 47% were female (n = 312); 51% were Caucasian (n = 338), 23% were African American…

Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Reed, Kelly L.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.; Cleveland, Maggie D.

2009-01-01

370

Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

2013-01-01

371

Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends the knowledge garnered from work with younger populations to determine the reading comprehension strategies most important to adults' success on outcome measures and to align them with previously researched interventions. According to an analysis of competence-based standardized tests of literacy (such as the General Educational…

Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl

2005-01-01

372

Contextualizing Laboratory Administered Aural Comprehension Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental test consisting of dialogue with intermittent pauses for responses and a white noise accompaniment was given to non-English speakers who were candidates for admission to the English Department at Bar Ilan University in order to evaluate aural comprehension. Development of the test and results are reported. (RM)

Seliger, Herbert W.; Whiteson, Valerie

1975-01-01

373

Integrative Levels of Program Comprehension Reinhard Schauer*  

E-print Network

a program from low-level program elements through successive and higher orders of knowledge integration, by "successive forms of order in a scale of complexity and organization" [12]. Integrative levels were exploredIntegrative Levels of Program Comprehension Reinhard Schauer* Université de Montréal Montréal

Keller, Rudolf K.

374

Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive volumetric microscopy of epithelial, mucosal and endothelial tissues in living human patients would have a profound impact in medicine by enabling diagnostic imaging at the cellular level over large surface areas. Considering the vast area of these tissues with respect to the desired sampling interval, achieving this goal requires rapid sampling. Although noninvasive diagnostic technologies are preferred, many applications

Seok H Yun; Guillermo J Tearney; Benjamin J Vakoc; Milen Shishkov; Wang Y Oh; Adrien E Desjardins; Melissa J Suter; Raymond C Chan; John A Evans; Ik-Kyung Jang; Norman S Nishioka; Johannes F de Boer; Brett E Bouma

2006-01-01

375

Deep Read: a reading comprehension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper describes initial work on Deep Read , an automated reading comprehension system that accepts arbitrary text input (a story) and answers questions about it We have acquired a corpus of 60 development and 60 test stories of 3 to 6th grade material; each story is followed by short - answer questions (an answer key was also provided)

Lynette Hirschman; Marc Light; Eric Breck; John D. Burger

1999-01-01

376

Improving Students' Inferential and Literal Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project describes a program for improving literal and inferential reading comprehension skills aimed at increasing overall academic achievement. The targeted population consisted of third, fourth, and fifth grade students in middle class communities located in the Midwest. Evidence for the existence of the problem includes…

Fabrikant, Wendy; Siekierski, Nancy; Williams, Carolyn

377

A Board's Guide to Comprehensive Campaigns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide examines the scope and structure of college and university comprehensive fund-raising campaigns. It focuses on the responsibilities of boards and trustees in planning, overseeing, and actively participating in such campaigns, which are defined as institutional fund-raising initiatives which take place over a predetermined time period,…

Schrum, Jake B., Ed.

2000-01-01

378

Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

2010-01-01

379

Governmental Accounting: Comprehensive Annual Financial Report Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides student materials for a course project in which students read, analyze, and interpret the information in an actual comprehensive annual financial report (CAFR) of a government entity (a city with a population greater than 40,000), and is based on the actual reviewer's checklist used by the Government Finance Officers…

Moncada, Susan M.

380

Item Difficulty Modeling of Paragraph Comprehension Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent assessment research joining cognitive psychology and psychometric theory has introduced a new technology, item generation. In algorithmic item generation, items are systematically created based on specific combinations of features that underlie the processing required to correctly solve a problem. Reading comprehension items have been more…

Gorin, Joanna S.; Embretson, Susan E.

2006-01-01

381

A Comprehensive Plan for Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehensive plan for special education in the public schools of the District of Columbia explains program goals, objectives of an outreach program designed to aid in the identification of preschool and school age populations requiring special services, the organizational structure of special educational programs and services, and procedural…

District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

382

Using Image Analysis to Build Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content area reading remains a primary concern of history educators. In order to better prepare students for encounters with text, the authors propose the use of two image analysis strategies tied with a historical theme to heighten student interest in historical content and provide a basis for improved reading comprehension.

Brown, Sarah Drake; Swope, John

2010-01-01

383

Priming Prepositional-Phrase Attachment During Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strong evidence suggests that prior syntactic context affects language production (e.g., J. K. Bock, 1986). The authors report 4 experiments that used an expression-picture matching task to investigate whether it also affects ambiguity resolution in comprehension. All experiments examined the interpretation of prepositional phrases that were…

Branigan, Holly P.; Pickering, Martin J.; McLean, Janet F.

2005-01-01

384

Bilingualism Influences Inhibitory Control in Auditory Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals at suppressing task-irrelevant information. The present study aimed to identify how processing linguistic ambiguity during auditory comprehension may be associated with inhibitory control. Monolinguals and bilinguals listened to words in their native language (English) and identified them among…

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

2011-01-01

385

Sentence Comprehension and General Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the role of working memory in sentence comprehension has received substantial attention, the nature of this relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction between general, nonverbal working memory (WM) and sentence parsing (SP) in normal English-speaking adults. Accuracy and reaction times were…

Moser, Dana C.; Fridriksson, Julius; Healy, Eric W.

2007-01-01

386

Comprehensive Assessment: Leveraged Funding and Organizational Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference handout includes five brief papers presented by a panel to the Employment and Training Division of the American Vocational Association. They are "Assessment Center (Cerritos College)" (Patricia Cook); "Assessment Is the Future. Can You Afford Not to Be a Part of It?" (Bob Cumming); "A Comprehensive Academic and Career Assessment…

Cumming, Bob; And Others

387

The Dark Side of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), the focus of the January 2011 special issue of the "American Psychologist," is a $125 million resilience training initiative designed to reduce and prevent the adverse psychological consequences of combat for soldiers and veterans. These are worthy goals. Soldiers and veterans deserve the best care possible,…

Eidelson, Roy; Pilisuk, Marc; Soldz, Stephen

2011-01-01

388

Identifying Specific Comprehension Deficits in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that educators may be missing an under-identified population of approximately 10 percent of typically developing children, who have fluent, age-appropriate decoding and word recognition skills, yet have specific difficulties with other higher-level text processing factors. These children are said to have specific comprehension

Gifford, Diane Baty

2013-01-01

389

Comprehensive Triangular Decomposition Changbo Chen1  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Triangular Decomposition Changbo Chen1 , Oleg Golubitsky1 , Franc¸ois Lemaire2 , Marc Moreno Maza1 , and Wei Pan1 1 University of Western Ontario, London N6A 1M8, Canada 2 Universit´e de 2007, LNCS 4770, pp. 73­101, 2007. c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007 #12;74 C. Chen et al

Moreno Maza, Marc

390

Improving Early Reading Comprehension Using Embodied CAI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An embodied approach to reading comprehension suggests that emerging readers must learn to map words and phrases onto their remembered experiences, but this is made difficult by the necessity of focusing attention on decoding. Having children manipulate toys to correspond to what they are reading overcomes this problem, but introduces its own…

Glenberg, Arthur M.; Goldberg, Andrew B.; Zhu, Xiaojin

2011-01-01

391

Osteoporosis: the need for comprehensive treatment guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that results in nearly 1.3 million fractures per year in the United States. The cost of treating these fractures has been estimated to be as high as $10 billion per year. These costs are expected to more than double during the next 50 years unless comprehensive programs of prevention and treatment are initiated. Both pharmacologic

Thomas A. Abbott; Bryan J. Lawrence; Stanley Wallach

1996-01-01

392

Reverse Mathematics and # 1 2 Comprehension  

E-print Network

Reverse Mathematics and # 1 2 Comprehension Carl Mummert # and Stephen G. Simpson + Department. + simpson@math.psu.edu, http://www.math.psu.edu/simpson/. Simpson's research was partially supported by NSF and subsystems of Z 2 is Simpson [12]. See also [11]. Previous reverse mathematics studies [12, 11] have included

393

Reverse Mathematics and 1 2 Comprehension  

E-print Network

Reverse Mathematics and 1 2 Comprehension Carl Mummert and Stephen G. Simpson Department. simpson@math.psu.edu, http://www.math.psu.edu/simpson/. Simpson's research was partially supported by NSF and subsystems of Z2 is Simpson [12]. See also [11]. Previous reverse mathematics studies [12, 11] have included

394

ROTORCRAFT AEROMECHANICS APPLICATIONS OF A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II are presented, illustrating recent developments in the aerodynamics and dynamics models, and demonstrating the technology that is needed for an adequate calculation of rotorcraft behavior. Calculations of rotor performance, airloads, structural loads, and stability are presented, including comparisons with experimental data.

Wayne Johnson; Johnson Aeronautics

1998-01-01

395

Comprehensive Building Systems: Threat or Promise?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive building systems are the result of industry's search for markets, clients' desire for shorter hours and lower costs, and the growing complexity of building technology which requires the architect to depend on industry for research and development. Certain questions are raised by this trend. Will industry dominate architecture? Can…

Building Research, 1966

1966-01-01

396

Comprehensive Peace Education: Educating for Global Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a comprehensive plan for instruction in the area of peace education. Chapter 1, "Personal Perspectives and General Approaches," identifies four major influences on peace education: (1) world order studies; (2) the Peace Education Commission; (2) the U.S.-based Peace Education Network; and (4) the feminist movement. Chapter 2…

Reardon, Betty A.

397

Designing Comprehensible Self-Organising Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-organising systems are a popular engineering concept for designing decentralised autonomic computing systems. They are able to find solutions in complex and versatile problem domains, but as they capture more complexity in their own design, they are becoming less and less comprehensible to their users (be they humans or intelligent agents). We describe a design challenge that relates to usability

Nicolas Höning; Han La Poutré

2010-01-01

398

TOWARDS A COMPREHENSIVE RESPONSE TO HEALTH SYSTEM  

E-print Network

TOWARDS A COMPREHENSIVE RESPONSE TO HEALTH SYSTEM STRENGTHENING PROJECT OVERVIEW HARVARD MEDICAL a study on strengthening health systems in crisis situations. They have focused on a better understanding be a collaborative effort with Lessons Learned Centre has partnered with Harvard Medical School. The synergy

Mootha, Vamsi K.

399

Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

Brown, Barry N.

2009-01-01

400

One Comprehensive Solution for Evaluating Written Work  

E-print Network

feedback from all sources in one comprehensive, multi-layered view. · Maintain academic integrity% Paperless System · Real Time Grading & Mark-up · Track Grades With Grade Book · Faster Than Traditional With All Subjects · Share Rubrics & Editing Marks #12;Show And Tell #12;Account Request and Setup

401

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

2008-01-01

402

Discourse Comprehension and Simulation of Positive Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has suggested that emotional sentences are understood by constructing an emotion simulation of the events being described. The present study aims to investigate whether emotion simulation is also involved in online and offline comprehension of larger language segments such as discourse. Participants read a target text describing…

Horchak, Oleksandr V.; Giger, Jean-Christophe; Pochwatko, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

403

Self and External Monitoring of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared the effectiveness of 2 approaches to remedy the inaccuracy of self-monitoring of reading comprehension. The first approach attempts to enhance self-monitoring by strengthening the cues utilized in monitoring. The second approach replaces self-monitoring with external regulation based on objective evaluative information.…

Shiu, Ling-po; Chen, Qishan

2013-01-01

404

The Neural Substrates of Spoken Idiom Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the neural correlates of spoken idiom comprehension, we conducted an event-related functional MRI study with a "rapid sentence decision" task. The spoken sentences were equally familiar but varied in degrees of "idiom figurativeness". Our results show that "figurativeness" co-varied with neural activity in the left ventral dorsolateral…

Hillert, Dieter G.; Buracas, Giedrius T.

2009-01-01

405

Recovering the architectural design for software comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work described in this paper addresses the problem of understanding a software system and focuses in particular on the comprehension of the system architectural design. A method is proposed to reconstruct the architecture of a system and represent it in the form of a structure chart. The method assumes the system was originally designed with a functional decomposition approach,

G. Canfora; A. De Lucia; G. A. Di Lucca; A. R. Fasolino

1994-01-01

406

Evaluation of a Comprehensive Juvenile Delinquency Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discribes a comprehensive juvenile delinquency diversion program serving a poverty community in a large urban center, and attempts to evaluate the problems and effects of the program. The target population was primarily minority-group truants, aged 10-15, who had been in trouble with the authorities. The program included recreational…

Young, Howard; And Others

407

Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mobility is fundamental to active aging and is intimately linked to health status and quality of life. Although there is widespread acceptance regarding the importance of mobility in older adults, there have been few attempts to comprehensively portray mobility, and research has to a large extent been discipline specific. In this article, a new…

Webber, Sandra C.; Porter, Michelle M.; Menec, Verena H.

2010-01-01

408

Internet Inquiry: Fundamental Competencies for Online Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article showcases the online research and comprehension competencies students will need to successfully engage with Internet Inquiry. The Common Core State Standards, the research on new literacies skills, and the future of technology-based assessments require educators to fully take on the challenges of meaningfully embedding and supporting…

Kingsley, Tara; Tancock, Susan

2014-01-01

409

City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1913, City of Hope began focusing on cancer research and treatment in the late 1940s. Receiving its NCI designation in 1981 and its designation as a comprehensive cancer center in 1998, City of Hope is today a biomedical research, treatment, and education center.

410

Listening Comprehension: A Cognitive Prerequisite for Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proponents of the cognitive approach to language teaching list linguistic competence as the primary instructional objective and attribute considerable importance to listening comprehension. For the student, linguistic competence would be knowledge of grammatical components of the language and its vocabulary. Understanding oral messages is an…

Fischer, Robert A.

411

Object Orientation Affects Spatial Language Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process.…

Burigo, Michele; Sacchi, Simona

2013-01-01

412

Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because an adult's literacy is measured on different dimensions from a child's or youth's, several competency-based, standardized tests of literacy are commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy. Tests such as The Adult Basic Learning Examination (ABLE), Comprehension Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS), Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE), National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAALS),

Mike Hock; Daryl Mellard

2005-01-01

413

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

414

Nuclear Facilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to produce nuclear weapons, each country must have facilities to produce and refine the nuclear materials, conduct research on weapon design, and store the completed weapons. The interactives in this collection allow you to explore the nuclear facilities of the nuclear powers (both declared and undeclared).

Christopher Griffith

415

Fundamental Reform of Payment for Adult Primary Care: Comprehensive Payment for Comprehensive Care  

PubMed Central

Primary care is essential to the effective and efficient functioning of health care delivery systems, yet there is an impending crisis in the field due in part to a dysfunctional payment system. We present a fundamentally new model of payment for primary care, replacing encounter-based imbursement with comprehensive payment for comprehensive care. Unlike former iterations of primary care capitation (which simply bundled inadequate fee-for-service payments), our comprehensive payment model represents new investment in adult primary care, with substantial increases in payment over current levels. The comprehensive payment is directed to practices to include support for the modern systems and teams essential to the delivery of comprehensive, coordinated care. Income to primary physicians is increased commensurate with the high level of responsibility expected. To ensure optimal allocation of resources and the rewarding of desired outcomes, the comprehensive payment is needs/risk-adjusted and performance-based. Our model establishes a new social contract with the primary care community, substantially increasing payment in return for achieving important societal health system goals, including improved accessibility, quality, safety, and efficiency. Attainment of these goals should help offset and justify the costs of the investment. Field tests of this and other new models of payment for primary care are urgently needed. PMID:17356977

Berenson, Robert A.; Schoenbaum, Stephen C.; Gardner, Laurence B.

2007-01-01

416

A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

Cantor, Jeffrey A.

1991-01-01

417

[Comprehensive chemical pattern recognition of atractylodis rhizoma].  

PubMed

A method of comprehensive chemical pattern recognition of Atractylodis Rhizoma was established by GC-MS fingerprint, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. A DB-wax column (0.25 mm x 60 m, 0.25 microm) with El ion source and 70 V electron multiplier were used for GC-MS analysis. Using principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis, 15 common peaks of sample fingerprints for chemical pattern recognition research were analysed. The same results were obtained from the fingerprint, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, which could use to distinguish genuine Atractylodes lancea, ungenuine A. lancea and A. chinensis. Thus, this method could be used for the quality control and comprehensive evaluation of Atractylodis Rhizoma. PMID:25276978

Wang, Fan; Ouyang, Zhen; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Hua-Sheng; Liao, Jing-Lin; Liang, Zhong-Ping

2014-07-01

418

Retell as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K–12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was moderately correlated with standardized measures of reading comprehension and, with older students, had a lower correlation with decoding and fluency. Literal information was retold more frequently than inferential, and students with learning disabilities or reading difficulties needed more supports to demonstrate adequate recall. Great variability was shown in the prompting procedures, but scoring methods were more consistent across studies. The influences of genre, background knowledge, and organizational features were often specific to particular content, texts, or students. Overall, retell has not yet demonstrated adequacy as a progress monitoring instrument. PMID:23125521

Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon

2011-01-01

419

Digital Earth - Young generation's comprehension and ideas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors are experienced in working with children and students in the field of early warning and crises management and cartography. All these topics are closely connected to Digital Earth (DE) ideas. On the basis of a questionnaire, the young generation's comprehension of DE concept is clarified. Students from different age groups (from 19 to 36) from different countries and with different social, cultural, economical and political backgrounds are asked to provide definition of DE and describe their basic ideas about meaning, methodology and applications of the concept. The questions aim to discover the young generation's comprehension of DE ideas. They partially cover the newest trends of DE development like social, cultural and environmental issues as well as the styles of new communications (Google Earth, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.). In order to assure the future development of the DE science, it is important to take into account the young generation's expectations. Some aspects of DE development are considered in the Conclusions.

Bandrova, T.; Konecny, M.

2014-02-01

420

Comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 aerosols in Singapore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 aerosols collected in Singapore from January through December 2000 is presented. The annual average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 27.2 ?g/m3. The atmospheric loading of PM2.5 was elevated sporadically from March through May, mainly due to advection of biomass burning (deliberate fires to clear plantation areas) impacted air masses from Sumatra, Indonesia. Satellite images of the area, trajectory calculations, and surface wind direction data are in support of the transport of pyrogenic products from Sumatra toward Singapore. Aerosol samples collected during the dry season were analyzed for water-soluble ions, water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon, and trace elements using a number of analytical techniques. The major components were sulfate, EC, water-soluble carbonaceous materials, and water-insoluble carbonaceous materials. Aerosol WSOC were characterized based on a combination of chromatographic separations by ion exchange chromatography, functional group investigation by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and total organic carbon determination. The comprehensive chemical characterization of PM2.5 particles revealed that both non-sea-salt sufate (nss-SO42-) and carbonaceous aerosols mainly contributed to the increase in the mass concentration of aerosols during the smoke haze period. Using a mass closure test (a mass balance), we determined whether the physical measurement of gravimetric fine PM concentration of a sample is equal to the summed concentrations of the individually identified chemical constituents (measured or inferred) in the sample. The sum of the determined groups of aerosol components and the gravimetrically determined mass agreed reasonably well. Principal component analysis was performed from the combined data set, and five factors were observed: a soil dust component, a metallurgical industry factor, a factor representing emissions from biomass burning and automobiles, a sea-salt component, and an oil combustion factor.

Balasubramanian, R.; Qian, W.-B.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Fuzzi, S.

2003-08-01

421

A comprehensive nonlinear analysis of electromyogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether electromyogram (EMG) is nonlinear deterministic signal or just random noise, we comprehensively analyze four EMGs of an adult woman. At first, we calculate the correlation time, L-Z complexity, approximate entropy (ApEn), maximum Lyapunov exponent (Ly1) and correlation dimension (Dcorr) of each EMG data and its ten surrogate data. We find that all the results are quite different

Yanli Mengi; Bingzheng Liu; Yuping Liu

2001-01-01

422

Comprehensive Plan 2020 La Grange, Texas  

E-print Network

alternative for housing rehabilitation. The program consists of the City raffling off foreclosed or abandoned housing units to the public for one dollar. At that time, the new owner would be allotted approximately one year to bring the structure up..., October, 1997. 4 George Rainer, Understanding Infrastructure, New York, Wiley-Interscience, 1990. 5 Marcus Etzler, La Grange Area Manager for Entex, Inc., October, 1997. Section 8 Infrastructure City of La Grange 8-11 Comprehensive Plan 2020...

Pugh, David; Ellis, David; Ekroth, David; Slack, Janet; Battle, Lee; Kobal, Diane; Blom, Cindy; Dulyapraphant, Kongsak; Everidge, Rachel; Ford, Carl; Grady, Kevin; Lee, Yi-Jung; Mishima, Hirotaka; Robinson, Misti; Ordonez, Carlos; Paul, Keli; Towles, Virginia Sabia; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Williams, Sarah

1998-01-01

423

Development of a comprehensive weld process model  

SciTech Connect

This cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) combines CTC`s expertise in the welding area and that of LMES to develop computer models and simulation software for welding processes. This development is of significant impact to the industry, including materials producers and fabricators. The main thrust of the research effort was to develop a comprehensive welding simulation methodology. A substantial amount of work has been done by several researchers to numerically model several welding processes. The primary drawback of most of the existing models is the lack of sound linkages between the mechanistic aspects (e.g., heat transfer, fluid flow, and residual stress) and the metallurgical aspects (e.g., microstructure development and control). A comprehensive numerical model which can be used to elucidate the effect of welding parameters/conditions on the temperature distribution, weld pool shape and size, solidification behavior, and microstructure development, as well as stresses and distortion, does not exist. It was therefore imperative to develop a comprehensive model which would predict all of the above phenomena during welding. The CRADA built upon an already existing three-dimensional (3-D) welding simulation model which was developed by LMES which is capable of predicting weld pool shape and the temperature history in 3-d single-pass welds. However, the model does not account for multipass welds, microstructural evolution, distortion and residual stresses. Additionally, the model requires large resources of computing time, which limits its use for practical applications. To overcome this, CTC and LMES have developed through this CRADA the comprehensive welding simulation model described above.

Radhakrishnan, B.; Zacharia, T.; Paul, A.

1997-05-01

424

Simulating Motion in Figurative Language Comprehension  

PubMed Central

In this visual world eye tracking study we explored simulation of fictive motion during language comprehension in figurative sentences in Hindi. Eye movement measures suggest that language comprehenders gaze longer at visual scenes on hearing fictive motion sentences compared to their literal counterparts. The results support previous findings in English and provide cross linguistic evidence for the simulation and embodied views of language processing. We discuss the findings in the light of neuroimaging models and language vision interaction. PMID:21379399

Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

2010-01-01

425

Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance, atmospheric effects, economic Mach number and noise trajectories at F.A.R. landing points.

Filippone, Antonio

2008-04-01

426

Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) convened a "Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer" workshop in Washington, D.C. This workshop brought together physicians, basic scientists and other members of the U.S. and international cancer communities to assist in outlining the most effective strategies for the development of a successful project. Information about this workshop is reported in the Executive Summary.

427

Hand specific representations in language comprehension  

PubMed Central

Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand) is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested self-reported right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences—a dominant hand effect. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a) language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b) language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience. PMID:24917803

Moody-Triantis, Claire; Humphreys, Gina F.; Gennari, Silvia P.

2014-01-01

428

A comprehensive refugee health screening program.  

PubMed Central

Nationally and internationally, there is a struggle to provide adequate health screening and assessment programs for refugees. The Department of Family Medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in partnership with the Colorado Refugee Services Program has developed a comprehensive refugee health screening and assessment program. The program was designed to ensure access to screening and to provide better care for this vulnerable population. Key features of the program include a single point of access for all family members, full availability of appropriate interpreting services, comprehensive health assessments that include a thorough mental health screening, data collection and evaluation, and education of health care providers to deliver culturally responsive care. During the first 30 months of this program, comprehensive assessments were provided for more than 1600 refugees. Future directions include improving the efficiency of daily systems, seeking alternative sources of funding, improving follow-up and vaccination rates, expanding mental health services, and tracking health outcomes and refugees' utilization of health care services through longitudinal research. PMID:10590769

Kennedy, J; Seymour, D J; Hummel, B J

1999-01-01

429

Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Although research on improving child literacy is converging, no such body of research exists for adult literacy. Yet the need is no less significant. This study extends the knowledge garnered with younger populations by determining the reading comprehension strategies most important to adults’ success on adult literacy outcome measures and aligning them with previously researched interventions. According to an analysis of key adult literacy outcome measures (i.e., competency-based, standardized tests of literacy commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy: Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System [CASAS], General Educational Development [GED], and National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP]), adults should benefit from strategies that teach looking for clues in or generating questions about a text. Additionally, adults need to learn how to summarize and draw inferences in order to address higher-level literacy demands. Adult learners also need a metacognitive strategy to self-regulate reading behavior (e.g., choose a strategy to use, evaluate its effectiveness, and abandon and choose another strategy if necessary.) Furthermore, when using a competency-based standardized test, adult learners need to be coincidentally taught test-taking skills to reduce the test-related task demands and produce a better index of a learner's reading comprehension skills. PMID:23087594

Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl

2011-01-01

430

The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts and ring current are very useful in understanding the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic particles. Recently, the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) and the Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model were merged to form a Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model. CIMI solves for many essential quantities in the inner magnetosphere, including ion and electron distributions in the ring current and radiation belts, plasmaspheric density, Region 2 currents, convection potential, and precipitation in the ionosphere. It incorporates whistler mode chorus and hiss wave diffusion of energetic electrons in energy, pitch angle, and cross terms. CIMI thus represents a comprehensive model that considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts. We have performed a CIMI simulation for the storm on 5-9 April 2010 and then compared our results with data from the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers and Akebono satellites. We identify the dominant energization and loss processes for the ring current and radiation belts. We find that the interactions with the whistler mode chorus waves are the main cause of the flux increase of MeV electrons during the recovery phase of this particular storm. When a self-consistent electric field from the CRCM is used, the enhancement of MeV electrons is higher than when an empirical convection model is applied. We also demonstrate how CIMI can be a powerful tool for analyzing and interpreting data from the new Van Allen Probes mission.

Fok, M.-C.; Buzulukova, N. Y.; Chen, S.-H.; Glocer, A.; Nagai, T.; Valek, P.; Perez, J. D.

2014-09-01

431

Cue-dependent interference in comprehension.  

PubMed

The role of interference as a primary determinant of forgetting in memory has long been accepted, however its role as a contributor to poor comprehension is just beginning to be understood. The current paper reports two studies, in which speed-accuracy tradeoff and eye-tracking methodologies were used with the same materials to provide converging evidence for the role of syntactic and semantic cues as mediators of both proactive (PI) and retroactive interference (RI) during comprehension. Consistent with previous work (e.g., Van Dyke & Lewis, 2003), we found that syntactic constraints at the retrieval site are among the cues that drive retrieval in comprehension, and that these constraints effectively limit interference from potential distractors with semantic/pragmatic properties in common with the target constituent. The data are discussed in terms of a cue-overload account, in which interference both arises from and is mediated through a direct-access retrieval mechanism that utilizes a linear, weighted cue-combinatoric scheme. PMID:21927535

Van Dyke, Julie A

2011-10-01

432

Rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses recent actions by nuclear states following actions by 175 states to agree to make the obligations of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) permanent. China tested a weapon on May 15, and a month later France announced plans for a series of eight underground tests in the Pacific, prior to its intent to sign the comprehensive test ban treaty in 1996. Other action by nuclear powers includes apparent ongoing discussion of testing thresholds, which is casting the Conference on Disarmament in a grim mood. The general consensus of the article is that the nuclear powers are posturing themselves to take advantage of any and all loop holes in proposed treaties prior to formally acting on the treaties.

Johnson, R.

1995-09-01

433

Nuclear physics aspects of double beta decay  

E-print Network

Comprehensive description of the phenomenology of the $\\beta\\beta$ decay is given, with emphasis on the nuclear physics aspects. After a brief review of the neutrino oscillation results and of motivation to test the lepton number conservation, the mechanism of the $0\

Petr Vogel

2008-07-15

434

Semiconductor nuclear radiation detector studies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a problem that arose with regard to the availability of ; germanium for lithium-drifted germanium detectors (Ge(Li) detectors), a ; comprehensive program was undertaken aimed toward the development of a method for ; the rapid specification of germanium quality for nuclear radiation detector use, ; and the determination of factors affecting germanium quality. Measurements on a ;

Sher

1974-01-01

435

Tomato Functional Genomics Database: a comprehensive resource and analysis package  

E-print Network

Tomato Functional Genomics Database: a comprehensive resource and analysis package for tomato, 2010 ABSTRACT Tomato Functional Genomics Database (TFGD) provides a comprehensive resource to store, query, mine, analyze, visualize and integrate large-scale tomato functional genomics data sets

Klee, Harry J.

436

Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling 9 cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts: Less than one percent of first- through third-grade students who scored as poor in reading comprehension were adequate in both decoding and vocabulary. Although poor reading comprehension certainly qualifies as a major problem rather than a myth, the term specific reading comprehension disability is a misnomer: Individuals with problems in reading comprehension that are not attributable to poor word recognition have comprehension problems that are general to language comprehension rather than specific to reading. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. PMID:25143666

Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

2013-01-01

437

Readers' Digest: The Implementation of Research in Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of research in reading comprehension is presented. The role of language in comprehension is analyzed and implications are drawn for actual practice by primary teachers in the reading curriculum. (Author/SK)

Wade, Barrie; Dewhirst, Wendy

1983-01-01

438

50 CFR 86.123 - Comprehensive National Assessment schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Completing the Comprehensive National Assessment § 86.123 Comprehensive National...

2014-10-01

439

50 CFR 86.123 - Comprehensive National Assessment schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Completing the Comprehensive National Assessment § 86.123 Comprehensive National...

2010-10-01

440

13 CFR 108.320 - Contents of comprehensive business plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contents of comprehensive business plan. 108.320 Section 108.320 Business Credit and Assistance...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL...Contents of comprehensive business plan. (a) Executive...

2010-01-01

441

7 CFR 1944.514 - Comprehensive TSA grant projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Comprehensive TSA grant projects. 1944.514 Section...HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE...Comprehensive TSA grant projects. (a) The rural area to be covered by the TSA project must be...

2010-01-01

442

Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program  

SciTech Connect

The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." This paper will describe some of the key elements of a comprehensive, sustainable nuclear security culture enhancement program and how implementation can mitigate the insider threat.

Crawford,C.; de Boer,G.; De Castro, K; Landers, Ph.D., J; Rogers, E

2009-10-19

443

Comprehensive Fuel Cycle - Community Perspective - 13093  

SciTech Connect

Should a five-county region surrounding the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site ('SRS') use its assets to help provide solutions to closing the nation's nuclear fuel cycle? That question has been the focus of a local ad hoc multi-disciplinary community task force (Tier I) that has been at work in recent months outlining issues and identifying unanswered questions to determine if assuming a leadership role in closing the nuclear fuel cycle is in the community's interest. If so, what are the terms and conditions under which we the community would agree to participate? Our starting point was the President's Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future ('Commission') which made a total of eight (8) recommendations in its final report. There are several recommendations that are directly relevant to the Tier I group and potential efforts of the Region. These are the 'consent-based approach', the creation of an independent nuclear waste management entity funded from the existing nuclear waste fee; the 'prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities', and 'continued U.S. innovation in nuclear energy technology and for workforce development'. (authors)

McLeod, Richard V. [Savannah River Community Reuse Organization, P.O. Box 696, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)] [Savannah River Community Reuse Organization, P.O. Box 696, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Frazier, Timothy A. [Dickstein Shapiro LLP, 1825 Eye Street NW, Washington, DC, 20006-5403 (United States)] [Dickstein Shapiro LLP, 1825 Eye Street NW, Washington, DC, 20006-5403 (United States)

2013-07-01

444

Planning an Assessment of Listening and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses (1) assessment of discourse through listening and reading to evaluate comprehension problems; (2) developmental aspects of the relationship between listening and reading comprehension skills; (3) problems with selecting text passages and methods of testing comprehension; and (4) the development of a set of passages and a…

Carlisle, Joanne F.

1991-01-01

445

Monitoring Reading Comprehension by Thinking Aloud. Instructional Resource No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A think-aloud instructional program was developed to help students acquire the ability to monitor their reading comprehension and to employ various strategies to deal with comprehension breakdowns. Several research studies indicate that comprehension monitoring abilities discriminate successful readers from less successful ones and that…

Baumann, James F.; And Others

446

Reading Comprehension: What Every Teacher Needs to Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author proposes ten principles through which she examines the essentials of teaching reading comprehension. Topics explored include the nature of reading comprehension and the roles of good readers and influential teachers. Related issues include motivation, comprehension strategies, explicit instruction, and vocabulary.…

McLaughlin, Maureen

2012-01-01

447

Role of the left hemisphere in sign language comprehension  

E-print Network

Role of the left hemisphere in sign language comprehension Gregory Hickok,a,* Tracy Love in the comprehension of American Sign Language (ASL). Nineteen lifelong signers with unilateral brain lesions [11 left left hemisphere dominance for sign language comprehension. The group with left temporal lobe

Bellugi, Ursula

448

Executive Dysfunction among Children with Reading Comprehension Deficits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging research supports the contribution of executive function (EF) to reading comprehension; however, a unique pattern has not been established for children who demonstrate comprehension difficulties despite average word recognition ability (specific reading comprehension deficit; S-RCD). To identify particular EF components on which children…

Locascio, Gianna; Mahone, E. Mark; Eason, Sarah H.; Cutting, Laurie E.

2010-01-01

449

Second Language Sentence Processing in Reading for Comprehension and Translation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A self-paced reading and translation task was used with learners of English as a second language (L2) to explore what sorts of information L2 learners use during online comprehension compared to native speakers, and how task (reading for comprehension vs. translation) and proficiency affect L2 comprehension. Thirty-six Korean native speakers of…

Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

2013-01-01

450

Influence of Subject Matter Setting on Comprehension Monitoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the influence of subject-matter setting on comprehension monitoring by secondary school students. Expected comprehension monitoring to decline when material was presented as incontrovertible truth, as in science texts. Concludes that comprehension monitoring depends on subject-matter setting and, contrary to expectations, science has…

Garcia-Arista, Eduardo; Campanario, Juan Miguel; Otero, Jos

1996-01-01

451

Promoting Different Reading Comprehension Levels through Online Annotations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have evaluated reading comprehension as the general understanding of reading texts. However, this broad and generic assessment of reading comprehension overlooks the specific aspects and processes that students need to develop. This study adopted Kintsch's Construction-Integration model to tap into reading comprehension at…

Tseng, Sheng-Shiang; Yeh, Hui-Chin; Yang, Shih-hsien

2015-01-01

452

Metacomprehension and Comprehension Performance in Younger and Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Metacomprehension Scale was completed by 30 younger and 30 older adults. Younger adults reported greater use of strategies to resolve comprehension failures and valued good comprehension more. The regulation dimension of metacomprehension was a reliable predictor of comprehension performance. (SK)

Moore, DeWayne; And Others

1997-01-01

453

Effects of Question-Generation Training on Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effects of training in question generation on comprehension question performance, on quality and form of generated questions, and on accuracy of predicted comprehension. Sixth-grade students trained in question generation outperformed four comparison groups on several comprehension and metacomprehension measures. (Author/LMO)

Davey, Beth; McBride, Susan

1986-01-01

454

Sources of Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the common and distinct contributions of context-free and context reading skill to reading comprehension and the contributions of context-free reading skill and reading comprehension to context fluency. Results support the conclusion that word level processes contribute relatively more to fluency at lower levels while comprehension

Jenkins, Joseph R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; van den Broek, Paul; Espin, Christine; Deno, Stanley L.

2003-01-01

455

Nuclear Scans  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

456

Nuclear ventriculography  

MedlinePLUS

... Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology ... Nuclear imaging tests carry a very low risk. Exposure to the radioisotope delivers a small amount of radiation. This ...

457

Nuclear Winter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

Ehrlich, Anne

1984-01-01

458

Nuclear Receptors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering nuclear receptors and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the structure of nuclear hormone receptors and then proceeds to describe mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, modulation of nuclear receptor activity by phosphorylation, and the role of nuclear receptors in cancer.

Reshma Taneja (Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology REV)

2005-05-31

459

Manuscript to appear in Environment, Systems and Decisions CALCULATING NUCLEAR ACCIDENT PROBABILITIES  

E-print Network

Manuscript to appear in Environment, Systems and Decisions CALCULATING NUCLEAR ACCIDENT there is no authoritative, comprehensive and public historical record of nuclear power plant accidents, we reconstructed a nuclear accident dataset from peer-reviewed and other literature. We found that, in a sample of five

Boyer, Edmond

460

Nuclear Fuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

Nash, J. Thomas

1983-01-01

461

Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

Bing, G.F.

1991-08-20

462

Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

1991-01-01

463

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

SciTech Connect

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

Huebner, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohletz, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, L N [SMD; Boice, D C [SWR; Chocron, S [SWRI; Ghosh, A [SWRI; Goldstein, R [SWRI; Mukerherjee, J [SWRI; Patrick, W [SWRI; Walker, J D [SWRI

2008-01-01

464

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km2. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth’s orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because “early” may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a longperiod comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures- always at the ready—are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

Huebner, W. F.; Johnson, L. N.; Boice, D. C.; Bradley, P.; Chocron, S.; Ghosh, A.; Giguere, P. T.; Goldstein, R.; Guzik, J. A.; Keady, J. J.; Mukherjee, J.; Patrick, W.; Plesko, C.; Walker, J. D.; Wohletz, K.

2009-08-01

465

Fast, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

The absolute need to improve the separating power of liquid chromatography, especially for multi-constituent biological samples, is becoming increasingly evident. In response, over the past few years, there has been a great deal of interest in the development of two dimension liquid chromatography (2DLC). Just as 1DLC is preferred to 1DGC based on its compatibility with biological materials we believe that ultimately 2DLC will be preferred to the much more highly developed 2DGC for such samples. The huge advantage of 2D chromatographic techniques over 1D methods is inherent in the tremendous potential increase in peak capacity (resolving power). This is especially true of comprehensive 2D chromatography wherein it is possible, under ideal conditions, to obtain a total peak capacity equal to the product of the peak capacities of the first and second dimension separations. However, the very long timescale (typically several hours to tens of hours) of comprehensive 2DLC is clearly its chief drawback. Recent advances in the use of higher temperatures to speed up isocratic and gradient elution liquid chromatography have been used to decrease the time needed to do the second dimension LC separation of 2DLC to about 20 seconds for a full gradient elution run. Thus fast, high temperature LC is becoming a very promising technique. Peak capacities of over 2000 and rates of peak capacity production of nearly 1 peak/s have been achieved. In consequence, many real samples showing more than 200 peaks with signal to noise ratios of better than 10:1 have been run in total times of under 30 minutes. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive review of 2DLC, but is deliberately focused on the issues involved in doing fast 2DLC by means of elevating the column temperature; however, many issues of broader applicability will be discussed. PMID:17888443

Stoll, Dwight R.; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoli; Carr, Peter W.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rutan, Sarah C.

2011-01-01

466

BRENDA: The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BRENDA is a comprehensive database of enzymes maintained by the Institute of Biochemistry at the University of Cologne. Scientists collect and evaluate enzyme function data from primary literature sources. The site has recently been updated with new enzymes and an entirely new search engine. Various searches can be performed, including enzyme name, organism, or EC number. Links to literature citations, two dimensional images, and other databases are included for many of the enzymes. Academic and nonprofit use is free; commercial users must acquire a license.

467

Comprehensive Performance Tracking with Vampir 7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vampir 7 is a performance visualization tool that provides a comprehensive view on the runtime behavior of parallel programs. It is a new member of the Vampir tool family. This new generation of performance visualizer combines state-of-the-art parallel data processing techniques with an all-new graphical user interface experience. This includes fast local and remote event data browsing, searching, filtering, clustering, and summarization. The software is ported to Unix, Windows, and Apple platforms. This article gives an overview of the novel techniques and features of Vampir 7.

Brunst, Holger; Hackenberg, Daniel; Juckeland, Guido; Rohling, Heide

468

President Bush's comprehensive health reform program.  

PubMed

To deal with the shortcomings of the current U.S. health care system, President Bush has proposed a comprehensive reform package that would offer tax credits and deductions to low- and middle-income Americans to purchase private insurance, reform small market insurance to ensure availability and portability of insurance, allow creation of Health Insurance Networks to allow small businesses and nonprofit organizations to pool their purchasing power, reduce administrative costs, and control the growth of government health programs. Combined, the proposals would build on the strengths of the present private/public system and preserve consumer choice and free market discipline. PMID:10117907

Sullivan, L W

1992-01-01

469

Study on comprehensive utilization of secondary resources  

SciTech Connect

In light of the properties on process mineralogy of the old tailings in a certain copper mine in the People`s Republic of China, a new process of combined reagent and stepwise flotation is applied in which the flotation of copper sulfides is followed by the flotation of copper oxides. Recoveries of copper and associated gold and silver have been greatly increased. The tailings obtained were subjected to the gravitational separation-magnetic separation process to recover iron minerals. Tailings from iron separation are taken as fillers and sent to the pit underground. Thus, the secondary resources are comprehensively utilized.

Lihua, G.; Ruilu, L. [Beijing General Research Inst. of Mining and Metallurgy (China)

1995-12-31

470

Reading Comprehension of Scientific Text: A Domain-Specific Test of the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007) with 737 students in an introductory biology course required

Jennifer G. Cromley; Lindsey E. Snyder-Hogan; Ulana A. Luciw-Dubas

2010-01-01

471

Reading Comprehension of Scientific Text: A Domain-Specific Test of the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension

Cromley, Jennifer G.; Snyder-Hogan, Lindsey E.; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A.

2010-01-01

472

Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

1996-03-01

473

A Comprehensive Validation Methodology for Sparse Experimental Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive program of verification and validation has been undertaken to assess the applicability of models to space radiation shielding applications and to track progress as models are developed over time. The models are placed under configuration control, and automated validation tests are used so that comparisons can readily be made as models are improved. Though direct comparisons between theoretical results and experimental data are desired for validation purposes, such comparisons are not always possible due to lack of data. In this work, two uncertainty metrics are introduced that are suitable for validating theoretical models against sparse experimental databases. The nuclear physics models, NUCFRG2 and QMSFRG, are compared to an experimental database consisting of over 3600 experimental cross sections to demonstrate the applicability of the metrics. A cumulative uncertainty metric is applied to the question of overall model accuracy, while a metric based on the median uncertainty is used to analyze the models from the perspective of model development by analyzing subsets of the model parameter space.

Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

2010-01-01

474

42 CFR 414.1105 - Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services. 414...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) Services § 414...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services....

2014-10-01

475

42 CFR 414.1105 - Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services. 414...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) Services § 414...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services....

2011-10-01

476

42 CFR 414.1105 - Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services. 414...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) Services § 414...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services....

2013-10-01

477

42 CFR 414.1105 - Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services. 414...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) Services § 414...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services....

2010-10-01

478

42 CFR 414.1105 - Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services. 414...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) Services § 414...Payment for Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) services....

2012-10-01

479

Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

Reyes, Jose, Jr.

2011-10-01

480

Comprehensive environmental assessment and response program  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's (USDOE) Albuquerque Operations Office installations are being evaluated under its Comprehensive Environmental Assessment and Response program (CEARP). The installations consist of eight weapons development and production facilities, which are located across the United States. The evaluation covers the major environmental regulations, with emphasis on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The CEARP is intended to help fulfill USDOE obligations for federal facilities under the US Environmental Protection Agency (CERCLA Program and constitutes the same basic approach as contained in USEPA guidance to federal facilities. The Program is a phased program to identify, assess, and correct existing and potential environmental concerns relative to these regulations. The five phases are Phase I - Installation Assessment, Phase II - Confirmation, Phase III - Technological Assessment, Phase IV - Remedial Action, and Phase V - Compliance and Verification. Phase I activities and reports should be completed during 1986. The Phase II generic sampling plans, data management plans, health and safety plans, and quality assurance/quality control plans will be prepared during 1986. Significant characterization of CERCLA sites will be initiated during 1987.

Gunderson, T.C.; Vocke, R.W.; Stoker, A.K.

1986-01-01

481

Mental health promotion in comprehensive schools.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to describe a participatory action research process on the development of a professional practice model of mental health nurses in mental health promotion in a comprehensive school environment in the city of Oulu, Finland. The developed model is a new method of mental health promotion for mental health nurses working in comprehensive schools. The professional practice model has been developed in workshops together with school staff, interest groups, parents and students. Information gathered from the workshops was analysed using action research methods. Mental health promotion interventions are delivered at three levels: universal, which is an intervention that affects the whole school or community; selective, which is an intervention focusing on a certain group of students; and indicated, which is an individually focused intervention. All interventions are delivered within the school setting, which is a universal setting for all school-aged children. The interventions share the goal of promoting mental health. The purposes of the interventions are enhancing protective factors, reducing risk factors relating to mental health problems and early identification of mental health problems as well as rapid delivery of support or referral to specialized services. The common effect of the interventions on all levels is the increase in the experience of positive mental health. PMID:24612241

Onnela, A M; Vuokila-Oikkonen, P; Hurtig, T; Ebeling, H

2014-09-01

482

NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

NONE

1998-02-01

483

Comprehensive combined visualization of anatomy and hemodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the assessment of patient-specific hemodynamic information of the cardiovascular system has become an important issue. It is believed that this information will improve the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Realistic patient geometries and flow velocities acquired from image data can nowadays be used as input for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the blood flow through the cardiovascular system. Results obtained from these simulations have to be comprehensively visualized so that the physician can understand them and draw diagnostic and/or therapeutic conclusions. The aim of the research reported in this paper is to provide methods for the combined comprehensive visualization of the anatomical information segmented from image data with the hemodynamic information acquired by CFD simulations based on these image data. Several methods are known for the visualization of the blood flow velocity, e.g. flow streamlines, particle traces or simple cut planes through the vessel with a color-coded overlay of the flow velocity. To make these flow visualizations more understandable for the physician, we have developed methods to generate combined visualizations of the simulated blood flow velocity and the patient"s anatomy segmented from the image data. First results of these methods show that the perception of CFD simulation results of blood flow is much better when it is combined with anatomical information of surrounding structures. Physicians reacted very enthusiastically during presentations of results of our new visualization methods. Results will be demonstrated at the conference.

Kose, Ursula; Visser, Kees P.; Tryon, Cathy L.; Breeuwer, Marcel

2005-04-01

484

Evidence for geomagnetic jerks in comprehensive models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of secular variation occasionally undergoes a sudden, sharp change, called a geomagnetic jerk. Such jerks have been detected in geomagnetic time series, centered—over the last four decades—around 1971, 1980, 1991, and 1999; others have been inferred from historical records. The geomagnetic jerks represent a reorganization of the secular variation, implying an internal origin, as established through spherical harmonic and wavelet analysis. However, some characteristics of jerks are not well understood. Here we estimate the occurrence dates for geomagnetic jerks, as they can be detected from a global geomagnetic model. This choice makes the present study novel, for two reasons. First, utilizing the comprehensive modelling approach allows for the use of a secular variation signal free of time-varying external fields and their corresponding induced counterpart, and observatory biases. Second, the model utilizes satellite data when available, in addition to observatory data. Indeed, POGO (1967 to 1971), MAGSAT (1979 to 1980), Ørsted (1999 to present time) and CHAMP (2000 to present time) satellite measurements help to separate the different magnetic sources. In this study the CM4 comprehensive model is used for a global search of geomagnetic jerks and their occurrence dates. Our first result indicates that found geomagnetic jerks might not have been worldwide in occurrence. Moreover, the obtained dates suggest that jerks detected in the CM4 model over the last four decades occurred not simultaneously but at slightly different times around 1971, 1980 and 1991.

Chambodut, A.; Mandea, M.

2005-02-01

485

A Comprehensive Review of Hypertension in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy. Hypertensive disorders are one of the major causes of pregnancy-related maternal deaths in the United States. We will present a comprehensive update of the literature pertinent to hypertension in pregnancy. The paper begins by defining and classifying hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The normal vascular and renal physiological changes which occur during pregnancy are detailed. We will summarize the intriguing aspects of pathophysiology of preeclampsia, emphasizing on recent advances in this field. The existing diagnostic tools and the tests which have been proposed for screening preeclampsia are comprehensively described. We also highlight the short- and long-term implications of preeclampsia. Finally, we review the current management guidelines, goals of treatment and describe the potential risks and benefits associated with various antihypertensive drug classes. Preeclampsia still remains an enigma, and the present management focuses on monitoring and treatment of its manifestations. We are hopeful that this in depth critique will stimulate the blossoming research in the field and assist practitioners to identify women at risk and more effectively treat affected individuals. PMID:22685661

Mustafa, Reem; Ahmed, Sana; Gupta, Anu; Venuto, Rocco C.

2012-01-01

486

Comprehensive system models: Strategies for evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models is vast involving validations of every model component at every scale of organization, as well as tests of all the individual linkages. Even the most detailed evaluation of each of the component processes and the individual links among them should not, however, engender confidence in the performance of the whole. The integrated earth system is so rich with complex feedback loops, often involving components of the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, and cryosphere, that it is certain to exhibit emergent properties very difficult to predict from the perspective of a narrow focus on any individual component of the system. Therefore, a substantial share of the task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models must reside at the level of whole system evaluations. Since complete, integrated atmosphere/ ocean/ biosphere/ hydrology models are not yet operational, questions of evaluation must be addressed at the level of the kinds of earth system processes that the models should be competent to simulate, rather than at the level of specific performance criteria. Here, we have tried to identify examples of earth system processes that are difficult to simulate with existing models and that involve a rich enough suite of feedbacks that they are unlikely to be satisfactorily described by highly simplified or toy models. Our purpose is not to specify a checklist of evaluation criteria but to introduce characteristics of the earth system that may present useful opportunities for model testing and, of course, improvement.

Field, Christopher; Kutzbach, John E.; Ramanathan, V.; Maccracken, Michael C.

1992-01-01

487

Plutonium aging  

SciTech Connect

The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

Olivas, J.D.

1999-03-01

488

Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) Program Plan [FY2000  

SciTech Connect

In August 1995, the United States took a significant step to reduce the nuclear danger. The decision to pursue a zero- yield Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty will allow greater control over the proliferation of nuclear weapons and will halt the growth of new nuclear systems. This step is only possible because of the Stockpile Stewardship Program, which provides an alternative means of ensuring the safety, performance, and reliability of the United States' enduring stockpile. At the heart of the Stockpile Stewardship Program is ASCI, which will create the high-confidence simulation capabilities needed to integrate fundamental science, experiments, and archival data into the stewardship of the actual weapons in the stockpile. ASCI will also serve to drive the development of simulation as a national resource by working closely with the computer industry and with universities.

None

2000-01-01

489

SIPRI yearbook of world armaments and disarmament, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighteenth issue of the SIPRI Year-book and is the authoritative source of information on world armaments and the efforts made to limit or reduce them. It examines the data on the weapons, including nuclear ones, possessed and planned by the major powers, on world military spending and R and D expenditure, on the arms trade, on chemical and biological weapons, and on the military uses of outer space. The Contents are: Introduction. Weapons and technology: Nuclear Weapons; Nuclear explosions; Military use of space; Conventional weapons; Chemical and biological weapons. Military expenditure, Arms trade, and conflict: World military expenditure; Arms trade; Armed conflicts. Arms control and disarmament: US-USSR arms control; CDE and MBFR; Multilateral arms control efforts; ABM Review Conference. Special features: Chernobyl reactor accident; Comprehensive test ban issues; Verification issues; South Africa. Appendices: Chronology; UN Resolutions; Arms control agreements.

Not Available

1987-01-01

490

Mine locations: Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect

Upon accepting this internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory, I was excited but a bit nervous because I was placed into a field I knew nothing about and did not incorporate my mechanical engineering background. However, I stayed positive and realized that experience and education can come in many forms and that this would be a once in a lifetime opportunity. The EES-II Division (which stands for Earth and Environmental Sciences, Geophysics division) concentrates on several topics, including Nuclear Treaty Verification Seismology. The study of this is extremely important in order to monitor countries that have nuclear capability and make sure they follow the rules of the international comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. Seismology is only one aspect of this monitoring and EES-II works diligently with many other groups here at Los Alamos and across the world.

Perry, Bradley A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

491

Evaluating the Predictive Validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task: Comprehension Predicts Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until recently, the challenges inherent in measuring comprehension have impeded our ability to predict the course of language acquisition. The present research reports on a longitudinal assessment of the convergent and predictive validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories: Words and Gestures (CDI: WG; Fenson et al.,…

Friend, Margaret; Schmitt, Sara A.; Simpson, Adrianne M.

2012-01-01

492

Does Simile Comprehension Differ from Metaphor Comprehension? A Functional MRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Aristotle, people have believed that metaphors and similes express the same type of figurative meaning, despite the fact that they are expressed with different sentence patterns. In contrast, recent psycholinguistic models have suggested that metaphors and similes may promote different comprehension processes. In this study, we investigated…

Shibata, Midori; Toyomura, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroki; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Abe, Jun-ichi

2012-01-01

493

A Comprehensive Profile of Decoding and Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined intake data from 384 participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a comparison group of 100 participants with dyslexia on nine standardized measures of decoding and comprehension. Although diagnostic groups were based on parental reports and could not be verified independently, we were able to observe…

Huemer, Sabine V.; Mann, Virginia

2010-01-01

494

Comprehension of Written Sentences as a Core Component of Children's Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that sentence processing is an essential mediatory skill between word recognition and text comprehension in reading. In Experiment 1, a semantic similarity judgement task was used with children from Grade 2 to Grade 9. They had to say whether two written sentences had the same (or very similar)…

Ecalle, Jean; Bouchafa, Houria; Potocki, Anna; Magnan, Annie

2013-01-01

495

Operating experience with the nuclear propulsion plant on the icebreaker “LENIN”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Long-term operation of a nuclear-fueled steam-generating plant on board the icebreaker has provided a basis for a comprehensive assessment of the plant performance under a variety of sailing and weather conditions.

I. I. Afrikantov; N. M. Mordvinov; P. D. Novikov; B. G. Pologikh; A. K. Sledzyuk; N. S. Khlopkin; N. M. Tsarev

1964-01-01

496

Recent advances in nuclear fission theory: pre- and post-scission physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the modeling of the nuclear fission process for data evaluation purposes are reviewed. In particular, it is stressed that a more comprehensive approach to fission data is needed if predictive capability is to be achieved. The link between pre- and post-scission data is clarified, and a path forward to evaluate those data in a consistent and comprehensive

Patrick Talou; Toshihiko Kawano; Olivier Bouland; Peter Moller; Mark B Chadwick; J E Lynn

2010-01-01

497

Nuclear Halos  

SciTech Connect

We show that extreme nuclear halos are caused only by pairs of s-wave neutrons (or single s-wave neutrons) and that such states occur much more frequently in the periodic table than previously believed. Besides lingering long near zero neutron separation energy such extreme halos have very remarkable properties: they can contribute significantly to the nuclear density at more than twice the normal nuclear radius and their spreading width can be very narrow. The properties of these states are primarily determined by the ''thickness'' of the nuclear surface in the mean-free nuclear potential and thus their importance increases greatly as we approach the neutron drip line. We discuss what such extreme halos are, where they occur, what their properties are and some of their impact on nuclear observations.

Vogt, Erich [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2010-07-27

498

Nuclear APC  

PubMed Central

Mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli) is thought to be an initiating step in the progression of the vast majority of colorectal cancers. Attempts to understand APC function have revealed more than a dozen binding partners as well as several subcellular localizations including at cell-c