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1

Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in Jeopardy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Debate in the US Senate began today on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) scheduled for a vote on Tuesday. The treaty would ban not only atmospheric testing, but also underground testing for the nations that sign and ratify it. Currently, with Senate Republicans united in their opposition, the treaty is far short of the 67 votes needed for passage. As a result, the White House and leading senate Democrats are seeking to delay the vote rather than have the treaty go down to defeat. Internationally, the treaty is still far short of sufficient support to be put into effect, needing ratification in another 21 countries before it would be considered binding. Despite the strong Senate opposition to ratification, the United States has actually observed the terms of the treaty since 1992. The sites listed provide information about the test ban treaty and the debate.

Charbonneau, David D.

2

Comprehensive test ban negotiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United States concerned about the problem of possible Soviet cheating and the USSR concerned about the protection of its national sovereignty. In addition, internal bureaucratic politics have played a major role in preventing the successful conclusion of an agreement. Despite these problems, the superpowers have concluded several significant partial meausres: a brief (1958-1961) total moratorium on nuclear weapons tests; the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, banning tests in the air, water and outer space; the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (150 KT limit on underground explosions); and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976 (150 KT limit on individal PNEs). Today, the main U.S. objections to a CTBT center is the nuclear weapons laboratories, the Department of Energy, and the Pentagon, who all stress the issues of stockpile reliability and verification. Those who remain committed to a CTBT emphasize and the potential political leverage it offers in checking both horizontal and vertical proliferation.

Grab, G. Allen; Heckrotte, Warren

1983-10-01

3

Xenon monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do you monitor (verify) a CTBT? It is a difficult challenge to monitor the entire world for nuclear tests, regardless of size. Nuclear tests "normally" occur underground, above ground or underwater. Setting aside very small tests (let's limit our thinking to 1 kiloton or more), nuclear tests shake the ground, emit large amounts of radioactivity, and make loud noises if in the atmosphere (or hydroacoustic waves if underwater).

Bowyer, Theodore Ted W.

2014-05-01

4

Experience of the Finnish National Data Centre in radionuclide analysis for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is setting very specific requirements to processing of gamma-ray spectra. All the data collected in 80 radionuclide particulate stations are transmitted to the International Data Centre (IDC), where they are analyzed. National Data Centres (NDC) are the users of IDC services. The NDC's are responsible of giving technical information to National Authorities, who have thepolitical

M. T. Nikkinen

2001-01-01

5

Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Warren, N. Jill [Editor

1999-09-21

6

The in-comprehensive test ban  

SciTech Connect

The author examines why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) treaty might not make it through the political minefields. Negotiators at the 60-nation U.N. The conference on Disarmament in Geneva reached an impasse, prompted by India`s assertions that the treaty was an inadequate document that perpetuated {open_quotes}nuclear apartheid{close_quotes} while violating India`s sovereignty. Because the Conference on Disarmament-often called the {open_quotes}Geneva Conference{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}CD{close_quotes}-operates by consensus, India was able to veto the adoption of the treaty, which the conference had planned to transmit to the United Nations in early September. Australia saved the treaty with a last minute decision to bypass the Geneva Conference and take the CTB directly to the General Assembly in the form of a resolution. Some 127 nations co-sponsored Australia`s resolution, to which the treaty draft was attached. The General Assembly endorsed the treaty by a vote of 158 to three. India, Bhutan, and Libya voted against it. Despite the overwhelming vote, the treaty`s long-range outlook is uncertain. On the day of the vote, India`s chief test-ban negotiator, declared that India would {open_quotes}never sign this unequal treaty because Article XIV of the treaty, which requires that all 44 nuclear-capable nations who also belong to the Conference on Disarmament must sign and ratify the treaty. That requirement was viewed as contrary to international law because it denied India`s right of voluntary consent to an international treaty, thus violating India`s sovereignty.

Johnson, R. [Disarmament Intelligence Review, London (United Kingdom)

1996-11-01

7

Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,?)37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; Orrell, John L.; Seifert, Allen; Woods, Vincent T.

2011-10-01

8

Potential of Spectrum Categorisation Concepts using Radionuclide Ratios for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop further existing categorisation concepts for CTBT verification, xenon ratios have been used to help identify nuclear explosions. 25,726 noble gas spectra have been analysed and an additional state-of-health criterion has been introduced.

Postelt, Frederik

2014-03-01

9

On-Site inspections as a tool for nuclear explosion monitoring in the framework of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-site inspections (OSIs) constitute the final verification measure under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs are launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out, thus they are conducted to verify States' compliance with the Treaty. During such an inspection, facts are gathered within a limited investigation area of 1000 Km2 to identify possible violators of the Treaty. Time scale (referring both to the preparation of the inspection as well as to the conduct of an OSI itself) is one of the challenges that an inspection team has to face when conducting an OSI. Other challenges are the size of the team - which is limited to 40 inspectors - and political limitations imposed by the Treaty in the use of allowed techniques. The Integrated Field Exercise 2008 (IFE08) recently conducted in Kazakhstan was the first large-scale, as well as the most comprehensive, on site inspection exercise ever conducted by the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The exercise took place in a deserted area south east of Kurchatov, within the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. In this paper we will provide an overview of the technical activities conducted by the inspection team during IFE08 in order to collect evidence for a hypothetical nuclear explosion test. The techniques applied can be distributed in four different blocks: visual observation (to look for man-made changes in the geomorphology as well as anthropogenic features related to an underground nuclear explosion, UNE); passive seismic monitoring (to identify possible aftershocks created by the UNE); radionuclide measurements (to collect evidence for radionuclide isotopes related to a nuclear explosion); and finally geophysical surveys (to identify geophysical signatures related to an UNE in terms of changes in the geological strata, to the hydrogeological regime, and in terms of the shallow remains of the infrastructure deployed during the preparation and monitoring of the test). The data collected during IFE08, together with data from previous exercises, set the fundaments of a database of invaluable value to be used by CTBTO in the future for a better understanding of the phenomenology related to a nuclear explosion.

Arndt, R.; Gaya-Pique, L.; Labak, P.; Tanaka, J.

2009-04-01

10

Radioxenons: Their role in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring for xenon radionuclides which are produced in a nuclear detonation can provide a strong deterrent to the violation of a Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). There are 18 known radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear fission with half-lives ranging from less than one second to 11.9 days. However, only four of these remain in significant amounts more than a day after a detonation. In order for radioxenon monitoring to be practical, it was necessary to develop an automated measurement system which could operate unattended for periods of months, measure the entire spectrum of radioxenons, and provide hundreds of times better sensitivities than current laboratory procedures. This capability was developed at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory based on rapid separation of atmospheric xenon coupled with a unique high sensitivity measurement device for the radioxenons. A fieldable prototype analyzer is scheduled for testing in August 1996 with commercial availability planned by 1998.

Perkins, R.W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Casey, L.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-06-01

11

Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Nichols, James W., LTC [Editor

2000-09-15

12

Nuclear Test Ban: Converting Political Visions to Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negotiations to ban or at least restrict nuclear explosions began not long after the first test was conducted, in the Alamogordo desert of New Mexico on 16 July 1945. In August of that same year, the world witnessed the devastation of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the horrifically destructive power that these weapons are capable of unleashing. Almost 50 years later, the long and tortuous road to negotiating a treaty that comprehensively bans nuclear explosions, whether for alleged peaceful purposes or for weapons development, culminated on 24 September 1996 when the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature. In a surge of enthusiasm, that first day the treaty was signed by more than 70 nations, including the five acknowledged nuclear powers. Addressing the United Nations General Assembly, U.S. President Bill Clinton described the CTBT as “the longest-sought, hardest-fought prize in the history of arms control.”

Suárez, Gerardo

2010-05-01

13

75 FR 43198 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological...requirements for the USGS Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This collection consists of...9-4040-A. Title: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Type of Request: Extension of a...

2010-07-23

14

78 FR 25298 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological...required by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and will, upon request, provide...9-4040-A. Title: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Type of Request: Extension of a...

2013-04-30

15

Lessons learned from the first US/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data interpretation. Each of the exercises began at the POE and proceeded with several iterations of negotiations between the IT and ISP, instrument deployments, and data evaluation by the IT. By the end of each of the exercises, each IT had located the site of the underground nuclear explosion (UNE). While this validated the methods employed by each of the ITS, the Evaluation Team noted that each IT employed different search strategies and that each strategy had both advantages and disadvantages. The exercises also highlighted ambiguities in interpretation of certain treaty provisions related to overflights and seismic monitoring. Likewise, a substantial number of lessons were learned relating to radionuclide monitoring and the impact of logistical constraints on successful OSI execution. These lessons are discussed more fully in the body of this report. Notwithstanding the overall positive assessment by the U.S. and RF participants, as well as by the Evaluation Team, that the exercise had met its objectives, there were a variety of areas identified that could be improved in subsequent OSI exercises. Some of these included reexamination of the methods used to convey visual observation data in an exercise; the amount of time compression employed; and the need for better verification of agreements pertaining to the structure, format, and other rules of the exercise. This report summarizes the lessons learned pertaining to both the technical and operational aspects of an OSI as well as to those pertaining to the planning and execution of an OSI exercise. It concludes with comments from the Evaluation Team and proposed next steps for future U.S./RF interactions on CTBT OSIs.

Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R; Rockett, P; MacLeod, G; Hawkins, W; Wohletz, K; Knowles, S

1999-03-24

16

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Gains Momentum With New and Upcoming Measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which opened for signatures in 1996, still requires eight remaining "annex 2" countries—including the United States and China—to ratify it to enter into force, the treaty recently has gained some momentum.

Showstack, Randy

2014-01-01

17

Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events. (ACR)

Hannon, W.J.

1987-03-06

18

Avoiding the {open_quotes}definition{close_quotes} pitfall to a comprehensive test ban  

SciTech Connect

Recently approved US legislation and a new US administration have brought an end to 12 years of American opposition to a comprehensive test ban (CTB). Signed by President Bush on October 2, 1992, the new law imposes a moratorium on US nuclear tests until July and possibly longer, permits up to 15 nuclear tests to improve the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons from the end of this moratorium until October 1996, and prohibits US tests after that unless another country tests. It also calls on the president to submit a plan for resumption of negotiations to end testing. President Bill Clinton, in his February 12, 1993 letter to Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell (D-ME) supporting this legislation, said his administration was now reviewing questions {open_quotes}of forum and modalities for negotiating a CTB...{close_quotes} Moreover, Presidents Clinton and Boris Yeltsin, at their April summit in Vancouver, {open_quotes}agreed that negotiations on a multilateral nuclear test ban should commence at an early date.{close_quotes}

Bunn, G.; Timerbaev, R.

1993-05-01

19

Detection of anthropogenic radionuclides by the CA002 monitoring station for the comprehensive test ban treaty.  

PubMed

A worldwide monitoring system for radioactive aerosols is being implemented for verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. These 80 stations will detect airborne radioactivity not only from nuclear explosions but also from other anthropogenic and natural sources. A prototype unit has been in operation since April 1996 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It is a very sensitive system and reports clear signals for natural radioactivity, including cosmogenic 7Be, and the decay products from soil exhalation of 220Rn (thoron). In addition, there have been frequent detections of anthropogenic nuclides, probably coming from three distinct facilities-a medical isotope production center, a major university hospital, and a particle accelerator laboratory--all between 1 and 2 km away from the monitoring station. This experience is discussed to sensitize health physicists to the potential uses of this publicly available information. PMID:11197459

Measday, D F; Stocki, T J; Mason, L R; Williams, D L

2001-02-01

20

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force  

SciTech Connect

This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

NONE

1998-06-01

21

Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

Russell, S; Vaidya, S

2009-07-30

22

A systems perspective of Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring and verification  

SciTech Connect

On September 24, 1996, after decades of discussion and more than two years of intensive international negotiations, President Clinton, followed by representatives of (to date) more than 125 other countries, including the other four declared nuclear weapons states, signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Each signatory now faces a complex set of technical and political considerations regarding the advisability of joining the treaty. Those considerations vary from country to country, but for many countries one of the key issues is the extent to which the treaty can be verified. In the case of the US, it is anticipated that treaty verifiability will be an important issue in the US Senate Advice and Consent Hearings. This paper will address treaty verifiability, with an emphasis on the interplay between the various elements of the International monitoring regime, as prescribed in the CTBT Treaty Text and its associated Protocol. These elements, coupled with the National regimes, will serve as an integrated set of overlapping, interlocking measures to support treaty verification. Taken as a whole, they present a formidable challenge to potential testers who wish not to be caught.

Walker, L.S.

1996-11-01

23

Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes  

SciTech Connect

To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

1996-03-01

24

Mapping and Imaging Methodologies within the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's On-Site Inspection Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-site inspection (OSI) is the final verification measure of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs rely heavily on geologic and geophysical investigations. The objective is to apply methods that are effective, efficient and minimally intrusive. We present a general overview of the OSI as provisioned in the CTBT, specifying the allowed techniques and the timeline for their application. A CTBT OSI relies on many geological, geophysical and radiological methods. The search area for an OSI is mostly defined by uncertainty in the location of a suspect event detected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) and reported through the International Data Center and can be as large as 1000 km2. Thus OSI methods are fundamentally divided into general survey methods that narrow the search area and more focused, detailed survey methods to look for evidence of a potential underground explosion and try to find its location within an area of several km2. The purpose and goal of a CTBT OSI, as specified in the Article IV of the Treaty, is 'to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty' and to 'gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator.' Through the use of visual, geophysical, and radiological techniques, OSIs can detect and characterize anomalies and artifacts related to the event that triggered the inspection. In the context of an OSI, an 'observable' is a physical property that is important to recognize and document because of its relevance to the purpose of the inspection. Potential observables include: (1) visual observables such as ground/environmental disturbances and manmade features, (2) geophysical techniques that provide measurements of altered and damaged ground and buried artifacts, and (3) radiological measurements on samples. Information provided in this presentation comes from observations associated with historical testing activities that were not intended to go undetected. Every CTBT OSI will be different, and the observables present and detectable within an Inspection Area (IA) will depend on many factors, such as location, geology, emplacement configuration, climate, and the time elapsed after the event before the deployment of the Inspection Team (IT). A successful OSI is contingent on familiarity with potential observables, the suitability of the equipment to detect and characterize relevant observables, and the team's ability to document and integrate all the information into comprehensive, logical, and factual reports. In preparation for an OSI, a variety of types, scales, and generations of open-source digital imagery can be compared using geographic information systems (GIS) to focus on areas of interest. Simple image comparison from various open sources within GIS afford the opportunity to view anthropogenic and natural changes to locations of interest over time, thus remotely elucidating information about a site's use and level of activity.

Hawkins, W.; Sussman, A. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Wohletz, K. H.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.

2013-12-01

25

Policing the peace: How nations will monitor a nuclear test ban  

SciTech Connect

Steve R. Bratt`s belt started chirping as if on cue, precisely as he was boasting about a new global watchdog system for detecting nuclear tests. Bratt, a seismologist with the US Department of Defense, retrieved the beeper from his hip and studied it for a few seconds. {open_quotes}I`ve got an alert. It`s from Lop Nor. Lop Nor is the Chinese test site,{close_quotes} he explained. Two stations in a worldwide network of seismometers had just picked up vibrations emanating from central Asia, near China`s known nuclear facility. The shock was small, about magnitude 3.5. In bomb equivalents, it would correspond to less than a half kiloton explosion. In this case, however, Bratt suspected the alert was just a minor earthquake. Timing provided an important clue: The shock had originated at 12:19 Greenwich Mean Time, which is not the kind of round, on-the-hour time that countries usually choose for performing a major weapon test. Seismic analysts would later confirm Bratt`s hunch when they determined that the Chinese vibrations actually originated at an unlikely place to stage a test, hundreds of kilometers away from the Lop Nor site. The impromptu demonstration nonetheless made a good advertisement for the new international monitoring system-an ever-figilant network of sensors strung around the globe, listening, sniffing, and waiting. This article describes the problems involved in test ban monitoring and the possibilities for solving them.

Monastersky, R.

1996-05-11

26

Barometric gas transport along faults and its application to nuclear test-ban monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Underground nuclear explosions produce a unique but evanescent set of radionuclide gases that potentially can be used in the context of an on-site, test-ban monitoring program to differentiate them from other detected events such as earthquakes or mining activity. In Part I of this report we describe an experiment to evaluate the upward transport of gases from an underground explosion using two gas tracers with very different diffusivities that were released in a 400- m-deep, chemical explosive detonation. The less diffusive (more massive) tracer was detected on a nearby geologic fault 50 days following the detonation while the more diffusive tracer was-- detected 375 days after release. Computer simulations indicate that the arrival time and the chromatographic behavior of transport are characteristic of barometrically induced flow in a fractured, porous matrix regime. For a hypothetical 1-kiloton fission explosion subject to the same weather and gas transport conditions of the chemical explosion, simulations predict the delectability of argon-37 after 80 days in spite of depletion by radioactive decay. Largely because of the earlier arrival of xenon-133, owing to its lower binary gas diffusivity, the exceedingly short lived isotope should also be detectable-arriving about 30 days earlier than argon. in Part II we consider that our prediction of the delectability of argon and xenon is based upon the small volume (0.00001 M3) sampling technique of the NPE tracer-gas sampling study while actual sampling for radionuclides would involve drawing much larger volume (possibly 0.1- 1 M3) gas samples from the near-surface.

Carrigan, C. R.; Heinle, R. A.; Hudson, G. B.; Nitao, J. J.; Zucca, J. J.

1997-06-01

27

Application of the nuclide identification system SHAMAN in monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHAMAN is an expert system for qualitative and quantitative radionuclide identification in gamma spectrometry. SHAMAN requires\\u000a as input the calibrations, peak search, and fitting results from reliable spectral analysis software, such as SAMPO. SHAMAN\\u000a uses a comprehensive reference library with 2600 radionuclides and 80 000 gamma-lines, as well as a rule base consisting of\\u000a sixty inference rules. Identification results are

P. A. Aarnio; J. J. Ala-Heikkilä; T. T. Hakulinen; M. T. Nikkinen

1998-01-01

28

Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter  

SciTech Connect

This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

Casey, Leslie A.

1994-01-01

29

Challenges for mining explosion identification under a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: Quantification of the problem and discussion of synergetic solutions  

SciTech Connect

Seismic networks provide the primary technology for monitoring compliance with a comprehensive test ban treaty. The design goal of the network is the identification of possibly clandestine explosions detonated below the earth`s surface and possible in the oceans. Complementary technologies such as infrasonic, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring supplement the seismic monitoring covering explosions in the atmosphere and oceans. This paper will focus on the problems or ambiguities that can arise in the identification process for chemical explosions. Key questions addressed include: How many mining explosions produce seismograms at regional distances that will have to be detected, located and ultimately identified by the National Data Center? What are the waveform characteristics of these particular mining explosions? Can discrimination techniques based on empirical studies be placed on a firm physical basis so that they can be applied to other regions where we have little monitoring experience? With this information, can evasion capabilities be assessed in a region? Can large scale chemical explosions be used to calibrate source and propagation path effects to regional stations? Can source depth of burial and decoupling effects be studied in such a controlled environment?

Stump, B.W.

1994-11-01

30

Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the test ban  

SciTech Connect

Drawing on the records he held as Chairman of the AEC and records of W. Averill Harriman, who led the US negotiating team, Seaborg describes the gradual establishment of a level of trust between Kennedy and Khruschev which began with the peaceful resolution of the Cuban missile crisis. The Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 outlawed all but underground testing of nuclear weapons. It was a major diplomatic step toward ensuring stability in the arms race, moderating its costs, preventing proliferation, and reducing levels of radioactive fallout. Seaborg describes the negotiations and the treaty signing. He concludes with the plea for a comprehensive test ban and the note that The hour is late. Let us hope not too late. The text of the treaty appears in the appendix. 93 references.

Seaborg, G.T.

1981-01-01

31

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions from seismic surface waves: compliance with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Magnitudes of the larger Soviet underground nuclear weapons tests from the start of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1976 through 1982 are determined for short- and long-period seismic waves. Yields are calculated from the surface wave magnitude for those explosions at the eastern Kazakh test site that triggered a small-to-negligible component of tectonic stress and are used to calibrate body wave magnitude-yield relationship that can be used to determined the sizes of other explosions at that test site. The results confirm that a large bias, related to differential attenuation of P waves, exists between Nevada and Central Asia. The yields of the seven largest Soviet explosions are nearly identical and are close to 150 kilotons, the limit set by the Threshold Treaty. 16 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Sykes, L.R.; Cifuentes, I.L.

1984-03-01

32

Doctors and the test ban: 25 years on.  

PubMed

Events leading up to the signing of the partial test ban treaty in 1963 are traced from the first public concern about nuclear testing in 1954 when a hydrogen bomb was detonated in the Pacific, through Albert Schweitzer's 1957 appeal for a ban on nuclear tests; agreements between the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom to start formal negotiations; growth in medical and scientific concern in the early 1960s; to the impetus provided by the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962. Arguments for and against a comprehensive test ban treaty are discussed. Current activity by doctors and health professionals grows out of the successful campaign waged by doctors and scientists against atmospheric testing and is held to constitute a uniquely important exercise in primary prevention. PMID:3408986

Haines, A; Hartog, M

1988-08-01

33

Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.

1996-01-01

34

Nuclear Arms Control Treaties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section contains summaries of all the major arms-control treaties including: Limited Test Ban Treaty, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I (Interim Agreement), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Threshold Test Ban Treaty, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty - INF, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty.

Griffith, Christopher

35

Academia's role in Test Ban Treaty monitoring remains unresolved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

However, some progress has been made in negotiating how this university consortium will be coordinated with the federal government's efforts to develop comprehensive nuclear test ban monitoring systems. Before Congress closed shop, changes were made in the conference wording of a Defense authorization bill for fiscal year 1995 that covers seismic research. Instead of requiring the secretaries of Defense and State to sign off on all seismic projects for monitoring nuclear explosions before the funds may be obligated, as the Senate version of the bill originally proposed, the seismic projects must now be approved by an existing annual review group, which was established by a classified presidential directive. In addition, some of the controversial language in a complementing Senate report will be changed.

Wakefield, J.

36

Academe defends its role in Test Ban Treaty monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent jockeying for control of congressional seismic research funds has left the U.S. scientific research community uneasy about future cooperation with the federal government in the development of comprehensive nuclear test ban monitoring systems.Even though the language in a Defense authorization bill for fiscal year 1995, which cleared the Senate June 30, will likely be toned down in the House and Senate conference, the “aggressive” maneuvering that ensued to tentatively dispose the bulk of power over the interagency seismic network to the Defense Department, critics say, raises new questions about how science policy decisions are made in the United States and how committed the Congress and some federal agencies are to “reinventing” government under the Clinton-Gore plan. And for now, a hefty chunk of funding for academic seismic research is no longer a sure thing.

Wakefield, J.

37

Preliminary report on the implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the preliminary results of an ongoing experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain local and regional seismic data together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

Jarpe, S.P.; Goldstein, P.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

1995-07-01

38

The National Security Archive: The Limited Test Ban Treaty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest electronic briefing book from the National Security Archive at George Washington University brings together some fascinating documents related to the 1963 accord outlawing nuclear testing in the atmosphere, under water, and in space. This treaty was called the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) and for decades many wondered if the nations that signed onto this document might have violated its terms. Here, visitors can look over 26 documents, including internal memos from the CIA, reports from the Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Committee, and State Department documents related to China's first nuclear test. Section F is a real gem, as it contains a wealth of materials related to government responses and thoughts on the test ban during the 1970s.

2013-08-02

39

Data visualization for comprehensive test ban treaty monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Data Visualization Project at Sandia Labs is to prototype and evaluate new approaches to the presentation of data for CTBT monitoring applications. The great amount of data expected to be available, and the complex interrelationships in that data, make this a promising area for scientific data visualization techniques. We are developing a powerful and flexible prototyping environment with which to explore these possibilities. A user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) should be an integral part of any data visualization tools developed. The GUI is necessary to select which data to visualize, and to modify and explore the displays that are the result of data visualization. Using our prototyping environment, we have produced data visualization displays of various kinds of data and have also experimented with different GUIs for controlling the visualization process. We present here an overview of that work, including promising results, lessons learned, and work in progress. To better understand what is needed, we have identified several data processing/analysis scenarios which we think will be important in CTBT monitoring. These scenarios help us identify what types of information we should display (together or in sequence), and help us focus on isolating the underlying goals. Each display we have produced is put in the context of one or more processing scenarios to help explain why and how it could be useful.

Simons, R.W.; Young, C.J.; Edwards, T.L.

1996-08-01

40

Statistical algorithms for a comprehensive test ban treaty discrimination framework  

SciTech Connect

Seismic discrimination is the process of identifying a candidate seismic event as an earthquake or explosion using information from seismic waveform features (seismic discriminants). In the CTBT setting, low energy seismic activity must be detected and identified. A defensible CTBT discrimination decision requires an understanding of false-negative (declaring an event to be an earthquake given it is an explosion) and false-position (declaring an event to be an explosion given it is an earthquake) rates. These rates are derived from a statistical discrimination framework. A discrimination framework can be as simple as a single statistical algorithm or it can be a mathematical construct that integrates many different types of statistical algorithms and CTBT technologies. In either case, the result is the identification of an event and the numerical assessment of the accuracy of an identification, that is, false-negative and false-positive rates. In Anderson et al., eight statistical discrimination algorithms are evaluated relative to their ability to give results that effectively contribute to a decision process and to be interpretable with physical (seismic) theory. These algorithms can be discrimination frameworks individually or components of a larger framework. The eight algorithms are linear discrimination (LDA), quadratic discrimination (QDA), variably regularized discrimination (VRDA), flexible discrimination (FDA), logistic discrimination, K-th nearest neighbor (KNN), kernel discrimination, and classification and regression trees (CART). In this report, the performance of these eight algorithms, as applied to regional seismic data, is documented. Based on the findings in Anderson et al. and this analysis: CART is an appropriate algorithm for an automated CTBT setting.

Foote, N.D. [ed.; Anderson, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.; Hagedorn, D.N.

1996-10-01

41

Authentication of data for monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

The important issue of data integrity in the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS) is discussed and a brief tutorial on data authentication techniques is offered. The utilization of data authentication as a solution to the data integrity problem is evaluated. Public key data authentication is recommended for multilateral monitoring regimes such as the CTBT. The ramifications and system considerations of applying data authentication at various locations in the IMS, or not at all, are reviewed in a data surety context. The paper concludes with a recommendation of authenticating data at all critical monitoring stations.

Craft, R.L.; Draelos, T.J.

1996-05-01

42

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials  

SciTech Connect

This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M. [European Commission Joint Research Centre; Allen, Todd R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke [Osaka University

2012-01-01

43

A high-efficiency radioactive xenon detection system for verification of test-ban treaties  

SciTech Connect

A system with promising characteristics was developed for the detection of 131rnXe,1 33rnXe'3, 3Xe, and I3'Xe metastable isotopes for treaty verification of nuclear test ban treaties. The proposed method uses high-resolution electron and gamma-ray spectrometry and coincidence timing for signal selectivity and background rejection. The system enables the identification, quantification, and determination of the provenance of the relevant xenon isotopes. X-ray fluorescence gating is used to lower the backgrounds from other sources to well below the sub-becquerel level. Using coincidence and anti-coincidence schemes among the several detectors that comprise the system, K-shell conversion electrons were clearly identified with good efficiencies and energy resolutions (about 1.4 keV for the 30 keV K-shell fluorescence x-rays and 25 keV for the conversion electrons).

Lopes, J. A. M.; Morgado, R. E. (Richard E.); Conde, C. A.

2002-01-01

44

Nuclear weapons testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the history of efforts to ban, or at least constrain, nuclear tests. The issue has been marked by shifts in attitude by the superpowers in recent times. The Reagan Administration sees a comprehensive test ban only as a very long-term goal for the U.S. The Soviets, on the other hand, have been pushing extremely hard lately for

Heylin

1988-01-01

45

Politics of motherhood: the case of Women Strike for Peace and the test ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation is a narrative history and organizational study of the formative years of Women Strike for Peace (1961-1963) and its campaign for a nuclear test ban treaty. WSP, a grass roots, participatory movement of American Women, was born on November 1, 1961 when an estimated 50,000 women in 60 communities across the nation walked out of their kitchens and off their jobs in a one day protest against Russian and American nuclear policies. In the process of transforming this one day strike into a national woman's movement, WSP developed a feminine political style characterized by an anti-heirarchical, anti-organizational format, simple, womanly rhetoric, and spontaneous, innovative national and international direct action. At a time when foreign policy dissenters were dismissed by the press and the public either as commies or kooks, the image that WSP projected to respectable middle-class, middle-aged peace mothers wearing white gloves and flowered hats while picketing the White House to save their children from nuclear holocaust caught the favorable attention of large sections of the media, the public, and even the President. Through an investigation of the program, internal debates, rhetoric, organizational structure, and tactics of WSP, along with the backgrounds of its leaders and members, this study uncovers the political and gender consciousness of the women who joined the movement.

Swerdlow, A.G.

1984-01-01

46

Atmospheric transport modeling based estimation of radioactive release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant on March 2011, it is important to characterize radioactivity release into the environment. Several isotopes, amongst others caesium-137 and iodine-131, are monitored at multiple stations throughout the world by the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization. In this paper it is demonstrated

Wolfango Plastino; Michael Schoppner; Francesco Bella; Mario De Vincenzi; Gerhard Wotawa; Pavel P. Povinec; Antonio Budano; Federico Ruggieri

2011-01-01

47

78 FR 57653 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Officer, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, 807 National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 20192 (mail...Geological Survey, 989 National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 20192. You...

2013-09-19

48

Known nuclear tests worldwide, 1945 to December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This article contains a tabular listing of the known nuclear tests from 1945 through 1992. Countries included in the tally are the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, and China. The overall total includes one Indian underground test in 1974. Negotiations for a comprehensive test ban may include the requirement that the five declared nuclear powers divulge a complete list of their tests.

Not Available

1993-04-01

49

Indian nuclear tests prompt worldwide concern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India's attempt in mid-May to blast its way into the nuclear age with the detonation of several underground nuclear tests at a desert site near the Pakistan border left many people around the world shocked and angry about the dangerous escalation in southern Asia's arms race and the threat to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.U.S. President Bill Clinton moved quickly to cut off direct aid and block billions of dollars worth of development bank assistance. Many other nations, including Pakistan, which has fought several wars with India, condemned the explosions. However, Indians appear to widely support the tests.

Showstack, Randy

50

Rapid Deployment Drilling System for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban Preliminary Engineering Design  

SciTech Connect

While not a new drilling technology, coiled-tubing (CT) drilling continues to undergo rapid development and expansion, with new equipment, tools and procedures developed almost daily. This project was undertaken to: analyze available technological options for a Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) CT drilling system: recommend specific technologies that best match the requirements for the RDDS; and highlight any areas where adequate technological solutions are not currently available. Postshot drilling is a well established technique at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Drilling provides essential data on the results of underground tests including obtaining samples for the shot zone, information on cavity size, chimney dimensions, effects of the event on surrounding material, and distribution of radioactivity.

Maurer, W.C.; Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Cohen, J.H. [Maurer Engineering, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Heuze, F.E.; Butler, M.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-09-01

51

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure  

SciTech Connect

Abstract. With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, NNSA management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by the U.S. DOE MPC&A Regulatory Development Project RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and schedule the development of documents; 5) Identify and develop processes to measure effectiveness of regulations. Utilizing this process is resulting in an effective regulatory process that is understood and is being adopted by the four RF organizations. It is anticipated that the current regulatory development process will continue after U.S. support ends. Utilization of the systematic methodology will ensure regulatory development is based on required MPC&A structural elements and will support the continued maintenance and development of an effective regulatory base.

O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Tuttle, John D.; Hazel, Michael J.; Schlegel, Steven C.; Miller, Daniel R.

2009-03-30

52

Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of eight recommended children's books new titles and reprints to use in reading comprehension activities. Suggests grade levels and learning activities for each title. (AEF)

Winkel, Lois

1999-01-01

53

Earthquakes or Nuclear Explosions?: Seismic Clues to Dirty Deeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity requires students to read an article about earthquakes and nuclear explosions and answer questions about it. They discover that both earthquakes and nuclear explosions generate seismic waves that can be detected thousands of kilometers away and from the 1960s to the 1990s about one underground nuclear explosion was carried out each week. Students learn that this was how nations tested their nuclear weapons and certified them as ready for deployment. Seismology was often the only way to learn if a foreign power was developing nuclear weapons. Students will also realize that scientists pick up the seismic waves at monitoring stations and these seismic signals allow scientists to locate the explosion or earthquake and to tell the difference between the two. Students also learn about the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) outlawing nuclear weapon tests that was signed by 150 nations, although by 1999 it had only been ratified by 19 of the 44 countries which had nuclear power reactors.

54

Soviet nuclear testing: The Republics say no  

SciTech Connect

Massive protests are taking place in Russia against nuclear weapons testing. Efforts have been mounted to stop all testing at Kazakhstan test site near the town of Semipalatinsk, site of the first nuclear detonation in 1949 and of more than 500 test conducted since. Boris Yeltsin proposed just after his election as president of the federation the elimination of testing grounds for nuclear and biological weapons on Russian territory. The central government in Moscow has announced that it is considering closing the Semipalatinsk site. Reaction has also been strong to testing at the Arctic island of Novaya Zemlya, and severe constraints, such as Arctic cold, frozen rocks, high winds, difficult access, and protests by Greenpeace activists and USSR's Nordic neighbors do not make this site attractive. The author feels that this movement in the USSR has set in motion a politically dynamic situation that makes for the best chance for a comprehensive test ban treaty yet witnessed.

Carter, L.J.

1990-11-16

55

SCALE 6: Comprehensive Nuclear Safety Analysis Code System  

SciTech Connect

Version 6 of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in February 2009, contains significant new capabilities and data for nuclear safety analysis and marks an important update for this software package, which is used worldwide. This paper highlights the capabilities of the SCALE system, including continuous-energy flux calculations for processing multigroup problem-dependent cross sections, ENDF/B-VII continuous-energy and multigroup nuclear cross-section data, continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations, Monte Carlo radiation shielding analyses with automated three-dimensional variance reduction techniques, one- and three-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for criticality safety evaluations, two- and three-dimensional lattice physics depletion analyses, fast and accurate source terms and decay heat calculations, automated burnup credit analyses with loading curve search, and integrated three-dimensional criticality accident alarm system analyses using coupled Monte Carlo criticality and shielding calculations.

Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL

2011-01-01

56

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, NNSA management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of

Patricia OBrien; Troy L. Wright; John D. Tuttle; Michael J. Hazel; Steven C. Schlegel; Daniel R. Miller

2009-01-01

57

Developing a Comprehensive and Articulated Nuclear Training Curriculum--The Westinghouse Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After conducting a comprehensive evaluation of its curriculum, staff at the Westinghouse Nuclear Training Center in Zion, Illinois, undertook a research and development project aimed at upgrading the center's curriculum to the competency-based format. Included among the main activities of the curriculum development process were the following:…

Widen, William C.

58

Discrimination of Nuclear Explosions against Civilian Sources Based on Atmospheric Radioiodine Isotopic Activity Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global monitoring system for atmospheric radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will verify compliance with the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support the interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135I, 133I and 131I. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulated nuclear explosion releases along with observational data of radioiodine releases from historic nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site are compared to simulated light water reactor releases in order to provide a proof of concept for source discrimination based on radioiodine isotopic activity ratios.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Liao, Yen-Yo; Pistner, Christoph

2014-03-01

59

Detection of radioxenon in Darwin, Australia following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.  

PubMed

A series of (133)Xe detections in April 2011 made at the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System noble gas station in Darwin, Australia, were analysed to determine the most likely source location. Forward and backwards atmospheric transport modelling simulations using FLEXPART were conducted. It was shown that the most likely source location was the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Other potential sources in the southern hemisphere were analysed, including the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) radiopharmaceutical facility, but it was shown that sources originating from these locations were highly unlikely to be the source of the observed (133)Xe Darwin detections. PMID:23933085

Orr, Blake; Schöppner, Michael; Tinker, Rick; Plastino, Wolfango

2013-12-01

60

Nuclear testing: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined the experimental and analytic bases for understanding the performance of each of the weapon types that are currently planned to remain in the US enduring nuclear stockpile. They have also examined whether continued underground tests at various nuclear yield thresholds would add significantly to the confidence in this stockpile in the years ahead. The starting point for this examination was a detailed review of past experience in developing and testing modern nuclear weapons, their certification and recertification processes, their performance margins, and evidence of aging or other trends over time for each weapon type in the enduring stockpile. The findings, as summarized in Conclusions 1 through 6, are consistent with US agreement to enter into a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) of unending duration, that includes a standard ``supreme national interest`` clause. Recognizing that the challenge of maintaining an effective nuclear stockpile for an indefinite period without benefit of underground tests is an important and also a new one, the US should affirm its readiness to invoke the supreme national interest clause should the need arise as a result of unanticipated technical problems in the enduring stockpile.

Drell, S.; Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F. [and others

1995-08-01

61

Locating nuclear explosions at the Chinese test site near Lop Nor  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how commercial satellite imagery was used along with teleseismic P-wave arrival time data to locate 21 Chinese nuclear tests. The results include a set of refined location estimates for atmospheric and underground tests as well as error vectors from the initial seismic location estimates to the refined location estimates. The analysis of the results provided new information on Chinese near testing patterns which have been used to revise China`s testing history and assist the satellite monitoring of the test site. The paper concludes with an evaluation of commercial satellite imaging for monitoring nuclear tests and an assessment of the implications of the results with respect to the verification of a comprehensive test ban (CTB).

Gupta, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

1995-11-01

62

Easy to use software package for comprehensive modeling of nucleEasy to use software package for comprehensive modeling of nuclear reactions using variousar reactions using various theoretical formalisms. Consists of a number of FORTRAN codes, itheoretica  

E-print Network

for comprehensive modeling of nuclear reactions using variousar reactions using various theoretical formalisms-Feshbach model with full gamma- cascade and dynamical deformation effects · nuclear masses (Nix-Moller and Audi95Easy to use software package for comprehensive modeling of nucleEasy to use software package

63

Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Comprehensive Health Risk Management—Global Radiocontamination and Information Disaster  

PubMed Central

The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the “Fukushima Health Management Survey Project” for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management.

2014-01-01

64

Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

1987-12-01

65

Ionospheric Effects of Underground Nuclear Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Telemetry from the Russian INTERCOSMOS 24 satellite recorded ELF and VLF electromagnetic disturbances in the outer ionosphere from an underground nuclear explosion that was detonated at Novaya Zemlya Island on 24 October 1994. The IC24 satellite observations were obtained at about 900 km altitude within a few degrees of ground zero. The disturbances were interpreted for magnetohydrodynamic excitation of the ionosphere’s E layer by the acoustic wave. Electrons are accelerated along the magnetic force lines to amplify longitudinal currents and magnetic disturbances that may be measured by magnetometers at ground-based observatories and on-board satellites. The underground nuclear test near P’unggye, North Korea on 25 May 2009 provides a further significant opportunity for studying the utility of ionospheric disturbances for characterizing ground zero. Of the seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide detection elements of the International Monitoring System (IMS) established by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), only the first two elements detected this event. However, the event also appears to have been recorded as a direct traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) in the slant total electron content (TEC) observations derived from a network of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. The TID was observed to distances of at least 600 km from the explosion site propagating with a speed of about 281m/s. Thus, the global distributions and temporal variations of the TEC, may provide important information to help detect and characterize clandestine underground nuclear explosions.

Park, J.; von Frese, R. R.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; Morton, Y.

2010-12-01

66

Comprehensive Vibration Assessment Program (CAP) performed Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 (YGN 4) order verify structural integrity reactor internals flow induced vibrations prior commercial operation.  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for Comprehensive Vibration Assessment Program (CAP) performed Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 (YGN 4) order verify structural integrity reactor internals flow induced vibrations prior commercial operation. ?

67

The Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests by Turkish National Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) announced the conduct of a third underground nuclear test on 12 February 2013 in the northeastern part of the country as the previous tests that were conducted in 2009 and 2006. The latest nuclear test is the best detected nuclear event by the global seismic networks. The magnitude estimates show that each new test increased in size when compared with the previous one. As Turkish NDC (National Data Center), we have analyzed the 2013 and 2009 nuclear tests using seismic data from International Monitoring System (IMS) stations through the International Data Center (IDC) located in Vienna. Discrimination analysis was performed based on mb:Ms magnitude ratio and spectral analysis. We have also applied array based waveform cross-correlation to show the similarity of the nuclear tests and precise arrival time measurements for relative location estimates and basic infrasound analysis using two IMS infrasound stations for the 2013 event. Seismic analysis were performed using softwares such as Geotool, EP (Event processor from Norsar) and Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) and the infrasound data were analyzed by using PMCC from CEA-France. The IMS network is operating under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The CTBTO verification system is under continuous development, also making use of the state of the art technologies and methodologies.

Semin, K.; Meral Ozel, N.; Destici, T. C.; Necmioglu, O.; Kocak, S.

2013-12-01

68

COMPREHENSIVE PROGRESS REPORT FOR FOURIER TRANSFORM NMR (NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE) OF METALS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Interactions of the metals cadmium and selenium with various biologically important substrates were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cadmium-113 NMR was used for a critical examination of three metalloproteins: concanavalin A, bovine superoxide dismutase ...

69

Nuclear hostages  

SciTech Connect

Classical physics since Roentgen's discovery of X-rays led quickly to work on atomic structure and the Nuclear Age. The author traces the history of decisions to pursue nuclear fission, the organization of the Manhattan Project, the compromises of the 1963 test ban treaty, and the dilemma of nuclear weapons development and deployment that now hold mankind hostage. He reviews the rationale for limited nuclear war, first strike, massive retaliation, non-proliferation, and the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) treaties. He argues that the concepts of mobile MX weapons, fratricide, and population dispersal for civil defense are unworkable, suggesting a program of unilaterally withdrawing tactical nuclear weapons from Europe and strengthening intelligence and law-enforcement powers to withstand terrorist activity. Economic cooperation and political reconciliation may take a generation to achieve, but should be our national goal.

O'Keefe, B.J.

1983-01-01

70

Comprehensive modeling of special nuclear materials detection using three-dimensional deterministic and Monte Carlo methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study aim to design a useful neutron signature characterization device based on 3He detectors, a standard neutron detection methodology used in homeland security applications. Research work involved simulation of the generation, transport, and detection of the leakage radiation from Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). To accomplish research goals, we use a new methodology to fully characterize a standard \\

Gabriel M. Ghita

2008-01-01

71

DTRA's Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has a Program in Basic Research and Development for Nuclear Explosion Technology within the Nuclear Treaties Branch of the Arms Control Technology Division. While the funding justification is Arms Control Treaties (i.e., Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, CTBT), the results are made available for any user. Funding for the Program has averaged around \\10m per year recently. By Congressional mandate, the program has disbursed money through competitive, peer-reviewed, Program Research and Development Announcements (PRDAs); there is usually (but not always) a PRDA each year. Typical awards have been for about three years at ~\\100,000 per year, currently there are over 60 contracts in place. In addition to the "typical" awards, there was an initiative 2000 to fund seismic location calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT; there are three three-year contracts of ~\\$1,000,000 per year to perform such calibration for Eurasia, and North Africa and the Middle East. Scientifically, four technological areas have been funded, corresponding to the four technologies in the IMS: seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide, with the lion's share of the funding going to the seismic area. The scientific focus of the Program for all four technologies is detection of signals, locating their origin, and trying to determine of they are unambiguously natural in origin ("event screening"). Location has been a particular and continuing focus within the Program.

Nichols, J.; Dainty, A.; Phillips, J.

2001-05-01

72

Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

2011-09-13

73

Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2010-09-21

74

Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2006-09-19

75

Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-09-23

76

Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2007-09-25

77

Proceedings of the 23rd Seismic Research Symposium: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 23rd Seismic Research Review: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions, held 2-5 October, 2001 in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Warren, N. Jill [Editor; Chavez, Francesca C. [Editor

2001-10-02

78

A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Mortierellales (Mortierellomycotina) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA.  

PubMed

The basal fungal order Mortierellales constitutes one of the largest orders in the basal lineages. This group consists of one family and six genera. Most species are saprobic soil inhabiting fungi with the ability of diverse biotransformations or the accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids, making them attractive for biotechnological applications. Only few studies exist aiming at the revelation of the evolutionary relationships of this interesting fungal group. This study includes the largest dataset of LSU and ITS sequences for more than 400 specimens containing 63 type or reference strains. Based on a LSU phylogram, fungal groups were defined and evaluated using ITS sequences and morphological features. Traditional morphology-based classification schemes were rejected, because the morphology of the Mortierellales seems to depend on culture conditions, a fact, which makes the identification of synapomorphic characters tedious. This study belongs to the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analyses for the Mortierellales up to date and reveals unresolved species and species complexes. PMID:24027348

Wagner, L; Stielow, B; Hoffmann, K; Petkovits, T; Papp, T; Vágvölgyi, C; de Hoog, G S; Verkley, G; Voigt, K

2013-06-01

79

Development of a comprehensive seismic yield-estimation system for underground nuclear explosions. Scientific report no. 3  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress which has been achieved during the past year in the development of a comprehensive new seismic yield estimation system (YES) for underground nuclear explosions. Specifically, a prototype version of YES which is applicable to explosions at the Soviet Shagan River and Novaya Zemlya test sites is described in detail. In its current configuration, the YES encompasses a database of more than 10,000 digital seismograms recorded at stations of the USAEDS, GDSN, CDSN and IRIS networks from explosions at these two test sites. For both test areas, information regarding the explosion source environment is presented to the analyst in the context of SPOT (tm) satellite images of the sites, together with associated surface and subsurface geologic information and DMA topographic data. The on-line database for YES also contains a wide variety of tabular information including complete event and station location files containing both classified and unclassified locations, standard travel-time tables for the seismic arrivals used for yield estimation, propagation path and station corrections for use in magnitude determinations and a comprehensive instrument response database. The capabilities and functionality of the current version of the YES system are graphically illustrated in Section 2 using displays of the screens encountered by an analyst in a typical processing session.

Murphy, J.R.; Jenab, J.N.

1992-03-01

80

The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

Nordyke, M.D.

1996-10-01

81

Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-09-21

82

Tenth Warren K. Sinclair keynote address-the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management.  

PubMed

Just two years have passed since the Tokyo Electric Power Company-Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, a multidimensional disaster that combined to destroy the local infrastructure on which the safety system depended and gave a serious impact to the world. Countermeasures including evacuation, sheltering, and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese government. However, there is a clear need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection and also in the management of the radiation health risk during and even after the accident. To date there have been no acute radiation injuries. The radiation-related physical health consequences to the general public, including evacuees, are likely to be much lower than those arising from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, because the radiation fallout and the subsequent environmental contamination were much more limited. However, the social, psychological, and economic impacts of the Fukushima NPP accident are expected to be considerable. Currently, continued monitoring and characterization of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are vital for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the areas already radiocontaminated and returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is permitted; it is also important to perform a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. We are currently implementing the official plans of the Fukushima Health Management Survey, which includes a basic survey for the estimation of the external doses that were received during the first 4 mo after the accident and four more detailed surveys (thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and life-style survey, and survey of pregnant women and nursing mothers), with the aim to take care of the health of all of the residents of the Fukushima Prefecture for a long time. Introduction of the Sinclair Lecture (Video 2:01, http://links.lww.com/HP/A24). PMID:24378490

Yamashita, Shunichi

2014-02-01

83

Comprehensive modeling of special nuclear materials detection using three-dimensional deterministic and Monte Carlo methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study aim to design a useful neutron signature characterization device based on 3He detectors, a standard neutron detection methodology used in homeland security applications. Research work involved simulation of the generation, transport, and detection of the leakage radiation from Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). To accomplish research goals, we use a new methodology to fully characterize a standard "1-Ci" Plutonium-Beryllium (Pu-Be) neutron source based on 3-D computational radiation transport methods, employing both deterministic SN and Monte Carlo methodologies. Computational model findings were subsequently validated through experimental measurements. Achieved results allowed us to design, build, and laboratory-test a Nickel composite alloy shield that enables the neutron leakage spectrum from a standard Pu-Be source to be transformed, through neutron scattering interactions in the shield, into a very close approximation of the neutron spectrum leaking from a large, subcritical mass of Weapons Grade Plutonium (WGPu) metal. This source will make possible testing with a nearly exact reproduction of the neutron spectrum from a 6.67 kg WGPu mass equivalent, but without the expense or risk of testing detector components with real materials. Moreover, over thirty moderator materials were studied in order to characterize their neutron energy filtering potential. Specific focus was made to establish the limits of He-3 spectroscopy using ideal filter materials. To demonstrate our methodology, we present the optimally detected spectral differences between SNM materials (Plutonium and Uranium), metal and oxide, using ideal filter materials. Finally, using knowledge gained from previous studies, the design of a He-3 spectroscopy system neutron detector, simulated entirely via computational methods, is proposed to resolve the spectra from SNM neutron sources of high interest. This was accomplished by replacing ideal filters with real materials, and comparing reaction rates with similar data from the ideal material suite.

Ghita, Gabriel M.

84

Announced United States nuclear tests, July 1945--December 1990  

SciTech Connect

This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by event name all nuclear tests conducted and announced by the United States from July 1945 to December 1990 with the exception of the GMX experiments. Discussion is included on test dates, test series, test yields, test locations, test types and purposes, test totals for Nevada Test Site (NTS) detection of radioactivity from NTS events, and categorization of NTS nuclear tests. Briefly discussed are agreements between the US and the Soviet Union regarding test banning. (MB)

Not Available

1991-01-01

85

Gas Transport and Detection Following Underground Nuclear Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some extremely rare radioactive noble gases are by-products of underground nuclear explosions, and the detection of significant levels of these gases (e.g., Xe-133 and Ar-37) at the surface is a very strong indicator of the occurrence of an underground nuclear event. Because of their uniqueness, such noble gas signatures can be confirmatory of the nuclear nature of an event while signatures from other important detection methods, such as anomalous seismicity, are generally not. As a result, noble gas detection at a suspected underground nuclear test site is considered to be the most important technique available to inspectors operating under the On-Site-Inspection protocol of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. A one-kiloton chemical underground explosion, the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), was carried out at the Nevada Test Site in 1993 and represented the first On-Site-Inspection oriented test of subsurface gas transport with subsequent detection at the surface using soil gas sampling methods. A major conclusion of the experiment was that noble gases from underground nuclear tests have a good possibility of being detected even if the test is well contained. From this experiment and from computer simulations, we have also learned significant lessons about the modes of gas transport to the surface and the importance of careful subsurface sampling to optimize the detected noble gas signature. Understanding transport and sampling processes for a very wide range of geologic and testing scenarios presents significant challenges that we are currently addressing using sensitivity studies, which we attempt to verify using experiments such as the NPE and a new subsurface gas migration experiment that is now being undertaken at the National Center for Nuclear Security. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.; Wagoner, J. L.; Zucca, J. J.

2011-12-01

86

Pulse and Fourier transform surface nuclear magnetic resonance: comprehensive modelling and inversion incorporating complex data and static dephasing dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in this paper an alternative approach to modelling and inversion of surface nuclear magnetic resonance (sNMR) data that has numerous attractive characteristics. By considering the forward and inverse problem in the frequency-domain (FD) it is possible to heavily truncate the band-limited data set with no appreciable loss of information. Furthermore, it introduces a natural method of signal demodulating and sidesteps the rotating frame transformation, which can be difficult to apply to large volumes. By instead remaining in the laboratory frame, phase shifts due to off-resonance transmission and static variation in the Larmor frequencies become simpler to account for. For these reasons, we present the first practical scheme for comprehensively inverting the complex sNMR data set. The use of complex data allows for improved depth and decay constant resolution. However, it requires the knowledge of subsurface electrical conductivity, and by corollary the ability to accurately model those effects in the sNMR record. Finally, the complex FD signal is sensitive to dephasing of the sNMR record due to static magnetic field inhomogeneity. We illustrate the ability to detect dephasing in synthetic and field data and demonstrate an effective inversion which is able to solve for static dephasing effects. This results in better estimation of meaningful decay constants as well as reduced error in extrapolated initial signal amplitude. Both of these parameters are critical for using sNMR in applications requiring estimation of hydraulic parameters.

Irons, Trevor P.; Li, Yaoguo

2014-12-01

87

Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident.  

PubMed

The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of (131)I reached levels of 3.0×10(-2) Bqm(-3) in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas (133)Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm(-3). While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. PMID:22137556

Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Eslinger, P W; Friese, J A; Greenwood, L R; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Keillor, M; Miley, H S; Moring, M

2012-12-01

88

Isotopic Characterization of Radioiodine and Radioxenon in Releases from Underground Nuclear Explosions with Various Degrees of Fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both radioxenon and radioiodine are possible indicators for a nuclear explosion. Therefore, they will be, together with other relevant radionuclides, globally monitored by the International Monitoring System in order to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies the temporal development of radioxenon and radioiodine activities with two different assumptions on fractionation during the release from an underground test. In the first case, only the noble gases are released, in the second case, radioiodine is released as well while the precursors remain underground. For the second case, the simulated curves of activity ratios are compared to prompt and delayed atmospheric radioactivity releases from underground nuclear tests at Nevada as a function of the time of atmospheric air sampling for concentration measurements of 135I, 133I and 131I. In addition, the effect of both fractionation cases on the isotopic activity ratios is shown in the four-isotope-plot (with 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe) that can be utilized for distinguishing nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Liao, Yen-Yo

2014-03-01

89

Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U. S. nuclear arms control policy  

SciTech Connect

The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case.

Knopf, J.W.

1991-01-01

90

Geologic constraints on clandestine nuclear testing in South Asia.  

PubMed

Cavity decoupling in salt is the most plausible means by which a nation could conduct clandestine testing of militarily significant nuclear weapons. The conditions under which solution-mined salt can be used for this purpose are quite restrictive. The salt must be thick and reasonably pure. Containment of explosions sets a shallow limit on depth, and cavity stability sets a deep limit. These constraints are met in considerably <1% of the total land area of India and Pakistan. Most of that area is too dry for cavity construction by solution mining; disposal of brine in rivers can be detected easily. Salt domes, the most favorable structures for constructing large cavities, are not present in India and Pakistan. Confidence that they are adhering to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is enhanced by their geological conditions, which are quite favorable to verification, not evasion. Thus, their participation in the CTBT is constrained overwhelmingly by political, not scientific, issues. Confidence in the verification of the CTBT could be enhanced if India and Pakistan permitted stations of the various monitoring technologies that are now widely deployed elsewhere to be operated on their territories. PMID:10500134

Davis, D M; Sykes, L R

1999-09-28

91

Comprehensive safety analysis code system for nuclear fusion reactors I: Model and analyses of overpower events for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive safety analysis code system has been proposed for the quantitative investigation of the safety of nuclear fusion reactors such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). As a first step, the plasma dynamics and the thermal characteristics of the core internal structures have been developed by a one-point model and a time-dependent one-dimensional heat transfer model, respectively. The

T. Honda; T. Uda; K. Maki; T. Okazaki; Y. Seki; I. Aoki

1994-01-01

92

Explosive Challenge: Diplomatic Triangles, the United Nations, and the Problem of French Nuclear Testing, 19591960  

Microsoft Academic Search

France's first nuclear tests in Algeria in 1960 occurred at a critical moment in the Cold War. The United States, Great Britain, and the USSR had suspended their tests in 1958 and had been holding test ban talks in Geneva. British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan faced a vociferous anti-nuclear movement at home and wanted to foster East-West détente. The U.S.

Mervyn O'Driscoll

2009-01-01

93

Creating a comprehensive, efficient, and sustainable nuclear regulatory structure. A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the strategies and process used by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to restructure its support for MPC&A regulations in the Russian Federation. The RDP adopted a project management approach to defining, implementing, and managing an effective nuclear regulatory structure. This approach included defining and developing the regulatory documents necessary to provide the Russian Federation with a comprehensive regulatory structure that supports an effective and sustainable MPC&A Program in Russia. This effort began in February 2005, included a series of three multi-agency meetings in April, June, and July, and culminated in August 2005 in a mutually agreed-upon plan to define and populate the nuclear regulatory system in the Russian Federation for non-military, weapons-usable material. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear material at the Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom), the Russian Agency for Industry (Rosprom), and the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT) facilities; nuclear material in transport and storage; and nuclear material under the oversight of the Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervisory Service of Russia (Rostechnadzor). The Russian and U.S. MPC&A management teams approved the plan, and the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) NA-255, Office of Infrastructure and Sustainability (ONIS), is providing funding. The Regulatory Development Project is managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) NNSA.

Davis, Gregory E.; Brownell, Lorilee; Wright, Troy L.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; O'Brien, Patricia E.

2006-07-01

94

Explosive Challenge: Diplomatic Triangles, the United Nations, and the Problem of French Nuclear Testing, 1959“1960  

Microsoft Academic Search

France’s first nuclear tests in Algeria in 1960 occurred at a critical moment in the Cold War. The United States, Great Britain, and the USSR had suspended their tests in 1958 and had been holding test ban talks in Geneva. British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan faced a vociferous anti-nuclear movement at home and wanted to foster East-West détente. The U.S.

2009-01-01

95

Development of a comprehensive seismic yield estimation system for underground nuclear explosions. Final report, 17 January 1989-15 April 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research which has been carried out in conjunction with the development of a comprehensive new seismic yield estimation system (YES) for underground nuclear explosions. Specifically, it provides a detailed description of the final version of YES which has been implemented at the ARPA Center for Seismic Studies (CSS) to estimate seismic yields of explosions at the Shagan River and Novaya Zemlya test sites of the former Soviet Union. In its current configuration, the YES encompasses a database of more than 15,000 digital seismograms recorded at stations of the USAEDS, GDSN, CDSN and IRIS networks from explosions at these two test sites. For both test areas, information regarding the explosion source environment is presented to the analyst in the context of SPOT(TM) satellite images of the sites, together with associated surface and subsurface geologic information and DMA topographic data. Nuclear Explosions, Software System, X Window, Yield Estimation, Shagan River, YES, Seismic, Novaya Zemlya, CSS.

Murphy, J.R.; Stevens, J.L.; O'Neill, D.C.; Barker, B.W.; McLaughlin, K.L.

1993-05-01

96

Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach  

SciTech Connect

Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear weapons? Many competing objectives have been stated across the spectrum of political, social, and military thought. These objectives include goals of ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, recommitment to further downsizing of the nuclear arsenal, embracing a long-term goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons, limitations on both the production complex and upgrades to nuclear weapons and delivery systems, and controls and constraints to limit proliferation of nuclear materials and weapons, particularly to rogue states and terrorist groups.

Martz, Joseph C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Patrice A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Branstetter, Linda [SNL; Hoover, Edward [SNL; O' Brien, Kevin [SNL; Slavin, Adam [SNL; Caswell, David [STANFORD UNIV

2010-01-01

97

UK National Data Centre Analysis of the 2006 and 2009 DPRK Nuclear Tests, and Implications for Event Screening in the Context of the CTBT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear test carried out by North Korea in 2006 was well recorded at teleseismic distances by stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) set up to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and by regional and teleseismic distance stations of other networks. Surface waves were observed at several stations, and the ratio of body-wave to surface-wave magnitude, mb:Ms, long an established method for distinguishing earthquakes and explosions, was lower than experience at established test sites such as Nevada would have suggested. Indeed, on an mb:Ms scatter-plot, the explosion was close to the provisional mb:Ms screening line used at the International Data Centre (IDC, which analyses IMS data). In a previous presentation (Selby and Bowers, SSA 2007), we argued that the 2006 test was not anomalous, and that the IDC screening line was inappropriate for low magnitude events, and needed to be revisited. Here we present our analysis of the 2009 North Korean test, and compare the results (including relative location, magnitude, and tectonic release) with those of 2006, and examine to what extent the 2009 test supports our previous conclusions. We examine whether the two North Korean tests are anomalous in the context of the historical explosion mb:Ms population, and consider the implications for the mb:Ms event screening criterion.

Selby, N. D.; Bowers, D.

2009-12-01

98

Comprehension syntax  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syntax of comprehensions is very close to the syntax of a number of practical database query languages and is, we believe, a better starting point than first-order logic for the development of database languages. We give an informal account of a language based on comprehension syntax that deals uniformly with a variety of collection types; it also includes pattern

Peter Buneman; Leonid Libkin; Dan Suciu; Val Tannen; Limsoon Wong

1994-01-01

99

Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

2014-03-01

100

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program  

SciTech Connect

With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by DOE’s MPC&A Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and schedule the development of documents; 5) Identify and develop processes to measure effectiveness of regulations. Utilizing this process is resulting in an effective regulatory process that is understood and is being adopted by the four RF organizations. It is anticipated that the current regulatory development process will continue after U.S. support ends. Utilization of the systematic methodology will ensure regulatory development is based on required MPC&A structural elements and will support the continued maintenance and development of an effective regulatory base.

Wright, Troy L.; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Schlegel, Steven C.

2010-08-11

101

The Chloroplast Function Database II: a comprehensive collection of homozygous mutants and their phenotypic/genotypic traits for nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins.  

PubMed

The Chloroplast Function Database has so far offered phenotype information on mutants of the nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins in Arabidopsis that pertains to >200 phenotypic data sets that were obtained from 1,722 transposon- or T-DNA-tagged lines. Here, we present the development of the second version of the database, which is named the Chloroplast Function Database II and was redesigned to increase the number of mutant characters and new user-friendly tools for data mining and integration. The upgraded database offers information on genome-wide mutant screens for any visible phenotype against 2,495 tagged lines to create a comprehensive homozygous mutant collection. The collection consists of 147 lines with seedling phenotypes and 185 lines for which we could not obtain homozygotes, as well as 1,740 homozygotes with wild-type phenotypes. Besides providing basic information about primer lists that were used for the PCR genotyping of T-DNA-tagged lines and explanations about the preparation of homozygous mutants and phenotype screening, the database includes access to a link between the gene locus and existing publicly available databases. This gives users access to a combined pool of data, enabling them to gain valuable insights into biological processes. In addition, high-resolution images of plastid morphologies of mutants with seedling-specific chloroplast defects as observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are available in the current database. This database is used to compare the phenotypes of visually identifiable mutants with their plastid ultrastructures and to evaluate their potential significance from characteristic patterns of plastid morphology in vivo. Thus, the Chloroplast Function Database II is a useful and comprehensive information resource that can help researchers to connect individual Arabidopsis genes to plastid functions on the basis of phenotype analysis of our tagged mutant collection. It can be freely accessed at http://rarge.psc.riken.jp/chloroplast/. PMID:23230006

Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Akiyama, Kenji; Tomonaga, Yumi; Kato, Aya; Sato, Yuka; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo

2013-02-01

102

The May 18, 1998 Indian Nuclear Test Seismograms at station NIL  

SciTech Connect

The last underground nuclear tests were conducted by India and Pakistan in May 1998. Although the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty has not entered force, an International Monitoring System (IMS), established by the treaty is nearing completion. This system includes 170 seismic stations, a number of them originally established by IRIS. The station IRIS station NIL (Nilore, Pakistan) is close to a planned IMS primary station and recorded some very interesting seismograms from the May 18, 1998 Indian test. We carefully calibrated the path to NIL using a prior Mw 4.4 that occurred on April 4, 1995 about 110 km north of the Indian test site. We used joint epicentral location techniques along with teleseismic P waves and regional surface waves to fix the epicenter, depth, mechanism and moment of this event. From these we obtained a velocity model for the path to NIL and created explosion synthetic seismograms to compare with the data. Interestingly the observed Rayleigh waves are reversed, consistent with an implosion rather than an explosion source. The preferred explanation is that the explosion released tectonic stress near the source region, which can be modeled as a thrust earthquake of approximate Mw 4.0 plus a pure explosion. This tectonic release is sufficient to completely dominate the Rayleigh waves and produce the observed signal (Walter et al. 2005). We also examined the explosion at high frequencies of 6 6-8 Hz where many studies have shown that relative P/S amplitudes can discriminate explosions from a background of earthquakes (Rodgers and Walter, 2002). Comparing with the April 4 1995 earthquake we see the classic difference of relatively large P/S values for the explosion compared to the earthquakes despite the complication of the large tectonic release during the explosion.

Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J; Bowers, D; Selby, N

2005-04-11

103

List Comprehensions and Simulations 1 List Comprehensions  

E-print Network

and Simulations 1 List Comprehensions examples in the Python shell zipping, filtering, and reducing 2 Monte CarloList Comprehensions and Simulations 1 List Comprehensions examples in the Python shell zipping, filtering, and reducing 2 Monte Carlo Simulations testing the normal distribution the Mean Time Between

Verschelde, Jan

104

INMM 54th Annual Meeting, July 14-18, 2013, JW Marriott Desert Springs, Palm Desert, California USA Comprehensive Nuclear Material Surveillance with a  

E-print Network

INMM 54th Annual Meeting, July 14-18, 2013, JW Marriott Desert Springs, Palm Desert, California USA, IL 60439 1 U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585 ABSTRACT Comprehensive monitoring. * Proc. INMM 54th Annual Meeting, Palm Desert, CA, July 14-18, 2013. The submitted manuscript has been

Kemner, Ken

105

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

106

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and

Troy L. Wright; Patricia E. OBrien; Michael J. Hazel; John D. Tuttle; Mitchel E. Cunningham; Steven C. Schlegel

2010-01-01

107

Creating a comprehensive, efficient, and sustainable nuclear regulatory structure. A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energys Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the strategies and process used by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to restructure its support for MPC&A regulations in the Russian Federation. The RDP adopted a project management approach to defining, implementing, and managing an effective nuclear regulatory structure. This approach included defining and developing

Gregory E. Davis; Lorilee Brownell; Troy L. Wright; John D. Tuttle; Mitchel E. Cunningham; Patricia E. OBrien

2006-01-01

108

An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bogazici University and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is acting as the Turkish National Data Center (NDC) and responsible for the operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) Primary Seismic Station (PS-43) under Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center for the verification of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) since February 2000. The NDC is responsible for operating two arrays which are part of the IMS, as well as for transmitting data from these stations to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. The Belbasi array was established in 1951, as a four-element (Benioff 1051) seismic array as part of the United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS). Turkish General Staff (TGS) and U.S. Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) under the Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement (DECA) jointly operated this short period array. The station was upgraded and several seismometers were added to array during 1951 and 1994 and the station code was changed from BSRS (Belbasi Seismic Research Station) to BRTR-PS43 later on. PS-43 is composed of two sub-arrays (Ankara and Keskin): the medium-period array with a ~40 km radius located in Ankara and the short-period array with a ~3 km radius located in Keskin. Each array has a broadband element located at the middle of the circular geometry. Short period instruments are installed at depth 30 meters from the surface while medium and broadband instruments are installed at depth 60 meters from surface. On 25 May 2009, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) claimed that it had conducted a nuclear test. Corresponding seismic event was recorded by IMS and IDC released first automatic estimation of time (00:54:43 GMT), location (41.2896°N and 129.0480°E) and the magnitude (4.52 mb) of the event in less than two hours time (USGS: 00:54:43 GMT; 41.306°N, 129.029°E; 4.7 mb) During our preliminary analysis of the 25th May 2009 DPRK event, we saw a very clear P arrival at 01:05:47 (GMT) at BRTR SP array. The result of the f-k analysis performed in Geotool software, installed at NDC facilities in 2008 and is in full use currently, was also indicating that the arrival belongs to the DPRK event. When comparing our f-k results (calculated at 1-2 Hz) with IDC-REB, however, we have noticed that our calculation and therefore corresponding residuals (calculated with reference to REB residuals) are much better in comparison to REB. The reasons of this ambiguity have been explored and for the first time a comprehensive seismological analysis of a Nuclear Test has been conducted in Turkey. CTBT has an important role for the implementation of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and it is a key element for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. In this study, we would like to reflect the technical and scientific aspects of the 25 May 2009 DPRK event analysis, together with our involvement in CTBT(O) affairs, which we believe it brings new dimensions to Turkey especially in the area of Geophysics.

Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

2009-12-01

109

Comprehensive Analysis of the Isotopic Composition of Plutonium in the Emission from the Destroyed No. 4 Unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed for analyzing the a spectrum of plutonium fractions. The method is used to determine the isotopic composition of plutonium in soil samples taken at points of a reference grid and on certified test areas of the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

A. P. Lashko; T. N. Lashko; A. A. Odintsov; V. P. Khomenkov

2001-01-01

110

Seismic verification of underground explosions  

SciTech Connect

The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper.

Glenn, L.A.

1985-06-01

111

Washington County Comprehensive plan  

E-print Network

Washington County Comprehensive plan October 2010 #12;This page is intentionally blank. #12;Table of ConTenTs #12;ii Washington County Comprehensive plan · 2010 #12;iii Table of ConTenTs Table of Con Washington County Comprehensive plan · 2010 4. makIng The Case for PlannIng 17 Collective vs. Individual

112

Improving Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for advancing reading comprehension skills. The targeted population consisted of second and fourth grade students in an affluent northern suburb of a large midwestern community. The problem of a lack of comprehension skills was documented through teacher observations, student and parent surveys, comprehension

Spiegel, Gayle; Vickers, Lara; Viviano, Jean

113

Nuclear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

114

USF -A COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCHUNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

thoughtful, active, productive and compassionate citizens. The University provides to all undergraduates as exemplary scholars. As a comprehensive research university, USF is dedicated to the discovery of new

Lajeunesse, Marc J.

115

Seismic signals from underground cavity collapses and other mining-related failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sudden collapse of man-made underground cavities have generated seismic signals as large as magnitude 5.4. Collapses are just one of the many types of mining associated seismicity including coalbumps and rockbursts which need to be identified and distinguished from potential clandestine nuclear explosions under the recently signed Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Collapses, coalbumps and rockbursts are of concern

W. R. Walter; F. Heuze; D. Dodge

1997-01-01

116

Meeting Report: The CTBT and advances in earth science  

Microsoft Academic Search

David Booth and Peter Maguire report on a two-day meeting organized by the Royal Astronomical Society and the British Geophysical Association, that showed how scientific challenges generated by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty have been addressed, and how they continue to stimulate advances in earth science. David Booth and Peter Maguire were joint organizers of this meeting. Meeting programme,

David Booth; Peter Maguire

2002-01-01

117

Forecast for Plume's Path Is a Function of Wind and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated map is based on a forecast by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization. The map shows how weather patterns might disperse radiation from a continuous source in Fukushima, Japan. The forecast does not show actual levels of radiation.

Times, The N.

118

Teaching Language Through Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the comprehension approach to second language instruction, the major procedure is to provide students with comprehensible input, which it is the students' responsibility to understand. The aim is to encourage nucleation of the target language, that is the crystallization of the rule system. Teaching procedures focus on strategies for implicit…

Winitz, Harris; And Others

119

Spectrum of Physics Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured…

Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

2012-01-01

120

Categorisation of nuclear explosions from legitimate radioxenon sources with atmospheric transport modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioxenon is produced during nuclear explosions and due to its high fission ratio during the reaction and its noble gas character the isotopes can be detected remote from the location of the explosion. Therefore it is used by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization (CTBTO) as an indicator for the nuclear character of an explosion and is monitored with the International Monitoring System (IMS). The concentration of radioxenon in the air is continuously measured by multiple stations worldwide and is in need of an automatic categorization scheme in order to highlight signals of interest and to sort out signals that can be explained by legitimate sources. The dispersion and transport of radioxenon emissions through the atmosphere can be simulated with atmospheric transport modelling. Many legitimate sources of radioxenon exist: Nuclear power plants and isotope production facilities are mainly responsible for the worldwide background. The characterisation of this background is an important prerequisite to discriminate nuclear explosion signals against the background. It has been discovered that the few existing isotope production facilities are the major contributors to the background, each with emission strengths in the order of magnitude or more than all nuclear power plants together. Therefore, especially the characterization of these few, but strong, emitters can improve the quality of the signal prediction. Since the location of such an emitter is usually known the source-receptor sensitivity matrices can be utilized together with measured radioxenon concentrations from IMS stations in order to deduct information about the time dependent emissions from the strong emitter. An automatic method to determine an approximated, time dependent source term of an emitter with known location has been developed and is presented. This is a potentially valid tool for the categorization of radioxenon samples, because it can be used to assess whether the measured concentration can be explained with emissions from known sources or additional, unknown sources have to be considered. Furthermore, previously made estimations of the worldwide radioxenon emission inventory can be used together with backward atmospheric transport modelling to simulate the time dependent signal at IMS detector stations. These simulated signals are then compared and validated with the measurements that are usually taken in 12h or 24h rhythm. Also, hypothetical nuclear explosions at various locations and times are used to alter the signal and different flagging methods are compared in their ability to distinguish these from the background. The different flagging methods are using various absolute and relative thresholds to categorize the daily radioxenon samples. Then it is examined, whether the flagging method can successfully detect the nuclear test signal within the background. Also false-positive and especially false-negative rates are important validation criteria. Also the dispersion and transport of reported emissions of historical nuclear underground tests at the Nevada test site are simulated. The calculated concentrations at today's IMS noble gas stations are used to deduce xenon ratios which are then used to categorise the events.

Schoeppner, M.; Postelt, F.; Kalinowski, M.; Plastino, W.

2012-04-01

121

UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Established in 1971, the University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center (UAB), received its NCI designation in the same year. The Center has grown to include a membership of more than 330 physicians and researchers.

122

Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan December 20, 2013 #12;2 Please contact Safety & Risk....................................................................................................................10 Framework for Emergency Management at SFU..................................... 14 Authority.......................................................................................................................................14 Four Pillars of Emergency Management

Kavanagh, Karen L.

123

Backtracking of Noble Gas Measurements Taken in the Aftermath of the Announced October 2006 Event in North Korea by Means of PTS Methods in Nuclear Source Estimation and Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The announced October 2006 nuclear test explosion in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) has been the first real test regarding the technical capabilities of the verification system built up by the Vienna-based Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) to detect and locate a nuclear test event. This paper enhances the resolution of the DPRK events' xenon source reconstruction published by S aey et al. (2007, "A long distance measurement of radioxenon in Yellowknife, Canada, in late October 2006", GRL, Vol. 34, L20802) that was based solely on radio-xenon measurements taken at the remote radionuclide station in Yellowknife, Canada by involving additional measurements taken by a mobile noble gas system deployed quite close to the event location in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Moreover the horizontal resolution of the forward and backward atmospheric transport modelling methods applied for the source scenario reconstruction has been enhanced appropriately to reflect the considerably shorter source-receptor distances examined in comparison to the previously published source reconstruction. It is shown that the 133Xe measurements in Yellowknife could register 133Xe traces from the nuclear explosion during the first 3 days after the event, while the mobile measurements were rather sensitive to releases during days 2-4 after the explosion. According to the analysis, the most likely source scenario would consist of an initial (possibly up to 21 h delayed) venting of 1 × 10-15 Bq 133Xe during the first 24 h, followed by a two orders of magnitude weaker seepage during the following 3 days. Both measurements corroborate the scenario of a rather rapid venting and soil diffusion of the 133Xe yielded during the explosion. While the Swedish mobile measurements were crucial to enhancement of the reconstruction of the source scenario, given the installation status of the IMS xenon network at the time of the event, a sensitivity analysis revealed that the fully developed network would have been able to detect 133Xe traces from the Korean explosion at a number of stations and allowed for an even better constraint on the release function. The station Ussuriysk, Russia, being in operation in 2006, would have registered 133Xe within 1 day and with a three orders of magnitudes stronger signal compared to the detection at Yellowknife.

Becker, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, Paul R. J.

2010-05-01

124

Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey, in situ measurements with high-purity germanium (HPGe) and hand-held LaBr3 systems, soil sampling with a variety of tools, and laboratory gamma spectrometric analysis of those samples. A further benefit of the measurement campaign was to gain familiarity with the many logistical aspects of performing radiological field work at NNSS ahead of the PRex. Many practical lessons concerning the proper methodologies and logistics of using the surveying and sampling equipment were noted. These Lessons Learned are compiled together in Appendix A. The vehicle-based survey was successful in that it found a previously unknown hotspot (determined to be 232Th) while it demonstrated that a better method for keeping a serpentine track without staking was needed. Some of the soil sampling equipment was found to be impractical for the application, though core sampling would not be the correct way to take soil samples for a fresh vent deposit (as opposed to an old site like DILUTED WATERS). Due to the site’s age, 137Cs was the only fission radioisotope identified, though others were searched for. While not enough samples were taken and analyzed to definitively link the 137Cs to DILUTED WATERS as opposed to other NNSS activities, results were consistent with the historical DILUTED WATERS plume. MDAs were compared for soil sampling and in situ measurements.

Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

2012-11-01

125

Case Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The Case Comprehensive Cancer Center (Case CCC) at Case Western Reserve University was both founded and became an NCI-designated cancer center in 1987. It was recognized as an NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center 11 years later. In 2004, the institutional and membership base from the founding partnership between Case Western Reserve and Ireland Cancer Center of University Hospitals (UH) expanded to include the Cleveland Clinic. Cancer research and care at these three institutions are now unified under the leadership of the Case CCC.

126

Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

2014-01-01

127

Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

In 1974, scientists at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) came together to form a cancer center and in 1976, the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center received its NCI designation. More than 240 physicians and scientists conduct basic, clinical, and cancer prevention research, while providing the latest treatments to patients and training the next generation of medical researchers.

128

November 1999 A Comprehensive  

E-print Network

listen to more music and boys watch more TV and play more video games. Boys spend a little more time than higher: hardly a week goes by without a public debate about violent video games, educational TVA Kaiser Family Foundation Report November 1999 A Comprehensive National Analysis of Children

Cassell, Justine

129

COMMUNICATION AND COMPREHENSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A SERIES OF BRITISH IMPACT STUDIES DEALT WITH ADULT AUDIENCE CHARACTERISTICS (COMPREHENSION, KNOWLEDGE, INTERESTS, ATTITUDES) AND FACTORS WITHIN THE MEDIUM THAT MAKE FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION. FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SUBJECT MATTER WERE PRESENTED TO MATCHED SAMPLES OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC BY MEANS OF RADIO, TELEVISION, AND PRINTED ARTICLES. THE…

TRENAMAN, J.M.

130

Application of Geophysical Techniques in Identifying UNE Signatures at Semipalatinsk Test Site (for OSI Purposes)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes geological and geophysical studies of an underground nuclear explosion area in one of the boreholes at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan. During these studies, the typical elements of mechanical impact of the underground explosion on the host medium—fracturing of rock, spall zones, faults, cracks, etc., were observed. This information supplements to the database of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology and can be applied in fulfilling on-site inspection tasks under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

Belyashov, A.; Shaitorov, V.; Yefremov, M.

2014-03-01

131

Comprehension Monitoring and Reading Comprehension in Bilingual Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored comprehension monitoring, use of reading strategies and reading comprehension of bilingual students at different levels of perceived proficiency in Italian. The participants were bilingual fifth to eighth-grade elementary school students from four Italian schools in Rijeka, Croatia. Students' reading comprehension was assessed.…

Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana; Bajsanski, Igor

2007-01-01

132

Assessing Reading Comprehension in Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new measure of reading comprehension, the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension (DARC), designed to reflect central comprehension processes while minimizing decoding and language demands, was pilot tested. We conducted three pilot studies to assess the DARC's feasibility, reliability, comparability across Spanish and English,…

August, Diane; Francis, David J.; Hsu, Han-Ya Annie; Snow, Catherine E.

2006-01-01

133

Observation and Modeling of Ripple-Fired Explosions at the Centralia Mine, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the issues associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is the discrimination of large mining explosions from nuclear tests. The Centralia coal mine is a significant source of seismic events in southwestern Washington. Some of the mine explosions have reported magnitudes as large as 3.5. We have assembled a set of waveform data from these explosions, derived from

Alan Rohay; Alan C

1999-01-01

134

Announced United States nuclear tests, July 1945--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by event name all nuclear tests conducted and announced by the United States from July 1945 through December 1991, with the exception of the GMX experiments. The 24 GMX experiments, conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between December 1954 and February 1956, were equation-of-state'' physics studies that used small chemical explosives and small quantities of plutonium. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air. On August 5, 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty which effectively banned testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. All United States nuclear tests conducted prior to that date have been announced and are listed in this document. Some tests conducted underground since the signing of the Treaty and designed to be contained completely have not been announced. Information concerning these events is classified. Occasionally, the name and detonation date of an unannounced test is declassified which permits its listing in subsequent revisions to this document.

Not Available

1992-05-01

135

Seismic recordings in the northeastern United States of the Shagan River nuclear test of 14 September 1988. Final report, 1 Oct 88-30 Sep 89  

SciTech Connect

On 14 September, the USSR conducted an announced nuclear test as part of the US-USSR Joint Verification Experiment (JVE) called for in the protocols of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974. The test, code named SHAGAN, was detonated at the Shagan River test area in eastern Kazakh SSR. For this nuclear test, a small-aperture array in New Hampshire and a small five station network located in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State were operated. The following report describes the data taken during this experiment and preliminary analysis of the arrival time and magnitude estimates from the data. The results of this analysis are consistent with those from previous studies.

Battis, J.C.; Cipar, J.J.

1991-01-07

136

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) as a public-use data base with the goal of broadening independent access to data collected during studies of the health effects of exposure to radiation and other physical or chemical agents associated with the production of nuclear materials. This catalog is intended for use by any individual interested in obtaining information about, or access to, CEDR data. This catalog provides information that will help users identify and request data file sets of interest.

NONE

1995-05-01

137

What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?  

MedlinePLUS

... función de Escuchar . What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ... seeing your best. What does a comprehensive dilated eye exam include? A comprehensive eye examination includes: dilation , ...

138

USF -A COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

- ful, active, productive and compassionate citizens. The Univer- sity provides to all undergraduates as exemplary scholars. As a comprehensive research university, the University is dedicated to the discovery

Lajeunesse, Marc J.

139

USF -A COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

- ful, active, productive, and compassionate citizens. The Univer- sity provides to all undergraduates as exemplary scholars. As a comprehensive research university, the University is dedicated to the discovery

Lajeunesse, Marc J.

140

Comprehension in "hyperlexic" readers.  

PubMed

Mentally retarded children who can read aloud written words better than one would expect from their Mental Age are often called hyperlexic. The reading comprehension thought to be impaired in such children was investigated in four experiments. Mentally retarded advanced decoders, including autistic and nonautistic children, were compared with younger nonretarded children matched for Mental Age and Reading Age. Experiment 1 established that mildly mentally retarded readers could match sentences to pictures as well as could be expected from their verbal ability. This was the same whether they read the sentences or heard them. Experiment 2 demonstrated that only the more able retarded subjects, but not the less able ones, used sentence context in a normal way in order to pronounce homographs. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that these same more able children could extract meaning at both sentence and story level, and their performance was indistinguishable from that of normal controls. Hence, it is doubtful whether these advanced decoders should be called hyperlexic. In contrast, the readers of relatively low verbal ability performed much worse than their normal controls. Although they could be induced under certain conditions to read sentence-by-sentence rather than word-by-word, they did not do so spontaneously. Furthermore, they did not make use of already existing general knowledge in order to answer questions about the stories they had read. The ability to comprehend in terms of large units of meaning seems to be specifically impaired in these low verbal ability fluent readers. We suggest that it is this impairment that marks true hyperlexia. Since there were no differences between autistic and nonautistic readers on any of our tasks, we conclude that hyperlexia is not an autism-specific phenomenon. PMID:3806010

Snowling, M; Frith, U

1986-12-01

141

Reading Comprehension Strategy: Rainbow Dots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An action research study was conducted using the Rainbow Dots strategy to evaluate its effectiveness on reading comprehension skills in a third-grade class with students both with and without a specific learning disability. Results of the study indicated that students' overall performances in reading comprehension have increased. Students also…

Moore, Claire; Lo, Lusa

2008-01-01

142

Comprehensive Planning and Educational Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational leadership requires proactive, comprehensive planning from school executives. Proactive behavior adopts rational methods of planning that link organizational activity more directly with educational goals. The six steps usually considered as essential ingredients of comprehensive planning are: goals, objectives, assessment, program…

Mullen, David J.

1977-01-01

143

Web Application Design Using Server-Side JavaScript  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the application design philosophy for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Research & Development Web Site. This design incorporates object-oriented techniques to produce a flexible and maintainable system of applications that support the web site. These techniques will be discussed at length along with the issues they address. The overall structure of the applications and their relationships with one another will also be described. The current problems and future design changes will be discussed as well.

Hampton, J.; Simons, R.

1999-02-01

144

Performance of UniSampo-Shaman with gamma-ray spectra containing known traces of fission products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 100 gamma-ray spectra with known traces of anthropogenic nuclides was utilized in the First System-Wide Performance\\u000a Test (SPT1) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in June 2005. The spectrum set was very realistic,\\u000a since it is based on real measured spectra. Yet, the correct spectrum contents are known, when anthropogenic peaks with known\\u000a areas have been

P. A. Aarnio; J. J. Ala-Heikkilä; T. T. Hakulinen

2008-01-01

145

Evaluation of environmental radioxenon isotopical signals from a singular large source emitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) the atmospheric background of environmental radioxenon is been studied near areas that could be affected by man-made sources. It was recently shown that radiopharmaceutical facilities (RPF) make a major contribution to the general background of 133Xe and other xenon isotopes both in the northern and southern hemisphere. The

P. R. J. Saey; T. W. Bowyer; M. Aldener; A. Becker; M. W. Cooper; K. Elmgren; A. Faanhof; J. C. Hayes; B. Hosticka; L. S. Lidey

2009-01-01

146

Comprehensive Solutions for Urban Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehensive school reform (CSR) models build consistency throughout a district while addressing the needs of individual schools. The high-quality CSR programs offer a most effective option for urban education reform.

Kilgore, Sally

2005-01-01

147

Paraphrasing: An Effective Comprehension Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paraphrasing, somewhat different from retelling and summarizing, helps students monitor their understanding and incorporate new knowledge with what they already know about a topic. Paraphrasing helps students realize that comprehension is the goal of reading.

Kletzien, Sharon B.

2009-01-01

148

Retrieval mechanisms in sentence comprehension  

E-print Network

This work investigates the nature of the memory mechanisms utilized in language comprehension. Through the use of the Speed Accuracy Tradeoff (SAT) paradigm (Wickelgren, 1977), healthy young adults were studied for the use ...

Whitlock, Jordan Ashley

2014-01-01

149

Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

In 1971, the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center (Georgetown Lombardi) was established at Georgetown University, becoming an NCI-designated cancer center in 1974. The Center achieved NCI comprehensive status in 1990. Georgetown Lombardi is part of Georgetown University Medical Center and Georgetown University Hospital. The mission of the Center is to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer through innovative basic science, clinical research, patient care, community outreach, and the training of cancer specialists of the future.

150

Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The University of California, Irvine (UCI) Cancer Center was established in 1989 as a university-based cancer center. In 1994, it became an NCI-designated cancer center, and it achieved comprehensive cancer center status in 1997. Soon after, it was renamed in honor of the Chao family as the Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center (CFCCC), operating fully integrated research, prevention, diagnostic, treatment, and rehabilitation programs.

151

Announced United States nuclear tests, July 1945--December 1991. Revision 12  

SciTech Connect

This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by event name all nuclear tests conducted and announced by the United States from July 1945 through December 1991, with the exception of the GMX experiments. The 24 GMX experiments, conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between December 1954 and February 1956, were ``equation-of-state`` physics studies that used small chemical explosives and small quantities of plutonium. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air. On August 5, 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty which effectively banned testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. All United States nuclear tests conducted prior to that date have been announced and are listed in this document. Some tests conducted underground since the signing of the Treaty and designed to be contained completely have not been announced. Information concerning these events is classified. Occasionally, the name and detonation date of an unannounced test is declassified which permits its listing in subsequent revisions to this document.

Not Available

1992-05-01

152

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-11-01

153

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-01-01

154

Comprehensive analysis of commercial willow bark extracts by new technology platform: combined use of metabolomics, high-performance liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution radical scavenging assay.  

PubMed

Here, proof-of-concept of a new analytical platform used for the comprehensive analysis of a small set of commercial willow bark products is presented, and compared with a traditional standardization solely based on analysis of salicin and salicin derivatives. The platform combines principal component analysis (PCA) of two chemical fingerprints, i.e., HPLC and (1)H NMR data, and a pharmacological fingerprint, i.e., high-resolution 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS(+)) reduction profile, with targeted identification of constituents of interest by hyphenated HPLC-solid-phase extraction-tube transfer NMR, i.e., HPLC-SPE-ttNMR. Score plots from PCA of HPLC and (1)H NMR fingerprints showed the same distinct grouping of preparations formulated as capsules of Salix alba bark and separation of S. alba cortex. Loading plots revealed this to be due to high amount of salicin in capsules and ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba cortex, respectively. PCA of high-resolution radical scavenging profiles revealed clear separation of preparations along principal component 1 due to the major radical scavengers (+)-catechin and ampelopsin. The new analytical platform allowed identification of 16 compounds in commercial willow bark extracts, and identification of ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba bark extract is reported for the first time. The detection of the novel compound, ethyl 1-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-2-enecarboxylate, is also described. PMID:23021634

Agnolet, Sara; Wiese, Stefanie; Verpoorte, Robert; Staerk, Dan

2012-11-01

155

A model of poetic comprehension  

SciTech Connect

This article introduces an account of aesthetic comprehension and experience together with an implemented miniature which generates analogical interpretations from a semi-automatic parse of Wordsworth`s {open_quotes}Lines Written in Early Spring{close_quotes}. In our account, a poem serves as an analogy teaching machine by using formal structure to cue the formation of novel analogies. This account builds on an analogical model of comprehension previously applied to large corpora of newspaper summaries. In the miniature, an automatic grammatical and semantic analysis of the text is augmented with information about rhyme and rhythm. These formal cues allow the system to determine analogies which it would not otherwise consider. The article describes the comprehension framework, the annotated piece, and the matcher`s performance on the piece. It closes with a discussion of possible objections to aspects of the thesis or experiment and suggested directions for future work.

Haase, K. [MIT Media Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

156

Revitalization of Undergraduate and Graduate Nuclear Instrumentation Program at the University of Texas  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive effort was undertaken to modernize nuclear instrumentation for undergraduate and graduate teaching and research for the Nuclear and Radiation Engineering Program at the University of Texas.

Dr. Sheldon Landsberger s.landsberger@mail.utexas.edu

2002-03-29

157

UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology  

E-print Network

UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Comprehensive Examination Guidelines 20132014 #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Table #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines

Strynadka, Natalie

158

Story Comprehension in Children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of research is available examining children's story comprehension. However, little attention has been directed toward understanding the story comprehension of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present paper attempts to integrate the developmental literature on children's story comprehension with the little that is known about the story comprehension processes of children with ADHD. This review is

Elizabeth Pugzles Lorch; Richard Milich; Rebecca P. Sanchez

1998-01-01

159

Improving Reading Comprehension through Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An action research project described an implementation of vocabulary strategies designed to increase reading comprehension. The targeted population consisted of inner city elementary students located in central Illinois. Research shows that some children from low-income environments have below average reading abilities. Analysis of probable cause…

Berg, Andy; Cressman, Kelley Shea; Pfanz, Tomi

160

with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans  

E-print Network

with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding of discrimination write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D and employer. April 2009 PA-2015 H elping People H elp t h e Lan d Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding

Mukhtar, Saqib

161

TAUPE: towards understanding program comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program comprehension is a very important ac- tivity during the development and the mainte- nance of programs. This activity has been ac- tively studied in the past decades to present software engineers with the most accurate and—hopefully—most useful pieces of infor- mation on the organisation, algorithms, ex- ecutions, evolution, and documentation of a program. Yet, only few work tried to

Yann-gaël Guéhéneuc

2006-01-01

162

Comprehensive school suicide prevention programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses responses to suicide by school systems and proposes a comprehensive suicide prevention program. It is suggested that programs must consist of prevention, intervention, and postvention. Prevention refers to program efforts that aim to prevent or inhibit the development of the problem. Intervention refers to reducing the level and duration of the problem at an early phase so

Roger Tierney; Richard Ramsay; Bryan Tanney; William Lang

1990-01-01

163

Metacomprehension during Rare Word Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine metacomprehension during comprehension, undergraduates (n = 133) were asked to provide descriptions of how they determined the meaning of four rare words presented in short passages. Content analysis of these written descriptions revealed task-specific metacomprehension reflecting lexical, textbase, and situation model processes.…

Mcginnis, Debra; Saunders, Nikola N.; Burns, Ryan J.

2007-01-01

164

Conflict of Interest Comprehensive Policy  

E-print Network

Conflict of Interest Comprehensive Policy I. INTRODUCTION The Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University ("Einstein"), one of the nation's premier institutions for medical education, basic of Interest. In addition to medical education, a central academic activity of Einstein is discovery

Emmons, Scott

165

Quantifier Comprehension in Corticobasal Degeneration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated patients with focal neurodegenerative diseases to examine a formal linguistic distinction between classes of generalized quantifiers, like "some X" and "less than half of X." Our model of quantifier comprehension proposes that number knowledge is required to understand both first-order and higher-order quantifiers.…

McMillan, Corey T.; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Grossman, Murray

2006-01-01

166

Program Comprehension through Software Habitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comprehensive understanding of a large software system is a daunting task because of the sheer size and com- plexity that such systems exhibit. In this context software vi- sualization is a widely used approach, since well-conceived visual representations allow one to spot patterns. The large majority of visualizations use 2D representations, because they are easier to construct, navigate, and

Richard Wettel; Michele Lanza

2007-01-01

167

Problem Solving & Comprehension. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book shows how to increase one's power to analyze and comprehend problems. First, it outlines and illustrates the methods that good problem solvers use in attacking complex ideas. Then it gives some practice in applying these methods to a variety of questions in comprehension and reasoning. Chapters include: (1) "Test Your Mind--See How It…

Whimbey, Arthur; Lochhead, Jack

168

A Comprehensive Fundamental Electrical Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a letter on ``Fundamental Physical Concepts'' which appeared in NATURE of August 13, I suggested that it should be possible to dispense with magnetic considerations in fundamental physical theory, and to express the forces acting on elementary electric charges at rest and in uniform or accelerated motion by a single comprehensive formula; and I was very glad to learn

C. V. Drysdale

1938-01-01

169

BASIC TEST OF READING COMPREHENSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE TEST WAS DESIGNED TO ASSESS SPEED OF READING COMPREHENSION. IT CONSISTED OF NUMBERED PASSAGES, ONE TO THREE SENTENCES IN LENGTH, ARRANGED IN PARAGRAPH FORM TO SIMULATE THE NORMAL READING EXERCISE. TOWARD THE END OF EACH PASSAGE, A WORD WAS INSERTED WHICH SPOILED THE MEANING OF THE PASSAGE. THE PUPILS WERE INSTRUCTED TO FIND THE WORD THAT…

CLOWARD, ROBERT D.; COHEN, S. ALAN

170

A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

2013-01-01

171

Medicinal Marijuana: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbo oks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on

R. Jan Gurley; Richard Aranow; Mitchell Katz

1998-01-01

172

Glosses, Comprehension, and Strategy Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, using both qualitative and quantitative measures, investigates how different types of gloss conditions affect Korean college students' reading comprehension. One hundred and six undergraduates at a university in Korea participated in the study. Twelve were assigned to think aloud, and the rest (ninety-four) took part in the main study…

Ko, Myong Hee

2005-01-01

173

Word Knowledge Influences on Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined the relationship between word knowledge and reading comprehension. Subjects were college undergraduates with high and low verbal abilities as indicated by a standardized verbal aptitude test. The first study involved a multiple choice vocabulary test from which words that both groups defined correctly were selected. The…

Curtis, Mary E.; And Others

174

@Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major.  

E-print Network

@Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major. From the basic laws of physics to the resulting emergent behavior, physics studies what the universe is made of and how it works. As a Physics major that surrounds us, to the structure and evolution of the entire universe. We offer three degrees in Physics

Yoo, S. J. Ben

175

CHILDREN'S ACTIVITY AND TELEVISION COMPREHENSIBILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's attention to television, measured by visual attention and by self-reports, varied in this study depending on the comprehensibility of the content. Children's visual attention was lower when they viewed Sesame Street, Greek, and backwards language bits than with randomly edited or normal bits, but their visual attention did not discriminate between random and normal bits. However, self-reports of effort

SUZANNE PINGREE

1986-01-01

176

Overview of a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program: The role of fish and wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about the effects of potential releases from nuclear and non-nuclear activities on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington has evolved over four decades into a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. The program includes field sampling, and chemical and physical analyses of air, surface and ground water, fish and wildlife, soil, foodstuffs, and natural vegetation.

Gray

1988-01-01

177

A comprehensive relay testing methodology  

E-print Network

Subject: Electrical Engineering A COMPREHENSIVE RELAY TESTING METHODOLOGY A Thesis by SIVA KUMAR AKKIRAJU Approve as to style and content by: , (al M. Kezunomc (Chair of Committee) B. D. Russell (Member) K. L. Watson (Member) A. Abur (Member) W... am grateful to my parents and my masters of wisdom without whose support this thesis would not have been possible. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION . A. Background B. Mho Distance Relay Principles . C. Relay Testing Methods D...

Akkiraju, Siva Kumar

2012-06-07

178

Children's Comprehension of Relative Clauses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study investigates the comprehension,of different Cantonese relative clauses by seventy Cantonese-speaking children aged 4,0 to 8;0. Each child was presented with six sentence types distinguished by the functional roles of the head noun phrase and of the relativized noun phrase. The child was instructed to act out the action using toys according to the sentence spoken. The findings

Luk Pui Ki

179

Goal coordination in narrative comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report two experiments in which the consequence of maintaining multiple, unrelated character goals during\\u000a comprehension were studied. This is in contrast to previous work that has focused on a single goal, or multiple related goals.\\u000a The results showed that the presence of active subsequent goals can diminish the availability of earlier mentioned goals,\\u000a even in the

Joseph P. Magliano; Gabriel A. Radvansky

2001-01-01

180

A comprehensive dairy valorization model.  

PubMed

Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensive dairy valorization model that serves as a decision support tool for mid-term allocation of raw milk to end products and production planning. The developed model was used to identify the optimal product portfolio composition. The model allocates raw milk to the most profitable dairy products while accounting for important constraints (i.e., recipes, composition variations, dairy production interdependencies, seasonality, demand, supply, capacities, and transportation flows). The inclusion of all relevant constraints and the ease of understanding dairy production dynamics make the model comprehensive. The developed model was tested at the international dairy processor FrieslandCampina (Amersfoort, the Netherlands). The structure of the model and its output were discussed in multiple sessions with and approved by relevant FrieslandCampina employees. The elements included in the model were considered necessary to optimally valorize raw milk. To illustrate the comprehensiveness and functionality of the model, we analyzed the effect of seasonality on milk valorization. A large difference in profit and a shift in the allocation of milk showed that seasonality has a considerable impact on the valorization of raw milk. PMID:23200469

Banaszewska, A; Cruijssen, F; van der Vorst, J G A J; Claassen, G D H; Kampman, J L

2013-02-01

181

Visibility and Comprehension of Pedestrian Traffic Signals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two studies were conducted to determine the visibility and comprehension of pedestrian signals. A video questionnaire was developed to study the comprehension of innovative and standard pedestrian crosswalk devices. Results indicated that green and red ar...

S. Pennak, D. J. Mace, M. Finkle

1997-01-01

182

On the importance of listening comprehension.  

PubMed

The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills (i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities. PMID:24833426

Hogan, Tiffany P; Adlof, Suzanne M; Alonzo, Crystle N

2014-06-01

183

City of Temple, Texas. Comprehensive Plan Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The City of Temple's Comprehensive Plan Report contains those final planning elements previously prepared as interim reports. The report serves as a guide for the development of the city's future urban area. Data and plans presented in the comprehensive r...

1972-01-01

184

Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

2004-03-01

185

Nuclear Reactor Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

Stacey, Weston M.

2001-02-01

186

What Parents Should Know About Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension is seen as involving meaningful communication between author and reader. Different degrees of comprehension such as literal comprehension, evaluation, reorganization, and reaction are discussed, and experience, intelligence, language development, and decoding skills are noted as important factors which influence reading…

Kerfoot, James F.

187

Medicinal marijuana: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbooks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on the quality of the data. Some data exists that lends credence to many of the claims about marijuana's properties. In general, however, the body of literature about marijuana is extremely poor in quality. Marijuana and/or its components may help alleviate suffering in patients with a variety of serious illnesses. Health care providers can best minimize short term adverse consequences and drug interactions for terminally ill patients by having a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of marijuana, potential adverse reactions, infection risks, and drug interactions (along with on-going monitoring of the patient). For chronic conditions, the significance and risk of short and long term adverse effects must be weighed against the desired benefit. Patients who are best suited to medicinal marijuana will be those who will gain substantial benefit to offset these risks, and who have failed a well-documented, compliant and comprehensive approach to standard therapies. PMID:9692375

Gurley, R J; Aranow, R; Katz, M

1998-01-01

188

Anti-nuclear liberals and the bomb: A comparative history of Kampf dem Atomtod and the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, 1957-1963  

SciTech Connect

The premises of Kampf dem Atomtod (KdA) and Citizens for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) were based on nineteenth century traditions of liberal peace advocacy. Both groups gained substantial public support for their goals to prevent the nuclear armament of the Bundeswehr and to stop nuclear testing. Both organizations won well-educated middle-class and mostly white supporter. The dissertation examines the role of women: whether housewife or doctor, women stressed their special concerns as mothers. Both KdA and SANE had troubled relations with the labor movement. Their leaders hoped to gain government leaders' respect by winning a respectable, non-Communist constituency and claiming their goals were reasonable ones. Government officials attacked KdA and SANE as dupes of Moscow. Many supporters left the organizations because of their strict anti-Communism. Local groups accused their leaders of lacking initative. KdA and SANE's leaders wasted time and energy rehashing issues and postponing decisions. After a period of providing initiatives and ideas local committees disintegrated. Both organizations considered education their paramount goal but their arguments primarily reached the converted, who often preferred more political action. KdA and SANE's leaders instead chose to support respectable projects based on humanitarian ideals. Since these projects offered little in the way of concrete action agendas, supporters defected to more active organizations or slipped into apathy. Neither organization achieved its national goals. Both governments generally denied them access to the policymaking process, ignored them as irrelavant, or attacked them as Communist sympathizers. While SANE and KdA were heard by those concerned by nuclear policy, and while members of SANE's National Board did help muster support for the Partial Test Ban Treaty, both organizations failed to make liberal peace values productive in the nuclear decisionmaking process.

Thiede, B.

1992-01-01

189

75 FR 11578 - Northern States Power Company of Minnesota, Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nuclear Generating Plant (MNGP). The license...orders of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Physical protection of plants and materials...licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...comprehensive site security programs. The...

2010-03-11

190

Geospatial Analysis - A comprehensive guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text of "Geospatial Analysis - A comprehensive guide" is provided on this website. It covers the full spectrum of analytical techniques that are provided within modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related software products.Click here for a PDF extract (first 55 pages).Topics covered in detail include: * Geospatial analysis concepts * Core components of geospatial analysis, including distance and directional analysis, geometrical processing, map algebra, and grid models * Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) and spatial statistics, including spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression * Surface analysis, including surface form and flow analysis, gridding and interpolation methods, and visibility analysis * Network and locational analysis, including shortest path calculation, travelling salesman problems, facility location and arc routing Geocomputational methods, including agent-based modelling, artifical neural networks and evolutionary computing

De Smith, Michael J.; Goodchild, Michael F.; Longley, Paul A.

191

Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere.

Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

1984-05-01

192

Boston College Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan January 2014 BOSTON COLLEGE  

E-print Network

Boston College Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan January 2014 -1- BOSTON COLLEGE Boston College Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP) January 2014 #12;Boston College Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan January 2014 -2- Boston College Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan Record

Huang, Jianyu

193

CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

Not Available

1993-08-01

194

Surface Information Loss in Comprehension  

PubMed Central

Shortly after a sentence has been comprehended, information about its exact surface form (e.g., its word order) becomes less available. The present research demonstrated this phenomenon during the comprehension of nonverbal stimuli (picture stories). In Experiment 1, significantly more surface (left/right orientation) information was lost after comprehending several picture stories than just one; in Experiment 2, more was lost after comprehending an entire picture story than half of one. In Experiment 3, subjects segmented the picture stories into their constituents; in Experiment 4, significantly more surface information was lost after crossing these constituents’ boundaries than before. The present research also investigated why surface information is lost. Four explanations were considered: Surface information loss is the result of performing grammatical transformations (the linguistic hypothesis), exceeding short-term memory limitations (the memory limitations hypothesis), integrating information into gist (the integration hypothesis), shifting from building one substructure to initiating another (the processing shift hypothesis). The linguistic and memory limitations hypotheses were considered inadequate; the integration and the processing shift hypotheses were tested in the last set of experiments. In Experiment 5 (using nonverbal stimuli), the predictions made by the processing shift hypothesis were confirmed; in Experiment 6 (using verbal stimuli), these results were replicated. Other implications of the processing shift hypothesis concerning surface information loss are discussed. PMID:25308975

Ann Gernsbacher, Morton

2014-01-01

195

Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis), lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors) or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma). Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities. PMID:23858317

Rodriguez, Erika F.; Monaco, Sara E.; Khalbuss, Walid; Austin, R. Marshall; Pantanowitz, Liron

2013-01-01

196

Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

2012-07-01

197

Nuclear Weapons Complex Network Management Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nuclear Weapons Complex Network (NWCnet) is a computer network being built by the Department of Energy's Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) program. New NWCnet software is nearing completion and is receiving a comprehensive security evaluation pr...

D. J. Bailey

1989-01-01

198

Minnesota's Comprehensive Statewide Smokefree Law  

PubMed Central

Background Young adults have the highest rate of smoking among any age group. Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the short-term effects of Minnesota’s comprehensive statewide smokefree law on young adult smoking perceptions and behavior. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted before and up to 18 months after Minnesota’s statewide smokefree law went into effect on October 1, 2007 (data analyzed 2010–2011). Participants included young adults from a population-based cohort in Minnesota (n=1458) and from five other upper Midwest states that serve as a comparison (n=248). Differences in perceptions and smoking behavior were examined between Minnesota participants who lived with and without a local smokefree law prior to Minnesota’s statewide law, and participants who lived in the comparison states. Results The majority of youth in Minnesota were aware of the smoking restrictions in restaurants and bars following the law. After implementation of the law, Minnesota participants who previously lived without a local law (versus comparison) were more likely to perceive fewer adult and peer smokers and less likely to report leaving social events early because it was too smoky. No changes in smoking behaviors were observed before and after the law. Minnesota participants, however, who lived without a prior law (versus participants with a prior law) were more likely to attribute a quit attempt after the law to smoking restrictions in restaurant and bars. Conclusions Results suggest that Minnesota’s law has changed perceptions of the tobacco environment. Longer-term follow-up may be needed to observe changes in smoking behavior. PMID:23079212

Bernat, Debra H.; Choi, Kelvin; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen; Forster, Jean L

2012-01-01

199

Predictors of Nutrition Information Comprehension in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of the present study was to examine relationships among several predictors of nutrition comprehension. We were particularly interested in exploring whether nutrition knowledge or motivation moderated the effects of attention on comprehension across a wide age range of adults. Methods Ninety-three participants, ages 18 to 80, completed measures of nutrition knowledge and motivation and then read nutrition information (from which attention allocation was derived) and answered comprehension questions. Results In general, predictor variables were highly intercorrelated. However, knowledge, but not motivation, had direct effects on comprehension accuracy. In contrast, motivation influenced attention, which in turn influenced accuracy. Results also showed that comprehension accuracy decreased- and knowledge increased -with age. When knowledge was statistically controlled, age declines in comprehension increased. Conclusion Knowledge is an important predictor of nutrition information comprehension and its role increases in later life. Motivation is also important; however, its effects on comprehension differ from knowledge. Practice Implications Health educators and clinicians should consider cognitive skills such as knowledge as well as motivation and age of patients when deciding how to best convey health information. The increased role of knowledge among older adults suggests that lifelong educational efforts may have important payoffs in later life. PMID:19854605

Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Gibson, Tanja N.; Applegate, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

200

Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Second Language Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation research investigates the cognitive mechanisms underlying second language (L2) listening comprehension. I use three types of sentential contexts, congruent, neutral and incongruent, to look at how L2 learners construct meaning in spoken sentence comprehension. The three types of contexts differ in their context predictability.…

Hu, Guiling

2009-01-01

201

A Dynamic Developmental Link between Verbal Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) and Reading Comprehension: Verbal Comprehension-Knowledge Drives Positive Change in Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intelligence and general academic achievement have a well-established relation, but the interrelated development of the two constructs over time is less well-known. In this study, the dynamic developmental relation between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension was examined by applying bivariate dual change score models…

Reynolds, Matthew R.; Turek, Joshua J.

2012-01-01

202

Fingerprint Matching Based on Global Comprehensive Similarity  

E-print Network

Fingerprint Matching Based on Global Comprehensive Similarity Yuliang He, Jie Tian, Senior Member in the representation of a fingerprint. Finally, we model the relationship between transformation and the comprehensive similarity between two fingerprints in terms of histogram for initial parameter estimation. Through

Tian, Jie

203

Binding in agrammatic aphasia: Processing to comprehension  

PubMed Central

Background Theories of comprehension deficits in Broca’s aphasia have largely been based on the pattern of deficit found with movement constructions. However, some studies have found comprehension deficits with binding constructions, which do not involve movement. Aims This study investigates online processing and offline comprehension of binding constructions, such as reflexive (e.g., himself) and pronoun (e.g., him) constructions in unimpaired and aphasic individuals in an attempt to evaluate theories of agrammatic comprehension. Methods & Procedures Participants were eight individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia and eight age-matched unimpaired individuals. We used eyetracking to examine online processing of binding constructions while participants listened to stories. Offline comprehension was also tested. Outcomes & Results The eye movement data showed that individuals with Broca’s aphasia were able to automatically process the correct antecedent of reflexives and pronouns. In addition, their syntactic processing of binding was not delayed compared to normal controls. Nevertheless, offline comprehension of both pronouns and reflexives was significantly impaired compared to the control participants. This comprehension failure was reflected in the aphasic participants’ eye movements at sentence end, where fixations to the competitor increased. Conclusions These data suggest that comprehension difficulties with binding constructions seen in agrammatic aphasic patients are not due to a deficit in automatic syntactic processing or delayed processing. Rather, they point to a possible deficit in lexical integration. PMID:20535243

Janet Choy, Jungwon; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2010-01-01

204

Optimizing Visually-Assisted Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fact that visual aids such as pictures or graphs can lead to greater comprehension by language learners has been well established. Nonetheless, the order of presenting visuals to listeners is left unattended. This study examined listening comprehension from a strategy of introducing visual information, either prior to or during an audio…

Kashani, Ahmad Sabouri; Sajjadi, Samad; Sohrabi, Mohammad Reza; Younespour, Shima

2011-01-01

205

Lexical Competition in Nonnative Speech Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electrophysiological studies consistently find N400 effects of semantic incongruity in nonnative (L2) language comprehension. These N400 effects are often delayed compared with native (L1) comprehension, suggesting that semantic integration in one's second language occurs later than in one's first language. In this study, we investigated whether…

FitzPatrick, Ian; Indefrey, Peter

2010-01-01

206

Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University was founded in 1974 and received its NCI designation in 1998. The Center is a founding member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, an alliance of 21 cancer centers dedicated to high standards of cancer research, patient care, education, and community outreach.

207

Teaching Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Strategic Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of collaborative strategic reading (CSR) as an approach to enhancing the reading-comprehension skills of students with learning disabilities. Procedures for implementing CSR with collaborative groups and techniques for teaching reading-comprehension skills are provided. The role of the teacher is described and sample teaching…

Vaughn, Sharon; Klingner, Janette Kettman

1999-01-01

208

Does Monitoring Event Changes Improve Comprehension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During narrative comprehension, reading times increase for changes in time, space, characters, goals, and causation. This study examined the extent to which instructional manipulations modify dimension monitoring during reading and whether this affects comprehension. Sixty-seven participants read three narratives (pretest). Half of the…

Bohn-Gettler, Catherine M.

2014-01-01

209

Snack service model for a comprehensive school  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to construct and describe a snack service model for a comprehensive school. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Empirical data were collected from the school officials and the pupils by using a focus group method in two comprehensive schools. Moreover, the food service managers of Espoo and Vantaa cities' catering services were theme interviewed. Consequently, a

Irma Tikkanen; Salla Honkanen; Sanna-Pauliina Salmela

2009-01-01

210

Reading Strategies or Comprehension Monitoring Strategies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to probe the relationship between reading strategies and comprehension monitoring strategies and how they function to help readers in comprehension process, the present study utilizes think-aloud and retrospective verbal reports to examine 20 EFL readers' performances in reading texts. The results reveal that the engagement of reading…

Yang, Yu-Fen

2006-01-01

211

Identifying Language Comprehension Impairment in Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined the validity of 3 dis- course comprehension measures for preschool children and the ability of a combination of them to classify children with and without language impairment. Method: Thirty-seven children with typical language and 12 children with language impairment completed 3 measures of oral story comprehension: the Joint Story Retell task, the Expectancy Violation Detection task,

Elizabeth Skarakis-Doyle; Lynn Dempsey; Christopher Lee

2008-01-01

212

ANOTHER LOOK AT CHILDREN'S COMPREHENSION OF TELEVISION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on children's comprehension of television suggests that very young children have difficulty ordering major scenes from a story, and generally do not have adultlike understandings of television. More recent research with young children using short and simple stimuli and a method designed to maximize children's communication abilities suggests that these earlier studies may have underestimated children's comprehension. In this

SUZANNE PINGREE; Robert P. Hawkins; Donna Rouner; John Burns; Waithira Gikonyo; Carol Neuwirth

1984-01-01

213

Comprehensive Planning To Address Homelessness. City Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains documents that provide information about the planning and implementation of a comprehensive plan to address homelessness in cities throughout the U.S. Information on the following components of a comprehensive strategy are included: (1) "Task Forces"; (2) "Assessment Studies"; (3) "Emergency Services"; (4) "Transitional…

Zawisza, Kris

214

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database and Web Retrieval System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 200,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database

B. Pritychenko; E. Beták; M. A. Kellett; B. Singh; J. Totans

2011-01-01

215

Measures of Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Analysis of the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares 2 measures of reading comprehension: (a) the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension test, a standard in reading research, and (b) the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension (DARC), an innovative measure. Data from 192 Grade 3 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) were used to fit a series of latent variable…

Francis, David J.; Snow, Catherine E.; August, Diane; Carlson, Coleen D.; Miller, Jon; Iglesias, Aquiles

2006-01-01

216

Listen, listen, listen and listen: building a comprehension corpus and making it comprehensible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listening comprehension input is necessary for language learning and acculturation. One approach to developing listening comprehension skills is through exposure to massive amounts of naturally occurring spoken language input. But exposure to this input is not enough; learners also need to make the comprehension corpus meaningful to their learning experience.

Owen G. Mordaunt; Daniel W. Olson

2010-01-01

217

On-line assessment of comprehension processes.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe a new version of a former paper-and-pencil standardized comprehension test called Test of Comprehension Processes (Vidal-Abarca, Gilabert, Martínez, & Sellés, 2007). The new version has been adapted to a computer-based environment based on the moving window technique. It can be used to assess comprehension strategies of students from fifth to tenth grades (11- to 16-years-old). Comprehension strategies are registered on-line using reading times and visits to relevant sections of the text during the question-answering process. Data show that the computer-based version draws similar results to those provided by the paper-and-pencil version. In addition, we identify the particular strategies deployed during the question-answering process by high, medium and low comprehenders. PMID:19476242

Martínez, Tomás; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Gil, Laura; Gilabert, Ramiro

2009-05-01

218

Comprehensive Savings in Condensate Return Systems  

E-print Network

COMPREHENSIVE SAVINGS IN CONDENSATE RETURN SYSTEMS Eugene 1. Viola Market Specialist Swagelok Solon, Ohio ABSTRACT Every steam system is plagued by problems from malfunctioning steam traps. Effects of such problems can easily lead to downtime...COMPREHENSIVE SAVINGS IN CONDENSATE RETURN SYSTEMS Eugene 1. Viola Market Specialist Swagelok Solon, Ohio ABSTRACT Every steam system is plagued by problems from malfunctioning steam traps. Effects of such problems can easily lead to downtime...

Viola, E. J.

219

A History of Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A history of the development of rotorcraft comprehensive analyses is presented. Comprehensive analyses are digital computer programs that calculate the aeromechanical behavior of the rotor and aircraft, bringing together the most advanced models of the geometry, structure, dynamics, and aerodynamics available in rotary wing technology. The development of the major codes of the last five decades from industry, government, and universities is described. A number of common themes observed in this history are discussed.

Johnson, Wayne

2013-01-01

220

Modeling the technical means to produce nuclear weapons for providing accurate decision-making timetables.  

E-print Network

??Government agencies, non-government organizations and academic institutions that focus on nuclear nonproliferation have demonstrated a limited capability to make comprehensive assessments of how far along… (more)

Duchene, Matthew

2012-01-01

221

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2013-10-01

222

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2012-10-01

223

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2011-10-01

224

The relations among interest, self?assessed comprehension, and comprehension performance in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment investigated the relations among students' interest in texts (i.e., “specific passage interest”), domains of texts (i.e., “general domain interest”), self?assessments of comprehension, and comprehension performance. College students (23 females and 8 males; M age = 18.6) read expository texts, assessed their confidence in answering inference questions, rated the interestingness of the texts, and completed true\\/ false comprehension questions.

Karen Zabrucky; DeWayne Moore

1996-01-01

225

A Multidisciplinary Study of the DPRK Nuclear Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Democratic People Republic of Korea announced two underground nuclear tests carried out in their territory respectively on October 9th, 2006 and May 25th, 2009. The scarce information on the precise location and the size of those explosions has stimulated various kinds of studies, mostly based on seismological observations, by several national agencies concerned with the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification. We analysed the available seismological data collected through a global high-quality network for the two tests. After picking up the arrival times at the various stations, a standard location program has been applied to the observed data. If we use all the available data for each single event, due to the different magnitude and different number of available stations, the locations appear quite different. On the contrary, if we use only the common stations, they happen to be only few km apart from each other and within their respective error ellipses. A more accurate relative location has been carried out by the application of algorithms such as double difference joint hypocenter determination (DDJHD) and waveform alignment. The epicentral distance between the two events obtained by these methods is 2 km, with the 2006 event shifted to the ESE with respect to that of 2009. We then used a dataset of VHR TerraSAR-X satellite images to detect possible surface effects of the underground tests. This is the first ever case where these highly performing SAR data have been used to such aim. We applied InSAR processing technique to fully exploit the capabilities of SAR data to measure very short displacements over large areas. Two interferograms have been computed, one co-event and one post-event, to remove possible residual topographic signals. A clear displacement pattern has been highlighted over a mountainous area within the investigated region, measuring a maximum displacement of about 45 mm overall the relief. Hypothesizing that the 2009 nuclear test had been carried out close to the area where the displacement has been observed through the DInSAR technique, its relation with the epicenter location obtained through seismological processing has been discussed as a possible alternative hypothesis with respect to the preferred solutions reported by the nuclear explosion database (NEDB). The distance of about 10 km between the two places can be considered acceptable in light of the possible systematic location shifts commonly observed in the seismological practice over a global scale. The difference between the m b magnitudes of the two tests could reflect differences in geological conditions of the two test sites, even if the yield of the two explosions had been the same.

Carluccio, R.; Giuntini, A.; Materni, V.; Chiappini, S.; Bignami, C.; D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Pignatelli, A.; Stramondo, S.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.

2014-03-01

226

[The lambda in the rorschach comprehensive system].  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between Lambda (L) and other variables in the Rorschach comprehensive system. Individual Rorschach tests based on the comprehensive system was administrated to 102 female normal adults (over 20 years old). High L group and Low L group were defined on the basis of median value. The two groups were compared on major variables. The high L group had significantly higher values on variables such as DQo, D, Dd, S, Hd than the low L group. In contrast, the low L group had significantly higher values on variables such as DQ+, Blends, M, FM + m, Sum C', "active", H, COP than the high L group. Clinician who use the Rorschach test should consider these variables in relation to L, when interpreting the structural summary of the comprehensive system. PMID:12728702

Konishi, Hiroyuki

2003-02-01

227

Embodiment and language comprehension: reframing the discussion.  

PubMed

The debate on whether language comprehension involves the manipulation of abstract symbols or is grounded in perception and action has reached an impasse, with authors from different theoretical persuasions unable to agree on the diagnostic value of empirical findings. To escape this impasse, I propose a pluralist view of cognition that encompasses abstract and grounded symbols. The contributions of these symbol types to language comprehension vary as a function of the degree to which language use is embedded in the environment. I distinguish five levels of embeddedness: demonstration, instruction, projection, displacement, and abstraction. Only through a closer analysis of context will we make significant progress toward understanding language comprehension and cognition in general. PMID:24630873

Zwaan, Rolf A

2014-05-01

228

The Nuclear Science References Database  

E-print Network

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

Pritychenko, B; Singh, B; Totans, J

2013-01-01

229

Language comprehension and working memory language comprehension and working memory deficits in  

E-print Network

in patients with schizophrenia Daniel M. Bagner, Meredith R.D. Melinder, Deanna M. Barch* Department examined the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia have deficits in language comprehension compared, as predicted, language comprehension deficits were significantly greater in patients with schizophrenia than

230

Deconstructing Comprehensibility: Identifying the Linguistic Influences on Listeners' L2 Comprehensibility Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensibility, a major concept in second language (L2) pronunciation research that denotes listeners' perceptions of how easily they understand L2 speech, is central to interlocutors' communicative success in real-world contexts. Although comprehensibility has been modeled in several L2 oral proficiency scales--for example, the Test of English…

Isaacs, Talia; Trofimovich, Pavel

2012-01-01

231

Prediction in Language Comprehension beyond Specific Words: An ERP Study on Sentence Comprehension in Polish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, several ERP studies have shown that the human language comprehension system anticipates words that are highly likely continuations of a given text. However, it remains an open issue whether the language comprehension system can also make predictions that go beyond a specific word. Here, we address the question of whether readers predict…

Szewczyk, Jakub M.; Schriefers, Herbert

2013-01-01

232

A Theory of Program Comprehension Joining Vision Science and Program Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists an extensive literature on vision science, on the one hand, and on program comprehension, on the other hand. However, these two domains of research have been so far rather disjoint. Indeed, several cog- nitive theories have been proposed to explain program comprehension. These theories explain the processes taking place in the software engi- neers' minds when they understand

Yann-Gael Gueheneuc; Jan L. A. van de Snepscheut

233

Direct Instruction of Comprehension: Instructional Examples from Intervention Research on Listening and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role of direct instruction in promoting listening and reading comprehension. Instructional examples from 2 programs of intervention research focused on improving comprehension; the Story Read Aloud Program and the Embedded Story Structure Routine are used to illustrate principles of direct instruction. An analysis of…

Coyne, Michael D.; Zipoli, Richard P., Jr.; Chard, David J.; Faggella-Luby, Michael; Ruby, Maureen; Santoro, Lana E.; Baker, Scott

2009-01-01

234

Comparison of the Efficiency of Reading Comprehension Strategies on Iranian University Students' Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of the strategies used by English as a foreign language (EFL) or second language (ESL) readers can help instructors teach these techniques and thereby enhance their students' reading comprehension. The present study compared three categories of reading comprehension strategies (metacognitive, cognitive, and socio-affective) to determine…

Fotovatian, Sepideh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

2007-01-01

235

Comprehension des textes: Une demarche interactive (Text Comprehension: An Interactive Approach).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive approach to teaching French second-language reading comprehension is described. The method emphasizes involving the readers in the comprehension process and encouraging them to draw on prior learning to create hypotheses about the text's content. A four-stage instructional process is outlined. (MSE)

Cicurel, Francine

1991-01-01

236

75 FR 13609 - Tennessee Valley Authority Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...protection of plants and materials...activities in nuclear power reactors against...comprehensive site security programs. The...in the final power reactor security rule, the Commission...all operating nuclear power plants, but noted...

2010-03-22

237

A Comprehensive Plan for Global Energy Revolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no dearth of information regarding the grave crises faced by humanity in the 21st century. There is also growing consensus that the wholesale burning of fossil fuels must come to an end, either because of climate change or other still-salient reasons such as air pollution or major conflicts over dwindling reserves of cheaply recoverable oil and gas resources. At the same time, global demographics predict with disquieting certainty a world with up to 9 or 10 billion souls by mid-century. The vast expansion of energy consumption that this population represents, along with further increases in already-unacceptable levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, demands that we quickly develop almost limitless sources of clean, economical power. What is sorely lacking in the public debate are realistic solutions. Expanding wind and solar generating capacity is an important near-term goal, but neither of these technologies represents a viable solution for generating base load power at the vast scales that will be required. Energy efficiency measures are likewise well-directed, but the combination of rising population along with increasingly energy-intensive economic activity by the large fraction of Earth's current population residing in developing nations suggests that absolute energy demand will continue to rise even with radically improved energy efficiency. Fortunately we have the technologies available to provide virtually unlimited clean energy, and to utilize and recycle our resources so that everyone can improve their standard of living. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), developed at the Argonne National Laboratory in the 80's and 90's and currently championed by General Electric, is a technology that fills the bill on every count, and then some. IFRs are safe, environmentally clean, economical, and free of conflict over fuel supply. IFRs can safely consume as fuel the nuclear waste from the current installed base of light-water reactors, as well as utilize the world's prodigious stockpiles of depleted uranium to supply all of humanity's energy needs for hundreds of years. Not only will IFR operations produce no greenhouse gas emissions, but even their construction will create several times less emissions per megawatt than wind and solar projects. Commercial development of zero-emission energy carriers for vehicle transport (such as hydrogen or boron) can assure that we efficiently translate IFR- generated power to our transportation infrastructure while eliminating the choking pollution of the world's ever- expanding vehicle fleet. If we make the decisions that must be made to deploy these new technologies, we stand at the threshhold of a post-scarcity era even as the starkness of our population dilemma would seem to indicate the opposite. Here is the blueprint for that new era, a comprehensive plan to provide limitless clean energy that can be implemented at less expense than taking a business-as-usual approach.

Blees, T.

2009-05-01

238

Large mining blasts from the Kursk Mining Region, Russia  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at magnitude levels where industrial explosions (primarily, mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded, and may for some countries dominate the seismicity. Thus, data on blasting practice have both political significance for the negotiation of treaties involving seismic monitoring of nuclear tests, and operational applications in terms of establishing monitoring and inspection needs on a mine-by-mine basis. While it is generally accepted that mining explosions contribute to seismicity at lower seismic magnitudes (less than about magnitude 3.5), the rate of mining seismicity as a function of seismic magnitude is unknown for most countries outside the U.S. This results in a large uncertainty when estimating the task of discriminating nuclear explosions from chemical explosions and earthquakes, by seismic means, under a comprehensive nuclear test ban. This uncertainty directly affects estimates of seismic network enhancements required to achieve treaty verification requirements at magnitudes less than about 3.5. 24 refs., 64 figs., 11 tabs.

Leith, W. Adushkin, V.; Spivak, A.

1997-01-01

239

Promoting Student Comprehension with Cooperative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One study, covering the last 25 years, reports that undergraduates in college complete about 30 percent of assigned work. Would it be surprising--in these days of DVRs, Internet, texting, email, and video games--if high school and middle school students' homework completion rates were even less? What are teachers to do? Comprehension strategies,…

Fernsten, Linda A.

2012-01-01

240

Fundamental factors of comprehension in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the literature was made to determine the skills involved in reading comprehension that are deemed most important by authorities. Multiple-choice test items were constructed to measure each of nine skills thus identified as basic. The intercorrelations of the nine skill scores were factored, each skill being weighted in the initial matrix roughly in proportion to its importance

Frederick B. Davis

1944-01-01

241

Reading Efficiency Strategies for Better Comprehension  

E-print Network

Reading Efficiency Strategies for Better Comprehension Try these techniques if you want to... Read Faster Instead of reading word by word, read in chunks of words, or even full sentences. Skip filler words such as "the", "to", "with", etc. Don't reread text you have already read. Try to skim the text

Kasman, Alex

242

Android Permissions: User Attention, Comprehension, and Behavior  

E-print Network

Android Permissions: User Attention, Comprehension, and Behavior Adrienne Porter Felt*, Elizabeth,arielhaney}@ischool.berkeley.edu ABSTRACT Android's permission system is intended to inform users about the risks of installing applications whether the Android permission sys- tem is effective at warning users. In particular, we evaluate whether

Wagner, David

243

Pregnancy and addiction A comprehensive care model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of substance abuse in pregnancy is a major public health dilemma. Effective comprehensive care of drug addicted women has been shown to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. The Center for Addiction and Pregnancy (CAP) combines the disciplines of pediatrics, substance abuse treatment, obstetrics\\/gynecology, and family planning in an effort to reduce the barriers to care often presenting in

Lauren M. Jansson; Dace Svikis; Jana Lee; Patricia Paluzzi; Peter Rutigliano; Florence Hackerman

1996-01-01

244

Comprehensive School Reform: Perspectives from Model Developers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the help of programs such as the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSDR) program--which provides funding to schools to help them improve student performance--the number of models for school reform has increased in recent years. These models of reform represent a wide range of ideas about the best ways to effect change in…

Asensio, Meg Livingston; Johnson, Jim

245

Assessing the Comprehensibility of Trade Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing criticisms of the exclusive use of readability formulas to evaluate text difficulty and describing successful efforts to broaden the traditional readability formula approach, this report presents a 20 item checklist for determining text comprehensibility based on four criteria: (1) specific objectives or outcomes expected from the…

Edwards, Peter; Sofo, Frank

246

Recurrent Pediatric Headache: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent pediatric headache is an increasingly common chronic pain syndrome in children and adolescents that is associated with impairments in functioning and qual- ity of life; the condition thus warrants continued clinical and research attention. This article provides a review of the major areas of and developments in pediatric headache research so as to equip pediatric psychologists with a comprehensive

Mark Connelly

2003-01-01

247

Memory structures that subserve sentence comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of the speed and accuracy of processing sentences with nonadjacent dependencies derived from the response-signal speed-accuracy tradeoff procedure were used to examine the nature of the memory system that underlies sentence comprehension. Three experiments with different sentence structures demonstrated that the accuracy of processing a dependency decreased as more material was interpolated between nonadjacent constituents. However, processing speed was

Brian McElree; Stephani Foraker; Lisbeth Dyer

2003-01-01

248

Promoting Reading Comprehension in Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many authors suggest that there is a coming crisis in U.S. middle and secondary schools (Moje, Young, Readence, & Moore, 2000). This crisis comes in the form of reading difficulties. While many primary schools have emphasized word recognition and decoding, decoding does not guarantee comprehension. The result is that many students who can read…

Massey, Dixie D.; Heafner, Tina L.

2004-01-01

249

Brookhaven Science Associates Comprehensive Welfare Benefits Plan  

E-print Network

Brookhaven Science Associates Comprehensive Welfare Benefits Plan Authorization For Use participation in the Brookhaven Science Associates Health Plan) or until revoked by you in writing. You may: ________________________________________________________ I authorize the following Health Plan(s) to use or disclose my health information in accordance

250

Internet Inquiry: Fundamental Competencies for Online Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article showcases the online research and comprehension competencies students will need to successfully engage with Internet Inquiry. The Common Core State Standards, the research on new literacies skills, and the future of technology-based assessments require educators to fully take on the challenges of meaningfully embedding and supporting…

Kingsley, Tara; Tancock, Susan

2014-01-01

251

Cue-Dependent Interference in Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of interference as a primary determinant of forgetting in memory has long been accepted, however its role as a contributor to poor comprehension is just beginning to be understood. The current paper reports two studies, in which speed-accuracy tradeoff and eye-tracking methodologies were used with the same materials to provide converging…

Van Dyke, Julie A.; McElree, Brian

2011-01-01

252

Comprehensive College Plan for 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document describes San Antonio College's (Texas) strategic goals and objectives for 2000-2001. San Antonio College's comprehensive planning and evaluation process monitors the achievement of college-wide goals and initiatives supporting the college's Vision and Mission Statement and the Alamo Community College District's Strategic Plan. The…

San Antonio Coll., TX.

253

Philomath's Comprehensive Program for Middle School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an exemplary Oregon middle school that incorporates a comprehensive program of academic instruction and activity, a community of dedicated staff and involved students, and an orderly environment marked by a businesslike approach to teaching and learning. Outstanding components of Philomath Middle School's climate for learning…

Rawers, Lois J.

1984-01-01

254

International assessment of judged symbol comprehensibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbols are widely used internationally to communicate to people with different languages, but the large number of symbols for any particular meaning or referent may cause confusion. Some international organizations attempt to prevent this confusion by recommending standard symbols, and in some cases base their recommendation on the results of assessing the comprehensibility of alternative symbol designs. In this study,

Jeremy J. Foster; M. R. Afzalnia

2005-01-01

255

The Comprehensive Community College: Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course outline and study guide for "The Comprehensive Community College," a graduate course offered at Iowa State University, lists topics, objectives, and references for each of the 13 topic-based units in the course. Introductory material indicates that the course, which was designed for practicing and aspiring community college…

Ratcliff, James L.

256

Improving Early Reading Comprehension Using Embodied CAI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An embodied approach to reading comprehension suggests that emerging readers must learn to map words and phrases onto their remembered experiences, but this is made difficult by the necessity of focusing attention on decoding. Having children manipulate toys to correspond to what they are reading overcomes this problem, but introduces its own…

Glenberg, Arthur M.; Goldberg, Andrew B.; Zhu, Xiaojin

2011-01-01

257

Systems Comprehensive Exams Topics Patrick G. Bridges  

E-print Network

Systems Comprehensive Exams Topics Patrick G. Bridges November 23, 2004 1 Introduction I've divided, servers, device drivers, interrupt processing) · Scheduling · Memory-management (e.g. virtual memory switched networks · Basic characteristics of physical networks like Ethernet · Routing basics · TCP

Maccabe, Barney

258

American Board of Comprehensive Care Examination Blueprint  

E-print Network

material along two dimensions. Normal Conditions and Disease categories (Dimension 1) form the main axis a prognosis · Caring for the patient, including health maintenance and disease prevention, clinical of disease A full content outline for the American Board of Comprehensive Care Certification Examination

Grishok, Alla

259

Business Continuity Planning: A Comprehensive Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risks of business interruption expand as companies become more dependent on information technology (IT) infrastructure. A comprehensive approach to business continuity planning seeks to mitigate against all major business interruptions of business systems. This article analyzes recent national and international surveys to develop insights about the current status of business continuity plans, including perceptions about internal and external information

Virginia Cerullo; Michael J. Cerullo

2004-01-01

260

Comprehension of Temporal Sentences by Japanese Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated Japanese 3-to-5-year-olds' comprehension of sentences using the temporal terms "before" and "after" and examined whether contextual information helped the children respond correctly. The children were asked to perform a task with a toy either before or after performing another task with a different toy. Some children were…

Nakayama, Mineharu; Enomoto, Noriko

261

A Comprehensive Statistical Model for Cell Signaling  

E-print Network

A Comprehensive Statistical Model for Cell Signaling Erdem Yo¨ru¨k, Michael F. Ochs, Donald Geman to model cell signaling, mostly for model organisms and with focus on uncovering connectivity rather than of signaling. Specifically, we account for cell heterogeneity and a multilevel process, representing signaling

Geman, Donald

262

Bilingualism Influences Inhibitory Control in Auditory Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals at suppressing task-irrelevant information. The present study aimed to identify how processing linguistic ambiguity during auditory comprehension may be associated with inhibitory control. Monolinguals and bilinguals listened to words in their native language (English) and identified them among…

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

2011-01-01

263

Comprehensive Achievements: All Our Geese Are Swans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools in England are radically changing their organization and governance, casting aside the founding principle of the 1944 Education Act that education is a public service and abandoning the ideal of education as nurturing a sense of community. This book presents a portrait of a successful comprehensive school, between the years 1980 and 2000.…

Imison, Tamsyn, Ed.; Heilbronn, Ruth, Ed.; Williams, Liz, Ed.

2013-01-01

264

A Comprehensive Genetic Characterization of Bacterial Motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a powerful experimental framework that combines competitive selection and microarray-based genetic footprinting to comprehensively reveal the genetic basis of bacterial behaviors. Application of this method to Escherichia coli motility identifies 95% of the known flagellar and chemotaxis genes, and reveals three dozen novel loci that, to varying degrees and through diverse mechanisms, affect motility. To probe the

Hany S Girgis; Yirchung Liu; William S Ryu; Saeed Tavazoie

2007-01-01

265

Missouri Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan: Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a summary of the Missouri State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan, which was designed to provide guidelines for allocation of resources for needed recreation facilities. The plan identifies the present and future needs for outdoor recreation and recommends ways of meeting these needs. This 1967 document provides a brief history…

Missouri State Inter-Agency for Outdoor Recreation, Jefferson.

266

Comprehensive Assessment: Leveraged Funding and Organizational Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference handout includes five brief papers presented by a panel to the Employment and Training Division of the American Vocational Association. They are "Assessment Center (Cerritos College)" (Patricia Cook); "Assessment Is the Future. Can You Afford Not to Be a Part of It?" (Bob Cumming); "A Comprehensive Academic and Career Assessment…

Cumming, Bob; And Others

267

Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

2013-01-01

268

Teaching Text Structure To Improve Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how to teach children with mild disabilities to identify the five different types of expository text structures: main idea, list, order, compare/contrast, and classification. It then explains a strategy for each text structure type that can be taught to children to improve comprehension in content area classes. (Contains…

Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Whedon, Craig K.

2002-01-01

269

Reading Comprehension: From Research to Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to recommendations by a National Institute of Education (NIE) planning group to the effect that NIE should support efforts to understand the cognitive processes involved in acquiring basic reading skills and in comprehending linguistic messages, this book summarizes what has been learned about reading comprehension in the decade since…

Orasanu, Judith, Ed.

270

Emotion Comprehension: The Impact of Nonverbal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of research has established that emotion understanding develops throughout early childhood and has identified three hierarchical developmental phases: external, mental, and reflexive. The authors analyzed nonverbal intelligence and its effect on children's improvement of emotion understanding and hypothesized that cognitive level is a consistent predictor of emotion comprehension. In all, 366 children (182 girls, 184 boys) between the

Ottavia Albanese; Simona De Stasio; Carlo Di Chiacchio; Caterina Fiorilli; Francisco Pons

2010-01-01

271

Comprehensive Peace Education: Educating for Global Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a comprehensive plan for instruction in the area of peace education. Chapter 1, "Personal Perspectives and General Approaches," identifies four major influences on peace education: (1) world order studies; (2) the Peace Education Commission; (2) the U.S.-based Peace Education Network; and (4) the feminist movement. Chapter 2…

Reardon, Betty A.

272

Correspondence Quantification in Comprehensive Two-Dimensional  

E-print Network

Correspondence Quantification in Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Stephen E 68588-0115 This correspondence corrects the description in a recent paper by Mondello et al., "Quantification in Comprehen- sive Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography" [Mon- dello, L.; Herrero, M.; Kumm, T

Reichenbach, Stephen E.

273

Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

2006-01-01

274

Disfluencies, Language Comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disfluencies include editing terms such as "uh" and "um" as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and…

Ferreira, Fernanda; Lau, Ellen F.; Bailey, Karl G. D.

2004-01-01

275

World Knowledge in Children's Sentence Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sentence comprehension is more than a syntactically autonomous issue and relies on the clues that are not part of the grammar. This paper considers "world knowledge," in this case prior knowledge of the story being read, as one such clue. In section 1, "reversibility" of sentences is discussed. "Sentence ambiguity" is discussed in section 2.…

Hirose, Yuki

1993-01-01

276

A Comprehensive Framework for Evaluating Educational Vouchers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a comprehensive evaluative framework that draws on a larger range of goals that have been posed for education in a democratic and free society. Tradeoffs are made among criteria that include: (1) freedom of choice; (2) productive efficiency; (3) equity; and (4) social cohesion. (SLD)

Levin, Henry M.

2002-01-01

277

Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

Zhang, Hong-yan

2011-01-01

278

Comprehensive Essays for World History Finals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a novel approach to comprehensive questions in world history examinations. Recommends using current events as illustrative reference points for complex subjects such as nationalism, liberalism, and international trade. Students receive information packets on the events for several weeks and must relate the subjects to these events. (MJP)

Feldman, Martha J.

1997-01-01

279

A comprehensive meteorological modeling system—RAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a range of applications of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a comprehensive mesoscale meterological modeling system. Applications discussed in this paper include large eddy simulations (LES) and simulations of thunderstorms, cumulus fields, mesoscale convective systems, mid-latitude cirrus clouds, winter storms, mechanically- and thermally-forced mesoscale systems, and mesoscale atmospheric disperision. A summary of current RAMS options

R. A. Pielke; W. R. Cotton; R. L. Walko; C. J. Tremback; W. A. Lyons; L. D. Grasso; M. E. Nicholls; M. D. Moran; D. A. Wesley; T. J. Lee; J. H. Copeland

1992-01-01

280

Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the Glendale Unified School District's (California) comprehensive drug, alcohol, and tobacco education program. The program is based on three components: (1) a sequential outcome-based curriculum that provides students with knowledge about substance abuse and peer-resistant skills; (2) a strong message that the possession,…

Empey, Donald W.

281

Statistics Masters Comprehensive Exam July 31, 2012  

E-print Network

(r). #12;5. An urn has M white marbles and 10 - M black marbles. To test H0 : M = 5 versus H0 : M = 6Statistics Masters Comprehensive Exam July 31, 2012 Student Name: 1. Answer 8 out of 12 problems Scores 2. Write your answer right after each problem selected, attach more pages if necessary. Do

Hagen, Thomas

282

Using Image Analysis to Build Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content area reading remains a primary concern of history educators. In order to better prepare students for encounters with text, the authors propose the use of two image analysis strategies tied with a historical theme to heighten student interest in historical content and provide a basis for improved reading comprehension.

Brown, Sarah Drake; Swope, John

2010-01-01

283

Career Education. The Comprehensive Curriculum. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and implementation of a comprehensive career education curriculum was the major purpose of a project conducted in the Cashmere and Peshastin-Dryden School Districts (Washington), K-12. The objectives of the project were divided into the following eight work areas: curriculum development; curriculum installation; advisor/advisee…

Peshastin-Dryden School District, WA.

284

Discourse Comprehension and Simulation of Positive Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has suggested that emotional sentences are understood by constructing an emotion simulation of the events being described. The present study aims to investigate whether emotion simulation is also involved in online and offline comprehension of larger language segments such as discourse. Participants read a target text describing…

Horchak, Oleksandr V.; Giger, Jean-Christophe; Pochwatko, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

285

Comprehensive Adolescent Pregnancy Services: A Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide was compiled to assist state, county, and community personnel in developing comprehensive adolescent health programs which address adolescent pregnancy, prevention, and care. It includes a broad range of topics with materials suitable for both professionals and consumers and for use by regional, state, and local government…

Holt, K. A., Ed.; Langlykke, K., Ed.

286

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Human Comprehension Tatiana Sitnikovaa  

E-print Network

between these two events: at a birthday party, blowing out the candles on a cake is a prerequisite. During comprehension, as one views, for instance, a boy blow out candles on a birthday cake, accessing). For example, at a birthday party, an observer of an event "woman cutting a cake with a knife" would understand

Kuperberg, Gina

287

Enabling a Comprehensive Teaching Strategy: Video Lectures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study empirically tests the feasibility and effectiveness of video lectures as a form of video instruction that enables a comprehensive teaching strategy used throughout a traditional classroom course. It examines student use patterns and the videos' effects on student learning, using qualitative and nonparametric statistical analyses of…

Brecht, H. David; Ogilby, Suzanne M.

2008-01-01

288

Comprehensible rendering of 3-D shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new rendering technique that produces 3-D images with enhanced visual comprehensibility. Shape features can be readily understood if certain geometric properties are enhanced. To achieve this, we develop drawing algorithms for discontinuities, edges, contour lines, and curved hatching. All of them are realized with 2-D image processing operations instead of line tracking processes, so that they can

Takafumi Saito; Tokiichiro Takahashi

1990-01-01

289

Comprehensive Statewide Plan for Postsecondary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Nebraska Comprehensive Statewide Plan for Postsecondary Education was approved in 1992. Covering the University of Nebraska, the state colleges, community colleges, independent colleges and universities, and private career institutions, the plan is revised periodically to reflect the state's changing needs. Within the plan, six major issues…

Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, Lincoln.

290

A Board's Guide to Comprehensive Campaigns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide examines the scope and structure of college and university comprehensive fund-raising campaigns. It focuses on the responsibilities of boards and trustees in planning, overseeing, and actively participating in such campaigns, which are defined as institutional fund-raising initiatives which take place over a predetermined time period,…

Schrum, Jake B., Ed.

2000-01-01

291

Comprehensive System Models: Strategies for Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models is vast involving validations of every model component at every scale of organization, as well as tests of all the individual linkages. Even the most detailed evaluation of each of the component pro...

C. Field, J. E. Kutzbach, V. Ramanathan, M. C. Maccracken

1992-01-01

292

World knowledge Driving Young Readers' Comprehension Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal in this project is to develop a better understanding of young readers' difficulties in comprehending text, and how those difficulties vary as a function of reader aptitudes and text genre. Therefore, we examined the effects of reading decoding abilities and world knowledge (assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement) on 61 third-grade readers' comprehension of narrative and

Danielle S. McNamara; Randy G. Floyd; Rachel Best; Max Louwerse

293

Review of Comprehensive Sex Education Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation was undertaken by the Administration for Children and Families within the Department of Health and Human Services to inform federal policymakers of the content, medical accuracy, and effectiveness of comprehensive sex education (CSE) curricula currently in use. Nine curricula were chosen based on the frequency and strength of…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2007

2007-01-01

294

Reading Comprehension and Information Processing Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between the reading comprehension and information processing strategies of fluent oral readers of Oriya (a language spoken in India) orthography. Notes that Oriya has some significant differences from English orthography. Finds that good comprehenders were relatively more intelligent that the poor comprehenders and…

Sahu, Shantilata; Kar, Abantika

1994-01-01

295

Comprehension Test of Oral Contrastive Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assess a reader's comprehension of items differing in contrastive vocal stress, this test consists of 64 items divided evenly between eight sentence types: declarative active, declarative passive, interrogative, and imperative, with each in a positive and negative form. The element of contrastive stress is placed on nouns functioning…

Stice, Carole Kirchner

296

Reverse Mathematics and 1 2 Comprehension  

E-print Network

an extensive development of the reverse mathematics of complete separable metric spaces. We now initiateReverse Mathematics and 1 2 Comprehension Carl Mummert and Stephen G. Simpson Department the reverse mathematics of general topology. We show that a certain metrization theorem is equivalent to 1 2

297

Reverse Mathematics and # 1 2 Comprehension  

E-print Network

an extensive development of the reverse mathematics of complete separable metric spaces. We now initiateReverse Mathematics and # 1 2 Comprehension Carl Mummert # and Stephen G. Simpson + Department the reverse mathematics of general topology. We show that a certain metrization theorem is equivalent to # 1 2

298

Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

2010-01-01

299

Insider Abuse Comprehension through Capability Acquisition Graphs  

E-print Network

Insider Abuse Comprehension through Capability Acquisition Graphs Sunu Mathew, Shambhu Upadhyaya, Duc Ha, Hung Q. Ngo Department of Computer Science and Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, NY, U.S.A. Email: {smathew2, shambhu, ducha, hungngo}@cse.buffalo.edu Abstract-- Insider

Ngo, Hung Q.

300

Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial number of…

Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

2002-01-01

301

ROTORCRAFT AEROMECHANICS APPLICATIONS OF A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II are presented, illustrating recent developments in the aerodynamics and dynamics models, and demonstrating the technology that is needed for an adequate calculation of rotorcraft behavior. Calculations of rotor performance, airloads, structural loads, and stability are presented, including comparisons with experimental data.

Wayne Johnson; Johnson Aeronautics

1998-01-01

302

Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

Brown, Barry N.

2009-01-01

303

Object Orientation Affects Spatial Language Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process.…

Burigo, Michele; Sacchi, Simona

2013-01-01

304

USGS releases comprehensive land surface data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has released the latest edition of its National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2011), the nation's most comprehensive look at land surface conditions. The database divides the lower 48 states into 9 billion geographic cells, providing consistent information about land conditions on regional and nationwide scales.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-04-01

305

Can Clone Detection Support Test Comprehension?  

E-print Network

Can Clone Detection Support Test Comprehension? Benedikt Hauptmann, Maximilian Junker, Sebastian¨unchen, Germany Rudolf Vaas Munich Re Group M¨unchen, Germany Abstract--Tests are central artifacts of software systems. Therefore, understanding tests is essential for activities such as maintenance, test automation

306

Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

2007-01-01

307

Effects of comprehension on retention of prose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulated comprehension of metaphorical passages by prior presentation or nonpresentation of a short title reflecting their theme or main idea. Word order was varied independently by presenting the material in 1 of 3 forms: (a) random words, (b) random phrases, and (c) prose. In Exp. I with 120 undergraduates, both variables facilitated free recall performance with no interactions. In Exp.

D. James Dooling; Roy Lachman

1971-01-01

308

The Developmental Aspects of Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to relate Jean Piaget's stages of the learning process to the developmental aspects involved in reading comprehension. The need to correlate the developmental stage of the child's mind with the right types of activities was stressed. When a child has succeeded in the task of relating knowledge and affect to language…

Macomber, Lois P.

309

Comprehensive Database on Concrete Creep and Shrinkage  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Database on Concrete Creep and Shrinkage Zdenek P. Bazant and Guang-Hua Li Structural Database on Concrete Creep and Shrinkage Zdenek P. Bazant1 and Guang-Hua Li2 Abstract: As a sequel to the first large database created at Northwestern University in 1978, the paper presents a further

310

A Comprehensive Enzyme Kinetic Exercise for Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme kinetics strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. Kinetic parameters are obtained for the stable…

Barton, Janice S.

2011-01-01

311

Spirituality and Comprehensive School Counseling Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive school counseling programs (CSCPs) have evolved into well-articulated organizational frameworks that will successfully guide school counseling practice for years to come (American School Counselor Association [ASCA], 2003; Gysbers & Henderson, 2000, 2005). At their heart, CSCPs emphasize that as society and families continue to…

Sink, Christopher A.

2004-01-01

312

Yavapai College Comprehensive Annual Financial Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) of the Yavapai Community College District (YCCD) (Arizona) for the fiscal year (FY) ended June 30, 2001. The report is separated into three sections: (1) introductory section; (2) financial section--includes the basic financial statements as well as the independent auditors' report on the…

Yavapai County Community Coll. District, Prescott, AZ.

313

City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1913, City of Hope began focusing on cancer research and treatment in the late 1940s. Receiving its NCI designation in 1981 and its designation as a comprehensive cancer center in 1998, City of Hope is today a biomedical research, treatment, and education center.

314

Developing Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the development and promotion of reading comprehension in primary school students, in the context of the implementation of an educational programme called "Learning Together" (LT). The programme, which centred on collaborative learning activities, was designed to promote oral and written communication in…

Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Mazón, Nancy; Littleton, Karen; Vélez, Maricela

2014-01-01

315

The Comprehensive Mission of Rural Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the comprehensive mission of rural community colleges, arguing that they are major elements in the life of their service areas and must meet community needs. Describes the role of rural college presidents and the importance of environmental scanning. Reviews challenges facing rural institutions in the future. (MAB)

Cavan, John

1995-01-01

316

Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive volumetric microscopy of epithelial, mucosal and endothelial tissues in living human patients would have a profound impact in medicine by enabling diagnostic imaging at the cellular level over large surface areas. Considering the vast area of these tissues with respect to the desired sampling interval, achieving this goal requires rapid sampling. Although noninvasive diagnostic technologies are preferred, many applications

Seok H Yun; Guillermo J Tearney; Benjamin J Vakoc; Milen Shishkov; Wang Y Oh; Adrien E Desjardins; Melissa J Suter; Raymond C Chan; John A Evans; Ik-Kyung Jang; Norman S Nishioka; Johannes F de Boer; Brett E Bouma

2006-01-01

317

Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study.  

PubMed

We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the "Simple View" of reading. PMID:20814768

Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dethorne, Laura S; Justice, Laura M; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A; Petrill, Stephen A

2010-12-01

318

Nuclear power and nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

Vaughen, V.C.A.

1983-01-01

319

Comprehensive Multigene Phylogenies of Excavate Protists Reveal the Evolutionary Positions of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the protists thought to represent the deepest branches on the eukaryotic tree are assigned to a loose assemblage called the ''excavates.'' This includes the mitochondrion-lacking diplomonads and parabasalids (e.g., Giardia and Trichomonas) and the jakobids (e.g., Reclinomonas). We report the first multigene phylogenetic analyses to include a comprehensive sampling of excavate groups (six nuclear-encoded protein-coding genes, nine of

Alastair G. B. Simpson; Yuji Inagaki; Andrew J. Roger

2005-01-01

320

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear

C. Cassel; M. McCally; H. Abraham

1984-01-01

321

The Yeast Nuclear Pore Complex  

PubMed Central

An understanding of how the nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic exchange requires a comprehensive inventory of the molecular components of the NPC and a knowledge of how each component contributes to the overall structure of this large molecular translocation machine. Therefore, we have taken a comprehensive approach to classify all components of the yeast NPC (nucleoporins). This involved identifying all the proteins present in a highly enriched NPC fraction, determining which of these proteins were nucleoporins, and localizing each nucleoporin within the NPC. Using these data, we present a map of the molecular architecture of the yeast NPC and provide evidence for a Brownian affinity gating mechanism for nucleocytoplasmic transport. PMID:10684247

Rout, Michael P.; Aitchison, John D.; Suprapto, Adisetyantari; Hjertaas, Kelly; Zhao, Yingming; Chait, Brian T.

2000-01-01

322

Retell as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K–12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was moderately correlated with standardized measures of reading comprehension and, with older students, had a lower correlation with decoding and fluency. Literal information was retold more frequently than inferential, and students with learning disabilities or reading difficulties needed more supports to demonstrate adequate recall. Great variability was shown in the prompting procedures, but scoring methods were more consistent across studies. The influences of genre, background knowledge, and organizational features were often specific to particular content, texts, or students. Overall, retell has not yet demonstrated adequacy as a progress monitoring instrument. PMID:23125521

Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon

2011-01-01

323

Neuroimaging Studies of Language Production and Comprehension  

PubMed Central

The 1990s were dubbed the “Decade of the Brain.” During this time there was a marked increase in the amount of neuroimaging work observing how the brain accomplishes many tasks, including the processing of language. In this chapter we review the past 15 years of neuroimaging research on language production and comprehension. The findings of these studies indicate that the processing involved in language use occurs in diffuse brain regions. These regions include Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, primary auditory and visual cortex, and frontal regions in the left hemisphere, as well as in the right hemisphere homologues to these regions. We conclude the chapter by discussing the future of neuroimaging research into language production and comprehension. PMID:12359916

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Kaschak, Michael P.

2014-01-01

324

Characterizing Reading Comprehension of Mathematical Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares reading comprehension of three different texts: two mathematical texts and one historical text. The two\\u000a mathematical texts both present basic concepts of group theory, but one does it using mathematical symbols and the other only\\u000a uses natural language. A total of 95 upper secondary and university students read one of the mathematical texts and the historical\\u000a text.

Magnus Österholm

2006-01-01

325

Development of a comprehensive weld process model  

SciTech Connect

This cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) combines CTC`s expertise in the welding area and that of LMES to develop computer models and simulation software for welding processes. This development is of significant impact to the industry, including materials producers and fabricators. The main thrust of the research effort was to develop a comprehensive welding simulation methodology. A substantial amount of work has been done by several researchers to numerically model several welding processes. The primary drawback of most of the existing models is the lack of sound linkages between the mechanistic aspects (e.g., heat transfer, fluid flow, and residual stress) and the metallurgical aspects (e.g., microstructure development and control). A comprehensive numerical model which can be used to elucidate the effect of welding parameters/conditions on the temperature distribution, weld pool shape and size, solidification behavior, and microstructure development, as well as stresses and distortion, does not exist. It was therefore imperative to develop a comprehensive model which would predict all of the above phenomena during welding. The CRADA built upon an already existing three-dimensional (3-D) welding simulation model which was developed by LMES which is capable of predicting weld pool shape and the temperature history in 3-d single-pass welds. However, the model does not account for multipass welds, microstructural evolution, distortion and residual stresses. Additionally, the model requires large resources of computing time, which limits its use for practical applications. To overcome this, CTC and LMES have developed through this CRADA the comprehensive welding simulation model described above.

Radhakrishnan, B.; Zacharia, T.; Paul, A.

1997-05-01

326

Simulating motion in figurative language comprehension.  

PubMed

In this visual world eye tracking study we explored simulation of fictive motion during language comprehension in figurative sentences in Hindi. Eye movement measures suggest that language comprehenders gaze longer at visual scenes on hearing fictive motion sentences compared to their literal counterparts. The results support previous findings in English and provide cross linguistic evidence for the simulation and embodied views of language processing. We discuss the findings in the light of neuroimaging models and language vision interaction. PMID:21379399

Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

2010-01-01

327

Comprehensive silicon solar-cell computer modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive silicon solar cell computer modeling scheme was developed to perform the following tasks: (1) model and analysis of the net charge distribution in quasineutral regions; (2) experimentally determined temperature behavior of Spire Corp. n+pp+ solar cells where n+-emitter is formed by ion implantation of 75As or 31P; and (3) initial validation results of computer simulation program using Spire Corp. n+pp+ cells.

Lamorte, M. F.

1984-01-01

328

Young children's comprehension of similarities underlying metaphor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comprehension of similarity by forty-eight 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds was investigated using a set of binary choice tasks. These tasks were composed of contrasting concepts that were to be matched to conceptually related target stimuli on the basis of relationships underlying object\\/personality metaphor, color\\/personality metaphor, concrete metaphor, taxonomic similarity, and functional association. The youngest children were able to comprehend

Victor Broderick

1991-01-01

329

Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) convened a "Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer" workshop in Washington, D.C. This workshop brought together physicians, basic scientists and other members of the U.S. and international cancer communities to assist in outlining the most effective strategies for the development of a successful project. Information about this workshop is reported in the Executive Summary.

330

Comprehensive Performance Tracking with Vampir 7  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Vampir 7 is a performance visualization tool that provides a comprehensive view on the runtime behavior of parallel programs.\\u000a It is a new member of the Vampir tool family. This new generation of performance visualizer combines state-of-the-art parallel\\u000a data processing techniques with an all-new graphical user interface experience. This includes fast local and remote event\\u000a data browsing, searching, filtering, clustering, and

Holger Brunst; Daniel Hackenberg; Guido Juckeland; Heide Rohling

2010-01-01

331

Handedness, hemispheric asymmetries, and joke comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the impact of differences in language lateralization on joke comprehension, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded as 16 left- and 16 right-handed adults read one-line jokes and non-funny control stimuli (“A replacement player hit a home run with my girl\\/ball,”). In right-handers, jokes elicited a late positivity 500–900 ms post-stimulus onset that was largest over right hemisphere (RH)

Seana Coulson; Christopher Lovett

2004-01-01

332

The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

studies of the Earth's radiation belts and ring current are very useful in understanding the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic particles. Recently, the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) and the Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model were merged to form a Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model. CIMI solves for many essential quantities in the inner magnetosphere, including ion and electron distributions in the ring current and radiation belts, plasmaspheric density, Region 2 currents, convection potential, and precipitation in the ionosphere. It incorporates whistler mode chorus and hiss wave diffusion of energetic electrons in energy, pitch angle, and cross terms. CIMI thus represents a comprehensive model that considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts. We have performed a CIMI simulation for the storm on 5-9 April 2010 and then compared our results with data from the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers and Akebono satellites. We identify the dominant energization and loss processes for the ring current and radiation belts. We find that the interactions with the whistler mode chorus waves are the main cause of the flux increase of MeV electrons during the recovery phase of this particular storm. When a self-consistent electric field from the CRCM is used, the enhancement of MeV electrons is higher than when an empirical convection model is applied. We also demonstrate how CIMI can be a powerful tool for analyzing and interpreting data from the new Van Allen Probes mission.

Fok, M.-C.; Buzulukova, N. Y.; Chen, S.-H.; Glocer, A.; Nagai, T.; Valek, P.; Perez, J. D.

2014-09-01

333

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) Database and Web Retrieval System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database, and associated Web inter-\\u000aface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and\\u000aintermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than\\u000a200,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR\\u000adatabase provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, com- pilation\\u000aand research activities. The principles of the database and

B. Pritychenko; E. Bÿetak; M. A. Kellett; B. Singh; J. Totans

2011-01-01

334

Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

Badawi, Ramsey D.

2001-01-01

335

Nuclear Blast  

MedlinePLUS

... including blinding light, intense heat (thermal radiation), initial nuclear radiation, blast, fires started by the heat pulse and ... time, and is the main source of residual nuclear radiation. Fallout from a nuclear explosion may be carried ...

336

32 CFR 516.64 - Comprehensive remedies plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Comprehensive remedies plan. 516.64 Section... DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption... § 516.64 Comprehensive remedies plan. (a) A...

2010-07-01

337

32 CFR 516.64 - Comprehensive remedies plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2009-07-01 true Comprehensive remedies plan. 516.64 Section... DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption... § 516.64 Comprehensive remedies plan. (a) A...

2012-07-01

338

32 CFR 516.64 - Comprehensive remedies plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2009-07-01 true Comprehensive remedies plan. 516.64 Section... DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption... § 516.64 Comprehensive remedies plan. (a) A...

2011-07-01

339

32 CFR 516.64 - Comprehensive remedies plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Comprehensive remedies plan. 516.64 Section... DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption... § 516.64 Comprehensive remedies plan. (a) A...

2013-07-01

340

75 FR 9488 - Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision...Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW...conduct a quantitative impact study (QIS) to assess the impact...Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong...

2010-03-02

341

The Pennsylvania State University Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP)  

E-print Network

The Pennsylvania State University Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP) 2012 #12. To that end, I strongly support the Pennsylvania State University's Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan, federal, and presidential laws, statutes and authorities for Emergency Management. The National Incident

Maranas, Costas

342

The Pennsylvania State University Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP)  

E-print Network

The Pennsylvania State University Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP) Emergency's Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP). This Plan addresses the challenges and responsibilities of pre and is in accordance with state, federal, and presidential laws, statutes and authorities for Emergency Management

Yener, Aylin

343

7 CFR 4290.320 - Contents of comprehensive business plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of comprehensive business plan...RBIC Licensing § 4290.320 Contents of comprehensive business plan...community-based organizations and local entities (including local economic development...

2010-01-01

344

Speeded Reading and Listening Comprehension for Easy and Difficult Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension was compared for speeded reading and listening to compressed speech. No difference between reading and listening comprehension was found at any of the speeds or difficulty levels, contrary to previous suggestions of a listening disadvantage. (Author/GK)

Hausfeld, Steven

1981-01-01

345

18 CFR 430.9 - Comprehensive plan policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...9 Comprehensive plan policies. The water resources within the Southeastern...with the Comprehensive Plan policies. For purposes of this ground water protected area,...

2010-04-01

346

18 CFR 430.9 - Comprehensive plan policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...9 Comprehensive plan policies. The water resources within the Southeastern...with the Comprehensive Plan policies. For purposes of this ground water protected area,...

2012-04-01

347

18 CFR 430.9 - Comprehensive plan policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...9 Comprehensive plan policies. The water resources within the Southeastern...with the Comprehensive Plan policies. For purposes of this ground water protected area,...

2013-04-01

348

18 CFR 430.9 - Comprehensive plan policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...9 Comprehensive plan policies. The water resources within the Southeastern...with the Comprehensive Plan policies. For purposes of this ground water protected area,...

2011-04-01

349

18 CFR 430.9 - Comprehensive plan policies.  

...SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...9 Comprehensive plan policies. The water resources within the Southeastern...with the Comprehensive Plan policies. For purposes of this ground water protected area,...

2014-04-01

350

Comprehensive Diagnosis of Complex Electrical Power Distribution Systems  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Diagnosis of Complex Electrical Power Distribution Systems Indranil Roychoudhury subsystems. This heterogeneity introduces significant challenges for model-based diagnosis, such as building and modeling errors. In this paper, we present a comprehensive methodology for the diagnosis of parametric

Daigle, Matthew

351

I Don't Understand What You Mean By Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considered are three components of comprehension (literal meaning, presupposition and inference, and illocutionary acts), and reviewed are types of clinical instruments used to measure language comprehension in children. (Author/CL)

Rees, Norma S.; Shulman, Marsha

1978-01-01

352

Arms control movements and the media: From the Cold War to the nuclear freeze  

SciTech Connect

The dissertation examines news coverage of the two most recent arms control movements: The test ban (1957-1963) and the nuclear freeze (1981-1984). Four questions guide the research: (1) To what extent do the news media maintain a space for oppositional politics that is independent of elite influence? (2) DOes the existence and characters of the space matter to policy outcomes? (3) Has the character of voices permitted into this space changed over time? (4) Are there differences between the more elite-oriented media and those aiming for mass audiences? The study begins by tracing the formation of arms control policy in the three presidential administrations that span the two movements. Finally, it examines the news frames used to depict movement messages and participants. The study found that space provided to movement politics varied both with administration policy formation and editorial policy. Because news coverage followed the contours of elite policy, the movements succeeded only in placing their issues on the policy agenda but not in achieving their desired goals. There were significant differences in the types of voiced permitted into the news across the two movements. Moral authority to participate in and influence arms control policy debates was virtually unquestioned during the cold war, but by the 1980s, the media were more likely to defer to expert opinion, despite its underlying partisan interest. The most significant difference in news treatment was between the elite press and television news: The simplicity of the television report was more likely to elicit core issues. But neither the press, the opposition party in Congress, nor the movement used these to challenge the rationale of administration policy or to explore the ethical implications of the influence of defense industry PACs on policy-making.

Rojecki, A.

1993-12-31

353

Fast, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

The absolute need to improve the separating power of liquid chromatography, especially for multi-constituent biological samples, is becoming increasingly evident. In response, over the past few years, there has been a great deal of interest in the development of two dimension liquid chromatography (2DLC). Just as 1DLC is preferred to 1DGC based on its compatibility with biological materials we believe that ultimately 2DLC will be preferred to the much more highly developed 2DGC for such samples. The huge advantage of 2D chromatographic techniques over 1D methods is inherent in the tremendous potential increase in peak capacity (resolving power). This is especially true of comprehensive 2D chromatography wherein it is possible, under ideal conditions, to obtain a total peak capacity equal to the product of the peak capacities of the first and second dimension separations. However, the very long timescale (typically several hours to tens of hours) of comprehensive 2DLC is clearly its chief drawback. Recent advances in the use of higher temperatures to speed up isocratic and gradient elution liquid chromatography have been used to decrease the time needed to do the second dimension LC separation of 2DLC to about 20 seconds for a full gradient elution run. Thus fast, high temperature LC is becoming a very promising technique. Peak capacities of over 2000 and rates of peak capacity production of nearly 1 peak/s have been achieved. In consequence, many real samples showing more than 200 peaks with signal to noise ratios of better than 10:1 have been run in total times of under 30 minutes. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive review of 2DLC, but is deliberately focused on the issues involved in doing fast 2DLC by means of elevating the column temperature; however, many issues of broader applicability will be discussed. PMID:17888443

Stoll, Dwight R.; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoli; Carr, Peter W.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rutan, Sarah C.

2011-01-01

354

Why Reading Comprehension Fails: Insights from Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental difficulties with reading comprehension are not uncommon. This article examines the nature of reading comprehension deficits in three groups of children: children identified as having relatively specific impairments in reading comprehension, children with autism spectrum disorder, and children with specific language impairment. The…

Nation, Kate; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

2005-01-01

355

Comprehensive Immigration Policy Reform: Challenges and Prospects for the Future  

E-print Network

initiative Another casualty of the 9/11/01 attacks: comprehensive immigration policy reform · Terrorists7/18/2011 1 Comprehensive Immigration Policy Reform: Challenges and Prospects for the Future James.S. Unauthorized Population Key Components of FederalLevel "Comprehensive Immigration Reform" · Enforcement

356

Comprehension of Action Sequences: The Case of Paper, Scissors, Rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic idea of the present study is that it is useful to conceptualize the processes involved in action comprehension in a similar manner as the processes involved in sentence comprehension. One important question then is whether order and meaning of action sequences are processed sequentially or in parallel (analogous to syntactic and semantic processing in sentence comprehension). We conducted

Günther Knoblich

357

Reading Comprehension Requires Knowledge--of Words and the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "fourth grade slump" in reading comprehension still exists. Among poor children, low comprehension ruins their chances for academic success. Among all children, comprehension scores are stagnant. Research indicates that key to both problems is systematically building children's vocabulary, fluency, and domain knowledge. To improve reading,…

Hirsch, E. D., Jr.

2003-01-01

358

The Relationship Among Vocabulary Knowledge, Syntactic Awareness And Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship among vocabulary knowledge, syntactic awareness and reading comprehension in 155 English-speaking undergraduate and graduate students. Confirmatory factor analysis analyses show syntactic awareness is highly correlated with reading comprehension; there is strong positive correlation between vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness; the same high correlation holds for the relationship between syntactic awareness and reading comprehension. Structural equation

Ying Guo

2006-01-01

359

"The Discovery Channel Said So" and Other Barriers to Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing attention focused on comprehension, there is a need for research regarding how to implement comprehension instruction for struggling readers and assess its effectiveness. This article describes reading instruction as it occurred over two years with one struggling reader in third and fourth grade. A comprehension checklist provided…

Massey, Dixie D.

2007-01-01

360

Monitoring Reading Comprehension by Thinking Aloud. Instructional Resource No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A think-aloud instructional program was developed to help students acquire the ability to monitor their reading comprehension and to employ various strategies to deal with comprehension breakdowns. Several research studies indicate that comprehension monitoring abilities discriminate successful readers from less successful ones and that…

Baumann, James F.; And Others

361

On the Role of Conversational Implication in Proverb Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiments described in this paper compare inference-based and expectancy-based models of the comprehension of indirect, non-literal expressions. The inference-based model claims that the comprehension of non-literal meanings requires more and deeper processing than the comprehension of literal meanings. The expectancy-based model rests on…

Kemper, Susan

362

BRENDA: The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BRENDA is a comprehensive database of enzymes maintained by the Institute of Biochemistry at the University of Cologne. Scientists collect and evaluate enzyme function data from primary literature sources. The site has recently been updated with new enzymes and an entirely new search engine. Various searches can be performed, including enzyme name, organism, or EC number. Links to literature citations, two dimensional images, and other databases are included for many of the enzymes. Academic and nonprofit use is free; commercial users must acquire a license.

2002-01-01

363

BRENDA: The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BRENDA is a comprehensive database of enzymes maintained by the Institute of Biochemistry at the University of Cologne. Scientists collect and evaluate enzyme function data from primary literature sources. The site has recently been updated with new enzymes and an entirely new search engine. Various searches can be performed, including enzyme name, organism, or EC number. Links to literature citations, two dimensional images, and other databases are included for many of the enzymes. Academic and nonprofit use is free; commercial users must acquire a license.

2007-07-20

364

Medical contribution to the comprehensive approach.  

PubMed

The coordination of the Military, Diplomatic and Economic/Development levers of power, the so-called "hard" and "soft" powers, to bring about the strategic aims of governments, supported by Non-Governmental Organisations and international organisations, is commonly known as the Comprehensive Approach (CA). The CA is now part of both NATO and UK military doctrine and concepts development. This article describes how medical branch HQ Allied Rapid Reaction Corp, as part of the HQs work to operationalise the CA, has sought and developed training opportunities to improve individual skill-sets to enable the branch to better contribute to the CA process. PMID:22319985

Fletcher, J M

2011-12-01

365

Study on comprehensive utilization of secondary resources  

SciTech Connect

In light of the properties on process mineralogy of the old tailings in a certain copper mine in the People`s Republic of China, a new process of combined reagent and stepwise flotation is applied in which the flotation of copper sulfides is followed by the flotation of copper oxides. Recoveries of copper and associated gold and silver have been greatly increased. The tailings obtained were subjected to the gravitational separation-magnetic separation process to recover iron minerals. Tailings from iron separation are taken as fillers and sent to the pit underground. Thus, the secondary resources are comprehensively utilized.

Lihua, G.; Ruilu, L. [Beijing General Research Inst. of Mining and Metallurgy (China)

1995-12-31

366

Carpal tunnel syndrome — a comprehensive review  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose. To provide a comprehensive review of the management of carpal tunnel syndrome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and results. A systematic literature review is provided of the history, anatomy, pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria,\\u000a investigative surgical techniques, results and complications for carpal tunnel syndrome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion. Surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome requires meticulous attention to history-taking, investigation, counseling, training\\u000a and surgical technique if unsatisfactory results

J. Haase

367

Hanford Site Comprehensive site Compliance Evaluation Report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the second annual submittal by WHC, ICF/KH, PNL and BHI and contains the results of inspections of the stormwater outfalls listed in the Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1993a) as required by General Permit No. WA-R-00-000F (WA-R-00-A17F): This report also describes the methods used to conduct the Storm Water Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation, as required in Part IV, Section D, {ampersand} C of the General Permit, summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation, and documents significant leaks and spills.

Tollefson, K.S.

1997-08-05

368

Tier-2 System Administration: A Comprehensive Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liverpool is consistently amongst the top Tier-2 sites in Europe in terms of efficiency and cluster utilisation. This paper will cover the work performed at Liverpool over the last six years to maximise and maintain efficiency and productivity at their Tier 2 site, with an overview of the tools used (including established, emerging, and locally developed solutions) for monitoring, testing, installation, configuration, ticketing, logging, and administration, along with the techniques for management, operations, and optimisation that tie them together into a comprehensive, scalable, and sustainable approach to Tier 2 administration.

Bland, J.; Fay, R. B.; Jones, S. H.; Norman, M. J.

2014-06-01

369

Comprehensive imaging of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons.  

PubMed

A comprehensive system with a high speed is built for imaging the terahertz (THz) surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Both the amplitude and the phase information of the focusing THz-SPPs excited by a semicircular plasmonic lens are achieved by using this system. The amplitude images present the focusing profiles of the THz-SPPs with different frequencies and the phase images reveal the Gouy phase shift as the THz-SPPs evolving through the focus. The simulations are also performed and a good agreement between the experimental and simulated results has been found. PMID:25090508

Wang, Sen; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Xinke; Qu, Shiliang; Zhang, Yan

2014-07-14

370

iotbx.cif: a comprehensive CIF toolbox.  

PubMed

iotbx.cif is a new software module for the development of applications that make use of the CIF format. Comprehensive tools are provided for input, output and validation of CIFs, as well as for interconversion with high-level cctbx [Grosse-Kunstleve, Sauter, Moriarty & Adams (2002). J. Appl. Cryst.35, 126-136] crystallographic objects. The interface to the library is written in Python, whilst parsing is carried out using a compiled parser, combining the performance of a compiled language (C++) with the benefits of using an interpreted language. PMID:22199401

Gildea, Richard J; Bourhis, Luc J; Dolomanov, Oleg V; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W; Puschmann, Horst; Adams, Paul D; Howard, Judith A K

2011-12-01

371

An assessment of antineutrino detection as a tool for monitoring nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The antineutrino is the only real-time nuclear signature from a fission explosion that propagates great distances through air, water, and ground. The size and sensitivity of antineutrino detectors has increased dramatically in the last decade, and will continue to do so in the next, thanks in part to the renewed interest in neutrino physics brought on by the recent discovery that neutrinos may have mass. The evolution of antineutrino detectors, and the evident interest of the signature as a means for monitoring nuclear tests motivates this review of the capabilities of existing and possible future detectors as test ban verification tools. The authors find that existing liquid scintillator ionization detectors, operating a few tens of meters below the Earth's surface and containing a few thousand tons of active material, could be used to monitor an area of a few square kilometers for nuclear explosions at the 1 kt level. Purified water Cerenkov detectors of sizes comparable to existing detectors (50,000 m{sup 3}) could be used to detect 1 kt explosions at distances of a few tens of kilometers. If neutron-absorbing dopants such as sodium chloride or gadolinium could be added to purified water, the resulting background reduction would allow extension of the range for sensitivity to a pulse of 10 antineutrino events from a 1 kt explosion out to approximately 1000 km. Beyond 1000 km, backgrounds from the world's nuclear reactors would become prohibitively large. The engineering hurdles for such detectors would be formidable. The size of a doped detector operating at the 100 km range, suitable for cooperative monitoring of existing nuclear test sites, is about 60 times that of the largest existing water detector, and would require a factor of several dozen more photomultiplier tubes than what is now used in large scale physics experiments. At a price per phototube of $1000, capital costs would amount to several billions of dollars, even for a detector at this modest range. This cost is perhaps the key obstacle to construction, along with excavation requirements and the requirement of high radiopurity for large volumes of water and dopant. Detectors sensitive to a 1 kt explosion at a few kilometer distance would still cost tens of millions of dollars, and are unlikely to be useful except in the context of confidence-building measures.

Adam Bernstein; Todd West; Vipin Gupta

1999-06-01

372

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

373

Fundamental deterrence and START III  

SciTech Connect

The public`s brief respite from the specter of nuclear holocaust abruptly ended in May 1998 when India, 24 years after its only successful nuclear weapon test, detonated five more just sixty miles from its border with Pakistan. Pakistan quickly declared itself a nuclear power and threatened tests of its own. Various capitals issued condemnations and an assortment of largely symbolic political and economic sanctions. India then proclaimed a moratorium on further testing and announced its willingness to accede to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty as a declared nuclear power. Inevitably, India`s tests will prompt Pakistan and China to accelerate their own nuclear programs, to the detriment of regional stability in South Asia.

Johnson, K.D.

1998-12-31

374

Special lecture in memory of Glenn Theodore Seaborg (19 April 1912 - 25 February 1999) Glenn T. Seaborg's multi-faceted career  

SciTech Connect

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-1999) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten US presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights his profound influence on nuclear science, both in the US and in the international community.

Hoffman, Darleane C.

2001-11-01

375

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

SciTech Connect

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

Huebner, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohletz, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, L N [SMD; Boice, D C [SWR; Chocron, S [SWRI; Ghosh, A [SWRI; Goldstein, R [SWRI; Mukerherjee, J [SWRI; Patrick, W [SWRI; Walker, J D [SWRI

2008-01-01

376

NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

NONE

1998-02-01

377

Comprehensive system models: Strategies for evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models is vast involving validations of every model component at every scale of organization, as well as tests of all the individual linkages. Even the most detailed evaluation of each of the component processes and the individual links among them should not, however, engender confidence in the performance of the whole. The integrated earth system is so rich with complex feedback loops, often involving components of the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, and cryosphere, that it is certain to exhibit emergent properties very difficult to predict from the perspective of a narrow focus on any individual component of the system. Therefore, a substantial share of the task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models must reside at the level of whole system evaluations. Since complete, integrated atmosphere/ ocean/ biosphere/ hydrology models are not yet operational, questions of evaluation must be addressed at the level of the kinds of earth system processes that the models should be competent to simulate, rather than at the level of specific performance criteria. Here, we have tried to identify examples of earth system processes that are difficult to simulate with existing models and that involve a rich enough suite of feedbacks that they are unlikely to be satisfactorily described by highly simplified or toy models. Our purpose is not to specify a checklist of evaluation criteria but to introduce characteristics of the earth system that may present useful opportunities for model testing and, of course, improvement.

Field, Christopher; Kutzbach, John E.; Ramanathan, V.; Maccracken, Michael C.

1992-01-01

378

A Comprehensive Review of Hypertension in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy. Hypertensive disorders are one of the major causes of pregnancy-related maternal deaths in the United States. We will present a comprehensive update of the literature pertinent to hypertension in pregnancy. The paper begins by defining and classifying hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The normal vascular and renal physiological changes which occur during pregnancy are detailed. We will summarize the intriguing aspects of pathophysiology of preeclampsia, emphasizing on recent advances in this field. The existing diagnostic tools and the tests which have been proposed for screening preeclampsia are comprehensively described. We also highlight the short- and long-term implications of preeclampsia. Finally, we review the current management guidelines, goals of treatment and describe the potential risks and benefits associated with various antihypertensive drug classes. Preeclampsia still remains an enigma, and the present management focuses on monitoring and treatment of its manifestations. We are hopeful that this in depth critique will stimulate the blossoming research in the field and assist practitioners to identify women at risk and more effectively treat affected individuals. PMID:22685661

Mustafa, Reem; Ahmed, Sana; Gupta, Anu; Venuto, Rocco C.

2012-01-01

379

A Comprehensive Review of Retinal Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Blindness, although not life threatening, is a debilitating disorder for which few, if any treatments exist. Ocular gene therapies have the potential to profoundly improve the quality of life in patients with inherited retinal disease. As such, tremendous focus has been given to develop such therapies. Several factors make the eye an ideal organ for gene-replacement therapy including its accessibility, immune privilege, small size, compartmentalization, and the existence of a contralateral control. This review will provide a comprehensive summary of (i) existing gene therapy clinical trials for several genetic forms of blindness and (ii) preclinical efficacy and safety studies in a variety of animal models of retinal disease which demonstrate strong potential for clinical application. To be as comprehensive as possible, we include additional proof of concept studies using gene replacement, neurotrophic/neuroprotective, optogenetic, antiangiogenic, or antioxidative stress strategies as well as a description of the current challenges and future directions in the ocular gene therapy field to this review as a supplement. PMID:23358189

Boye, Shannon E; Boye, Sanford L; Lewin, Alfred S; Hauswirth, William W

2013-01-01

380

Development of a Comprehensive Weld Process Model  

SciTech Connect

This cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) combines CTC's expertise in the welding area and that of LMES to develop computer models and simulation software for welding processes. This development is of significant impact to the industry, including materials producers and fabricators. The main thrust of the research effort was to develop a comprehensive welding simulation methodology. A substantial amount of work has been done by several researchers to numerically model several welding processes. The primary drawback of most of the existing models is the lack of sound linkages between the mechanistic aspects (e.g., heat transfer, fluid flow, and residual stress) and the metallurgical aspects (e.g., microstructure development and control). A comprehensive numerical model which can be used to elucidate the effect of welding parameters/conditions on the temperature distribution, weld pool shape and size, solidification behavior, and microstructure development, as well as stresses and distortion, does not exist. It was therefore imperative to develop a comprehensive model which would predict all of the above phenomena during welding. The CRADA built upon an already existing three- dimensional (3-D) welding simulation model which was developed by LMES which is capable of predicting weld pool shape and the temperature history in 3-d single-pass welds. However, the model does not account for multipass welds, microstructural evolution, distortion and residual stresses. Additionally, the model requires large resources of computing time, which limits its use for practical applications. To overcome this, CTC and LMES have developed through this CRADA the comprehensive welding simulation model described above. The following technical tasks have been accomplished as part of the CRADA. 1. The LMES welding code has been ported to the Intel Paragon parallel computer at ORNL. The timing results illustrate the potential of the modified computer model for the analysis of large-scale welding simulations. 2. The kinetics of grain structure evolution in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) has been simulated with reasonable accuracy by coupling an improved MC grain growth algorithm with a methodology for converting the MC parameters of grain size and time to real parameters. The simulations effectively captured the thermal pinning phenomenon that has been reported in the weld HAZ. 3. A cellular automaton (CA) code has been developed to simulate the solidification microstructure in the weld fusion zone. The simulations effectively captured the epitaxial growth of the HAZ grains, the grain selection mechanism, and the formation of typical grain structures observed in the weld t%sion zone. 4. The point heat source used in the LMES welding code has ben replaced with a distributed heat source to better capture the thermal characteristics and energy distributions in a commercial welding heat source. 5. Coupled thermal-mechanical and metallurgical models have been developed to accurately predict the weld residual stresses, and 6. Attempts have been made to integrate the newly developed computational capabilities into a comprehensive weld design tool.

Radhakrishnan, B.; Zacharia, T.

1997-05-01

381

A Comprehensive Validation Methodology for Sparse Experimental Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive program of verification and validation has been undertaken to assess the applicability of models to space radiation shielding applications and to track progress as models are developed over time. The models are placed under configuration control, and automated validation tests are used so that comparisons can readily be made as models are improved. Though direct comparisons between theoretical results and experimental data are desired for validation purposes, such comparisons are not always possible due to lack of data. In this work, two uncertainty metrics are introduced that are suitable for validating theoretical models against sparse experimental databases. The nuclear physics models, NUCFRG2 and QMSFRG, are compared to an experimental database consisting of over 3600 experimental cross sections to demonstrate the applicability of the metrics. A cumulative uncertainty metric is applied to the question of overall model accuracy, while a metric based on the median uncertainty is used to analyze the models from the perspective of model development by analyzing subsets of the model parameter space.

Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

2010-01-01

382

Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

1996-03-01

383

Nuclear Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to nuclear fission, its controlled release in power stations, problems of nuclear waste, and nuclear accidents. A linked web page discusses nuclear weapons, their effect, their ban, and "dirty bombs". This material supplements a previous section on fission in the Sun and the curve of binding energy in "From Stargazers to Starships". A French translation also exists.

Stern, David

2004-11-28

384

Nuclear Facilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to produce nuclear weapons, each country must have facilities to produce and refine the nuclear materials, conduct research on weapon design, and store the completed weapons. The interactives in this collection allow you to explore the nuclear facilities of the nuclear powers (both declared and undeclared).

Griffith, Christopher

385

A Comprehensive Guide to Readers Theatre: Enhancing Fluency and Comprehension in Middle School and Beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the current education climate so focused on accountability, teachers need to ensure that their teaching practices are supported by today's content-specific standards. To meet this need, "A Comprehensive Guide to Readers Theatre" shows not only how to implement Readers Theatre in the classroom but also how to use it to meet current literacy…

Black, Alison; Stave, Anna M.

2007-01-01

386

Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics Volume 10, 2010 http://asa.aip.org  

E-print Network

-reversal to locate non-volcanic tremor and to fulfill the monitoring objectives of the nuclear-test ban treaty Carene-17: GEOPHYSICS LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, carene@lanl.gov In this paper are presented

387

41 CFR 302-1.100 - What is a comprehensive, automated relocation management system?  

...comprehensive, automated relocation management system? 302-1.100 Section...comprehensive, automated relocation management system? A comprehensive, automated relocation management system is a system that...

2014-07-01

388

41 CFR 302-1.100 - What is a comprehensive, automated relocation management system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...comprehensive, automated relocation management system? 302-1.100 Section...comprehensive, automated relocation management system? A comprehensive, automated relocation management system is a system that...

2013-07-01

389

41 CFR 302-1.100 - What is a comprehensive, automated relocation management system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...comprehensive, automated relocation management system? 302-1.100 Section...comprehensive, automated relocation management system? A comprehensive, automated relocation management system is a system that...

2011-07-01

390

41 CFR 302-1.100 - What is a comprehensive, automated relocation management system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...comprehensive, automated relocation management system? 302-1.100 Section...comprehensive, automated relocation management system? A comprehensive, automated relocation management system is a system that...

2012-07-01

391

Nuclear Engineering Nuclear Criticality Safety  

E-print Network

: the Alpha- Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF), Chemical Engineering Division (CMT) separa- tion technologyNuclear Engineering Nuclear Criticality Safety The Nuclear Engineering Division (NE) of Argonne to them state-of-the-art software and nuclear data libraries. Division NCS activities are complemented

Kemner, Ken

392

Problems of chemical-analytical monitoring in nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further increase of the reliability and efficiency of the operation of nuclear power plants depends on the comprehensive solution of many problems, of which the problem of optimization and increase of the informativeness of chemicotechnological monitoring is gaining in importance. There is a clear rift between the level of scientific ideas and technical solutions on which nuclear power plants are

L. N. Moskvin

1985-01-01

393

Comprehensive quantitative analysis on privacy leak behavior.  

PubMed

Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

2013-01-01

394

Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis on Privacy Leak Behavior  

PubMed Central

Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

2013-01-01

395

The case for comprehensive sex education.  

PubMed

Half of all new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United States and two thirds of all sexually transmitted diseases (STD) occur among young people under the age of 25. It is estimated that by the end of high school, nearly two thirds of American youth are sexually active, and one in five has had four or more sexual partners. Despite these alarming statistics, less than half of all public schools in the United States offer information on how to obtain contraceptives and most schools increasingly teach abstinence-only-until-marriage (or "abstinence-only") education. There is little evidence that abstinence-only programs are successful in encouraging teenagers from delaying sexuality activity until marriage, and consequently, avoiding pregnancy, or STD or HIV infection. Comprehensive sex education, which emphasizes the benefits of abstinence while also teaching about contraception and disease-prevention methods, has been proven to reduce rates of teen pregnancy and STD infection. PMID:12194728

Starkman, Naomi; Rajani, Nicole

2002-07-01

396

Early comprehension of the Spanish plural.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Understanding how linguistic cues map to the environment is crucial for early language comprehension and may provide a way for bootstrapping and learning words. Research has suggested that learning how plural syntax maps to the perceptual environment may show a trajectory in which children first learn surrounding cues (verbs, modifiers) before a full mastery of the noun morpheme alone. The Spanish plural system of simple codas, dominated by one allomorph -s, and with redundant agreement markers, may facilitate early understanding of how plural linguistic cues map to novel referents. Two-year-old Mexican children correctly identified multiple novel object referents when multiple verbal cues in a phrase indicated plurality as well as in instances when the noun morphology in novel nouns was the only indicator of plurality. These results demonstrate Spanish-speaking children's ability to use plural noun inflectional morphology to infer novel word referents which may have implications for their word learning. PMID:24560441

Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Cantrell, Lisa M; Smith, Linda B; Canto, Elda A Alva

2014-11-01

397

Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program  

SciTech Connect

This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

Fleeter, Sanford [Purdue University

2012-09-30

398

Comprehensive Management of Subclavian Vein Effort Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Subclavian vein (SCV) effort thrombosis, also known as the Paget-Schroetter syndrome, is a relatively uncommon condition that affects young, active, otherwise healthy individuals. It is considered a form of thoracic outlet syndrome, arising as a consequence of compression and repetitive injury of the SCV between the first rib and the overlying clavicle, as well as the anterior scalene muscle, subclavius muscle, and costoclavicular ligament. Effort thrombosis is distinct from other forms of deep vein thrombosis with respect to pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and functional consequences, and it requires treatment considerations unique to effective management of thoracic outlet compression as well as the obstructed SCV. In this review the comprehensive management of SCV effort thrombosis is addressed, with an emphasis on current interventional radiology techniques used in conjunction with definitive surgical treatment, based on early catheter-based venography, thrombolytic therapy, and prompt paraclavicular thoracic outlet decompression with direct SCV reconstruction. PMID:23448848

Thompson, Robert W.

2012-01-01

399

The Comprehensive Process Model of Engagement  

PubMed Central

Background Engagement refers to the act of being occupied or involved with an external stimulus. In dementia, engagement is the antithesis of apathy. Objective The Comprehensive Process Model of Engagement was examined, in which environmental, person, and stimulus characteristics impact the level of engagement of persons with dementia. Methods Participants were 193 residents of 7 Maryland nursing homes. All participants had a diagnosis of dementia. Stimulus engagement was assessed via the Observational Measure of Engagement. Engagement was measured by duration, attention, and attitude to the stimulus. 25 stimuli were presented, which were categorized as live human social stimuli, simulated social stimuli, inanimate social stimuli, a reading stimulus, manipulative stimuli, a music stimulus, task and work-related stimuli, and two different self-identity stimuli. Results All stimuli elicited significantly greater engagement in comparison to the control stimulus. In the multivariate model, music significantly increased engagement duration, while all other stimuli significantly increased duration, attention, and attitude. Significant environmental variables in the multivariate model that increased engagement were: use of the long introduction with modeling (relative to minimal introduction), any level of sound (most especially moderate sound), and the presence of between 2 to 24 people in the room. Significant personal attributes included MMSE scores, ADL performance and clarity of speech, which were positively associated with higher engagement scores. Conclusions Results are consistent with the Comprehensive Process Model of Engagement. Person attributes, environmental factors, and stimulus characteristics all contribute to the level and nature of engagement, with a secondary finding being that exposure to any stimulus elicits engagement in persons with dementia. PMID:21946802

Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S.; Freedman, Laurence S.; Murad, Havi; Regier, Natalie G.; Thein, Khin; Dakheel-Ali, Maha

2010-01-01

400

Comprehensive Decision Tree Models in Bioinformatics  

PubMed Central

Purpose Classification is an important and widely used machine learning technique in bioinformatics. Researchers and other end-users of machine learning software often prefer to work with comprehensible models where knowledge extraction and explanation of reasoning behind the classification model are possible. Methods This paper presents an extension to an existing machine learning environment and a study on visual tuning of decision tree classifiers. The motivation for this research comes from the need to build effective and easily interpretable decision tree models by so called one-button data mining approach where no parameter tuning is needed. To avoid bias in classification, no classification performance measure is used during the tuning of the model that is constrained exclusively by the dimensions of the produced decision tree. Results The proposed visual tuning of decision trees was evaluated on 40 datasets containing classical machine learning problems and 31 datasets from the field of bioinformatics. Although we did not expected significant differences in classification performance, the results demonstrate a significant increase of accuracy in less complex visually tuned decision trees. In contrast to classical machine learning benchmarking datasets, we observe higher accuracy gains in bioinformatics datasets. Additionally, a user study was carried out to confirm the assumption that the tree tuning times are significantly lower for the proposed method in comparison to manual tuning of the decision tree. Conclusions The empirical results demonstrate that by building simple models constrained by predefined visual boundaries, one not only achieves good comprehensibility, but also very good classification performance that does not differ from usually more complex models built using default settings of the classical decision tree algorithm. In addition, our study demonstrates the suitability of visually tuned decision trees for datasets with binary class attributes and a high number of possibly redundant attributes that are very common in bioinformatics. PMID:22479449

Stiglic, Gregor; Kocbek, Simon; Pernek, Igor; Kokol, Peter

2012-01-01

401

Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class

John R. White; Douglas Kinsmen; Thomas M. Regan; Leo M. Bobek

2005-01-01

402

NuclearHydrogen Oil and gas  

E-print Network

in Hydrogen Fuel Cell Research, which draws upon the strengths of the country's most comprehensive HydrogenPolicy NuclearHydrogen Transport Education Oil and gas Distribution Society Supply Ecology Demand Materials Bio-energyEnvironment Manufacturing Efficiency Research Industry Collaboration Optimisation Global

Birmingham, University of

403

Nuclear physics aspects of double beta decay  

E-print Network

Comprehensive description of the phenomenology of the $\\beta\\beta$ decay is given, with emphasis on the nuclear physics aspects. After a brief review of the neutrino oscillation results and of motivation to test the lepton number conservation, the mechanism of the $0\

Petr Vogel

2008-07-15

404

Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program  

SciTech Connect

The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." This paper will describe some of the key elements of a comprehensive, sustainable nuclear security culture enhancement program and how implementation can mitigate the insider threat.

Crawford,C.; de Boer,G.; De Castro, K; Landers, Ph.D., J; Rogers, E

2009-10-19

405

Rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses recent actions by nuclear states following actions by 175 states to agree to make the obligations of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) permanent. China tested a weapon on May 15, and a month later France announced plans for a series of eight underground tests in the Pacific, prior to its intent to sign the comprehensive test ban treaty in 1996. Other action by nuclear powers includes apparent ongoing discussion of testing thresholds, which is casting the Conference on Disarmament in a grim mood. The general consensus of the article is that the nuclear powers are posturing themselves to take advantage of any and all loop holes in proposed treaties prior to formally acting on the treaties.

Johnson, R.

1995-09-01

406

Treaty review: Deadlock damages nonproliferation  

SciTech Connect

To the chagrin of the vast majority of the 84 participating signatory governments, the 1990 Geneva conference to review the implementation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) ended without adopting a final declaration reaffirming the parties' common commitment to the accord. In the early hours of September 15, 1990, Mexico insisted that the declaration include wording on a comprehensive nuclear test ban that was unacceptable to the United States. To achieve the consensus needed to ratify the final document, many parties were prepared to accept compromise language pushed by the U.S. on the test ban issue, according to Western sources. Yet, no final consensus emerged and, in keeping with the practice at past review conferences, no vote was taken. All conference participants had also reached informal agreement on numerous declarations supporting the treaty and endorsing important new steps to strengthen nuclear export standards and to expand the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. The Western bloc, with the support of the Soviet Union and its former allies, pressed for consensus to insure that these elements would be formally adopted. Who won and who lost The United States and Mexico both gained, although far less than each had hoped. In the end, the international nonproliferation regime suffered the most serious losses. 6 refs.

Spector, L.S.; Smith, J.R. (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-12-01

407

Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

2012-01-01

408

Training in metacognition and comprehension of physics texts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reading comprehension of physics texts is a neglected area in physics curricula. This paper describes the development, application, and evaluation of a metacognitive technique for improving student reading comprehension of physics texts. The metacognitive technique requires students to self-assess their reading comprehension and then to rank their abilities and disabilities hierarchically. The technique is evaluated by comparing performance on a reading-comprehension test of an experimental group with the performance of a control group before and after the experimental manipulation. Both groups underwent reading-comprehension exercises, using the Koch-Eckstein technique (Koch & Eckstein, 1995), with the metacognitive tasks added only to the experimental group. Results showed the posttest scores of the experimental group to be significantly higher than those of the control group. Based on these results, it is strongly recommended that the metacognitive technique be developed and applied in teaching reading comprehension of physics texts as an effective self-monitoring device.

Koch, Adina

2001-11-01

409

I don't understand what you mean by comprehension.  

PubMed

Current clinical approaches to the assessment of language comprehension in children are characterized by the measurement of "receptive" knowledge of lexical items and syntactic structure. A more comprehensive approach would go beyond measuring the child's ability to comprehend the literal meaning of sentences to include two other aspects of obtaining information from spoken utterances: presupposition and inference and illocutionary acts. A selected review of clinical instruments measuring language comprehension that are in current use is presented, revealing that these tests of vocabulary, basic concepts, and comprehension of syntactic structure are limited to the literal-meaning aspect of spoken messages. Tests of intelligence and reading skills for children and tests for adult aphasia include more complex comprehension items that require linguistic integration and inference. There are no tests that measure the listener's ability to determine the speaker's illocutionary intent. An integrated approach to the measurement of language comprehension is not available in the form of clinical tests. PMID:661259

Rees, N S; Shulman, M

1978-05-01

410

A comprehensive evaluation of cattle introgression into US federal bison herds.  

PubMed

Genetic introgression, especially from interspecies hybridization, is a significant threat to species conservation worldwide. In this study, 11 US federal bison populations were comprehensively examined for evidence of both mitochondrial and nuclear domestic cattle (Bos taurus) introgression. Mitochondrial introgression was examined using established polymerase chain reaction methods and confirmed through analysis of D-loop sequences. Nuclear introgression was assessed in 14 chromosomal regions through examination of microsatellite electromorph and sequence differences between bison and domestic cattle. Only one population was identified with domestic cattle mitochondrial DNA introgression. In contrast, evidence of nuclear introgression was found in 7 (63.6%) of the examined populations. Historic accounts of bison transfers among populations were corroborated with evidence of introgressed DNA transmission. While neither nuclear nor mitochondrial domestic cattle introgression was detected in bison from Grand Teton National Park, Sully's Hill National Game Preserve, Wind Cave National Park, or Yellowstone National Park, adequate sample sizes were available only from the last 2 populations to allow for statistical confidence (>90%) in nuclear introgression detection limits. The identification of genetically unique and undisturbed populations is critical to species conservation efforts, and this study serves as a model for the genetic evaluation of interspecies introgression. PMID:17172633

Halbert, Natalie D; Derr, James N

2007-01-01

411

Nuclear Winter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

Ehrlich, Anne

1984-01-01

412

Nuclear Power  

E-print Network

be inherently safe and environmentally benign. These realities of today's world are among the reasons that lead to serious interest in deploying nuclear power as a sustainable energy source. Today's nuclear reactors are safe and highly efficient energy systems...

413

Manuscript to appear in Environment, Systems and Decisions CALCULATING NUCLEAR ACCIDENT PROBABILITIES  

E-print Network

there is no authoritative, comprehensive and public historical record of nuclear power plant accidents, we reconstructedManuscript to appear in Environment, Systems and Decisions CALCULATING NUCLEAR ACCIDENT a nuclear accident dataset from peer-reviewed and other literature. We found that, in a sample of five

Boyer, Edmond

414

Research on Application and RF EMC of Bidirectional Wireless Communication System in Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wireless communication means is necessary for routine work and emergency operating in nuclear power station. With the developments of wireless technical and nuclear power plant, wireless communication system requires more comprehensive and widespread application. The secure and stable bidirectional wireless communication system is to have an important status in plant communication systems. In certain regions of nuclear power plant,

Yao Yu; Bing Chen; Yi Luo

2011-01-01

415

Nuclear Receptors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering nuclear receptors and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the structure of nuclear hormone receptors and then proceeds to describe mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, modulation of nuclear receptor activity by phosphorylation, and the role of nuclear receptors in cancer.

Reshma Taneja (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology REV)

2005-05-31

416

THE CONTRIBUTION OF EXECUTIVE SKILLS TO READING COMPREHENSION  

PubMed Central

Although word recognition deficits (WRD) are a known cause of reading comprehension deficits (RCD), other contributions to RCD, including executive function (EF), have not been fully explored. We examined the contribution of EF (working memory and planning), along with attention, decoding, fluency, and vocabulary to reading comprehension in 60 children (including 16 WRD and 10 RCD), ages 9–15 years. After controlling for commonly accepted contributors to reading comprehension (i.e., attention, decoding skills, fluency, and vocabulary), EF continued to make a significant contribution to reading comprehension but not to word recognition skills. These findings highlight the need for consideration of the role of EF in RCD. PMID:18629674

Sesma, Heather Whitney; Mahone, E. Mark; Levine, Terry; Eason, Sarah H.; Cutting, Laurie E.

2009-01-01

417

40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive environmental evaluation. (a) Preparation...

2010-07-01

418

The contribution of executive skills to reading comprehension.  

PubMed

Although word recognition deficits (WRD) are a known cause of reading comprehension deficits (RCD), other contributions to RCD, including executive function (EF), have not been fully explored. We examined the contribution of EF (working memory and planning), along with attention, decoding, fluency, and vocabulary to reading comprehension in 60 children (including 16 WRD and 10 RCD), ages 9-15 years. After controlling for commonly accepted contributors to reading comprehension (i.e., attention, decoding skills, fluency, and vocabulary), EF continued to make a significant contribution to reading comprehension but not to word recognition skills. These findings highlight the need for consideration of the role of EF in RCD. PMID:18629674

Sesma, Heather Whitney; Mahone, E Mark; Levine, Terry; Eason, Sarah H; Cutting, Laurie E

2009-05-01

419

Strategic position and development prospects of nuclear energy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

By analyzing the challenges of China’s energy supply, an excellent perspective of nuclear power development in the country\\u000a has been described. Taking into account the near-, mid-, and long-term development requirements, a comprehensive, coordinated\\u000a and sustainable nuclear power program is proposed. Thus, our national nuclear industry can not only catch up with the world’s\\u000a advanced level in proper time, but

Wenquan Shen

2007-01-01

420

Materials Science and Technology, Volume 10B, Nuclear Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second of two volumes in this series to deal with the information required for the use of materials in the nuclear power industry. The two volumes together contain the most comprehensive collection of information ever published in nuclear materials. Contents: Motta/Lemaignan: Zirconium Alloys. Dietz: Structural Materials. Ullmaier/Schilling: Physics of Radiation Damage in Solids. Smith/Mattas/Billone: First Wall and Blanket Materials. Boltax: Mixed Oxide Fuel Pin Performance. Oversby: Nuclear Wate Materials.

Frost, Brian R. T.

1996-12-01

421

Nuclear Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear reactions generate energy in nuclear reactors, in stars, and are responsible for the existence of all elements heavier than hydrogen in the universe. Nuclear reactions denote reactions between nuclei, and between nuclei and other fundamental particles, such as electrons and photons. A short description of the conservation laws and the definition of basic physical quantities is presented, followed by

C. A. Bertulani

2009-01-01

422

Nuclear physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low energy nuclear physics rather than high energy, or elementary ; particle physics is considered. Nuclear structure at a fairly basic level, spin ; and static electric and magnetic moments, approached from quantum mechanics ; rather than through the vector model of angular momentum, nuclear decay: both ; electromagnetic and beta-decay are treated using quantum mechanics, but without ; formal

Bowler

1973-01-01

423

Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma.  

PubMed

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. So far, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for treatment of the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signalling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in microRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far, indicating the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

2014-03-20

424

A comprehensive study on urban true orthorectification  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To provide some advanced technical bases (algorithms and procedures) and experience needed for national large-scale digital orthophoto generation and revision of the Standards for National Large-Scale City Digital Orthophoto in the National Digital Orthophoto Program (NDOP), this paper presents a comprehensive study on theories, algorithms, and methods of large-scale urban orthoimage generation. The procedures of orthorectification for digital terrain model (DTM)-based and digital building model (DBM)-based orthoimage generation and their mergence for true orthoimage generation are discussed in detail. A method of compensating for building occlusions using photogrammetric geometry is developed. The data structure needed to model urban buildings for accurately generating urban orthoimages is presented. Shadow detection and removal, the optimization of seamline for automatic mosaic, and the radiometric balance of neighbor images are discussed. Street visibility analysis, including the relationship between flight height, building height, street width, and relative location of the street to the imaging center, is analyzed for complete true orthoimage generation. The experimental results demonstrated that our method can effectively and correctly orthorectify the displacements caused by terrain and buildings in urban large-scale aerial images. ?? 2005 IEEE.

Zhou, G.; Chen, W.; Kelmelis, J. A.; Zhang, D.

2005-01-01

425

Problems of comprehensive shared diabetes care.  

PubMed Central

In its first year 747 diabetics were entered into a comprehensive shared care scheme in which general practitioners agreed to follow up their own patients. After two years patients were recalled to hospital for review through a computer based recall system. Analysis of the first 209 patients reviewed showed that the recall system worked well with failure to trace only eight patients. Six new cases of foot ulcer, 15 of retinopathy, 14 of macular degeneration, and 15 of raised blood pressure requiring treatment were detected at review. Sixty four patients appeared to have had no check on their diabetes during the two years. Of the 117 with written evidence in their cooperation books that they had received some diabetic supervision, many had had no measurement of weight (32), blood pressure (49), or urine (68) or blood glucose (70), and only 55 had had foot and 65 eye examination. This erratic and generally poor standard of supervision suggests that much tighter organisation is required within each practice, with time being set aside specifically for care of diabetics. Practice nurses could have an important role in the delivery and organisation of care. PMID:3113543

Day, J L; Humphreys, H; Alban-Davies, H

1987-01-01

426

Optimization Issues with Complex Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the use of the general purpose automatic differentiation (AD) tool called Automatic Differentiation of FORTRAN (ADIFOR) as a means of generating sensitivity derivatives for use in Boeing Helicopter's proprietary comprehensive rotor analysis code (VII). ADIFOR transforms an existing computer program into a new program that performs a sensitivity analysis in addition to the original analysis. In this study both the pros (exact derivatives, no step-size problems) and cons (more CPU, more memory) of ADIFOR are discussed. The size (based on the number of lines) of the VII code after ADIFOR processing increased by 70 percent and resulted in substantial computer memory requirements at execution. The ADIFOR derivatives took about 75 percent longer to compute than the finite-difference derivatives. However, the ADIFOR derivatives are exact and are not functions of step-size. The VII sensitivity derivatives generated by ADIFOR are compared with finite-difference derivatives. The ADIFOR and finite-difference derivatives are used in three optimization schemes to solve a low vibration rotor design problem.

Walsh, Joanne L.; Young, Katherine C.; Tarzanin, Frank J.; Hirsh, Joel E.; Young, Darrell K.

1998-01-01

427

Skull Base Inverted Papilloma: A Comprehensive Review  

PubMed Central

Skull base inverted papilloma (IP) is an unusual entity for many neurosurgeons. IP is renowned for its high rate of recurrence, its ability to cause local destruction, and its association with malignancy. This paper is a comprehensive review of the reports, studies, and reviews published in the current biomedical literature from 1947 to September 2010 and synthesize this information to focus on its potential invasion to the base of the skull and possible intradural extension. The objective is to familiarize the clinician with the different aspects of this unusual disease. The role of modern diagnostic tools in medical imaging in order to assess clearly the limits of the tumors and to enhance the efficiency and the safety in the choice of a surgical approach is pointed out. The treatment guidelines for IP have undergone a complex evolution that continues today. Radical excision of the tumour is technically difficult and often incomplete. Successful management of IP requires resection of the affected mucosa which could be achieved with open surgery, endoscopic, or combined approach. Radio and chemotherapy were used for certain indications. More optimally research would be a multicenter randomized trials with large size cohorts. PMID:23346418

Wassef, Shafik N.; Batra, Pete S.; Barnett, Samuel

2012-01-01

428

Conducting a comprehensive school health program.  

PubMed

Since the late 1980s, the eight-component model of the comprehensive school health program (CSHP), has been adopted widely in the United States and internationally. While it is acknowledged that the eight program elements should be delivered in a coordinated, interactive manner, numerous issues regarding how this integration best can be achieved, including who at the school level should have this responsibility and how the eight components relate conceptually and logistically, have not been addressed adequately. In essence, a CSHP transforms several solo performers into an orchestra. This article proposes the school health coordinator as an essential element in the eight-component model of the CSHP--the maestro, without whom there can be no symphony. The coordinator's principal responsibilities include administration, integration of personnel and programs, evaluation, and direct intervention. Three program elements--staff wellness, healthy environment, and community/family involvement--are subsumed within the coordinator's role, effectively reducing the number of program elements from eight to five. Potential benefits in addition to issues regarding feasibility of the SHC, are discussed and studies examining the effectiveness of the SHC model are recommended. PMID:8930011

Resnicow, K; Allensworth, D

1996-02-01

429

Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein–Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

Bass, Adam J.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Miller, Michael; Bernard, Brady; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Curtis, Christina; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Weinhold, Nils; Kelsen, David P.; Bowlby, Reanne; Chu, Andy; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Cherniack, Andrew; Getz, Gad; Liu, Yingchun; Noble, Michael S.; Pedamallu, Chandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Akbani, Rehan; Lee, Ju-Seog; Liu, Wenbin; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Da; Zhang, Wei; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Gulley, Margaret; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Schneider, Barbara G.; Kim, Jihun; Boussioutas, Alex; Sheth, Margi; Demchok, John A.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Willis, Joseph E.; Ng, Sam; Garman, Katherine; Beer, David G.; Pennathur, Arjun; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Odze, Robert; Kim, Hark K.; Bowen, Jay; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Weaver, Stephanie; McLellan, Michael; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sakai, Ryo; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lichtenstein, Lee; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Ding, Li; Niu, Beifang; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chu, Andy; Chu, Justin; Chuah, Eric; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Clarke, Amanda; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan A.; Lim, Emilia; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Nip, Ka Ming; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Carter, Scott L.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cho, Juok; Cibulskis, Kristian; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Heiman, David I.; Jung, Joonil; Kim, Jaegil; Lander, Eric S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Meyerson, Matthew; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Schumacher, Steven E.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stojanov, Petar; Tabak, Barbara; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Voet, Doug; Rosenberg, Mara; Zack, Travis I.; Zhang, Hailei; Zou, Lihua; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Parfenov, Michael; Lee, Semin; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Xi, Ruibin; Bristow, Christopher A.; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Hinoue, Toshinori; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Shen, Hui; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda; Liu, Yingchun; Murray, Bradley A.; Noble, Michael S.; Askoy, B. Arman; Ciriello, Giovanni; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Sinha, Rileen; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Weinhold, Nils; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Bernard, Brady; Iype, Lisa; Kramer, Roger W.; Kreisberg, Richard; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rovira, Hector; Tasman, Natalie; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ng, Santa Cruz Sam; Haussler, David; Stuart, Josh M.; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Verhaak, Roeland G.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Leiserson, Mark D. M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Taylor, Barry S.; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Carney, Julie Ann; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Helsel, Carmen; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; McAllister, Cynthia; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Tabler, Teresa R.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Penny, Robert; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Curely, Erin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Benz, Christopher; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Fedosenko, Konstantin; Manikhas, Georgy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Belyaev, Smitry; Dolzhansky, Oleg; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brzezinski, Jakub; Ibbs, Matthew; Korski, Konstanty; Kycler, Witold; LaYniak, Radoslaw; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Murawa, Dawid; Murawa, Pawel; Spychala, Arkadiusz; Suchorska, Wiktoria M.; Tatka, Honorata; Teresiak, Marek; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Abdel-Misih, Raafat; Bennett, Joseph; Brown, Jennifer; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Kwon, Sun-Young; Penny, Robert; Gardner, Johanna

2014-01-01

430

A comprehensive approach to managing hazardous materials  

SciTech Connect

An increased emphasis on the need for environmental protection indicates that engineers must now consider the disposition of unused hazardous materials as waste. Before specifying and ordering materials, the engineer must consider the impact of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Hazard Communication Standard. Many commonly used materials such as paint, solvents, glues, and sealants fall under the requirements of these regulations. This paper presents a plant to manage hazardous materials at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is managed and operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The basic elements of the plan are training, hazard communication, storage and handling, tracking, and disposal. Steps to be taken to develop the plan are outlined, problems and successes are addressed, and interactions among all affected departments are identified. The benefits of an organized and comprehensive approach to managing hazardous materials are decreased worker injuries, reduction of accidental releases, minimization of waste, and compliance with federal, state, and local safety and environmental laws. In summary, the benefits of an organized program for the management of hazardous materials include compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) requirements, demonstration of Westinghouse's role as a responsible corporate entity, and reduction of waste management costs.

Donovan, A.

1990-01-01

431

Skull base inverted papilloma: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Skull base inverted papilloma (IP) is an unusual entity for many neurosurgeons. IP is renowned for its high rate of recurrence, its ability to cause local destruction, and its association with malignancy. This paper is a comprehensive review of the reports, studies, and reviews published in the current biomedical literature from 1947 to September 2010 and synthesize this information to focus on its potential invasion to the base of the skull and possible intradural extension. The objective is to familiarize the clinician with the different aspects of this unusual disease. The role of modern diagnostic tools in medical imaging in order to assess clearly the limits of the tumors and to enhance the efficiency and the safety in the choice of a surgical approach is pointed out. The treatment guidelines for IP have undergone a complex evolution that continues today. Radical excision of the tumour is technically difficult and often incomplete. Successful management of IP requires resection of the affected mucosa which could be achieved with open surgery, endoscopic, or combined approach. Radio and chemotherapy were used for certain indications. More optimally research would be a multicenter randomized trials with large size cohorts. PMID:23346418

Wassef, Shafik N; Batra, Pete S; Barnett, Samuel

2012-01-01

432

A comprehensive classification of collapse calderas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collapse calderas are volcanic depressions that result from the disruption of the magma chamber roof during an eruption or lateral intrusion of magma. Their formation implies a perturbation of the structure and dynamics of the associated magma chambers. Collapse calderas are present in any geodynamic environment and may be associated with a wide range of magma compositions. Caldera morphology and structure yield information on subsidence mechanisms, evolutionary stage of collapse and the associated magma chamber, while any eruptive product provides the clues on magma composition and eruption dynamics. The term "caldera" has been commonly used to define certain sizes of collapses in volcanic areas, rather than a specific process. Moreover, several different classifications of collapse caldera have been proposed considering separately various aspects such as morphology, structure, composition, style of subsidence, size, eruption dynamics, or tectonic controls. However, the causative relationships between the resulting caldera types are not always well defined, thus causing confusion on the causes and results of each caldera process. This study has two main goals. 1) First, we provide a timely definition for calderas: we propose to restrict the term collapse caldera to those cases in which there is a direct interaction of the structures controlling collapse with an underlying magma chamber, independently of its size. 2) We present a comprehensive classification of collapse calderas based on an event tree structure that considers a hierarchy of criteria that we analyse in a logical sequence. This classification allows identifying any collapse caldera as a function of its dynamic, geometric, evolutionary and compositional conditions.

Geyer, A.; Marti, J.; Acocella, V.; Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Cas, R. A.

2012-12-01

433

Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signaling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in miRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any common cancer studied to date, suggesting the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

2014-01-01

434

Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.  

PubMed

Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source. PMID:15923465

Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

2005-06-01

435

Primary mucosal melanomas: a comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Primary mucosal melanomas arise from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes lining respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Although a majority of mucosal melanomas originate from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses, oral cavity, anorectum, vulva and vagina, they can arise in almost any part of mucosal membranes. Most of mucosal melanomas occur in occult sites, which together with the lack of early and specific signs contribute to late diagnosis, and poor prognosis. Because of their rareness the knowledge about their pathogenesis and risk factors is insufficient, and also there are not well established protocols for staging and treatment of mucosal melanomas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with trends toward more conservative treatment since radical surgery did not show an advantage for survival. Radiotherapy can provide better local control in some locations, but did not show improvement in survival. There is no effective systemic therapy for these aggressive tumors. Compared with cutaneous and ocular melanoma, mucosal melanomas have lowest percent of five-year survival. Recently revealed molecular changes underlying mucosal melanomas offer new hope for development of more effective systemic therapy for mucosal melanomas. Herein we presented a comprehensive review of various locations of primary melanoma along mucosal membranes, their epidemiological and clinical features, and treatment options. We also gave a short comparison of some characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. PMID:23071856

Mihajlovic, Marija; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Jovanovic, Predrag; Stefanovic, Vladisav

2012-01-01

436

Acute pain: effective management requires comprehensive assessment.  

PubMed

Pain is among the most common reasons that patients seek medical care, and inadequate assessment may result in suboptimal management. Acute pain in response to trauma or surgery can be complex, variable, and dynamic, but its assessment is often simplistic and brief. One-dimensional rating scale measures of pain severity facilitate rapid evaluation and often form the basis of treatment algorithms. However, additional features of pain should inform the selection of a treatment regimen, and can include pain qualities, duration, impact on functional capabilities, and underlying cause. Patient age, sex, psychosocial features, and comorbid conditions are also important features to consider. Use of a multidimensional tool is recommended for assessing many of these features if time permits. Additionally, clinicians often fail to recognize or consider the potentially detrimental long-term effects of acute pain. As the United States continues to experience a prescription drug crisis, a "universal precautions" approach including abuse risk assessment and abuse deterrence strategies should be implemented for patients receiving opioids. Increased efforts and research are necessary to enhance the utility of available acute pain assessment tools. Developing more comprehensive tools for patient assessment is the first step in achieving the ultimate goal of effective acute pain management. The objectives of this review are to summarize issues regarding the complexity of acute pain and to provide suggestions for its evaluation. PMID:25141244

Radnovich, Richard; Chapman, C Richard; Gudin, Jeffrey A; Panchal, Sunil J; Webster, Lynn R; Pergolizzi, Joseph V

2014-07-01

437

Epithelialization in Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Review  

PubMed Central

Significance: Keratinocytes, a major cellular component of the epidermis, are responsible for restoring the epidermis after injury through a process termed epithelialization. This review will focus on the pivotal role of keratinocytes in epithelialization, including cellular processes and mechanisms of their regulation during re-epithelialization, and their cross talk with other cell types participating in wound healing. Recent Advances: Discoveries in epidermal stem cells, keratinocyte immune function, and the role of the epidermis as an independent neuroendocrine organ will be reviewed. Novel mechanisms of gene expression regulation important for re-epithelialization, including microRNAs and histone modifications, will also be discussed. Critical Issues: Epithelialization is an essential component of wound healing used as a defining parameter of a successful wound closure. A wound cannot be considered healed in the absence of re-epithelialization. The epithelialization process is impaired in all types of chronic wounds. Future Directions: A comprehensive understanding of the epithelialization process will ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to promote wound closure. PMID:25032064

Pastar, Irena; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Yin, Natalie C.; Ramirez, Horacio; Nusbaum, Aron G.; Sawaya, Andrew; Patel, Shailee B.; Khalid, Laiqua; Isseroff, Rivkah R.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

2014-01-01

438

A Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Retention Time Alignment Algorithm To Enhance Chemometric Analysis of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Separation Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) retention time alignment algorithm was developed using a novel indexing scheme. The algorithm is termed comprehensive because it functions to correct the entire chromatogram in both dimensions and it preserves the separation information in both dimensions. Although the algorithm is demonstrated by correcting comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) data, the algorithm is designed to

Karisa M. Pierce; Lianna F. Wood; Bob W. Wright; Robert E. Synovec

2005-01-01

439

Comprehensive analysis of PTEN status in breast carcinomas.  

PubMed

PTEN plays a well-established role in the negative regulation of the PI3K pathway, which is frequently activated in several cancer types, including breast cancer. A nuclear function in the maintenance of chromosomal stability has been proposed for PTEN but is yet to be clearly defined. In order to improve understanding of the role of PTEN in mammary tumorigenesis in terms of a possible gene dosage effect, its PI3K pathway function and its association with p53, we undertook comprehensive analysis of PTEN status in 135 sporadic invasive ductal carcinomas. Four PTEN status groups were defined; complete loss (19/135, 14%), reduced copy number (19/135, 14%), normal (86/135, 64%) and complex (11/135, 8%). Whereas the PTEN complete loss status was significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity (p=0.006) and in particular the basal-like phenotype (p<0.0001), a reduced PTEN copy number was not associated with hormone receptor status or a particular breast cancer subtype. Overall, PI3K pathway alteration was suggested to be involved in 59% (79/134) of tumors as assessed by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression, PIK3CA mutation or a complete loss of PTEN. A complex PTEN status was identified in a tumor subgroup which displayed a specific, complex DNA profile at the PTEN locus with a strikingly similar highly rearranged pan-genomic profile. All of these tumors had relapsed and were associated with a poorer prognosis in the context of node negative disease (p=1.4 × 10(-13) ) thus may represent a tumor subgroup with a common molecular alteration which could be targeted to improve clinical outcome. PMID:23319441

Jones, Natalie; Bonnet, Françoise; Sfar, Sana; Lafitte, Marie; Lafon, Delfine; Sierankowski, Ghislaine; Brouste, Véronique; Banneau, Guillaume; Tunon de Lara, Christine; Debled, Marc; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas

2013-07-15

440

Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

Reyes, Jose, Jr.

2011-10-01

441

Comprehensive Shuttle Foam Debris Reduction Strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was clear in its assessment of the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 3, 2003. Foam liberated from the External Tank (ET) impacting the brittle wing leading edge (WLE) of the orbiter causing the vehicle to disintegrate upon re-entry. Naturally, the CAB pointed out numerous issues affecting this exact outcome in hopes of correcting systems of systems failures any one of which might have altered the outcome. However, Discovery s recent return to flight (RTF) illustrates the primacy of erosion of foam and the risk of future undesirable outcomes. It is obvious that the original RTF focused approach to this problem was not equal to a comprehensive foam debris reduction activity consistent with the high national value of the Space Shuttle assets. The root cause is really very simple when looking at the spray-on foam insulation for the entire ET as part of the structure (e.g., actual stresses > materials allowable) rather than as some sort of sizehime limited ablator. This step is paramount to accepting the CAB recommendation of eliminating debris or in meeting any level of requirements due to the fundamental processes ensuring structural materials maintain their integrity. Significant effort has been expended to identify root cause of the foam debris In-Flight Anomaly (FA) of STS-114. Absent verifiable location specific data pre-launch (T-0) and in-flight, only a most probable cause can be identified. Indeed, the literature researched corroborates NASNTM-2004-2 13238 disturbing description of ill defined materials characterization, variable supplier constituents and foam processing irregularities. Also, foam is sensitive to age and the exposed environment making baseline comparisons difficult without event driven data. Conventional engineering processes account for such naturally occurring variability by always maintaining positive margins. Success in a negative margin range is not consistently achieved. Looking at the ET S spray-on foam insulation as part of the structural system (e.g., glass half full mentality) will create an environment where ET debris levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) can be realized. ALARA is a NASA requirements philosophy deployed for the complex, mission altering radiation exposure requirements for life safety of astronauts. In the Shuttle s case, reasonableness is established by exhaustive engineering rigor, allowable debris size/quantity, technology maturity and programmatic constraints. A more robust urethane foam thermal protection system (TPS) will enhance the hctionality of the new Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage. This paper will outline the strategy for a comprehensive effort to reduce ET foam debris and outline steps leading to an improved foam TPS. The NASA must remain committed to such an approach no matter what becomes of the next flight s actual debris field lest we fall back into a false sense of security. This commitment along with full implementation of all the other CAB recommendations such as orbiter hardening will significantly improve the Shuttle system, the engineering workforce, future capabilities & alternate policy offramps, national human resource protection, high value national asset protection and increase the level of service to the overall NASA mission.

Semmes, Edmund B.

2007-01-01

442

The Effects of Syntactic Simplification and Repetition on Listening Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments with native Japanese-speaking English majors are reported that explored the absolute and relative effectiveness of syntactic simplification and repetition on listening comprehension. Results of both experiments indicate that syntactic simplification is an aid to comprehension. (seven references) (Author/LB)

Cervantes, Raoul; Gainer, Glenn

1992-01-01

443

How Graphic Novels Support Reading Comprehension Strategy Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study explored the relationship between comprehension strategies and graphic novels in one Grade 4 classroom, utilising children as informants. The primary research questions related to children's applications of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies as well as the potential for graphic novels to support the…

Brenna, Beverley

2013-01-01

444

Affect comprehension in children with pervasive developmental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affect comprehension was studied in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and normal children matched for mental age. Three matching tasks were used: matching objects (a nonsocial control task), matching faces, and matching affects. The three tasks were developed to be of equal difficulty for normal children. Children were also tested for comprehension and expression of affect terms. The PDD

Mark Braverman; Deborah Fein; Dorothy Lucci; Lynn Waterhouse

1989-01-01

445

Developing a Comprehensive US Transit Accessibility Andrew Owen*  

E-print Network

Developing a Comprehensive US Transit Accessibility Database Andrew Owen* David Levinson July 15 a method which might produce results that can only be interpreted locally. Development of a common baseline a comprehensive national database of public transit network topology and travel times. This database incorporates

Levinson, David M.

446

Comprehension and Learning from Refutation and Expository Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study compared the effects of a refutation text on comprehension and learning outcomes to those of a standard expository text. Undergraduate students with varying amounts of accurate and inaccurate prior knowledge read and recalled a refutation or an expository text about energy. Comprehension measures included the amount of text information…

Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.; Mouskounti, Thalia; Ioannides, Christos

2011-01-01

447

Reader and Text Factors in Reading Comprehension Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of epistemic beliefs and text structure on cognitive processes during comprehension of scientific texts were investigated. On-line processes were measured using think-aloud (Experiment 1) and reading time (Experiment 2) methodologies. Measures of off-line comprehension, prior knowledge and epistemic beliefs were obtained. Results…

Kendeou, Panayiota; Muis, Krista R.; Fulton, Sandra

2011-01-01

448

Comprehensive two-dimensional chromatography in food analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) chromatographic techniques can be considered innovative methods, only quite recently developed. Since their introduction to the chromatographic community, these techniques have been used in several fields and have gained an excellent reputation as valuable and powerful analytical tools. The revolutionary aspect of comprehensive multidimensional (MD) techniques, in respect to classical MD chromatography, is that the entire sample

Peter Quinto Tranchida; Paola Dugo; Giovanni Dugo; Luigi Mondello

2004-01-01

449

Representational Complexity and Memory Retrieval in Language Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental representations formed from words or phrases may vary considerably in their feature-based complexity. Modern theories of retrieval in sentence comprehension do not indicate how this variation and the role of encoding processes should influence memory performance. Here, memory retrieval in language comprehension is shown to be influenced by…

Hofmeister, Philip

2011-01-01

450

Assessment of Story Comprehension Deficits After Brain Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A story comprehension task was specifically developed for the clinical diagnosis of text comprehension deficits. The performance of 49 healthy control participants on qualitatively different Yes\\/No questions confirmed that both salience and explicitness of information had an impact on question difficulty. An unselected group of brain damaged patients (n=96) made more errors, particularly on questions about implicit information. The subgroup

Evelyn C. Ferstl; Katrin Walther; Thomas Guthke; D. Yves von Cramon

2005-01-01

451

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders,

Michele Fornaro; Filippo Gabrielli; Claudio Albano; Stefania Fornaro; Salvatore Rizzato; Chiara Mattei; Paola Solano; Valentina Vinciguerra; Pantaleo Fornaro

2009-01-01

452

Longitudinal Correlates of Reading Comprehension Difficulties in Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the early predictors of reading comprehension difficulties in Chinese children. We originally recruited 290 Beijing and 154 Hong Kong children and further selected from each sample those (30 from Beijing and 22 from Hong Kong sample) in the lowest 25% on reading comprehension tests across the last two consecutive testing…

Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yuping

2014-01-01

453

Reading Aloud for Comprehension: A Neglected Teaching Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses findings of a research project to determine whether the teacher's reading aloud to listeners of English as a foreign language leads to a significantly higher level of comprehension than when the learners read silently on their own. Results showed a positive effect on learner comprehension. (10 references) (GLR)

Dhaif, Husain

1990-01-01

454

Explicit Code and Comprehension Instruction for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explicit code and comprehension instruction is important for English learners (ELs), and several key findings from research on young ELs learning to read initially in English can offer guidelines for developing effective code-based instruction for these children. The authors of this column address comprehension instruction for ELs, suggesting…

Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice B.

2008-01-01

455

INFERENCE GENERATION AND STORY COMPREHENSION AMONG CHILDREN WITH ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic difficulties are well-documented among children with ADHD. Exploring these difficulties through story comprehension research has revealed deficits among children with ADHD in making causal connections between events, and using causal structure and thematic importance when recalling stories. Important to theories of story comprehension and implied in these deficits is the ability to make inferences. Often, characters’ goals are implicit

Jessica S. Kosloski

2012-01-01

456

MA State Profile. Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS), a comprehensive standards-based test. The purpose of the test is to: (1) Inform and improve classroom instruction; (2) Evaluate student, school, and district performance according to Massachusetts Curriculum Framework content standards and MCAS performance…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

457

Comprehensive polymorphism survey elucidates population structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-print Network

a nucleotide-level survey of genomic variation in a diverse collection of 63 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strainsLETTERS Comprehensive polymorphism survey elucidates population structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Joseph Schacherer1 *{, Joshua A. Shapiro1 *, Douglas M. Ruderfer1 & Leonid Kruglyak1 Comprehensive

Kruglyak, Leonid

458

Empowering authors to diagnose comprehension burden in textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good textbooks are organized in a systematically progressive fashion so that students acquire new knowledge and learn new concepts based on known items of information. We provide a diagnostic tool for quantitatively assessing the comprehension burden that a textbook imposes on the reader due to non-sequential presentation of concepts. We present a formal definition of comprehension burden and propose an

Rakesh Agrawal; Sunandan Chakraborty; Sreenivas Gollapudi; Anitha Kannan; Krishnaram Kenthapadi

2012-01-01

459

Feeling Abstinent? Feeling Comprehensive? Touching the Affects of Sexuality Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interpretive study draws on interdisciplinary scholarship on affect and knowledge to ask: toward what feelings do abstinence-only and comprehensive sexuality education curricula direct us? A methodology that is attuned to double exposures is discussed, and one abstinence-only sexuality education curriculum and one comprehensive sexuality…

Lesko, Nancy

2010-01-01

460

Learners' Questions and Comprehension in a Tutoring Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments in the framework of Activity Theory explored the relationship between the questions of 104 male and 88 female adult learners (college students) and subsequent comprehension in a tutorial learning session. Questions asked during knowledge implementation aid comprehension more than do those asked during acquisition. (SLD)

Fishbein, Harold D.; And Others

1990-01-01

461

Generalized Event Knowledge Activation during Online Sentence Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has demonstrated that knowledge of real-world events plays an important role in guiding online language comprehension. The present study addresses the scope of event knowledge activation during the course of comprehension, specifically investigating whether activation is limited to those knowledge elements that align with the local…

Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P.; Hare, Mary; McRae, Ken; Elman, Jeffrey L.

2012-01-01

462

Comprehension of Temporal References in Normal and Learning Disabled Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study involving 54 learning disabled (LD) students (7 to 11 years old) and 54 regular class students (3 to 7 years old) investigated the developmental patterns for the comprehension of complex temporal references. Three types of stimulus sentences were designed to test the comprehension of temporal references employing the temporal…

Thypin, Marilyn

463

Parental Education and Public Reason: Why Comprehensive Enrolment Is Justified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Matthew Clayton claims that "comprehensive enrolment"--raising one's children in accordance with one's own conception of the good--is illegitimate. In his argument against comprehensive enrolment, Clayton refers to Rawls's idea of public reason. In a recent response to Clayton, Christina Cameron not only rejects…

Giesinger, Johannes

2013-01-01

464

Stress: Comprehensive & Authentic Summer School -An interactive educational experience -  

E-print Network

Stress: Comprehensive & Authentic Summer School - An interactive educational experience - Organized stress'; hence the school is very authentic, free of frequent distortions & over-implications of stress. It is comprehensive & interactive since it covers virtually all aspects of stress, based in part by oral or poster

Rose, Michael R.

465

Comprehensive Behavior Management: Individualized, Classroom, and Schoolwide Approaches. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Comprehensive Behavior Management: Schoolwide, Classroom, and Individualized Approaches" supports teachers in preventing management problems and responding to unwanted behavior when it occurs in classrooms. The text offers a comprehensive presentation of three levels of behavior management strategies: individual, classroom, and schoolwide, all…

Martella, Ronald C.; Nelson, J. Ron; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; O'Reilly, Mark

2011-01-01

466

Cancer in Ireland 1994-2004: A comprehensive report  

E-print Network

Cancer in Ireland 1994-2004: A comprehensive report A report of cancer incidence, mortality AT and Comber H. Cancer in Ireland 1994-2004: A comprehensive report. Northern Ireland Cancer Registry/National Cancer Registry, Ireland; 2009 #12;#12;NICR/NCRI Contents...i Contents Contents

Müller, Jens-Dominik

467

Effects of Comprehension Skill on Inference Generation during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between readers with different levels of comprehension skill when engaging in a causal questioning activity during reading, and the varied effects on inference generation. Fourth-grade readers (n?=?74) with different levels of comprehension skill read narrative texts aloud and were asked…

Carlson, Sarah E.; van den Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen; Rapp, David N.; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine M.; Kendeou, Panayiota; White, Mary Jane

2014-01-01

468

Mining Student Behavior Patterns in Reading Comprehension Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension is critical in life-long learning as well as in the workplace. In this paper, we describe how multidimensional k-means clustering combined with Bloom's Taxonomy can be used to determine positive and negative cognitive skill sets with respect to reading comprehension tasks. This information could be used to inform environments…

Peckham, Terry; McCalla, Gord

2012-01-01

469

A New Jersey Comprehensive Career Development Program Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is a guide to developing a comprehensive career development program in a local school district. It is based on the experience of program development in Neptune Township, New Jersey, following the National Career Development Guidelines of the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee and the subsequent Comprehensive

Walling, Russell; And Others

470

The Effect of Using Predictions on a Reader's Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate prediction as a strategy that can improve reading comprehension, 50 third grade students from Toledo, Ohio, were first divided into experimental and control groups. The 2 groups both read the same 5 basal stories for instruction, were given the same pretest passages, answered 10 comprehension questions, and then followed a 3-day…

Edler, Kristine Winkle

471

Service-Learning and Nonfiction Texts: Connections for Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a number of examples of nonfiction texts, corresponding comprehension strategies, and ideas for service-learning projects that, when combined, can result in greater student motivation and comprehension when reading nonfiction texts. Additional books are also suggested for several topics. (Contains 6 notes.)

Krebs, Marjori; Lear, Janet

2009-01-01

472

Using Comprehensive Feature Lists to Bias Medical Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clinicians routinely report fewer features in a case than they subsequently agree are present. The authors report studies that assess the effect of considering a more comprehensive description than physicians usually offer. These comprehensive descriptions were generated from photographs of dermatology and internal medicine and were complete and…

Kulatunga-Moruzi, Chan; Brooks, Lee R.; Norman, Geoffrey R.

2004-01-01

473

A Comprehensive Child Development Program; Title XX, Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the Comprehensive Child Day Care Program for the Atlanta Public School System, a Title XX Program. This program provided day care services for children of clients in various categories. The program goals for 1975-76 were geared toward providing comprehensive day care to encompass social services to the family and…

Whatley, Juanita T.

474

Implementing and Maintaining an Effective Early Childhood Comprehensive Technology System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Childhood Comprehensive Technology System (ECCTS) was a 3-year collaborative project designed to implement and maintain a comprehensive technology system through on-going training, follow-up and technical support for teachers, team-based technology assessment for children with moderate to severe disabilities, technology integration into…

Hutinger, Patricia L.; Johanson, Joyce

2000-01-01

475

Is There a Lexical Bias Effect in Comprehension Monitoring?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related potentials were used to investigate if there is a lexical bias effect in comprehension monitoring. The lexical bias effect in language production (the tendency of phonological errors to result in existing words rather than nonwords) has been attributed to an internal self-monitoring system, which uses the comprehension system, and…

Severens, Els; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2009-01-01

476

Information technologies for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography  

E-print Network

Review Information technologies for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography Stephen E December 2003 Available online 8 March 2004 Abstract Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC Ã?-dimensional gas chromatography; GCÃ?GC; Information technology; Image processing; Visualization; Computer

Reichenbach, Stephen E.

477

Second Language Listening and Unfamiliar Proper Names: Comprehension Barrier?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether unfamiliar proper names affect English as a second language (ESL) learners' listening comprehension. A total of 110 intermediate to advanced ESL learners participated; comprehension of a short news text was tested under two conditions, Names Known (all proper names pre-taught in advance) and Names Unknown (all proper…

Kobeleva, Polina P.

2012-01-01

478

Measuring the Comprehensibility of Englishes within ASEAN among Aseans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on designing a comprehensibility test and a questionnaire for spoken world Englishes in Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore, and utilizing the test to investigate the comprehension of Burmese, Cambodians, Indonesians, Laotians, Thais and Vietnamese. We reviewed the demarcation of users of English based on Kachru's…

Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; Teo, Adisa

2012-01-01

479

Young Children's Approaches to Books: The Emergence of Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When does comprehension begin? This article addresses the question, and will help early childhood and elementary literacy educators understand how young children's comprehension, or meaning making, begins prior to conventional reading and emerges over time. Field note, video, and interview data were compiled during a three-year longitudinal study…

Dooley, Caitlin McMunn

2010-01-01

480

THE INFLUENCE OF ILLUSTRATIONS ON CHILDREN'S BOOK PREFERENCES AND COMPREHENSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of illustrations on children's book preferences and comprehension were studied. Seventy-one first and third graders were shown one of nine books varying in illustration style (realistic or abstract), illustration brightness (bright or somber), and content (illustrations with no text, illustrations with text, or text with no illustrations). Participants were asked 15 comprehension questions and several illustration preference questions.

JAMYE BROOKSHIRE; LAUREN F. V. SCHARFF; LAURIE E. MOSES

2002-01-01

481

Predicting Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap…

Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

2010-01-01

482

2010 Minnesota Comprehensive Statewide Freight and Passenger Rail Plan  

E-print Network

2010 Minnesota Comprehensive Statewide Freight and Passenger Rail Plan Minnesota Department of Transportation #12;·! First Statewide Comprehensive Rail Plan for MN ·! Commissioned by 2008 Legislature for rail investment creates a unique opportunity ·! Global and national economic and environmental trends

Minnesota, University of

483

Using E-Readers and Internet Resources to Support Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advancements of technology have led to the use of electronic reading systems for digital text. Research indicates similarities and differences in reading performance and comprehension in digital formats compared to paper formats. This study compared vocabulary understanding and reading comprehension scores from two reading sources (electronic…

Wright, Sandra; Fugett, April; Caputa, Francine

2013-01-01

484

Listening Comprehension Strategies and Autonomy: Why Error Analysis?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment combining listening comprehension training and error analysis was conducted with students at the English Language Institute, Queens College, the City University of New York. The purpose of the study was to investigate how to take learners who were primarily dependent on perceptive skills for comprehension and widen their…

Henner-Stanchina, Carolyn

485

Comprehensive Adolescent Health Services in the United States, 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various model programs for comprehensive health service delivery to adolescents have been proposed and implemented, but few of these programs have been evaluated systematically. This monograph identifies 664 programs that provide comprehensive or integrated services and reports the results of a survey completed by 435 programs. Two-thirds of all…

Center for Early Adolescence, Carrboro, NC.