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1

The Test Ban Challenge: Nuclear Nonproliferation and the Quest for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past sixty years, a number of American presidents have attempted to craft a working comprehensive nuclear test ban. This digital collection from The National Security Archive at The George Washington University brings together a host of documents from the U.S. State Department and other agencies to illustrate how "nonproliferation goals shaped U.S. internal discussions of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) from the 1950s through the late 1970s." There are eleven key documents here, dating back to the 1957 draft background paper which identifies nuclear proliferation as the "fourth country" problem. The "fourth country" concept arose as the next country after the United States, Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom to obtain nuclear devices would be the so-called "fourth country". The collection was edited by William Burr and released in August 2010, and it is one that policy experts and diplomacy types will find very intriguing.

2

Comprehensive test ban negotiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United States concerned about the problem of possible Soviet cheating and the USSR concerned about the protection of its national sovereignty. In addition, internal bureaucratic politics have played a major role in preventing the successful conclusion of an agreement. Despite these problems, the superpowers have concluded several significant partial meausres: a brief (1958-1961) total moratorium on nuclear weapons tests; the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, banning tests in the air, water and outer space; the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (150 KT limit on underground explosions); and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976 (150 KT limit on individal PNEs). Today, the main U.S. objections to a CTBT center is the nuclear weapons laboratories, the Department of Energy, and the Pentagon, who all stress the issues of stockpile reliability and verification. Those who remain committed to a CTBT emphasize and the potential political leverage it offers in checking both horizontal and vertical proliferation.

Grab, G. Allen; Heckrotte, Warren

1983-10-01

3

New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons "mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while "limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Nelson, Robert A.

2003-04-01

4

New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons—``mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while ``limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons—and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. ct.

2003-03-01

5

Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Academy of Sciences recently published a detailed study of technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. Excluding political factors, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk and ensuing discussion will elaborate on the study. The principal conclusion of the report, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons.

Garwin, Richard L.

2003-04-01

6

Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Academy of Sciences recently completed a detailed study of the technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. While political factors were excluded, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk will elaborate on the study. The primary conclusion, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons."

2003-03-01

7

Comprehensive test ban negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United

G. Allen Grab; Warren Heckrotte

1983-01-01

8

Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1,000 squared kilometers. In active mining districts this area could include several different mining operations. So, an OSI could be disruptive both to the mining community and to the US Government which must host the foreign inspection team. Accordingly, it is in the best interest of all US parties to try and eliminate the possible occurrence of false alarms. This can be achieved primarily by reducing the ambiguity of mine-induced seismic signals, so that even if these remain visible to the IMS they are clearly consistent with recognizable mining patterns.

Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

1998-12-09

9

Seismic verification of a comprehensive test ban.  

PubMed

The capabilities of in-country seismic monitoring systems for verifying the absence of underground nuclear explosions are compared against challenges posed by possible clandestine testing schemes. Although analysis indicate that extensive networks of in-country seismic arrays are needed to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, such networks cannot ensure that all underground nuclear explosions will be identified. Political and military judgments will determine the level of risk acceptable to each nation. PMID:17742085

Hannon, W J

1985-01-18

10

Post-installation activities in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provisional operation and maintenance of IMS infrasound stations after installation and subsequent certification has the objective to prepare the infrasound network for entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The goal is to maintain and fine tune the technical capabilities of the network, to repair faulty equipment, and to ensure that stations continue to meet the minimum

J. A. Vivas Veloso; D. R. Christie; T. L. Hoffmann; P. Campus; M. Bell; A. Langlois; P. Martysevich; E. Demirovik; J. Carvalho; A. Kramer; Sean F. Wu

2002-01-01

11

Detection and analysis of xenon isotopes for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty international monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the xenon isotopes for detection of nuclear explosions is of great interest for monitoring compliance with the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). Recently, the automated radioxenon sampler-analyzer (ARSA) was tested at the Institute for Atmospheric Radioactivity (IAR) in Freiburg, Germany to ascertain its use for the CTBT by comparing its results to laboratory-based analyses, determining its detection sensitivity

Ted W. Bowyer; C. Schlosser; Keith H. Abel; M. Auer; James C. Hayes; Tom R. Heimbigner; Justin I. McIntyre; Mark E. Panisko; Paul L. Reeder; H. Satorius; J. Schulze; W. Weiss

2002-01-01

12

The in-comprehensive test ban  

SciTech Connect

The author examines why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) treaty might not make it through the political minefields. Negotiators at the 60-nation U.N. The conference on Disarmament in Geneva reached an impasse, prompted by India`s assertions that the treaty was an inadequate document that perpetuated {open_quotes}nuclear apartheid{close_quotes} while violating India`s sovereignty. Because the Conference on Disarmament-often called the {open_quotes}Geneva Conference{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}CD{close_quotes}-operates by consensus, India was able to veto the adoption of the treaty, which the conference had planned to transmit to the United Nations in early September. Australia saved the treaty with a last minute decision to bypass the Geneva Conference and take the CTB directly to the General Assembly in the form of a resolution. Some 127 nations co-sponsored Australia`s resolution, to which the treaty draft was attached. The General Assembly endorsed the treaty by a vote of 158 to three. India, Bhutan, and Libya voted against it. Despite the overwhelming vote, the treaty`s long-range outlook is uncertain. On the day of the vote, India`s chief test-ban negotiator, declared that India would {open_quotes}never sign this unequal treaty because Article XIV of the treaty, which requires that all 44 nuclear-capable nations who also belong to the Conference on Disarmament must sign and ratify the treaty. That requirement was viewed as contrary to international law because it denied India`s right of voluntary consent to an international treaty, thus violating India`s sovereignty.

Johnson, R. [Disarmament Intelligence Review, London (United Kingdom)

1996-11-01

13

Why the United States Should Unsign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and Resume Nuclear Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies exist that would make U.S. nuclear weapons safer against accidents and more secure against terrorist threats and unauthorized use. Yet these measures cannot be incorporated without nuclear testing. Nuclear testing would also enable us to determine whether our aging warheads are reliable. Testing is also necessary for designing new, modern warheads to meet emerging needs. The first step toward

KATHLEEN BAILEY; ROBERT BARKER

2003-01-01

14

Maintaining the US stockpile of nuclear weapons during a Low-Threshold or Comprehensive Test Ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review here results of several classes of US nuclear weapons tests conducted withith the principal strengths and weaknesses of nuclear weapons themselves. It is found that a high degree of confidence in the reliability of the existing stockpile is justified, and that it is sufficiently robust to permit confidence in the reliability of remanufactured warheads in the absence of

Kidder

1987-01-01

15

Potential of Spectrum Categorisation Concepts using Radionuclide Ratios for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop further existing categorisation concepts for CTBT verification, xenon ratios have been used to help identify nuclear explosions. 25,726 noble gas spectra have been analysed and an additional state-of-health criterion has been introduced.

Postelt, Frederik

2012-09-01

16

Dealing with decoupled nuclear explosions under a comprehensive Test Ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

The detonation of nuclear explosions in large underground cavities so as to muffle or decouple the seismic waves they generated has been debated for more than 35 years. This report reviews the history of the decoupling concept, assesses what countries have the technological capabilities to carry out such a test of a given yield, and evaluates a number of decoupling scenarios. I conclude that testing with large decoupling factors, DF, is feasible for yields of a few kilotons (kt) or larger only in cavities in salt domes. Past nuclear explosions conducted in salt for which cavities may remain standing that are large enough for the full decoupling of explosions with yields greater than or equal 0.5 kt are concentrated in only a few areas of Kazakhstan and Russia. The existence of all cavities of that size that were created by past nuclear explosions is known since the explosions that created those cavities must be at least 20 times larger in yield than the size of a fully decoupled event that can be detonated in them. Hence, the monitoring of cavities created in that way that may remain standing should be relatively easy at the 1 kt level if appropriate verification measures are put in place. While large cavities can be created in salt by solution mining, no country is known to have evacuated such a cavity of brine and then conducted a decoupled nuclear explosion in it.

Sykes, L.R.

1994-12-08

17

Development of Standard Station Interface for Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organistation Monitoring Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the contract with the CTBTO, Instrumental Software Technologies Inc., (ISTI) has designed and developed a Standard Station Interface (SSI) - a set of executable programs and application programming interface libraries for acquisition, authentication, archiving and telemetry of seismic and infrasound data for stations of the CTBTO nuclear monitoring network. SSI (written in C) is fully supported under both the

I. G. Dricker; P. Friberg; S. Hellman

2001-01-01

18

Development of Standard Station Interface for Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organistation Monitoring Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the contract with the CTBTO, Instrumental Software Technologies Inc., (ISTI) has designed and developed a Standard Station Interface (SSI) - a set of executable programs and application programming interface libraries for acquisition, authentication, archiving and telemetry of seismic and infrasound data for stations of the CTBTO nuclear monitoring network. SSI (written in C) is fully supported under both the Solaris and Linux operating systems and will be shipped with fully documented source code. SSI consists of several interconnected modules. The Digitizer Interface Module maintains a near-real-time data flow between multiple digitizers and the SSI. The Disk Buffer Module is responsible for local data archival. The Station Key Management Module is a low-level tool for data authentication and verification of incoming signatures. The Data Transmission Module supports packetized near-real-time data transmission from the primary CTBTO stations to the designated Data Center. The AutoDRM module allows transport of seismic and infrasound signed data via electronic mail (auxiliary station mode). The Command Interface Module is used to pass the remote commands to the digitizers and other modules of SSI. A station operator has access to the state-of-health information and waveforms via an the Operator Interface Module. Modular design of SSI will allow painless extension of the software system within and outside the boundaries of CTBTO station requirements. Currently an alpha version of SSI undergoes extensive tests in the lab and onsite.

Dricker, I. G.; Friberg, P.; Hellman, S.

2001-12-01

19

A Concept Review of an Underground High Explosive Test Program Supporting Comprehensive Test Ban Monitoring Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The detection and identification of underground nuclear tests, during a Comprehensive Test Ban (CTB), places new, and stringent, requirements on monitoring systems. In particular, because of the factor of about 70 reduction in apparent yield that can be a...

G. W. Ullrich

1979-01-01

20

Radioxenons: Their role in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring for xenon radionuclides which are produced in a nuclear detonation can provide a strong deterrent to the violation of a Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). There are 18 known radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear fission with half-lives ranging from less than one second to 11.9 days. However, only four of these remain in significant amounts more than a day after a detonation. In order for radioxenon monitoring to be practical, it was necessary to develop an automated measurement system which could operate unattended for periods of months, measure the entire spectrum of radioxenons, and provide hundreds of times better sensitivities than current laboratory procedures. This capability was developed at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory based on rapid separation of atmospheric xenon coupled with a unique high sensitivity measurement device for the radioxenons. A fieldable prototype analyzer is scheduled for testing in August 1996 with commercial availability planned by 1998.

Perkins, R.W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Casey, L.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-06-01

21

Sakharov and the nuclear test ban  

SciTech Connect

US-Soviet test ban policies evolved in an atmosphere of secrecy so that the ideas of people like Sakharov were not available for general consideration by the West. Because two sets of concerns were debated on the world stage, that mankind was threatened by a nuclear arms race and by radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests, this led to both anti-war and anti-test activities. A review of the literature quotes Sakharov's position on nuclear arms control measures and points out the basic problems of negotiation between an open democracy and a centrally-controlled state, noting failures on both sides. In view of the restraints, success should be granted to what progress has already been accomplished, however inadequate. The author feels that efforts by the early leaders to contain the arms race should be examined honestly and whatever actions are needed should be made courageously. 12 references. (DCK)

York, H.F.

1981-11-01

22

Nuclear Test Ban: Converting Political Visions to Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negotiations to ban or at least restrict nuclear explosions began not long after the first test was conducted, in the Alamogordo desert of New Mexico on 16 July 1945. In August of that same year, the world witnessed the devastation of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the horrifically destructive power that these weapons are capable of unleashing. Almost 50 years later, the long and tortuous road to negotiating a treaty that comprehensively bans nuclear explosions, whether for alleged peaceful purposes or for weapons development, culminated on 24 September 1996 when the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature. In a surge of enthusiasm, that first day the treaty was signed by more than 70 nations, including the five acknowledged nuclear powers. Addressing the United Nations General Assembly, U.S. President Bill Clinton described the CTBT as “the longest-sought, hardest-fought prize in the history of arms control.”

Suárez, Gerardo

2010-05-01

23

Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future  

SciTech Connect

This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

Sweeney, J.

1999-04-01

24

Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events. (ACR)

Hannon, W.J.

1987-03-06

25

75 FR 43198 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension...approved paperwork requirements for the USGS Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT...your written comments to Phadrea Ponds, USGS Information Collection Clearance...

2010-07-23

26

Nuclear test ban verification: Recent Canadian research in forensic seismology  

SciTech Connect

Seismology provides the primary means for monitoring nuclear explosions that take place underground. Improved seismographic hardware, Canadian research expertise, and the availability of a vast proving ground (the Canadian land mass which bears close resemblance with other regions of nuclear test ban verification interest), are all helping Canada become an increasingly notable contributor to the highly specialized branch of forensic seismology. The report describes: (1) verification and its rationale; (2) the basic tasks of seismic verification; (3) the physical basis for earthquake/explosion source discrimination and explosion yield determination; (4) the technical problems pertaining to seismic monitoring of underground nuclear tests; (5) the basic problem solving strategy deployed by the forensic seismology research team at the University of Toronoto; and (6) the scientific significance of the team's research.

Chun, K.Y.

1991-07-01

27

A seismic event analyzer for nuclear test ban treaty verification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an expert system that interprets seismic data from Norway's regional seismic array, NORESS, for underground nuclear weapons test ban treaty verification. Three important aspects of the expert system are (1) it emulates the problem solving behavior of the human seismic analyst using an Assumption Based Truth Maintenance System, (2) it acts as an assistant to the human analyst by automatically interpreting and presenting events for review, and (3) it enables the analyst to interactively query the system's chain of reasoning and manually perform and interpretation. The general problem of seismic treaty verification is described. The expert system is presented in terms of knowledge representation structures, assumption based reasoning system, user interface elements, and initial performance results. 8 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Mason, C.L.; Johnson, R.R. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Searfus, R.M.; Lager, D.; Canales, T. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1988-01-01

28

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and Its Security Implications for the United Kingdom and the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United Kingdom has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The United States signed the treaty in September 1996, and currently the decision on whether to ratify it is pending in the Senate. Key differences reside in the political and o...

L. Sironi

1998-01-01

29

Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

Russell, S; Vaidya, S

2009-07-30

30

Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this book include: Preamble; Article 1 -- Basic obligations; Article 2 -- The organization; Article 3 -- National implementation measures; Article 4 -- Verification; Article 5 -- Measures to redress a situation and to ensure compliance, including sanctions; Article 6 -- Settlement of disputes; Article 7 -- Amendments; Article 8 -- Review of the treaty; Article 9 -- Duration and withdrawal; Article 10 -- Status of the protocol and the annexes; Article 11 -- Signature; Article 12 -- Ratification; Article 13 -- Accession; and Article 14 -- Entry into force.

NONE

1998-09-01

31

Automated aerosol sampling and analysis for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Detecting nuclear debris from a nuclear weapon exploded in or substantially vented to the Earth`s atmosphere constitutes the most certain indication that a violation of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty has occurred. For this reason, a radionuclide portion of the International Monitoring System is being designed and implemented. The IMS will monitor aerosols and gaseous xenon isotopes to detect atmospheric and underground tests, respectively. An automated system, the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA), has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to meet CTBT aerosol measurement requirements. This is achieved by the use of a novel sampling apparatus, a high-resolution germanium detector, and very sophisticated software. This system draws a large volume of air ({approximately} 20,000 m{sup 3}/day), performs automated gamma-ray spectral measurements (MDC({sup 140}Ba) < 30 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}), and communicates this and other data to a central data facility. Automated systems offer the added benefit of rigid controls, easily implemented QA/QC procedures, and centralized depot maintenance and operation. Other types of automated communication include pull or push transmission of State-Of-Health data, commands, and configuration data. In addition, a graphical user interface, Telnet, and other interactive communications are supported over ordinary phone or network lines. This system has been the subject of a USAF commercialization effort to meet US CTBT monitoring commitments. It will also be available to other CTBT signatories and the monitoring community for various governmental, environmental, or commercial needs. The current status of the commercialization is discussed.

Miley, H.S.; Bowyer, S.M.; Hubbard, C.W.; McKinnon, A.D.; Perkins, R.W.; Thompson, R.C.; Warner, R.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1998-06-01

32

Rapid deployment drilling system for on-site inspections under a comprehensive test ban treaty vol. 1: description, acquisition, deployment, and operation vol. 2: appendices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has been signed by many countries, including the US. The US Senate will start discussions of CTBT ratification in the near future. The Treaty aims to prevent any nuclear explosion from being conducted. A verification system is being implemented. It includes the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI) in a country where a suspicious seismic

F Heuze; J Cohen; G Pittard; G Deskius; P Vorkinn; D Rock

1999-01-01

33

A Discussion of Procedures and Equipment for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection Environmental Sampling and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is intended to serve as a scientific basis to start discussions of the available environmental sampling techniques and equipment that have been used in the past that could be considered for use within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspections (OSI). This work contains information on the techniques, equipment, costs, and some operational procedures associated with environmental sampling that have actually been used in the past by the United States for the detection of nuclear explosions. This paper also includes a discussion of issues, recommendations, and questions needing further study within the context of the sampling and analysis of aquatic materials, atmospheric gases, atmospheric particulates, vegetation, sediments and soils, fauna, and drill-back materials.

Wogman, Ned A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Onishi, Yasuo; Hayes, James C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2011-02-01

34

Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes  

SciTech Connect

To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

1996-03-01

35

From Alamogordo to the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After W.W.II., the U.S. continued its program for the development of nuclear weapons. Winds carried radioactive debris far beyond the Nevada test site, and these fission products were deposited by rain, to enter the human food chain. The isotopes of greatest concern were Sr90 and I131, that, after ingestion, become concentrated in bone and thyroid respectively. There was a growing public anxiety about possible heath hazards posed by radiation from this fallout. In March 1958, the Greater St. Louis Citizens' Committee for Nuclear Information (C.N.I.) was formed. Among the leaders of C.N.I. were E. U. Condon and Barry Commoner. The aim of C.N.I. was ``to collect and distribute in the widest possible manner information which the public requires to understand the present and future problems which arise from potential large-scale use of nuclear weapons in war; testing of nuclear weapons; and nonmilitary uses of nuclear energy.'' In accordance with its objectives, members of C.N.I. gave many nontechnical talks, where we described the various forms of radiation and what was then known about the biological effects of radiation. Some of our members testified at Congressional committee hearings. We published a newsletter, initially titled Nuclear Information, and later Scientist and Citizen. In this presentation, I will describe some of the activities of this idealistic organization.

Friedlander, Michael

2008-04-01

36

From Alamogordo to the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

After W.W.II., the U.S. continued its program for the development of nuclear weapons. Winds carried radioactive debris far beyond the Nevada test site, and these fission products were deposited by rain, to enter the human food chain. The isotopes of greatest concern were Sr90 and I131, that, after ingestion, become concentrated in bone and thyroid respectively. There was a growing

Michael Friedlander

2008-01-01

37

Slimhole drilling and directional drilling for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban: An initial assessment  

SciTech Connect

On Site-Inspection (OSI), under the Comprehensive Test Ban being negotiated in the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, may include drilling at the site of a suspected clandestine underground nuclear explosion to recover radioactive samples. It is in the interest of the drilling party to operate as light and compact a system as possible because it is likely that the drilling equipment will first be airlifted to the country being inspected, and then will be carried by air or surface to the inspection site. It will be necessary for the inspection party to have the capability for more than vertical drilling since there may not be a drilling site available vertically above the suspected nuclear cavity location. This means having, the ability to perform directional drilling and to obtain accurate positioning of the drilling tool. Consequently, several directions may be explored from a single surface drilling pad. If the target depth is expected to be at or less than 600 m (2000 ft), slant drilling may be required to a length well in excess of 600 m. Clearly, the operation must be designed with health and safety features to prevent radioactive exposure if the drilling encounters a nuclear source region. The DOE/LLNL community has developed a strong expertise in this regard. In this initial assessment we focus on the portability and directionality of drilling systems.

Heuze, F.E.

1995-07-01

38

Weapons design policy impedes test ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two letters accompanying this article take opposing positions on a central issue in the debate on a comprehensive nuclear test ban agreement: is continued nuclear testing necessary to ensure the reliability of the US nuclear stockpile. Hans Bethe and cosigners say it is not; Roger Batzel and Donald Kerr, speaking for the nuclear weapons design laboratories, claim that continued testing

H. E. DeWitt; G. E. Marsh

1985-01-01

39

Environmental monitoring in support of international nuclear safeguards and test ban agreements  

SciTech Connect

Long-lived radioisotopes introduced into the environment by tests of nuclear weapons and by the operation of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants can be analysed with ultra-high sensitivity by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Isotopic concentrations of 10{sup 6} atoms per gram and isotopic ratios of 1 part in 10{sup 15} can be detected in milligram samples taken from selected environmental media. ANSTO is setting up specialised beamlines at the ANTARES AMS system for the ultrasensitive analysis of long-lived radioisotopes, such as {sup 129}I, produced by nuclear activities and for the direct detection of uranium, plutonium and other actinides. It is believed that these new analytical methods will be valuable in the verification of compliance with the terms of international safeguards and nuclear test ban treaties.

Tuniz, C.; Boldman, J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

1994-12-31

40

Policing the peace: How nations will monitor a nuclear test ban  

SciTech Connect

Steve R. Bratt`s belt started chirping as if on cue, precisely as he was boasting about a new global watchdog system for detecting nuclear tests. Bratt, a seismologist with the US Department of Defense, retrieved the beeper from his hip and studied it for a few seconds. {open_quotes}I`ve got an alert. It`s from Lop Nor. Lop Nor is the Chinese test site,{close_quotes} he explained. Two stations in a worldwide network of seismometers had just picked up vibrations emanating from central Asia, near China`s known nuclear facility. The shock was small, about magnitude 3.5. In bomb equivalents, it would correspond to less than a half kiloton explosion. In this case, however, Bratt suspected the alert was just a minor earthquake. Timing provided an important clue: The shock had originated at 12:19 Greenwich Mean Time, which is not the kind of round, on-the-hour time that countries usually choose for performing a major weapon test. Seismic analysts would later confirm Bratt`s hunch when they determined that the Chinese vibrations actually originated at an unlikely place to stage a test, hundreds of kilometers away from the Lop Nor site. The impromptu demonstration nonetheless made a good advertisement for the new international monitoring system-an ever-figilant network of sensors strung around the globe, listening, sniffing, and waiting. This article describes the problems involved in test ban monitoring and the possibilities for solving them.

Monastersky, R.

1996-05-11

41

Barometric gas transport along faults and its application to nuclear test-ban monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Underground nuclear explosions produce a unique but evanescent set of radionuclide gases that potentially can be used in the context of an on-site, test-ban monitoring program to differentiate them from other detected events such as earthquakes or mining activity. In Part I of this report we describe an experiment to evaluate the upward transport of gases from an underground explosion using two gas tracers with very different diffusivities that were released in a 400- m-deep, chemical explosive detonation. The less diffusive (more massive) tracer was detected on a nearby geologic fault 50 days following the detonation while the more diffusive tracer was-- detected 375 days after release. Computer simulations indicate that the arrival time and the chromatographic behavior of transport are characteristic of barometrically induced flow in a fractured, porous matrix regime. For a hypothetical 1-kiloton fission explosion subject to the same weather and gas transport conditions of the chemical explosion, simulations predict the delectability of argon-37 after 80 days in spite of depletion by radioactive decay. Largely because of the earlier arrival of xenon-133, owing to its lower binary gas diffusivity, the exceedingly short lived isotope should also be detectable-arriving about 30 days earlier than argon. in Part II we consider that our prediction of the delectability of argon and xenon is based upon the small volume (0.00001 M3) sampling technique of the NPE tracer-gas sampling study while actual sampling for radionuclides would involve drawing much larger volume (possibly 0.1- 1 M3) gas samples from the near-surface.

Carrigan, C.R.; Heinle, R.A.; Hudson, G.B.; Nitao, J.J.; Zucca, J.J.

1997-06-01

42

Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the test ban  

SciTech Connect

Drawing on the records he held as Chairman of the AEC and records of W. Averill Harriman, who led the US negotiating team, Seaborg describes the gradual establishment of a level of trust between Kennedy and Khruschev which began with the peaceful resolution of the Cuban missile crisis. The Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 outlawed all but underground testing of nuclear weapons. It was a major diplomatic step toward ensuring stability in the arms race, moderating its costs, preventing proliferation, and reducing levels of radioactive fallout. Seaborg describes the negotiations and the treaty signing. He concludes with the plea for a comprehensive test ban and the note that The hour is late. Let us hope not too late. The text of the treaty appears in the appendix. 93 references.

Seaborg, G.T.

1981-01-01

43

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions from seismic surface waves: compliance with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Magnitudes of the larger Soviet underground nuclear weapons tests from the start of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1976 through 1982 are determined for short- and long-period seismic waves. Yields are calculated from the surface wave magnitude for those explosions at the eastern Kazakh test site that triggered a small-to-negligible component of tectonic stress and are used to calibrate body wave magnitude-yield relationship that can be used to determined the sizes of other explosions at that test site. The results confirm that a large bias, related to differential attenuation of P waves, exists between Nevada and Central Asia. The yields of the seven largest Soviet explosions are nearly identical and are close to 150 kilotons, the limit set by the Threshold Treaty. 16 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Sykes, L.R.; Cifuentes, I.L.

1984-03-01

44

Maintaining the US stockpile of nuclear weapons during a test ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review here results of several classes of US nuclear weapons tests conducted within the past decade, together with the principal strengths and weaknesses of nuclear weapons themselves. It is found that a high degree of confidence in the reliability of the existing stockpile is justified, and that it is sufficiently robust to permit confidence in the reliability of remanufactured

Kidder

1987-01-01

45

Rapid deployment drilling system for on-site inspections under a comprehensive test ban treaty vol. 1: description, acquisition, deployment, and operation vol. 2: appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has been signed by many countries, including the US. The US Senate will start discussions of CTBT ratification in the near future. The Treaty aims to prevent any nuclear explosion from being conducted. A verification system is being implemented. It includes the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI) in a country where a suspicious seismic signal has been identified, which could come from a clandestine nuclear test. As part of an OSI, the use of drilling is allowed by the CTBT so as to obtain irrefutable proof of a Treaty violation. Such proof could be in the form of diagnostics of very high gamma radiation levels and high temperatures underground, which could not be explained by a natural source. A typical situation is shown in Figure 1, where the OSI team must find a nuclear cavity underground when only an approximate location is inferred. This calls for the ability to do directional drilling. Because there is no need for large borings and to minimize the cost and size of the equipment, slim-hole drilling is adequate. On that basis, an initial study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [1] concluded that coiled-tubing (C-T) was the most attractive option for OSI drilling (Figure 2). Then, a preliminary design of a C-T Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) was performed by Maurer Engineering of Houston, TX [2]. Although a drilling mud system is also included in the RDDS definition, the preferred mode of operation of the RDDS would be drilling with air and foam. This minimizes water requirements in cases when water may be scarce at the OSI site. It makes the required equipment smaller than when a mud system is included. And it may increase the drilling rates, by eliminating the ''chip hold-down'' effect of a mud column. Following this preliminary design study, it was determined that the preferred bottom-hole assembly for such a system would be the Viper system of Schlumberger Anadrill, with one essential modification from the version used in the oil-and-gas industry: the ability to record very high gamma levels. Under contract with LLNL, Anadrill modified the Viper gamma tool, a NaI-based probe, and verified that it provided reliable gamma data up to 64,000 cps, as opposed to the less than 200 cps encountered in normal applications [3].

Heuze, F; Cohen, J; Pittard, G; Deskius, G; Vorkinn, P; Rock, D

1999-11-01

46

Doctors and the test ban: 25 years on.  

PubMed

Events leading up to the signing of the partial test ban treaty in 1963 are traced from the first public concern about nuclear testing in 1954 when a hydrogen bomb was detonated in the Pacific, through Albert Schweitzer's 1957 appeal for a ban on nuclear tests; agreements between the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom to start formal negotiations; growth in medical and scientific concern in the early 1960s; to the impetus provided by the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962. Arguments for and against a comprehensive test ban treaty are discussed. Current activity by doctors and health professionals grows out of the successful campaign waged by doctors and scientists against atmospheric testing and is held to constitute a uniquely important exercise in primary prevention. PMID:3408986

Haines, A; Hartog, M

1988-08-01

47

Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.

1996-01-01

48

Computation and Analysis of the Global Distribution of the Radioxenon Isotope 133Xe based on Emissions from Nuclear Power Plants and Radioisotope Production Facilities and its Relevance for the Verification of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of radioactive noble gases, in particular xenon isotopes, is a crucial element of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The capability of the noble gas network, which is currently under construction, to detect signals from a nuclear explosion critically depends on the background created by other sources. Therefore, the global distribution of these isotopes based on emissions and transport patterns needs to be understood. A significant xenon background exists in the reactor regions of North America, Europe and Asia. An emission inventory of the four relevant xenon isotopes has recently been created, which specifies source terms for each power plant. As the major emitters of xenon isotopes worldwide, a few medical radioisotope production facilities have been recently identified, in particular the facilities in Chalk River (Canada), Fleurus (Belgium), Pelindaba (South Africa) and Petten (Netherlands). Emissions from these sites are expected to exceed those of the other sources by orders of magnitude. In this study, emphasis is put on 133Xe, which is the most prevalent xenon isotope. First, based on the emissions known, the resulting 133Xe concentration levels at all noble gas stations of the final CTBT verification network were calculated and found to be consistent with observations. Second, it turned out that emissions from the radioisotope facilities can explain a number of observed peaks, meaning that atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool for the categorization of measurements. Third, it became evident that Nuclear Power Plant emissions are more difficult to treat in the models, since their temporal variation is high and not generally reported. Fourth, there are indications that the assumed annual emissions may be underestimated by factors of two to ten, while the general emission patterns seem to be well understood. Finally, it became evident that 133Xe sources mainly influence the sensitivity of the monitoring system in the mid-latitudes, where the network coverage is particularly good.

Wotawa, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Kalinowski, Martin; Saey, Paul; Tuma, Matthias; Zähringer, Matthias

2010-05-01

49

Vojtech Mastny - The 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: A Missed Opportunity for Détente? - Journal of Cold War Studies 10:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fragile détente that dawned after the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962 was a necessary but not sufficient condition to ensure the conclusion of the Limited Test Ban Treaty eight months later. Nikita Khrushchev's political weakness after his Cuban fiasco was the main obstacle. New evidence from the Soviet side shows that by April 1963—three months before John F.

Vojtech Mastny

2008-01-01

50

Preliminary report on the implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the preliminary results of an ongoing experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain local and regional seismic data together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

Jarpe, S.P.; Goldstein, P.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

1995-07-01

51

Seismology and the Test Ban: A new era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As many nations push for an indefinite extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, international pressure for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is simultaneously increasing. Advocates of a CTBT argue that a complete ban on nuclear testing by all nations will prevent the development of more advanced nuclear weapons, de-emphasize the importance of nuclear weapons for national security, and reduce the discriminatory nature of the Non-Proliferation Treaty regime. While it is generally recognized that nuclear testing is not a technical requirement for developing at least a simple fissile weapon, many argue that a CTBT will provide an unambiguous context in which other, more direct, restrictions can be implemented. In negotiating a CTBT, however, provisions must be made to ensure that the benefits of the treaty are not outweighed by undiscovered violations, should they occur. Because the development of such provisions requires value judgments as to the benefits of the treaty and the costs of undetected violations, verification has always been a sensitive issue for a CTBT [van der Vink and Paine, 1992

Vink, Gregory E.

1995-07-01

52

Proceedings of the symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE): Results and implications for test ban treaties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The large amounts of chemical explosives used worldwide in mining, quarrying, and civil engineering projects presents a challenge for policy makers molding a test ban, since their use could provide the necessary cover for a clandestine nuclear test. The N...

M. D. Denny S. P. Stull

1994-01-01

53

Deterrence through a ballistic missile flight-test ban  

SciTech Connect

The author does not wish to denigrate all routes to deterrence except the flight-test ban. Midgetman, for example, has a highly synergistic relationship with a flight-test ban. The two combined would yield more deterrence than either separately. Midgetman would gain protection from depressed trajectories and homing MaRVs, while the flight-test ban would gain a second ICBM survivability mode. Similarly, silo hardening and site defense are transformed from futile or marginal exercises into sound strategy if Soviet missiles are barred from improving their accuracy or testing new penetration aids. Strategically, the ideal ICBM survivability solution would be four-pronged: flight test ban, hardening, site defense, and Midgetmen combined. But economically, this would take us far too deep into the land of diminishing returns. Possibly a two-pronged or even three-pronged solution would make the most strategic and budgetary sense. But by either yardstick, the flight-test ban is the cheapest and most productive deterrent tool available. If we can afford a multi-pronged solution to ICBM vulnerability, the flight-test ban must be one of the prongs. If we cannot, both strategic and budgetary considerations require that the single prong be the ballistic missile flight-test ban. 1 reference.

Sherman, R.

1987-12-01

54

Aftershocks and on-site inspections under a test ban: A progress report  

SciTech Connect

An ambiguous seismic event detected remotely under a comprehensive test ban (CTB) may require an on-site inspection to determine the nature of the event. Provided they are present, aftershocks and microseismic events could play a key role in narrowing the inspection area and focusing the efforts of the inspectors. Of particular interest are the low-frequency, emergent aftershocks that have been observed after underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. If these events can be shown to have unique characteristics, their detection could greatly increase the chances for a successful inspection. The authors have been characterizing aftershock swarms from underground explosive events and from other events that may be encountered during an inspection. This report summarizes an analysis of aftershocks following an underground explosion and microseismic events associated with routine operations at the block-caving Henderson Mine in Colorado. They used as their example of a smaller, single-point explosion the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a one-kiloton, chemical, overburied, single-point explosion whose aftershock sequence is similar to an underground nuclear explosion. They were interested in studying the Henderson mine because the caving operation is an apparent analog to the chimney formation following an nuclear event and could give rise to similar microseismic events. Mine operations at Henderson result in both low-frequency emergent events and high-frequency impulsive events. The emergent events (hundreds per day) are apparently associated with rockfalls into the crater produced by the caving operations and have many similar characteristics to the low-frequency events from the NPE; however, the low-frequency NPE aftershocks are relatively much more impulsive than those of the Henderson Mine. Unlike the NPE or nuclear events, location of Henderson low-frequency events is extremely difficult using arrival-time methods because of their very gradual onset.

Smith, A.T.; Schultz, C.; Zucca, J.J.

1995-09-01

55

Visualization tools for comprehensive test ban treaty research  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on tools used in Data Visualization efforts at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy CTBT R&D program. These tools provide interactive techniques for the examination and interpretation of scientific data, and can be used for many types of CTBT research and development projects. We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the tools to display and analyze CTBT scientific data. While the tools may be used for everyday applications, our discussion will focus on the use of these tools for visualization of data used in research and verification of new theories. Our examples focus on uses with seismic data, but the tools may also be used for other types of data sets. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Edwards, T.L.; Harris, J.M.; Simons, R.W. [and others

1997-08-01

56

Data visualization for comprehensive test ban treaty monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Data Visualization Project at Sandia Labs is to prototype and evaluate new approaches to the presentation of data for CTBT monitoring applications. The great amount of data expected to be available, and the complex interrelationships in...

R. W. Simons C. J. Young T. L. Edwards

1996-01-01

57

Authentication of data for monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

The important issue of data integrity in the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS) is discussed and a brief tutorial on data authentication techniques is offered. The utilization of data authentication as a solution to the data integrity problem is evaluated. Public key data authentication is recommended for multilateral monitoring regimes such as the CTBT. The ramifications and system considerations of applying data authentication at various locations in the IMS, or not at all, are reviewed in a data surety context. The paper concludes with a recommendation of authenticating data at all critical monitoring stations.

Craft, R.L.; Draelos, T.J.

1996-05-01

58

Statistical algorithms for a comprehensive test ban treaty discrimination framework  

SciTech Connect

Seismic discrimination is the process of identifying a candidate seismic event as an earthquake or explosion using information from seismic waveform features (seismic discriminants). In the CTBT setting, low energy seismic activity must be detected and identified. A defensible CTBT discrimination decision requires an understanding of false-negative (declaring an event to be an earthquake given it is an explosion) and false-position (declaring an event to be an explosion given it is an earthquake) rates. These rates are derived from a statistical discrimination framework. A discrimination framework can be as simple as a single statistical algorithm or it can be a mathematical construct that integrates many different types of statistical algorithms and CTBT technologies. In either case, the result is the identification of an event and the numerical assessment of the accuracy of an identification, that is, false-negative and false-positive rates. In Anderson et al., eight statistical discrimination algorithms are evaluated relative to their ability to give results that effectively contribute to a decision process and to be interpretable with physical (seismic) theory. These algorithms can be discrimination frameworks individually or components of a larger framework. The eight algorithms are linear discrimination (LDA), quadratic discrimination (QDA), variably regularized discrimination (VRDA), flexible discrimination (FDA), logistic discrimination, K-th nearest neighbor (KNN), kernel discrimination, and classification and regression trees (CART). In this report, the performance of these eight algorithms, as applied to regional seismic data, is documented. Based on the findings in Anderson et al. and this analysis: CART is an appropriate algorithm for an automated CTBT setting.

Foote, N.D. [ed.; Anderson, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.; Hagedorn, D.N.

1996-10-01

59

Data visualization for comprehensive test ban treaty monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Data Visualization Project at Sandia Labs is to prototype and evaluate new approaches to the presentation of data for CTBT monitoring applications. The great amount of data expected to be available, and the complex interrelationships in that data, make this a promising area for scientific data visualization techniques. We are developing a powerful and flexible prototyping environment with which to explore these possibilities. A user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) should be an integral part of any data visualization tools developed. The GUI is necessary to select which data to visualize, and to modify and explore the displays that are the result of data visualization. Using our prototyping environment, we have produced data visualization displays of various kinds of data and have also experimented with different GUIs for controlling the visualization process. We present here an overview of that work, including promising results, lessons learned, and work in progress. To better understand what is needed, we have identified several data processing/analysis scenarios which we think will be important in CTBT monitoring. These scenarios help us identify what types of information we should display (together or in sequence), and help us focus on isolating the underlying goals. Each display we have produced is put in the context of one or more processing scenarios to help explain why and how it could be useful.

Simons, R.W.; Young, C.J.; Edwards, T.L.

1996-08-01

60

Statistical algorithms for a comprehensive test ban treaty discrimination framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seismic discrimination is the process of identifying a candidate seismic event as an earthquake or explosion using information from seismic waveform features (seismic discriminants). In the CTBT setting, low energy seismic activity must be detected and id...

N. D. Foote D. N. Anderson K. T. Higbee N. E. Miller T. Redgate

1996-01-01

61

Using the normal-mode method of probing the infrasonic propagation for purposes of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the problem of assessing the state of Atmospheric Acoustic Channels, that is, of the possible propagation paths of acoustic signals, based on using a priori information about atmospheric conditions. It is concluded that this can only be best accomplished through the use of global atmospheric models. Based on the normal-mode method, an analysis is made of the generalized characteristics of atmospheric waveguide such as the location of the waveguide boundaries, the mode composition, and the transmissivity of the waveguide upper and lower boundaries. The method can be used to analyze the particular paths as well as the overall situation around a given point. Furthermore, all the surrounding space (extending as far as the whole of the geosphere) is divided into regions that are accessible and inaccessible for a given mode. To determine the particular height distributions of physical characteristics over the entire path, the NRLMSISE-2000 atmosphere model and the HWM-93 wind model are used. Some of the calculated paths are compared with the known source and receiver positions and with observational results. It is concluded that the method can be used in a general assessment of the accessibility of a given region for acoustic monitoring; however, it is not sufficiently reliable to permit real-time predictions.

Ponomarev, E. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Sorokin, A. G.; Dmitrienko, I. S.; Lobycheva, I. Yu.; Baryshnikov, A. K.

2006-03-01

62

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization: Report of the On-Site Inspection Workshop-5-Planning Examination of Inspection Phases  

SciTech Connect

On-Site Inspection (OSI) Workshop-5 met 8-12 November, 1999 in Farnborough, UK and was hosted by the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA). The purpose of the workshop was to provide guidance on OSI Operational Manual (OM) development for Working Group B (WGB) of the CTBT Preparatory Commission (PrepCom). The two main topics of the workshop involved logistics/preparatory activities for the pre-inspection phase and in-depth examination of technology application during the initial and continuation phases of an OSI. Reports from the PTS-sponsored Kazakhstan OSI experiment set the tone for the discussions of logistics and preparatory activities. The most important recommendation coming out of the experiment and workshop discussions is a need for Working Group A to develop specific administrative and financial rules regarding OSIs and define the status of inspectors and inspector assistants with respect to the CTBTO. There was also extensive discussion of a need for Working Group B to develop and/or adapt safety standards. With respect to OSI preparations, the group agreed that the time line and quick response required by an OSI necessitate development of special procedures; standing arrangements and/or advanced parties are suggested as one possible approach and a list of relevant issues has been initiated. A chart was developed that outlines the various elements of logistics required for an OSI that can serve as a basis for development of checklists, databases, and other preparation activities. Technology presentations and discussion focused on three major areas: phenomenology, synergy, and specifications.

Krioutchenkov, V.; Shchukin, V.; Davies, A.; Sweeney, J.J.

2000-01-01

63

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials  

SciTech Connect

This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M. [European Commission Joint Research Centre; Allen, Todd R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke [Osaka University

2012-01-01

64

TALYS: Comprehensive Nuclear Reaction Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TALYS is a nuclear-reaction program which simulates nuclear reactions that involve neutrons, gamma-rays, protons, deuterons, tritons, helions, and alpha-particles, in the 1 keV - 200 MeV energy range. A suite of nuclear-reaction models has been implemented into a single code system, enabling us to evaluate basically all nuclear reactions beyond the resonance range. An overview is given of the main nuclear models used, such as newly developed optical models, various compound nucleus, fission, gamma-ray strength, level density, and pre-equilibrium models, all driven by a comprehensive database of nuclear-structure parameters. The predictive power of the code is demonstrated by comparing calculated results with a very diverse set of experimental observables. Our aim is to show that TALYS represents a robust computational approach that covers the whole path from fundamental nuclear-reaction models to the creation of complete data libraries for nuclear applications.

Koning, A. J.; Hilaire, S.; Duijvestijn, M. C.

2005-05-01

65

TALYS: Comprehensive Nuclear Reaction Modeling  

SciTech Connect

TALYS is a nuclear-reaction program which simulates nuclear reactions that involve neutrons, gamma-rays, protons, deuterons, tritons, helions, and alpha-particles, in the 1 keV - 200 MeV energy range. A suite of nuclear-reaction models has been implemented into a single code system, enabling us to evaluate basically all nuclear reactions beyond the resonance range. An overview is given of the main nuclear models used, such as newly developed optical models, various compound nucleus, fission, gamma-ray strength, level density, and pre-equilibrium models, all driven by a comprehensive database of nuclear-structure parameters. The predictive power of the code is demonstrated by comparing calculated results with a very diverse set of experimental observables. Our aim is to show that TALYS represents a robust computational approach that covers the whole path from fundamental nuclear-reaction models to the creation of complete data libraries for nuclear applications.

Koning, A.J.; Duijvestijn, M.C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hilaire, S. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, DAM/DIF/DPTA, Boite Postale 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

2005-05-24

66

A comprehensive ban on nuclear testing.  

PubMed

Our foregoing analysis of the role of a comprehensive test ban leads us to the following conclusions. 1) A CTB by itself will have little direct effect on the arms race between the superpowers. It would not hinder their nuclear arms production and deployment nor would it necessarily present a significant obstacle to the development of new nuclear weapons systems, despite limiting the development of new nuclear warhead designs. It can hardly make a dent in the destructive capability of the superpowers or in their ability to step up the pace of the arms race. 2) The chief merits of a CTB reside in the political sphere. It would help promote detente and could help to escalate interest in arms control agreements of broader scope. But in neither of these effects would it be as significant as a successful SALT (strategic arms limitation talks) agreement. The CTB also lingers as a piece of unfinished business since the signing of the LTB in 1963. The question can be and has been raised, "If the superpowers are serious about arms control, why have they not accepted the CTB, which is simple in concept and in form and is also free of serious military risks?" Such doubts about the sincerity of the superpowers' willingness to limit their own arms development will persist as long as there is no CTB. Substantial agreement at SALT would lessen some of this effect too, but would not eliminate it completely. 3) Recent progress in seismic identification has been impressive, and other means of obtaining technical intelligence about nuclear testing have probably also improved greatly. In addition, research on the technical means of on-site inspection has demonstrated its limited effectiveness. Therefore, the role of on-site inspections as an added deterrent to cheating on a CTB has diminished substantially. This is not to say that detection and identification of all nuclear tests is possible now, or ever, but only that on-site inspection would add very little to the other technical means now available for verification. 4) It will become increasingly difficult in the United States to oppose the CTB on the basis of risks that accompany possible Soviet evasion of a treaty that does not include the right of onsite inspection. The opposition to a CTB is now likely to shift to the more direct argument that nuclear testing is important to keep pace with continuing worldwide technical and military developments. The justification for U.S. testing is only in part because of advances in Soviet nuclear technology per se. Those opposing a CTB may argue that it makes little sense, and may even be courting danger, to freeze nuclear technology alone and that banning nuclear tests should await an agreement that copes with all military research and development and all qualitative improvements in weapons systems. This directly confronts the argument that the unique virtue of a CTB is that it provides a simple and feasible first step in the very complicated problems of controlling military technology. 5) The mutual deterrence of the superpowers will not be compromised if a CTB agreement is reached and one side or the other clandestinely violates such an agreement. The state of nuclear technology in both countries is mature, and the destructive capability of their nuclear arsenals can be easily maintained. Whatever small improvements can come as a consequence of clandestine testing would hardly affect the strategic balance. 6) It seems unlikely that China and France will agree to stop testing in the near future. These countries refused to join the nonproliferation treaty, which did not affect their nuclear programs, and it is doubtful that, proceeding from military considerations alone, they would join a CTB. Their nuclear programs are still not mature, and a CTB would freeze their positions of inferiority with respect to the superpowers. There may, however, be wider political and security arrangements to induce them to participate. Cessation of tests by the other nuclear powers might serve as an inducement to China and France to refrain from testing.

Neild, R; Ruina, J P

1972-01-14

67

A computer model for analyzing low-yield threshold test ban treaties  

SciTech Connect

With the ratification of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), there has been increased interest in lowering the nuclear test ban threshold from its present level of 150 kilotons and much debate about what this lower threshold should be. The uncertainties associated with verifying the TTBT, along with the added difficulties associated with lower yields, have aroused concern that a Low-Yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty (LYTTBT) may not be sufficiently verifiable. This report documents a computer model for analyzing the verifiability of LYTTBT options. The model systematically accounts for the uncertainty inherent in the treaty verification process. It helps the user gain insights into the interactions among monitoring capability, beliefs about Soviet testing strategies, and the likelihood of missing violations or making false accusations of violations. The model can also account for possible Soviet evasion strategies that could systematically reduce the US estimates of Soviet test yields. There are eight components of the model, each facilitating a different type of analysis. The components are: cavity decoupling, verification effectiveness, probability of missed violation, probability of false accusation, detectable violation, distinguishable yield, required monitoring capability and expected utility. The next six components address the verifiability of alternate LYTTBTs from different perspectives. Finally, the Expected Utility component computes the expected overall utility of each threshold option. Decision makers can use the various components of the model to study issues related to the verifiability of various LYTTBT options. Because the model is explicit and quantitative, it provides decision makers with rational, defensible analyses, which can be used as input when making important treaty and verification decisions. 2 refs. 5 figs.

Bradford, R.M.; Sokkappa, P.R.

1990-11-01

68

Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994  

SciTech Connect

To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

Denny, Marvin D

1994-01-01

69

TALYS: Comprehensive nuclear reaction modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

TALYS is a nuclear reaction program which simulates nuclear reactions that involve neutrons, gamma-rays, protons, deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha-particles, in the 1 keV - 200 MeV energy range. A suite of nuclear reaction models has been implemented into a single code system, enabling us to evaluate basically all nuclear reactions beyond the resonance range. An overview is given of

A. J. Koning; S. Hilaire; M. C. Duijvestijn

70

Politics of motherhood: the case of Women Strike for Peace and the test ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation is a narrative history and organizational study of the formative years of Women Strike for Peace (1961-1963) and its campaign for a nuclear test ban treaty. WSP, a grass roots, participatory movement of American Women, was born on November 1, 1961 when an estimated 50,000 women in 60 communities across the nation walked out of their kitchens and off their jobs in a one day protest against Russian and American nuclear policies. In the process of transforming this one day strike into a national woman's movement, WSP developed a feminine political style characterized by an anti-heirarchical, anti-organizational format, simple, womanly rhetoric, and spontaneous, innovative national and international direct action. At a time when foreign policy dissenters were dismissed by the press and the public either as commies or kooks, the image that WSP projected to respectable middle-class, middle-aged peace mothers wearing white gloves and flowered hats while picketing the White House to save their children from nuclear holocaust caught the favorable attention of large sections of the media, the public, and even the President. Through an investigation of the program, internal debates, rhetoric, organizational structure, and tactics of WSP, along with the backgrounds of its leaders and members, this study uncovers the political and gender consciousness of the women who joined the movement.

Swerdlow, A.G.

1984-01-01

71

Legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines international treaties in relation to the threat or use of nuclear weapons including the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. It can be concluded that the effect of the aforesaid international treaties is still in doubt without explicit enforcement mechanisms and penalty for non-compliance. This paper also reviews the International Court of

Yen-Chiang Chang

2009-01-01

72

Multiple discriminant screening procedure for test ban verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed consideration is given to utilization of earthquake-nuclear ; explosion seismological discrimination experience in a national operational ; verification procedure, but it is emphasized that such consideration in relation ; to clandestine underground nuclear explosions, or evasion tactics in general, is ; futile until all natural seismic activity can be identified down to the ; equivalent explosion yield. Thus the

P. W. Basham; F. M. Anglin

1973-01-01

73

Atmospheric transport modeling based estimation of radioactive release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant on March 2011, it is important to characterize radioactivity release into the environment. Several isotopes, amongst others caesium-137 and iodine-131, are monitored at multiple stations throughout the world by the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization. In this paper it is demonstrated

Wolfango Plastino; Michael Schoppner; Francesco Bella; Mario De Vincenzi; Gerhard Wotawa; Pavel P. Povinec; Antonio Budano; Federico Ruggieri

2011-01-01

74

Seismic experiments, nuclear dismantlement go hand in hand in Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unique seismic experiments involving large chemical explosions at different depths have been conducted in Kazakhstan, thanks to nuclear dismantlement activity there. Collaborative efforts of several bodies have provided this creative, cost-efficient extension of the dismantling work, improving technical monitoring and verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).For the past several years, the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) has been

William Leith; Luke J. Kluchko

1998-01-01

75

Multiple Discriminant Screening Procedure for Test Ban Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DECADE of research has led to a well defined capability for the seismological method of verification of compliance with a ban on underground nuclear explosions. Whatever political form the treaty will eventually have, it is generally agreed that decisions concerning violations will be national decisions. Recent presentations to the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament in Geneva1-4 lead us

P. W. Basham; F. M. Anglin

1973-01-01

76

The future of nuclear weapons without nuclear testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty on U.S. security concerns is assessed in this article. Three technical issues specific to nuclear weapons are addressed: (1) safety and reliability of the existing U.S. arsenal, (2) constraints on the development of new types of nuclear weapons by the U.S. and other nations, and (3) prevention of further proliferation of weapons.

Garwin

1997-01-01

77

Lg Phase Propagation Characteristics in Northern Eurasia from Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg) play a significant role in monitoring small events for Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In all the regional phases, the Lg phase is usually the strongest, which is usually used to identify nuclear explosions from earthquakes. However, the Lg is weak or disappears in some tectonic areas. Therefore, studying propagation characteristics of the Lg

H. Li; I. Morozov; S. Smithson; L. Solodilov

2003-01-01

78

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) FOR NUCLEAR TREATY MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development of a Geographical Information System (GIS) with global and regional coverage is underway at Cornell University. This GIS is being designed to provide essential data and research products required for successful monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system will support the National Data Center (NDC) and the International Monitoring System (IMS) by providing a common

David N. Steer; Dogan Seber; Eric Sandvol; Christine Orgren; Carrie Brindisi; Muawia Barazangi

79

The End of Nuclear Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On August 11, 1995, President Clinton announced that the United States was ready to enter into a true zero-yield nuclear test ban. The speaker, a member of a group of experts who carried out a US Department of Energy sponsored study during the summer of 1995 that provided the technical basis for the Administration's new policy, will discuss several issues associated with the pending comprehensive nuclear test ban. Topics covered will include: the value of testing at low nuclear yields to a country such as the United States, which has decided not develop new types of nuclear weapons; programs the United States is likely to adopt to preserve confidence in the safety and performance of the nuclear weapons it plans to retain; and future activities of the US Department of Energy nuclear weapons complex.

Sullivan, Jeremiah D.

1996-05-01

80

Comprehensive Test Ban Monitoring: Contributions from Regional Moment Tensors to Determine Source Type and Depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional distance moment tensor analysis can be used, even for relatively small magnitude events (M > 3.4), to discriminate explosions from naturally occurring earthquakes. For earthquakes, MT analysis can provide insight into event size, depth and type of faulting, as well. Besides explosion monitoring, mechanism information is important for applications like assessing earthquake effects and tsunami warning. We apply the UC Berkeley full moment tensor code to selected events from western Iran, using data from broadband seismic stations operated by the International Monitoring System (IMS). This region was chosen for its seismicity and IMS station availability. Greens functions are calculated for two 1D velocity models, iasp91 and a region-specific model based on the 3D model of Pasyanos et al (2004). Seismic moment magnitude (Mw), depth and source mechanism are estimated using both Greens types of functions, for several events of M >4. The results serve to support an assessment of magnitude estimation and screening capabilities of the IMS.

Hellweg, M.; Dreger, D. S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

2009-12-01

81

78 FR 25298 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey [USGS-GX13LR000F60100] Agency Information...AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension...SUMMARY: We (the USGS) will ask the Office of Management...

2013-04-30

82

78 FR 57653 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension...SUMMARY: We (the USGS) will ask the Office of Management and...703-648-7195 (fax); or dgovoni@usgs.gov (email). Please reference...

2013-09-19

83

Ultra-high resolution mass separator--application to detection of nuclear weapons tests.  

PubMed

A Penning trap-based purification process having a resolution of about 1 ppm is reported. In this context, we present for the first time a production method for the most complicated and crucially important nuclear weapons test signature, (133m)Xe. These pure xenon samples are required by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to standardize and calibrate the worldwide network of xenon detectors. PMID:20044263

Peräjärvi, K; Eronen, T; Elomaa, V-V; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Kettunen, H; Kolhinen, V S; Laitinen, M; Moore, I D; Penttilä, H; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Toivonen, H; Turunen, J; Aystö, J

2009-12-16

84

Ultrahigh resolution mass separator—Application to detection of nuclear weapons tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Penning trap-based purification process having a resolution of about 1ppm is reported. In this context, we present for the first time a production method for the most complicated and crucially important nuclear weapons test signature, 133mXe. These pure xenon samples are required by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to standardize and calibrate the worldwide network of xenon detectors.

K. Peräjärvi; T. Eronen; V.-V. Elomaa; J. Hakala; A. Jokinen; H. Kettunen; V. S. Kolhinen; M. Laitinen; I. D. Moore; H. Penttilä; J. Rissanen; A. Saastamoinen; H. Toivonen; J. Turunen; J. Äystö

2010-01-01

85

Tactical Nuclear Studies: A More Comprehensive Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A matrix scheme for evaluating complex tactical nuclear systems is proposed. Advantages resulting from consideration of system characteristics in peace and crisis as well as war include avoidance of scenario-dependent conclusions, ease of maintaining awar...

C. Kooshian D. Blumenthal G. Reinhardt G. Staehle

1975-01-01

86

Nucbid - A Comprehensive Nuclear Fuel Economics Code for Utility Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic unit energy cost algorithm for nuclear fuel is presented which adheres to engineering economic principles permitting precise treatment of time dependent cash and energy flow considerations. A comprehensive computer program, NUCBID, developed by TVA based on the algorithm is described.

Raymond Hoskins; Eleanor Cooper; James Belitz

1972-01-01

87

75 FR 11136 - Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Nuclear Command and Control System Comprehensive Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Nuclear Command and Control System Comprehensive Review Committee; Charter Termination...terminating the charter for the U.S. Nuclear Command and Control System Comprehensive Review Committee. FOR FURTHER...

2010-03-10

88

Satellite Earth Observations Support CTBT Monitoring: A Case Study of the Nuclear Test in North Korea of Oct. 9, 2006 and Comparison with Seismic Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty prescribes the use of seismic stations and arrays as the main measure for verification\\u000a of Treaty compliance. Since the inception of the Treaty, a vast amount of open source earth observation satellite data has\\u000a become available. This paper investigates the potential for combining seismic and satellite data for more effective monitoring\\u000a and response. With data acquired

J. Schlittenhardt; M. Canty; I. Grünberg

2010-01-01

89

Rapid Deployment Drilling System for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban Preliminary Engineering Design  

SciTech Connect

While not a new drilling technology, coiled-tubing (CT) drilling continues to undergo rapid development and expansion, with new equipment, tools and procedures developed almost daily. This project was undertaken to: analyze available technological options for a Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) CT drilling system: recommend specific technologies that best match the requirements for the RDDS; and highlight any areas where adequate technological solutions are not currently available. Postshot drilling is a well established technique at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Drilling provides essential data on the results of underground tests including obtaining samples for the shot zone, information on cavity size, chimney dimensions, effects of the event on surrounding material, and distribution of radioactivity.

Maurer, W.C.; Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Cohen, J.H. [Maurer Engineering, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Heuze, F.E.; Butler, M.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-09-01

90

Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations  

SciTech Connect

The essence of this paper is to enlighten the consistency achieved nowadays in nuclear data and uncertainties assessments in terms of compound nucleus reaction theory from neutron separation energy to continuum. Making the continuity of theories used in resolved (R-matrix theory), unresolved resonance (average R-matrix theory) and continuum (optical model) rangcs by the generalization of the so-called SPRT method, consistent average parameters are extracted from observed measurements and associated covariances are therefore calculated over the whole energy range. This paper recalls, in particular, recent advances on fission cross section calculations and is willing to suggest some hints for future developments.

Bouland, O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hale, G M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lynn, J E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bernard, D [FRANCE; Litaize, O [FRANCE; Noguere, G [FRANCE; De Saint Jean, C [FRANCE; Serot, O [FRANCE

2010-01-01

91

Nuclear testing and national security  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1950s, the United States has negotiated more than fifteen arms control agreements, several of which limited nuclear explosive testing by the signatories. Negotiations on another treaty on nuclear testing have been ongoing in Geneva since October 1977, between the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom. This treaty would go beyond previous agreements limiting nuclear testing and impose a total ban on all nuclear explosive testing. Proponents of this Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty suggest that it will inhibit the further spread of nuclear weapons technology, lessen the superpower arms race, and be a stabilizing force in world affairs. This monograph contends that US support of this agreement is inconsistent with the US doctrine of strategic nuclear deterrence. Without testing to modernize US nuclear weapons, the United States cannot have an effective nuclear deterrent force.

Fritzel, R.N.

1981-01-01

92

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure  

SciTech Connect

Abstract. With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, NNSA management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by the U.S. DOE MPC&A Regulatory Development Project RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and schedule the development of documents; 5) Identify and develop processes to measure effectiveness of regulations. Utilizing this process is resulting in an effective regulatory process that is understood and is being adopted by the four RF organizations. It is anticipated that the current regulatory development process will continue after U.S. support ends. Utilization of the systematic methodology will ensure regulatory development is based on required MPC&A structural elements and will support the continued maintenance and development of an effective regulatory base.

O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Tuttle, John D.; Hazel, Michael J.; Schlegel, Steven C.; Miller, Daniel R.

2009-03-30

93

Nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes  

SciTech Connect

The US Plowshare programme, designed to develop peaceful uses of nuclear explosives, was vigorous between 1957 to 1973 and was of concern during US and USSR nuclear treaty negotiations within that period. In order to accommodate possible future applications, the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) Treaty was signed in 1976. The US programme explored the phenomenology of nuclear explosions and tested their use in industrial applications. Due to waning industrial interest and public concern over environmental issues, the US program was terminated in 1977. The Soviet counterpart to the Plowshare programme, which has involved roughly 100 experiments throughout the USSR, continued until the self-imposed moratorium in 1985. As any peaceful use of nuclear explosives has the potential of furthering weapons research, the US takes the position that all such experiments would have to be banned in a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT).

Borg, I.Y.

1986-07-01

94

Nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes  

SciTech Connect

The US Plowshare program, designed to develop peaceful uses of nuclear explosives, was vigorous between 1957-73 and was of concern during US and USSR nuclear treaty negotiations within that period. In order to accommodate possible future applications, the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty was signed in 1976. The US program explored the phenomenology of nuclear explosions and tested their use in industrial applications. Due to waning industrial interest and public concern over environmental issues, the US program was terminated in 1977. The Soviet counterpart to the Plowshare program, which has involved more than 100 experiments throughout the USSR, continued until the self-imposed moratorium in 1985. As any peaceful use of nuclear explosives has the potential of furthering weapons research, the US takes the position that all such experiments would have to be banned in a comprehensive test ban treaty. 24 refs.

Borg, I.Y.

1986-11-01

95

Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how reading instruction in comprehension will be much like instruction in thinking and problem solving due to the capacity of computers to store data and retrieve literal information instantly. (CRH)|

Geoffrion, Leo D.; Geoffrion, Olga P.

1985-01-01

96

A Comprehensive View of Nuclear Receptor Cancer Cistromes  

PubMed Central

Nuclear receptors (NRs) comprise a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that play important roles in both physiology and diseases including cancer. The technologies of Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation followed by array hybridization (ChIP-chip) or massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) has been used to map, at an unprecedented rate, the in vivo genome-wide binding (cistrome) of NRs in both normal and cancer cells. We developed a curated database of 88 NR cistrome datasets and other associated high-throughput datasets, including 121 collaborating factor cistromes, 94 epigenomes and 319 transcriptomes. Through integrative analysis of the curated NR ChIP-chip/seq datasets, we discovered novel factor-specific noncanonical motifs that may have important regulatory roles. We also revealed a common feature of NR pioneering factors to recognize relatively short and AT-rich motifs. Most NRs bind predominantly to introns and distal intergenetic regions, and binding sites closer to transcription start sites (TSSs) were found to be neither stronger nor more evolutionarily conserved. Interestingly, while most NRs appear to be predominantly transcriptional activators, our analysis suggests that the binding of ESR1, RARA and RARG has both activating and repressive effects. Through meta-analysis of different omic data of the same cancer cell line model from multiple studies, we generated consensus cistrome and expression profiles. We further made probabilistic predictions of the NR target genes by integrating cistrome and transcriptome data, and validated the predictions using expression data from tumor samples. The final database, with comprehensive cistrome, epigenome, transcriptome datasets, and downstream analysis results, constitutes a valuable resource for the nuclear receptor and cancer community.

Tang, Qianzi; Chen, Yiwen; Meyer, Clifford; Geistlinger, Tim; Lupien, Mathieu; Wang, Qian; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yong; Brown, Myles; Liu, X. Shirley

2012-01-01

97

Nuclear hostages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical physics since Roentgen's discovery of X-rays led quickly to work on atomic structure and the Nuclear Age. The author traces the history of decisions to pursue nuclear fission, the organization of the Manhattan Project, the compromises of the 1963 test ban treaty, and the dilemma of nuclear weapons development and deployment that now hold mankind hostage. He reviews the

OKeefe

1983-01-01

98

Nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The US Plowshare programme, designed to develop peaceful uses of nuclear explosives, was vigorous between 1957-73 and was of concern during US and USSR nuclear treaty negotiations within that period. In order to accommodate possible future applications, the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty was signed in 1976. The US programme explored the phenomenology of nuclear explosions and tested their use in industrial applications. Due to waning industrial interest and public concern over environmental issues, the US program was terminated in 1977. The Soviet counterpart to the Plowshare programme, which has involved roughly 100 experiments throughout the USSR, continued until the self-imposed moratorium in 1985. As any peaceful use of nuclear explosives has the potential of furthering weapons research, the US takes the position that all such experiments would have to be banned in a comprehensive test ban treaty. 16 refs.

Borg, I.Y.

1986-08-01

99

Earthquakes or Nuclear Explosions?: Seismic Clues to Dirty Deeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity requires students to read an article about earthquakes and nuclear explosions and answer questions about it. They discover that both earthquakes and nuclear explosions generate seismic waves that can be detected thousands of kilometers away and from the 1960s to the 1990s about one underground nuclear explosion was carried out each week. Students learn that this was how nations tested their nuclear weapons and certified them as ready for deployment. Seismology was often the only way to learn if a foreign power was developing nuclear weapons. Students will also realize that scientists pick up the seismic waves at monitoring stations and these seismic signals allow scientists to locate the explosion or earthquake and to tell the difference between the two. Students also learn about the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) outlawing nuclear weapon tests that was signed by 150 nations, although by 1999 it had only been ratified by 19 of the 44 countries which had nuclear power reactors.

100

Comprehensive Human Resources Development Program for Nuclear Power at NuTEC\\/JAEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) aims at comprehensive nuclear education and training activities, which cover 1) education and training for national nuclear engineers, 2) cooperation with universities and 3) international contribution and cooperation. The main feature of NuTEC's training programs is that the curricula place emphasis on the laboratory exercises with well-equipped

Tsuyoshi Ishimura

101

Nuclear Energy and the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

102

Nuclear Energy and the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

103

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, NNSA management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of

Patricia OBrien; Troy L. Wright; John D. Tuttle; Michael J. Hazel; Steven C. Schlegel; Daniel R. Miller

2009-01-01

104

Developing a Comprehensive and Articulated Nuclear Training Curriculum--The Westinghouse Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After conducting a comprehensive evaluation of its curriculum, staff at the Westinghouse Nuclear Training Center in Zion, Illinois, undertook a research and development project aimed at upgrading the center's curriculum to the competency-based format. Included among the main activities of the curriculum development process were the following:…

Widen, William C.

105

Seismic experiments, nuclear dismantlement go hand in hand in Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique seismic experiments involving large chemical explosions at different depths have been conducted in Kazakhstan, thanks to nuclear dismantlement activity there. Collaborative efforts of several bodies have provided this creative, cost-efficient extension of the dismantling work, improving technical monitoring and verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).For the past several years, the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) has been closing the nuclear test tunnels and bore-holes at the former Soviet nuclear test site nearSemipalatinsk, eastern Kazakhstan, as part of the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program. The existence of this program and the infrastructure that was in place to implement it made it possible to conduct the seismic experiments. As a result, benchmark data have been collected on the variations in seismic signals from explosions at different burial depths.

Leith, William; Kluchko, Luke J.

106

The continuing risk of nuclear war.  

PubMed

Climate change and nuclear war are currently the most dangerous challenges to human civilisation and survival. The effects of climate change are now sufficient to persuade many governments to take effective measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Today there are about 27,000 nuclear warheads, many at least ten times more powerful than the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs, and a meaningful medical response to a nuclear attack is impossible. Nevertheless, the threat of nuclear war does not raise public concern, and indeed the nuclear-weapon states are upgrading their capability. The only effective preventive measure is the abolition of nuclear weapons. Steps towards this include: a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, for the nuclear weapon states to observe their obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty to enter into force. The ultimate need is for a Nuclear Weapons Convention; International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War have launched an International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear weapons (ICAN) to promote a NWC. PMID:17987978

McCoy, Ronald

107

Discrimination of Nuclear Explosions against Civilian Sources Based on Atmospheric Xenon Isotopic Activity Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support the interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of nuclear explosions and reactors, empirical data for both test and reactor releases as well as observations by measurement stations of the International Noble Gas Experiment (INGE) are used to provide a proof of concept for the isotopic ratio based method for source discrimination.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Axelsson, Anders; Bean, Marc; Blanchard, Xavier; Bowyer, Theodore W.; Brachet, Guy; Hebel, Simon; McIntyre, Justin I.; Peters, Jana; Pistner, Christoph; Raith, Maria; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, Paul R. J.; Schlosser, Clemens; Stocki, Trevor J.; Taffary, Thomas; Kurt Ungar, R.

2010-05-01

108

Overhead Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions by Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty allows for Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging from an aircraft and on the ground to help reduce the search area for an underground nuclear explosion from the initial 1,000 km2. Satellite data, primarily from Landsat, have been used as a surrogate for aircraft data to investigate whether there are any multi-spectral features associated with the nuclear tests in Pakistan, India or North Korea. It is shown that there are multi-spectral observables on the ground that can be associated with the nominal surface ground zero for at least some of these explosions, and that these are likely to be found by measurements allowed by the treaty.

Henderson, John R.; Smith, Milton O.; Zelinski, Michael E.

2012-09-01

109

Discrimination of nuclear explosions against civilian sources based on atmospheric xenon isotopic activity ratios  

SciTech Connect

A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will be used to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of nuclear explosions, empirical data for both test and reactor releases as well as observations by measurement stations of the International Noble Gas Experiment (INGE) are used to provide a proof of concept for the isotopic ratio based method for source discrimination.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Axelssson, A.; Bean, Marc; Blanchard, X.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Brachet, G.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Peters, Jana; Pistner, Christoph; Raith, Maria; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, P. R.; Schlosser, C.; Stocki, Trevor J.; Taffary, T.; Ungar, R. Kurt

2010-05-01

110

Nuclear testing: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined the experimental and analytic bases for understanding the performance of each of the weapon types that are currently planned to remain in the US enduring nuclear stockpile. They have also examined whether continued underground tests at various nuclear yield thresholds would add significantly to the confidence in this stockpile in the years ahead. The starting point for this examination was a detailed review of past experience in developing and testing modern nuclear weapons, their certification and recertification processes, their performance margins, and evidence of aging or other trends over time for each weapon type in the enduring stockpile. The findings, as summarized in Conclusions 1 through 6, are consistent with US agreement to enter into a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) of unending duration, that includes a standard ``supreme national interest`` clause. Recognizing that the challenge of maintaining an effective nuclear stockpile for an indefinite period without benefit of underground tests is an important and also a new one, the US should affirm its readiness to invoke the supreme national interest clause should the need arise as a result of unanticipated technical problems in the enduring stockpile.

Drell, S.; Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F. [and others

1995-08-01

111

Szilard Prize Lecture: Seismic Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic monitoring of the more than 2000 nuclear test explosions since 1945 has been vigorously pursued, both to track the weapons development of potential adversaries, and to support initiatives in nuclear arms control, including various test ban treaties. Major funding from the US Department of Defense built up new global seismographic networks and over several decades established practical capability in monitoring nuclear explosions ``teleseismically'' (i.e. from distances more than about 1500 km), for tests that the testing nation did not attempt to conceal. What then is the capability to monitor compliance with, for example, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) of 1996, particularly if evasion scenarios are considered? Note that the CTBT, though not ratified by some countries (including the US), is now being monitored by networks that include seismographic stations at ``regional'' distances (< 1500 km) from candidate explosion locations. Years of R and D have shown that regional signals can be used to monitor down to yields significantly lower than can be detected and identified teleseismically. A US National Academy of Sciences study in 2002 concluded that ``an underground nuclear explosion cannot be confidently hidden if its yield is larger than 1 or 2 kt.'' About 1000 earthquakes and chemical explosions are now detected per day, and documented via seismic data, providing plenty of challenges for nuclear explosion monitoring organizations. Explosion monitoring capability will improve in many parts of the world, due to the growth of networks that monitor even small earthquakes to study seismic hazard. But political problems can impede improved international explosion monitoring, due to national restrictions on data access.

Richards, Paul

2006-04-01

112

Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO).

Christoudias, Theodoros; Lelieveld, Jos

2013-04-01

113

Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

1987-12-01

114

Comprehensive safety analysis code system for nuclear fusion reactors II: Thermal analysis during plasma disruptions for international thermonuclear experimental reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal characteristics of a fusion reactor [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activity] during plasma disruptions have been analyzed by using a comprehensive safety analysis code for nuclear fusion reactors. The erosion depth due to disruptions for the armor of the first wall depends on the current quench time of disruptions occurring in normal operation. If it is possible

T. Honda; K. Maki; T. Okazaki

1994-01-01

115

Subsurface nuclear tests monitoring through the CTBT xenon network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first evaluation of the atmospheric xenon network to be installed as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the frame of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). We show that this network should, by itself, provide a significant contribution to the total efficiency of the IMS. For this evaluation, we introduce an inverse approach based upon

Frédéric Hourdin; J.-P. Issartel

2000-01-01

116

France`s nuclear dilemmas  

SciTech Connect

Ignoring worldwide protests, France conducted the first of several scheduled nuclear tests in September. The controversy has overshadowed France`s more important nuclear challenges: maintaining a strong deterrent under a test ban, moving ahead with its proposals for {open_quotes}Europeanization{close_quotes} of that deterrent, and developing a consensus on how nuclear threats should be used in response to those who would brandish other weapons of mass destruction. 1 fig.

Yost, D.S.

1996-01-01

117

Approaching zero: An evaluation of radical reductions in superpower nuclear arsenals  

SciTech Connect

Other things equal, radical nuclear reductions would reduce deterrence, crisis stability, arms race stability, and political stability. Unilateral actions could offset the detrimental impact of reductions at least partially; examples of such actions include the deployment of a highly diversified and survivable nuclear force, and preparations to respond to non-compliance or breakout. Negotiated agreements restricting counterforce capabilities (e.g., a Comprehensive Test Ban) could also improve the stability of radical reductions; such agreements would carry their own attendant risks of non-compliance and breakout. Radical nuclear reductions would force the United States to make difficult choices about nuclear employment policy. However, the possibility of limited nuclear options would not necessarily be constrained, and if nuclear command, control, and communications (C{sup 3}) were improved, the prospect of limited options actually staying limited might be increased. If tactical nuclear weapons were eliminated, NATO's nuclear warfighting capabilities would be reduced somewhat, but political effects would probably be more important than military effects.

Miller, J.N. Jr.

1989-01-01

118

Critical Human Factors Issues in Nuclear Power Regulation and a Recommended Comprehensive Human Factors Long-Range Plan. Volume 1. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This comprehensive long range human factors plan for nuclear reactor regulation was developed by a Study Group of the Human Factors Society, Inc. This Study Group was selected by the Society to provide a balanced, experienced human factors perspective to ...

C. O. Hopkins H. E. Price H. L. Snyder R. J. Hornick R. R. Mackie

1982-01-01

119

Multi-Use seismic stations offer strong deterrent to clandestine nuclear weapons testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the United States and other nations push for the signing of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, representatives are meeting in Geneva this year to develop an International Seismic Monitoring System to verify compliance with the treaty's restrictions. In addition to the official monitoring system, regional networks developed for earthquake studies and basic research can provide a strong deterrent against

C. B. Hennet; G. E. Van der Vink; P. G. Richards; V. V. Adushkin; Y. F. Kopnichev; R. Geary

1996-01-01

120

Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Deal with Canada's Nuclear Legacy Liabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Government of Canada nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development (R and D) carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are largely located at AECL research sites, and consist of shutdown research buildings (including

Peter Brown; Douglas Metcalfe; Marcia Blanchette; George Dolinar; Steven Halpenny; Chris Purdy; David Smith; William Kupferschmidt

2008-01-01

121

COMPREHENSIVE PROGRESS REPORT FOR FOURIER TRANSFORM NMR (NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE) OF METALS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Interactions of the metals cadmium and selenium with various biologically important substrates were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cadmium-113 NMR was used for a critical examination of three metalloproteins: concanavalin A, bovine superoxide dismutase ...

122

Nuclear hostages  

SciTech Connect

Classical physics since Roentgen's discovery of X-rays led quickly to work on atomic structure and the Nuclear Age. The author traces the history of decisions to pursue nuclear fission, the organization of the Manhattan Project, the compromises of the 1963 test ban treaty, and the dilemma of nuclear weapons development and deployment that now hold mankind hostage. He reviews the rationale for limited nuclear war, first strike, massive retaliation, non-proliferation, and the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) treaties. He argues that the concepts of mobile MX weapons, fratricide, and population dispersal for civil defense are unworkable, suggesting a program of unilaterally withdrawing tactical nuclear weapons from Europe and strengthening intelligence and law-enforcement powers to withstand terrorist activity. Economic cooperation and political reconciliation may take a generation to achieve, but should be our national goal.

O'Keefe, B.J.

1983-01-01

123

Underground Nuclear Explosions: Verifying Limits on Underground Testing Yield Estimates, and Public Policy (Paper 7R0218)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The period 1982 to 1986 has seen greatly increased activity in a number of problems related to the verification of nuclear test ban treaties. The greater activity results from a combination of scientific advances, major decisions by the United States Government about the negotiation of test ban treaties, the Soviet moratorium on testing, and much greater interest by the U.S. Congress in nuclear testing, test bans and other aspects of arms control. This review seeks to cover a range of activity that extends from scientific research to governmental decisions and public policy. A major aim has also been to provide a detailed bibliography on what is a wide range of topics. It is still not complete for what is a huge so-called "gray literature" of reports to various government agencies. The discussion that follows only covers a selected number of these publications and reports.

Sykes, Lynn R.

1987-07-01

124

Comprehensive modeling of special nuclear materials detection using three-dimensional deterministic and Monte Carlo methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study aim to design a useful neutron signature characterization device based on 3He detectors, a standard neutron detection methodology used in homeland security applications. Research work involved simulation of the generation, transport, and detection of the leakage radiation from Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). To accomplish research goals, we use a new methodology to fully characterize a standard \\

Gabriel M. Ghita

2008-01-01

125

Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2010-09-21

126

Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

2011-09-13

127

Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-09-23

128

Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2007-09-25

129

The DOE CTBT R&D effort at Livermore: calibrating to enhance international monitoring for clandestine nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which was signed in 1996 and still needs to be ratified by the US, forbids all nuclear tests and creates an international monitoring system (IMS) to search for evidence of clandestine nuclear explosions. As specified in the treaty, the IMS will consist of 170 seismic stations that record underground elastic waves, 60 infrasound stations to record low-frequency sound waves in the air, 11 hydroacoustic stations to record underwater sound waves, and 80 radionuclide stations to record airborne radionuclide gases or particles. The International Data Center (IDC), located in Vienna, receives data from the IMS system and applies standard event screening criteria to any detected events with the objective of characterizing and highlighting events considered to be consistent with natural phenomena or a non-nuclear man made phenomena. The National Data Center (NDC) for each country must go a step further than the IDC and identify events as consistent with natural phenomena, non-nuclear manmade phenomena, or a banned nuclear test using these monitoring technologies.

Myers, S; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Rodgers, A; Schultz, C; Walters, W; Zucca, J

1999-04-01

130

Comprehensive safety analysis code system for nuclear fusion reactors II: Thermal analysis during plasma disruptions for international thermonuclear experimental reactor  

SciTech Connect

Thermal characteristics of a fusion reactor [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activity] during plasma disruptions have been analyzed by using a comprehensive safety analysis code for nuclear fusion reactors. The erosion depth due to disruptions for the armor of the first wall depends on the current quench time of disruptions occurring in normal operation. If it is possible to extend the time up to {approximately}50 ms, the erosion depth is considerably reduced. On the other hand, the erosion depth of the divertor is {approximately}570 {mu}m for only one disruption, which is determined only by the thermal flux during the thermal quench. This means that the divertor plate should be exchanged after about nine disruptions. Counter-measures are necessary for the divertor to relieve disruption influences. As other scenarios of disruptions, beta-limit disruptions and vertical displacement events were also investigated quantitatively. 13 refs., 5 figs.

Honda, T.; Maki, K.; Okazaki, T. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

1994-12-01

131

Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test ban monitoring. We focused on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization o...

J. R. Kamm S. R. Taylor

1993-01-01

132

Arms control movements and the media: From the Cold War to the nuclear freeze  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissertation examines news coverage of the two most recent arms control movements: The test ban (1957-1963) and the nuclear freeze (1981-1984). Four questions guide the research: (1) To what extent do the news media maintain a space for oppositional politics that is independent of elite influence? (2) DOes the existence and characters of the space matter to policy outcomes?

Rojecki

1993-01-01

133

Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-09-21

134

A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the starlings (Aves: Sturnidae) and mockingbirds (Aves: Mimidae): Congruent mtDNA and nuclear trees for a cosmopolitan avian radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generated a comprehensive phylogeny for the avian families Sturnidae (starlings, mynas, Rhabdornis, oxpeckers, and allies) and Mimidae (mockingbirds, thrashers, and allies) to explore patterns of morphological and behavioral diversification. Reconstructions were based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from five coding genes (4108bp), and nuclear intron sequences from four loci (2974bp), for most taxa, supplemented with NDII gene sequences (1041bp) derived

Irby J. Lovette; Dustin R. Rubenstein

2007-01-01

135

Comprehensive modeling of special nuclear materials detection using three-dimensional deterministic and Monte Carlo methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study aim to design a useful neutron signature characterization device based on 3He detectors, a standard neutron detection methodology used in homeland security applications. Research work involved simulation of the generation, transport, and detection of the leakage radiation from Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). To accomplish research goals, we use a new methodology to fully characterize a standard "1-Ci" Plutonium-Beryllium (Pu-Be) neutron source based on 3-D computational radiation transport methods, employing both deterministic SN and Monte Carlo methodologies. Computational model findings were subsequently validated through experimental measurements. Achieved results allowed us to design, build, and laboratory-test a Nickel composite alloy shield that enables the neutron leakage spectrum from a standard Pu-Be source to be transformed, through neutron scattering interactions in the shield, into a very close approximation of the neutron spectrum leaking from a large, subcritical mass of Weapons Grade Plutonium (WGPu) metal. This source will make possible testing with a nearly exact reproduction of the neutron spectrum from a 6.67 kg WGPu mass equivalent, but without the expense or risk of testing detector components with real materials. Moreover, over thirty moderator materials were studied in order to characterize their neutron energy filtering potential. Specific focus was made to establish the limits of He-3 spectroscopy using ideal filter materials. To demonstrate our methodology, we present the optimally detected spectral differences between SNM materials (Plutonium and Uranium), metal and oxide, using ideal filter materials. Finally, using knowledge gained from previous studies, the design of a He-3 spectroscopy system neutron detector, simulated entirely via computational methods, is proposed to resolve the spectra from SNM neutron sources of high interest. This was accomplished by replacing ideal filters with real materials, and comparing reaction rates with similar data from the ideal material suite.

Ghita, Gabriel M.

136

Nuclear Testing Moratorium Act, S. 2064 and other nuclear testing issues. Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, July 23, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The hearing by the Committee on Foreign Relations assessed a number of test ban issues in connection with the consideration of Senate bill 2064, providing for a moratorium on testing nuclear weapons. Prepared statements by government and industry officials are included along with questions and answers during the session.

NONE

1992-12-31

137

Gas Transport and Detection Following Underground Nuclear Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some extremely rare radioactive noble gases are by-products of underground nuclear explosions, and the detection of significant levels of these gases (e.g., Xe-133 and Ar-37) at the surface is a very strong indicator of the occurrence of an underground nuclear event. Because of their uniqueness, such noble gas signatures can be confirmatory of the nuclear nature of an event while signatures from other important detection methods, such as anomalous seismicity, are generally not. As a result, noble gas detection at a suspected underground nuclear test site is considered to be the most important technique available to inspectors operating under the On-Site-Inspection protocol of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. A one-kiloton chemical underground explosion, the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), was carried out at the Nevada Test Site in 1993 and represented the first On-Site-Inspection oriented test of subsurface gas transport with subsequent detection at the surface using soil gas sampling methods. A major conclusion of the experiment was that noble gases from underground nuclear tests have a good possibility of being detected even if the test is well contained. From this experiment and from computer simulations, we have also learned significant lessons about the modes of gas transport to the surface and the importance of careful subsurface sampling to optimize the detected noble gas signature. Understanding transport and sampling processes for a very wide range of geologic and testing scenarios presents significant challenges that we are currently addressing using sensitivity studies, which we attempt to verify using experiments such as the NPE and a new subsurface gas migration experiment that is now being undertaken at the National Center for Nuclear Security. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.; Wagoner, J. L.; Zucca, J. J.

2011-12-01

138

Comprehensive Assessment of Host Responses to Ionizing Radiation by Nuclear Factor-?B Bioluminescence Imaging-Guided Transcriptomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze the host responses to ionizing radiation by nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) bioluminescence imaging-guided transcriptomic tool. Transgenic mice carrying the NF-?B-driven luciferase gene were exposed to a single dose of 8.5 Gy total-body irradiation. In vivo imaging showed that a maximal NF-?B-dependent bioluminescent intensity was observed at 3 h after irradiation and ex vivo imaging showed that liver, intestine, and brain displayed strong NF-?B activations. Microarray analysis of these organs showed that irradiation altered gene expression signatures in an organ-specific manner and several pathways associated with metabolism and immune system were significantly altered. Additionally, the upregulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, serum amyloid A2, and serum amyloid A3 genes, which participate in both inflammation and lipid metabolism, suggested that irradiation might affect the cross pathways of metabolism and inflammation. Moreover, the alteration of chemokine (CC-motif) ligand 5, chemokine (CC-motif) ligand 20, and Jagged 1 genes, which are involved in the inflammation and enterocyte proliferation, suggested that these genes might be involved in the radiation enteropathy. In conclusion, this report describes the comprehensive evaluation of host responses to ionizing radiation. Our findings provide the fundamental information about the in vivo NF-?B activity and transcriptomic pattern after irradiation. Moreover, novel targets involved in radiation injury are also suggested.

Chang, Chung-Ta; Lin, Ho; Ho, Tin-Yun; Li, Chia-Cheng; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Shih-Lu; Huang, Yi-Fang

2011-01-01

139

Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident.  

PubMed

The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of (131)I reached levels of 3.0×10(-2) Bqm(-3) in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas (133)Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm(-3). While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. PMID:22137556

Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Eslinger, P W; Friese, J A; Greenwood, L R; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Keillor, M; Miley, H S; Moring, M

2011-12-02

140

Statistical Performance Measures of the HWM-93 And MSISE-90 Empirical Atmospheric Models and the Relation to Infrasonic CTBT Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An enforceable Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require accurate detection and location of low-yield nuclear detonations. Thorough knowledge of the upper atmosphere and advanced modeling techniques are required for reliable infrasonic det...

D. P. Drob J. M. Picone

2000-01-01

141

Migration of Research Results into Operational Monitoring Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the Department of Energy (DOE) Knowledge Base to support activities for monitoring nuclear explosions consistent with eventual verification activities under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a process is defined to ensure the integrity...

L. A. Casey E. R. Shepherd A. A. Velasco S. D. Ruppert

2000-01-01

142

Geologic constraints on clandestine nuclear testing in South Asia.  

PubMed

Cavity decoupling in salt is the most plausible means by which a nation could conduct clandestine testing of militarily significant nuclear weapons. The conditions under which solution-mined salt can be used for this purpose are quite restrictive. The salt must be thick and reasonably pure. Containment of explosions sets a shallow limit on depth, and cavity stability sets a deep limit. These constraints are met in considerably <1% of the total land area of India and Pakistan. Most of that area is too dry for cavity construction by solution mining; disposal of brine in rivers can be detected easily. Salt domes, the most favorable structures for constructing large cavities, are not present in India and Pakistan. Confidence that they are adhering to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is enhanced by their geological conditions, which are quite favorable to verification, not evasion. Thus, their participation in the CTBT is constrained overwhelmingly by political, not scientific, issues. Confidence in the verification of the CTBT could be enhanced if India and Pakistan permitted stations of the various monitoring technologies that are now widely deployed elsewhere to be operated on their territories. PMID:10500134

Davis, D M; Sykes, L R

1999-09-28

143

Re-evaluation of evasion possibilities for conducting nuclear explosions in underground cavities in former USSR. Final scientific report, 31 October 1990-31 December 1995  

SciTech Connect

The detonation of nuclear explosions in large underground cavities so as to muffle or decouple the seismic waves they generated has been debated for more than 35 years. The research completed under this contract is concerned with various aspects of verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in an evasive environment wherein decoupled nuclear testing might be attempted. Chapter 1 reviews the history of the decoupling concept, assesses what countries have the technological capabilities to carry out such a test of a given yield, and evaluates a number of decoupling scenarios. I conclude that testing with large decoupling factors, DF, is feasible for yields of a few kilotons (kt) or larger only in cavities in salt domes. Past nuclear explosions conducted in salt for which cavities may remain standing that are large enough for the full decoupling of explosions with yields > 0.5 kt are concentrated in only a few areas of Kazaldistan and Russia. The existence of all cavities of that size that were created by past nuclear explosions is known since the explosions that created those cavities must be at least 20 times larger in yield than the size of a fully decoupled event that can be detonated in them. Hence, the monitoring of cavities created in that way that may remain standing should be relatively easy at the 1 kt level if appropriate verification measures are put in place. While large cavities can be created in salt by solution.

Sykes, L.R.

1996-03-13

144

Comparative analysis of the seismic characteristics of cavity decoupled nuclear and chemical explosions. Final report, 1 November 1992-31 October 1994  

SciTech Connect

Successful seismic monitoring of any eventual Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty will require the development of a capability to identify signals from small cavity decoupled nuclear explosions from among the numerous signals to be expected from earthquakes, rockbursts, and chemical explosion (CE) events of comparable magnitude. The investigations summarized in this report center on a variety of comparative analyses of observed and simulated seismic data corresponding to decoupled nuclear explosions with data recorded from both tamped and near-surface, ripple-fired CE events. More specifically, seismic data recorded from cavity decoupled nuclear tests in both the U.S. and former Soviet Union are used to assess the relative seismic coupling efficiencies of the different types of CE events and to evaluate potential seismic discriminants which might be used to identify the various source types. The results of these comparison studies indicate that tamped CE events with yields on the order of 7 tons and ripple fired CE events with yields in the 70-100 ton range can be expected to produce near-regional ground motion levels comparable to those expected from fully decoupled 1 kt nuclear explosions at Azgir.

Murphy, J.R.; Barker, B.W.

1995-03-01

145

Estimation of Ground-Level Radioisotope Distributions for Underground Nuclear Test Leakage  

SciTech Connect

On-site inspections (OSI) will be an important process to deter and help verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An important tool in narrowing the possible locations to collect evidence of a nuclear test during an on-site inspection may be over-flights of the general area using aerial gamma spectroscopy which can measure the energy and intensity of gamma radiation and help identify areas that may warrant further investigation of areas of high concentrations of radioactivity. This paper will investigate the capabilities of gamma ray detectors that are typically used in aerial searches. Modeling and simulation results of the detector response for radionuclide species for an OSI will be presented for a variety of assumed releases, depositions on the ground, and times after a suspected Treaty violation for typical over flight heights and speeds. This data will provide information on the possible applicability for airborne spectroscopy and the challenges and limitations of this tool for OSI. Of particular interest will be analysis of the data for gross count, regions of interest, and isotope identification types of algorithms and the characteristics of each.

Ely, James H.; Fast, James E.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Warren, Glen A.

2009-06-19

146

Multi-Use seismic stations offer strong deterrent to clandestine nuclear weapons testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the United States and other nations push for the signing of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, representatives are meeting in Geneva this year to develop an International Seismic Monitoring System to verify compliance with the treaty's restrictions. In addition to the official monitoring system, regional networks developed for earthquake studies and basic research can provide a strong deterrent against clandestine testing. The recent release of information by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) on previously unannounced nuclear tests provides an opportunity to assess the ability of multi-use seismic networks to help monitor nuclear testing across the globe.Here we look at the extent to which the formerly unannounced tests were recorded and identified on the basis of publicly available seismographic data recorded by five seismic networks. The data were recorded by networks in southern Nevada and northern California at stations less than 1500 km from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and two networks in the former Soviet Union at stations farther than 1500 km from the NTS.

Hennet, C. B.; Van der Vink, G. E.; Richards, P. G.; Adushkin, V. V.; Kopnichev, Y. F.; Geary, R.

147

Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 1, Discussion and glass durability data  

SciTech Connect

The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. Data collected throughout the world are included in the data base; current emphasis is on waste glasses and their properties. The goal is to provide a data base of properties and compositions and an analysis of dominant property trends as a function of composition. This data base is a resource that nuclear waste producers, disposers, and regulators can use to compare properties of a particular high-level nuclear waste glass product with the properties of other glasses of similar compositions. Researchers may use the data base to guide experimental tests to fill gaps in the available knowledge or to refine empirical models. The data are incorporated into a computerized data base that will allow the data to be extracted based on, for example, glass composition or test duration. 3 figs.

Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

1987-12-01

148

Regional Model Calibration For Improving Seismic Location.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate seismic event location is integral to the effective monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as being a fundamental component of earthquake source characterization. To account for the effects of crustal and mantle s...

C. A. Schultz J. L. Swenson S. C. Myers

2000-01-01

149

Regional Model Calibration for Improving Seismic Location.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate seismic event location is integral to the effective monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as being a fundamental component of earthquake source characterization. To account for the effects of crustal and mantle s...

J. L. Swenson C. A. Schultz S. C. Myers

2000-01-01

150

Large mining blasts from the Kursk Mining Region, Russia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at magnitude levels where industrial explosions (primarily, mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number ...

W. Leith A. Spivak

1997-01-01

151

Geological and Geophysical Information System for Eurasia, the Middle East and North Africa. Digital Database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the anticipated completion of multilateral comprehensive nuclear test ban and nonproliferation treaties in the near future, it is essential for the monitoring efforts that multidisciplinary information on any given region is readily available and acc...

M. Barazangi D. Seber M. Vallve E. Fielding B. Isacks

1995-01-01

152

Analysis of Regional Travel Time Data from the November 1999 Dead Sea Explosions Observed in Saudi Arabi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two large chemical explosions were detonated in the Dead Sea in order to calibrate seismic travel times and improve location accuracy for the International Monitoring System (IMS) to monitor a Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These explosions...

A. Rodgers A. M. S. Al-Amri A. Ar-Rajehi T. Al-Khalifah M. S. Al-Amri M. S. Al-Haddad N. Al-Arifi

2000-01-01

153

Determination of the Seismic Moment Tensor Using Surface Waves Recorded by the IMS Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has been ramping-up the installation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) consisting of a network of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound, ...

J. Given R. J. LeBras Y. Kung

2008-01-01

154

Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions -- OSI research final report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s.

Sweeney, J.J.

1996-12-01

155

Ground truthing technologies for mining and nuclear explosions. Final report, July 1993-June 1994  

SciTech Connect

Seismic monitoring of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty may require the detection, location and identification of seismic events as small as mb=2.5 in limited areas. Considering the emphasis placed by the current Administration on such an agreement, it is important to assess the complexity of the proposed task. The discrimination between earthquakes, chemical mining explosions and nuclear explosions using regional seismic waves has been shown to be strongly region dependent. The establishment of a physical framework for discriminants is important if successful techniques developed in one region are to reliably transported and used in another location. Quick acquisition of region specific data, such as information related to crust and upper mantle velocity model, wave propagation characteristics and mining practices of interest, is required for practical implementation of a monitoring system. An experiment was executed during the last two weeks of August 1994 to test the applicability of such a seismic monitoring system combining near-source and regional data. It was conducted in and around an ore mine in Southern Russia. Validation of mining and blasting practices through direct field observations is identified as ground truthing. These direct observations are compared to official records of blasting practices.

Stump, B.; Riviere-Barbier, F.; Chernoby, I.; Koch, K.

1994-06-01

156

Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

2012-09-01

157

Seismic identification analyses of cavity decoupled nuclear and chemical explosions. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Successful seismic monitoring of any eventual Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty will require development of a capability to identify signals from small cavity decoupled nuclear explosions from among numerous signals to be expected from earthquakes, rockbursts and chemical explosion (CE) events of comparable magnitude. The investigations summarized in this report focus on preliminary studies which have been carried out in an attempt to distinguish between decoupled nuclear explosions and CE events though analyses of observed and simulated seismic data for these two source types in both the U.S. and former Soviet Union. Near-regional seismic data recorded from the U.S. nuclear cavity decoupling test STERLING and the nearby tamped CE test STERLING HE are compared in Section II in an attempt to identify diagnostic differences between these two source types. This is followed in Section III by an analysis in which short-period P wave data recorded at NORSAR from Soviet nuclear tests conducted in salt cavities at Azgir site north of the Caspian Sea are systematically compared with corresponding data recorded at the same stations from presumed CE events of comparable size which have been located in the vicinity of Azgir site. In Secion IV, broadband seismic data recorded at near-regional Soviet stations from an Azgir nuclear cavity decoupling test are theoretically scaled to 1 kt fully decoupled level and compared with data recorded at the nearby IRIS station KIV from well-documented CE events. The results of these preliminary comparison studies indicate that seismic discrimination between these two explosion source types is not trivial and suggest that a reliable discrimination strategy will have to be based on detailed analysis of data.

Murphy, J.R.; Barker, B.W.

1994-01-01

158

Comprehensive Magnitude Yield Estimation for Nuclear Explosions: A Maximum Likelihood General Linear Model (MLE-GLM88).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study performs maximum likelihood event magnitudes and station effects for 111 nuclear explosions from more than 8 different test sites using a general linear model. The estimates are performed for the three P-wave phases a, b, and max by considering...

K. L. McLaughlin M. E. Marshall R. A. Wagner R. S. Jih W. W. Chan

1988-01-01

159

A Comprehensive Counting System for Nuclear Physics Research Part I. Basic System and Synthesis of Simple Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A majority of nuclear measurements involve digital pulse counting so that the associated instruments have many common functions. Further investigation reveals that these counting systems fall into two broad classes: Those in which all pulses exceeding a certain threshold are summed, and a more complex analyzing procedure wherein pulses must be classified according to amplitude or temporal distribution.In the former

N. F. Moody; W. D. Howell; W. J. Battell; R. H. Taplin

1951-01-01

160

Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

2012-08-01

161

Comprehensive Assessment of Host Responses to Ionizing Radiation by Nuclear Factor-?B Bioluminescence Imaging-Guided Transcriptomic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the host responses to ionizing radiation by nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) bioluminescence imaging-guided transcriptomic tool. Transgenic mice carrying the NF-?B-driven luciferase gene were exposed to a single dose of 8.5 Gy total-body irradiation. In vivo imaging showed that a maximal NF-?B-dependent bioluminescent intensity was observed at 3 h after irradiation and ex vivo

Chung-Ta Chang; Ho Lin; Tin-Yun Ho; Chia-Cheng Li; Hsin-Yi Lo; Shih-Lu Wu; Yi-Fang Huang; Ji-An Liang; Chien-Yun Hsiang

2011-01-01

162

On comprehensive recovery of an aftershock sequence with cross correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have introduced cross correlation between seismic waveforms as a technique for signal detection and automatic event building at the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. The intuition behind signal detection is simple - small and mid-sized seismic events close in space should produce similar signals at the same seismic stations. Equivalently, these signals have to be characterized by a high cross correlation coefficient. For array stations with many individual sensors distributed over a large area, signals from events at distances beyond, say, 50 km, are subject to destructive interference when cross correlated due to changing time delays between various channels. Thus, any cross correlation coefficient above some predefined threshold can be considered as a signature of a valid signal. With a dense grid of master events (spacing between adjacent masters between 20 km and 50 km corresponds to the statistically estimated correlation distance) with high quality (signal-to-noise ratio above 10) template waveforms at primary array stations of the International Monitoring System one can detect signals from and then build natural and manmade seismic events close to the master ones. The use of cross correlation allows detecting smaller signals (sometimes below noise level) than provided by the current IDC detecting techniques. As a result it is possible to automatically build from 50% to 100% more valid seismic events than included in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB). We have developed a tentative pipeline for automatic processing at the IDC. It includes three major stages. Firstly, we calculate cross correlation coefficient for a given master and continuous waveforms at the same stations and carry out signal detection as based on the statistical behavior of signal-to-noise ratio of the cross correlation coefficient. Secondly, a thorough screening is performed for all obtained signals using f-k analysis and F-statistics as applied to the cross-correlation traces at individual channels of all included array stations. Thirdly, local (i.e. confined to the correlation distance around the master event) association of origin times of all qualified signals is fulfilled. These origin times are calculated from the arrival times of these signals, which are reduced to the origin times by the travel times from the master event. An aftershock sequence of a mid-size earthquake is an ideal case to test cross correlation techniques for autiomatic event building. All events should be close to the mainshock and occur within several days. Here we analyse the aftershock sequence of an earthquake in the North Atlantic Ocean with mb(IDC)=4.79. The REB includes 38 events at distances less than 150 km from the mainshock. Our ultimate goal is to excersice the complete iterative procedure to find all possible aftershocks. We start with the mainshock and recover ten aftershocks with the largest number of stations to produce an initial set of master events with the highest quality templates. Then we find all aftershocks in the REB and many additional events, which were not originally found by the IDC. Using all events found after the first iteration as master events we find new events, which are also used in the next iteration. The iterative process stops when no new events can be found. In that sense the final set of aftershocks obtained with cross correlation is a comprehensive one.

Kitov, I.; Bobrov, D.; Coyne, J.; Turyomurugyendo, G.

2012-04-01

163

The Chloroplast Function Database II: a comprehensive collection of homozygous mutants and their phenotypic/genotypic traits for nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins.  

PubMed

The Chloroplast Function Database has so far offered phenotype information on mutants of the nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins in Arabidopsis that pertains to >200 phenotypic data sets that were obtained from 1,722 transposon- or T-DNA-tagged lines. Here, we present the development of the second version of the database, which is named the Chloroplast Function Database II and was redesigned to increase the number of mutant characters and new user-friendly tools for data mining and integration. The upgraded database offers information on genome-wide mutant screens for any visible phenotype against 2,495 tagged lines to create a comprehensive homozygous mutant collection. The collection consists of 147 lines with seedling phenotypes and 185 lines for which we could not obtain homozygotes, as well as 1,740 homozygotes with wild-type phenotypes. Besides providing basic information about primer lists that were used for the PCR genotyping of T-DNA-tagged lines and explanations about the preparation of homozygous mutants and phenotype screening, the database includes access to a link between the gene locus and existing publicly available databases. This gives users access to a combined pool of data, enabling them to gain valuable insights into biological processes. In addition, high-resolution images of plastid morphologies of mutants with seedling-specific chloroplast defects as observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are available in the current database. This database is used to compare the phenotypes of visually identifiable mutants with their plastid ultrastructures and to evaluate their potential significance from characteristic patterns of plastid morphology in vivo. Thus, the Chloroplast Function Database II is a useful and comprehensive information resource that can help researchers to connect individual Arabidopsis genes to plastid functions on the basis of phenotype analysis of our tagged mutant collection. It can be freely accessed at http://rarge.psc.riken.jp/chloroplast/. PMID:23230006

Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Akiyama, Kenji; Tomonaga, Yumi; Kato, Aya; Sato, Yuka; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo

2012-12-10

164

Towards a Comprehensive Seismic Velocity Model for the Broader Africa-Eurasia Collision Region, to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

We report on progress towards a new, comprehensive three-dimensional model of seismic velocity in a broad region encompassing the Middle East, northern Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, the Turkish-Iranian Plateau, Indus Valley, and the Hindu Kush. Our model will be based on regional waveform fits, surface wave group velocity measurements, teleseismic arrival times of S and P waves, receiver functions, and published results from active source experiments. We are in the process of assembling each of these data sets and testing the joint inversion for subsets of the data. Seismograms come from a variety of permanent and temporary seismic stations in the region. Some of the data is easily accessible through, for example, IRIS, while collection of other data is more involved. This work builds on ongoing work by Schmid et al. (GJI, 2004, and manuscript in preparation). In these proceedings we highlight our data sets and their inferences, demonstrate the proposed new data-inversion modeling methodology, discuss results from preliminary inversions of subsets of the data, and demonstrate the prediction of arrival times with three-dimensional velocity models. We compare our preliminary inversion results to the results of Schmid et al., and the predicted arrival times to ground-truth data from the NNSA Knowledge Base. Our data sets are simultaneously redundant and highly complementary. The combined data coverage will ensure that our three-dimensional model comprises the crust, the upper mantle, including the transition zone, and the top of the lower mantle, with spatially varying, but useful resolution. The region of interest is one of the most structurally heterogeneous in the world. Continental collision, rifting and sea-floor spreading, back-arc spreading, oceanic subduction, rotating micro plates, continental shelf, and stable platforms, are just some of the region's characteristics. Seismicity and the distribution of seismic stations are also geographically heterogeneous. The crustal thickness ranges from near 20 to near 45 km under dry places in the Mediterranean region alone, which contains at least seven of the fourteen types of crust defined globally by Mooney et al. (1998). The S-velocity varies laterally by an entire 1 km/s over 1000 km within the uppermost mantle. On average the S-velocity is 50 to 150 m/s slower, between a depth of 150 km and the Moho, than global model iasp91. These lowered S velocities reflect the high amount of tectonic activity in the study region. In the transition zone the S-velocity is roughly 150 m/s higher than iasp91. These heightened S velocities likely reflect the numerous fragments of oceanic lithosphere that subducted in the study region during geologically relatively recent times.

der Lee, S v; Flanagan, M P; Rodgers, A J; Pasyanos, M E; Marone, F; Romanowicz, B

2005-07-13

165

Comprehensive Analysis of Lipid Dynamics Variation with Lipid Composition and Hydration of Bicelles Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Bicelles of various lipid/detergent ratios are commonly used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of membrane-associated molecules without the need to freeze the sample. While a decrease in the size (defined at a low temperature or by the q value) of a bicelle decreases its overall order parameter, the variation of lipid dynamics with a change in the lipid/detergent ratio is unknown. In this study, we report a thorough atomistic level analysis on the variation of lipid dynamics with the size and hydration level of bicelles composed of a phospholipid, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), and a detergent, 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC). Two-dimensional (2D) separated-local-field NMR experiments were performed on magnetically aligned bicelles to measure 1H-13C dipolar couplings, which were used to determine order parameters at various (head-group, glycerol, and acyl chain) regions of lipids in the bilayer. From our analysis, we uncover the extreme sensitivity of the glycerol region to the motion of the bicelle, which can be attributed to the effect of viscosity because of an extensive network of hydrogen bonds. As such, the water-membrane interface region exhibits the highest order parameter values among all three regions of a lipid molecule. Our experimental results demonstrate that the laboratory-frame 2D proton-detected-local-field pulse sequence is well-suited for the accurate measurement of motionally averaged (or long-range) weak and multiple 1H-13C dipolar couplings associated with a single carbon site at the natural abundance of 13C nuclei.

Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Soong, Ronald; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2009-01-01

166

Numerical modeling for underground nuclear test monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symposium for Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring was held March 23-25 in Durango, Colo. Funded by the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (OACN) and hosted by the Source Region Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the meetings's purpose was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test-ban monitoring. In particular, we wished to focus on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems.The concept for the meeting arose through discussions with Marv Denny, who was on assignment at Department of Energy Headquarters from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In these conversations, the following question was discussed: how are numerical modeling techniques being used to understand the effects of explosion- source phenomenology on test-ban treaty monitoring? Numerical studies are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of capabilities for proliferation monitoring; this trend has accelerated with the curtailment of the nuclear testing program. During these discussions, the issue of the uniqueness and limitations of numerical models arose. It was decided to address these questions by convening a group of experts to present and discuss the problems associated with modeling of close-in data from explosions.

Taylor, Steven R.; Kamm, James R.

167

Comprehension Clinchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This author, an academic achievement teacher for second and third grade reading and math at Theodore Roosevelt Elementary School in Park Ridge, Illinois, contends that since fluency is such a measurable skill, over-emphasizing decoding and de-emphasizing comprehension results in short-changing students. In this article, she shares several reading…

Marcell, Barclay

2006-01-01

168

Caution needed in pretreatment of sediments for refining phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis: results from a comprehensive assessment of pretreatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.  

PubMed

Pretreatment with chemicals such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is often used to improve the analysis of sediment P with solution P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (35P-NMR), but there is a lack of a comprehensive assessment of the methodology. In this study, the effects of EDTA pretreatment on sediment P extracted using a mixture of 0.25 mol L(-1) NaOH and 50 mmol L(-1) EDTA (NaOH-EDTA) were examined with 45 different sediments. The results showed that EDTA pre-extraction decreased the amount of P extracted by NaOH-EDTA when the concentration ratio of sediment Ca to the sum of sediment Fe and Al [Ca/(Fe+Al), on a wt/vol basis] was lower than 0.4. An increase in total extracted P, coupled with substantial increases in total extracted paramagnetic ions such as Fe and Mn, was observed for another group of sediments with Ca/(Fe+Al) > 0.5, possibly due to the matrix effect. Analysis of 16 representative sediments with 31P-NMR showed that orthophosphate diesters were substantially removed by EDTA pre-extraction for sediments with Ca/ (Fe+Al) between 0.4 and 0.7, reflecting a high risk posed by this pretreatment. Phosphorus diversity and concentration of individual P compounds were markedly improved for sediments with Ca/(Fe+Al) > 0.7, suggesting that EDTA pretreatment was particularly useful for 31P-NMR analysis of calcareous sediments. The present study showed that sediment properties played an important role in determining pretreatment effects. Caution is advised when applying pretreatment methods to different sediments. PMID:21043272

Ding, ShiMing; Bai, Xiuling; Fan, Chengxin; Zhang, Lu

169

LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)  

SciTech Connect

Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the first arriving P-phase travel-time residuals for all distances ({Delta} = 300-2300 km). A grid search approach was used in the minimization. The most significant features of this model are the negative lid-gradient and a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle between the depths of 100-200 km; precise location of the LVZ is poorly constrained by the travel time data. We will extend our investigation to additional PNE lines to further investigate the amplitude and travel-time variations in eastern and central Eurasia. Finally, the dense station spacing of the PNE profiles allows us to model the spatial correlation of travel times and amplitude ratios through variogram modeling. The statistical analysis suggests that the correlation lengths of the travel-time and amplitude measurements are 12{sup o} and 10{sup o}, respectively.

Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

2000-07-14

170

Seismic Discrimination of Underground Nuclear Explosions at Low Yield (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 9 October 2006, and on 25 May 2009, North Korea carried out widely-reported nuclear explosions. The body-wave magnitude for these tests were mb 4.3 and mb 4.7 respectively. These events typify the handling of problem events under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring regime, in that these were small events that could not be readily identified based on teleseismic records (although these provided detections and good location estimates). Hence it was important to obtain good regional records at distances of a few hundred kilometer. For seismic events of magnitude > 4.0, focal mechanisms, mb:Ms, depth phases and analysis of teleseismic body-wave and long-period surface-wave can be used to identify these events. However, for the majority of small events with magnitude mb < 4.0, regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg must be used to characterize those small events. We analyze regional three-component seismic records to characterize those events and seek the best regional phases and frequency bands that can help us to classify explosions from the earthquake population. Analysis of earthquakes that occurred within 100 km from the Lop Nor Chinese test site indicates that vertical P-wave to S-wave ratios (Pn/Lg) of earthquakes and underground nuclear tests in the frequency band 1-16 Hz are well separated, suggesting that the high-frequency P/S spectral ratios can be an efficient method to classify explosions from the earthquakes in the Lop Nor region, western China. In the case of the earthquakes and explosions around the North Korean test sites, the P/S spectral ratios from the earthquake and explosion population overlap significantly at frequencies of 1-7 Hz, but the spectral ratios from the two populations are fairly well separated at 9-15 Hz. These studies indicate that high-frequency P/S spectral ratio is an efficient method to identify seismic source types for seismic events of magnitude < 4.0. We note that mb:Ms discriminant did not work well for the North Korean tests, whereas regional waveform modeling and moment tensor analysis provided clear constraint on the isotropic component of the moment tensor source which is the essence of seismic discrimination.

Kim, W.

2009-12-01

171

Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was

M. Nutt

2010-01-01

172

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and

Troy L. Wright; Patricia E. OBrien; Michael J. Hazel; John D. Tuttle; Mitchel E. Cunningham; Steven C. Schlegel

2010-01-01

173

Creating a comprehensive, efficient, and sustainable nuclear regulatory structure. A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energys Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the strategies and process used by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to restructure its support for MPC&A regulations in the Russian Federation. The RDP adopted a project management approach to defining, implementing, and managing an effective nuclear regulatory structure. This approach included defining and developing

Gregory E. Davis; Lorilee Brownell; Troy L. Wright; John D. Tuttle; Mitchel E. Cunningham; Patricia E. OBrien

2006-01-01

174

Use of open source information and commercial satellite imagery for nuclear nonproliferation regime compliance verification by a community of academics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of nuclear weapons is a great threat to world peace and stability. The question of strengthening the nonproliferation regime has been open for a long period of time. In 1997 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (BOG) adopted the Additional Safeguards Protocol. The purpose of the protocol is to enhance the IAEA's ability to detect undeclared production of fissile materials in member states. However, the IAEA does not always have sufficient human and financial resources to accomplish this task. Developed here is a concept for making use of human and technical resources available in academia that could be used to enhance the IAEA's mission. The objective of this research was to study the feasibility of an academic community using commercially or publicly available sources of information and products for the purpose of detecting covert facilities and activities intended for the unlawful acquisition of fissile materials or production of nuclear weapons. In this study, the availability and use of commercial satellite imagery systems, commercial computer codes for satellite imagery analysis, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification International Monitoring System (IMS), publicly available information sources such as watchdog groups and press reports, and Customs Services information were explored. A system for integrating these data sources to form conclusions was also developed. The results proved that publicly and commercially available sources of information and data analysis can be a powerful tool in tracking violations in the international nuclear nonproliferation regime and a framework for implementing these tools in academic community was developed. As a result of this study a formation of an International Nonproliferation Monitoring Academic Community (INMAC) is proposed. This would be an independent organization consisting of academics (faculty, staff and students) from both nuclear weapon states (NWS) and non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS). This community analyzes all types of unclassified publicly and commercially available information to aid in detection of violations of the non-proliferation regime. INMAC shares all of this information with the IAEA and the public. Since INMAC is composed solely by members of the academic community, this organization would not demonstrate any biases in its investigations or reporting.

Solodov, Alexander

175

An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bogazici University and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is acting as the Turkish National Data Center (NDC) and responsible for the operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) Primary Seismic Station (PS-43) under Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center for the verification of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) since February 2000. The NDC is responsible for operating two arrays which are part of the IMS, as well as for transmitting data from these stations to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. The Belbasi array was established in 1951, as a four-element (Benioff 1051) seismic array as part of the United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS). Turkish General Staff (TGS) and U.S. Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) under the Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement (DECA) jointly operated this short period array. The station was upgraded and several seismometers were added to array during 1951 and 1994 and the station code was changed from BSRS (Belbasi Seismic Research Station) to BRTR-PS43 later on. PS-43 is composed of two sub-arrays (Ankara and Keskin): the medium-period array with a ~40 km radius located in Ankara and the short-period array with a ~3 km radius located in Keskin. Each array has a broadband element located at the middle of the circular geometry. Short period instruments are installed at depth 30 meters from the surface while medium and broadband instruments are installed at depth 60 meters from surface. On 25 May 2009, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) claimed that it had conducted a nuclear test. Corresponding seismic event was recorded by IMS and IDC released first automatic estimation of time (00:54:43 GMT), location (41.2896°N and 129.0480°E) and the magnitude (4.52 mb) of the event in less than two hours time (USGS: 00:54:43 GMT; 41.306°N, 129.029°E; 4.7 mb) During our preliminary analysis of the 25th May 2009 DPRK event, we saw a very clear P arrival at 01:05:47 (GMT) at BRTR SP array. The result of the f-k analysis performed in Geotool software, installed at NDC facilities in 2008 and is in full use currently, was also indicating that the arrival belongs to the DPRK event. When comparing our f-k results (calculated at 1-2 Hz) with IDC-REB, however, we have noticed that our calculation and therefore corresponding residuals (calculated with reference to REB residuals) are much better in comparison to REB. The reasons of this ambiguity have been explored and for the first time a comprehensive seismological analysis of a Nuclear Test has been conducted in Turkey. CTBT has an important role for the implementation of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and it is a key element for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. In this study, we would like to reflect the technical and scientific aspects of the 25 May 2009 DPRK event analysis, together with our involvement in CTBT(O) affairs, which we believe it brings new dimensions to Turkey especially in the area of Geophysics.

Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

2009-12-01

176

Low frequency electromagnetic signals from underground explosions: On-site inspections research progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are investigating the characteristics of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic pulse (EMW) phenomena from underground nuclear and chemical explosions and from surface chemical explosions as they may be applied in an On-Site Inspection (OSI) context under a Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The principal application of these phenomena is for discrimination among underground chemical explosions, underground nuclear explosions, and earthquakes.

Sweeney

1995-01-01

177

A robust neural network classifier for infrasound events using multiple array data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integral part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Monitoring System is an infrasound monitoring network. This network has the capability to detect and verify infrasonic signals-of-interest, e.g., nuclear explosions, from other unwanted infrasound noise sources. The paper presents classification results of infrasonic events using a robust neural network

Fredric M. Ham; Sungjin Park

2002-01-01

178

INFRASOUND SIGNAL SEPARATION USING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important element of monitoring compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is an infrasound network. For reliable monitoring, it is important to distinguish between nuclear explosions and other sources of infrasound. This will require signal (event) classification after a detection is made. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using neural networks to classify various infrasonic events. However, classification of

Fredric M. Ham; Nizar A. Faour

179

Nuclear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

180

A Reading Comprehension Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comprehension accuracy, work time, and accuracy rate scores were determined for openbook tests of comprehension of hand translations and edited and unedited machine translations of representative areas of Russian scientific and technical documents in Phys...

D. B. Orr V. H. Small

1966-01-01

181

Comprehension for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching and learning about comprehension is of paramount importance, from the beginning of reading instruction right through all years of school, in all curriculum areas. Research has shown that comprehension instruction can improve the reading comprehension of all readers, even beginning readers and struggling older readers. This article offers…

Snowball, Diane

2006-01-01

182

Broadband seismology and the detection and verification of underground nuclear explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On September 24, 1996, President Clinton signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which bans the testing of all nuclear weapons thereby limiting their future development. Seismology is the primary tool used for the detection and identification of underground explosions and thus, will play a key role in monitoring a CTBT. The detection and identification of low yield explosions requires seismic stations at regional distances (<1500 km). However, because the regional wavefield propagates within the extremely heterogeneous crustal waveguide, the seismic waveforms are also very complicated. Therefore, it is necessary to have a solid understanding of how the phases used in regional discriminants develop within different tectonic regimes. Thus, the development of the seismic phases Pn and Lg, which compose the seismic discriminant Pn/Lg, within the western U.S. from the Non-Proliferation Experiment are evaluated. The most fundamental discriminant is event location as 90% of all seismic sources occur too deep within the earth to be unnatural. France resumed its nuclear testing program after a four year moratorium and conducted six tests during a five month period starting in September of 1995. Using teleseismic data, a joint hypocenter determination algorithm was used to determine the hypocenters of these six explosions. One of the most important problems in monitoring a CTBT is the detection and location of small seismic events. Although seismic arrays have become the central tool for event detection, in the context of a global monitoring treaty, there will be some dependence on sparse regional networks of three-component broadband seismic stations to detect low yield explosions. However, the full power of the data has not been utilized, namely using phases other than P and S. Therefore, the information in the surface wavetrain is used to improve the locations of small seismic events recorded on a sparse network in Bolivia. Finally, as a discrimination example in a complex region, P to S ratios are used to determine source parameters of the Msb{w} 8.3 deep Bolivia earthquake.

Tinker, Mark Andrew

1997-10-01

183

The Knowledge Base Interface for Parametric Grid Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base (KBase) provides an efficient robust way to store and access interpolatable information that is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use an approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of

James R. Hipp; Randall W. Simons; Chris J. Young

1999-01-01

184

Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5

H. E. Hartse; S. R. Taylor; W. S. Phillips; G. E. Randall

1996-01-01

185

Operation of a Prototype CTBT Infrasound Array in Arctic Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) infrasound array was established in Fairbanks, Alaska in a wooded area on the campus of the University of Alaska in December 1999. The implementation of the array was carried out as part of the seco...

C. R. Wilson J. V. Olson

2000-01-01

186

REPORT OF THE ISS OSI INVITED MEETING, VIENNA, 24-27 MARCH, 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Scientific Studies project (ISS) was initiated in early 2008 with the objective of creating a series of activities aimed at application of modern scientific methods to improve the efficiency of analysis and the quality of verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The ISS On-Site Inspection (OSI) Invited Meeting convened on March 24, 2009 with the

Sweeney

2009-01-01

187

WOSMIP II- Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production  

SciTech Connect

Medical and industrial fadioisotopes are fundamental tools used in science, medicine and industry with an ever expanding usage in medical practice where their availability is vital. Very sensitive environmental radionuclide monitoring networks have been developed for nuclear-security-related monitoring [particularly Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) compliance verification] and are now operational.

Matthews, Murray; Achim, Pascal; Auer, M.; Bell, Randy; Bowyer, Ted W.; Braekers, Damien; Bradley, Ed; Briyatmoko, Budi; Berglund, Helena; Camps, Johan; Carranza, Eduardo C.; Carty, Fitz; DeCaire, Richard; Deconninck, Benoit; DeGeer, Lars E.; Druce, Michael; Friese, Judah I.; Hague, Robert; Hoffman, Ian; Khrustalev, Kirill; Lucas, John C.; Mattassi, G.; Mattila, Aleski; Nava, Elisabetta; Nikkinin, Mika; Papastefanou, Constantin; Piefer, Gregory R.; Quintana, Eduardo; Ross, Ole; Rotty, Michel; Sabzian, Mohammad; Saey, Paul R.; Sameh, A. A.; Safari, M.; Schoppner, Michael; Siebert, Petra; Unger, Klaus K.; Vargas, Albert

2011-11-01

188

Maintenance and Logistics Support for the International Monitoring System Network of the CTBTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), once completed, will consist of 321 monitoring facilities of four different technologies: hydroacoustic, seismic, infrasonic, and radionuclide. As of today, about 65% of the installations are completed and contribute data to the products issued by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBTO. In

F. Haslinger; N. Brely; M. Akrawy

2007-01-01

189

International monitoring for peace  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the Baruch Plan for total nuclear disarmament in the 1940s to the 30-year failure to reach a comprehensive test ban, verification has been center stage. But though our technical ability to watch, listen, and analyze has grown impressively, the political dynamics of verification have scarcely matured. Today, the United States and the Soviet Union maintain a virtual dominance over

Tirman

1988-01-01

190

Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and

W. R. Walter; K. M. Mayeda; P. Goldstein; H. J. Patton; S. Jarpe; L. Glenn

1995-01-01

191

LLNL`s regional seismic discrimination research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to negotiate and verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly

W. R. Walter; K. M. Mayeda; P. Goldstein

1995-01-01

192

Ground-based visual inspection for CTBT verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based visual inspection will play an essential role in On-Site Inspection (OSI) for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection will greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only

W. Hawkins; K. Wohletz

1997-01-01

193

Integrating diverse calibration products to improve seismic location  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of nuclear explosions on a global basis requires accurate event locations. As an example, under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the size of an on-site inspection search area is 1,000 square kilometers or approximately 17 km accuracy assuming a circular area. This level of accuracy is a significant challenge for small events that are recorded using a sparse

Craig A. Schultz; Steven C. Myers; Jennifer L. Swenson; Megan P. Flanagan; Michael E. Pasyanos; Joydeep Bhattacharyya; D Dodge

2000-01-01

194

Categorisation of nuclear explosions from legitimate radioxenon sources with atmospheric transport modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioxenon is produced during nuclear explosions and due to its high fission ratio during the reaction and its noble gas character the isotopes can be detected remote from the location of the explosion. Therefore it is used by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization (CTBTO) as an indicator for the nuclear character of an explosion and is monitored with the International Monitoring System (IMS). The concentration of radioxenon in the air is continuously measured by multiple stations worldwide and is in need of an automatic categorization scheme in order to highlight signals of interest and to sort out signals that can be explained by legitimate sources. The dispersion and transport of radioxenon emissions through the atmosphere can be simulated with atmospheric transport modelling. Many legitimate sources of radioxenon exist: Nuclear power plants and isotope production facilities are mainly responsible for the worldwide background. The characterisation of this background is an important prerequisite to discriminate nuclear explosion signals against the background. It has been discovered that the few existing isotope production facilities are the major contributors to the background, each with emission strengths in the order of magnitude or more than all nuclear power plants together. Therefore, especially the characterization of these few, but strong, emitters can improve the quality of the signal prediction. Since the location of such an emitter is usually known the source-receptor sensitivity matrices can be utilized together with measured radioxenon concentrations from IMS stations in order to deduct information about the time dependent emissions from the strong emitter. An automatic method to determine an approximated, time dependent source term of an emitter with known location has been developed and is presented. This is a potentially valid tool for the categorization of radioxenon samples, because it can be used to assess whether the measured concentration can be explained with emissions from known sources or additional, unknown sources have to be considered. Furthermore, previously made estimations of the worldwide radioxenon emission inventory can be used together with backward atmospheric transport modelling to simulate the time dependent signal at IMS detector stations. These simulated signals are then compared and validated with the measurements that are usually taken in 12h or 24h rhythm. Also, hypothetical nuclear explosions at various locations and times are used to alter the signal and different flagging methods are compared in their ability to distinguish these from the background. The different flagging methods are using various absolute and relative thresholds to categorize the daily radioxenon samples. Then it is examined, whether the flagging method can successfully detect the nuclear test signal within the background. Also false-positive and especially false-negative rates are important validation criteria. Also the dispersion and transport of reported emissions of historical nuclear underground tests at the Nevada test site are simulated. The calculated concentrations at today's IMS noble gas stations are used to deduce xenon ratios which are then used to categorise the events.

Schoeppner, M.; Postelt, F.; Kalinowski, M.; Plastino, W.

2012-04-01

195

Comprehension Processes in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

196

Increasing Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes a program for improving reading comprehension. The targeted population consists of first, second, third, and fourth grade classrooms in a middle class community located in a suburb of a large midwestern city. The problem regarding poor comprehension skills is evident from teacher observation, student performance, previous…

Dixon, Mary; Harris, Linda; McGrath, Marianne; O'Neill, Sheila; Swanson, Sandra

197

Promoting Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to present a historical account of instructional approaches to the teaching of comprehension as well as insights into effective approaches for the present and the future, this collection of papers is divided into three parts, concerned respectively with: (1) instructional research in reading comprehension, (2) the reader and the text,…

Flood, James, Ed.

198

Teaching Comprehension and Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The uniform principle assuming that comprehension precedes production in language acquisition was examined using Down's Syndrome children taught to comprehend singular/plural nouns and produce such forms for another noun. Three subjects reached criterion production first and one reached comprehension first, suggesting the modes can develop…

Holdgrafer, Gary

1982-01-01

199

ACCENT, INTELLIGIBILITY, AND COMPREHENSIBILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to extend previous research on the relation- ships among intelligibility, perceived comprehensibility, and accent- edness. Accent and comprehensibility ratings and transcriptions of accented speech from Cantonese, Japanese, Polish, and Spanish intermediate ESL students were obtained from 26 native English listen- ers. The listeners were also asked to identify the first language backgrounds of the same talkers

Tracey M. Derwing; Murray J. Munro

1997-01-01

200

Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey, in situ measurements with high-purity germanium (HPGe) and hand-held LaBr3 systems, soil sampling with a variety of tools, and laboratory gamma spectrometric analysis of those samples. A further benefit of the measurement campaign was to gain familiarity with the many logistical aspects of performing radiological field work at NNSS ahead of the PRex. Many practical lessons concerning the proper methodologies and logistics of using the surveying and sampling equipment were noted. These Lessons Learned are compiled together in Appendix A. The vehicle-based survey was successful in that it found a previously unknown hotspot (determined to be 232Th) while it demonstrated that a better method for keeping a serpentine track without staking was needed. Some of the soil sampling equipment was found to be impractical for the application, though core sampling would not be the correct way to take soil samples for a fresh vent deposit (as opposed to an old site like DILUTED WATERS). Due to the site’s age, 137Cs was the only fission radioisotope identified, though others were searched for. While not enough samples were taken and analyzed to definitively link the 137Cs to DILUTED WATERS as opposed to other NNSS activities, results were consistent with the historical DILUTED WATERS plume. MDAs were compared for soil sampling and in situ measurements.

Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

2012-11-01

201

OTEC - A comprehensive energy analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive energy analysis is presented for a proposed Gulf-Stream-based Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system designed to supply upon demand 148 billion kWh to New England by 1990. Basically, the system consists of one hundred and six 400-MW power plants, with factors of 0.93, generating hydrogen on-board which is transported by underwater pipe to deep-water storage or to terminals onshore for reconversion to electricity. The results of a net energy-input-output analysis show that the OTEC system compares favorably with other energy conversion systems: e.g. for the same net electric energy output it uses from 36 to 53 percent less fossil fuel than the two nuclear power plant systems used for comparison. A dynamic energy analysis indicates energy payoff times from 4.7 to 6.2 years and on-line times of 17 to 35 years.

Carlson, T. C. G.

1980-01-01

202

Making a Comprehensive Diagnosis in a Comprehensive Care Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive care models in dental education encourage students to deliver patient-centered care. But to deliver effective comprehensive care, a clinician must first make a comprehensive diagnosis. Students of general dentistry are taught to make one or more diagnoses as defined by the dental specialties, and to direct patient care accordingly. Without a comprehensive diagnosis, patients may receive fragmented, poorly prioritized

Gordon D. Douglass

203

Proficiency test for gamma spectroscopic analysis with a simulated fission product reference spectrum.  

PubMed

Within the proficiency test programme for the radionuclide laboratories supporting the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, a simulated gamma spectrum with the characteristics of an atmospheric nuclear test was used as reference material. The spectrum was produced by the MCNP-based Virtual Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory (VGSL), using analysis results of a historical measurement of nuclear weapons debris as input. The method was found suitable for a proficiency test assessing laboratories' gamma spectroscopic analysis. PMID:16567096

Karhu, P; De Geer, L-E; McWilliams, E; Plenteda, R; Werzi, R

2006-03-29

204

Sensitivity study on modeling radioxenon signals from radiopharmaceutical production facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), the International Monitoring System (IMS) was established to\\u000a monitor the world for nuclear weapon explosions. As part of this network, systems are in place to monitor the atmosphere for\\u000a radioxenon. The IMS routinely detects radioxenon from sources other than nuclear explosions. One of these radioxenon sources\\u000a is radiopharmaceutical production facilities. This

S. R. Biegalski; T. Saller; J. Helfand; K. M. F. Biegalski

2010-01-01

205

Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical

G B Dudder; S Niemeyer; D K Smith; M J Kristo

2004-01-01

206

Comprehension Strategy Gloves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the idea of creating a glove for each of the comprehension strategies for use with different text structures. Notes that the gloves serve as a multisensory approach by providing visual clues through icons on each finger and the palm. Discusses three different gloves: the prereading glove, the narrative text structure glove, and the…

Newman, Gayle

2002-01-01

207

The Comprehensive Health Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains information from a fall 1991 health occupations assessment of 1,021 health-related employers in Eastern Iowa and the Illinois Quad Cities area. Twelve chapters present comprehensive results of all surveys; results of 10 labor market survey instruments developed for chiropractic offices, dentists' offices, emergency medical…

Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport.

208

MCPS Comprehensive Planning Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several working papers and a guidebook to the Comprehensive Planning Process of Maryland's Montgomery County Public Schools have been collected to form this document. The process itself was developed in 1979 and will be pilot-tested during the 1981 fiscal year. These materials, therefore, constitute an interim report on a process yet to be cast in…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

209

THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION IS DEFINED AND CLARIFIED. THE LITERATURE IS SURVEYED TO SHOW THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTS IS IMPORTANT IN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITIES. IT IS POINTED OUT THAT CONCEPTS ARE BUILT FROM PERCEPTS, IMAGES, SENSATION, AND MEMORIES, AND THAT THE STEPS WHICH ARE EMPLOYED AS CONCEPTS ARE BUILT AND REFINED AND INCLUDE PERCEIVING,…

CLELAND, DONALD L.

210

Lowcountry Comprehensive Health Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive health plan is presented for District 10 of South Carolina that is made up of four counties, the most scarcely populated and rural region of the State. The demography of the area i.e., population changes and movements, urbanization, age, s...

1974-01-01

211

Comprehensive School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue reviews publications that provide school leaders with guidance in determining how to choose and implement the schoolwide program that is best for their school. American Institutes for Research's "An Educator's Guide to Schoolwide Reform" provides educators with comprehensive profiles and evaluations of 24 of the leading schoolwide…

Hertling, Elizabeth

2000-01-01

212

Other negotiations  

SciTech Connect

The Conference on Disarmament is a negotiating forum of the United Nations which meets about six months of the year. This year, the Conference agreed to set up committees to negotiate on chemical and radiological weapons, prevention of the militarization of outer space, a comprehensive disarmament program, and negative security assurances. It reached no agreement on committees for a comprehensive test ban or for prevention of nuclear war.

Hardenbergh, C.

1986-01-01

213

LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME\\/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle

D Dodge; T Hauk; R M Moore; J OBoyle; S Ruppert

1999-01-01

214

Nuclear Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

215

Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test ban monitoring. We focused on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems. The second goal of the symposium was to establish a dialogue between seismologists and explosion-source code calculators. The meeting was divided into five main sessions: explosion source phenomenology, material response modeling, numerical simulations, the seismic source, and phenomenology from near source to far field. We feel the symposium reached many of its goals. Individual papers submitted at the conference are indexed separately on the data base.

Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R. [eds.

1993-11-01

216

Emergent Comprehension: Understanding Comprehension Development among Young Literacy Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article hones what is meant by "emergent comprehension". The authors define emergent comprehension as the period when young children, prior to conventional reading, engage in meaningful experiences that stimulate the development and use of meaning-making strategies with potential to affect later reading comprehension. The construct "emergent…

McMunn Dooley, Caitlin; Matthews, Mona W.

2009-01-01

217

An assessment on the PTS global radionuclide monitoring capabilities to detect the atmospheric traces of nuclear explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to detect any kind of nuclear explosion world-wide the Provisional Technical Secretariat to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is building up a verification regime that performs global monitoring for typical signals expected from such an event. Backbone of this regime is the 321 facilities International Monitoring System (IMS) comprising 80 stations to monitor for particulate radionuclides known to be fission or activation products of a nuclear explosion. Every second station is also equipped with a system capable to monitor for the occurrence of the CTBT relevant isotopes Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m, and Xe-135, which have the highest post-explosion fission yields among the noble gases, and are also not subject to wet deposition in the atmosphere. Moreover, they have a good chance to escape from the cavity of an underground nuclear explosion in contrast to the particulates. Effective radionuclide monitoring requires an optimum overall probability of a one-station detection of an atmospheric or underground nuclear explosion within 14 days. Consequently, the distribution of this detection probability is crucial for assessing the capacity of the radionuclide IMS to meet this requirement. The CTBT monitoring capabilities of the RN IMS are quite different in dependence on the environment in which the nuclear test is conducted (underground, underwater or atmospheric) as this determines the first crucial factor for the overall detection probability, the degree of containment. Secondly, the detection probability is subject to the nuclide specific decay and the dilution of any release (containment failure) during its atmospheric dispersion from the release location to one of the IMS stations. Thirdly, the detection limits of the measurement systems in use factor in. In the study presented here the radionuclide monitoring capabilities for detecting atmospheric and underground explosions, the latter mimicked by a 90% contained atmospheric release (first factor), are assessed. We examine the typical yields of a 1-kt atmospheric explosion for five key nuclides, Barium(Lanthanum)-140, for the 80 stations particulate network, and the four aforementioned gaseous nuclides, Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m, and Xe-135, for the 40 stations noble-gas network. The second factor (decay & dispersion) is determined by consideration of the half-life time of the respective nuclide and by evaluation of the so called source-receptor-sensitivity (SRS) files generated daily by the CTBTO for each station to diagnose the one-station probability within 5, 10 and 14 days. A one year time period was used (August 2008 to 31 July 2009), which considered samples from the radionuclide particulate and xenon stations, taking into account their detection limits (third factor). It should be noted that the contribution of station No. 35 of the 80 station IMS particulate network, intended for the Indian Subcontinent, was not considered. Despite the obvious sensitivity to the maximum atmospheric transport time allowed from the source to the first detecting station, there is a general observation of the prevailing impact of the meteorological wind patterns for the global distribution and average of the one-station detection probability. Therefore, certain gaps in the tropical belt can only be ‘filled' by extending the allowed transport time or supplementing stations. This is in particular true for the noble gas network that comprises only 50% of the stations. Obviously, adding the xenon monitoring capability at a few of the so far particulate only stations that monitor the ‘gap areas' is a ‘low hanging fruit'. Moreover, we observe that the shorter the half-life time the more the nuclide specific detection limits become relevant. These findings will be elaborated in all required detail in the presentation.

Becker, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Auer, Matthias; Krysta, Monika

2010-05-01

218

Comprehensive Human Services Delivery System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The comprehensive human service delivery system for Los Angeles County, California is detailed. The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) of 1973 resulted in the funding of programs in Los Angeles County for human service delivery. Objectives o...

1975-01-01

219

CPMs: A Kinesthetic Comprehension Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses a study to determine whether primary grade students can learn comprehension processes via hand motions to portray these mental processes. Comprehension Process Motions (CPMs) were designed to provide students with a way to make abstract comprehension processes more consciously accessible and also to give teachers a way to…

Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.

2008-01-01

220

Understanding and Teaching Cohesion Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with improving student comprehension of text, this book focuses particularly on teaching students how sentences tie together. Articles in the three sections are grouped as follows: Part 1, What Is Cohesion Comprehension? contains "Cohesion, Coherence, and Comprehension" (Alden J. Moe and Judith W. Irwin); "Identifying Types of Anaphoric…

Irwin, Judith W., Ed.

221

Assessing Reading Comprehension in Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new measure of reading comprehension, the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension (DARC), designed to reflect central comprehension processes while minimizing decoding and language demands, was pilot tested. We conducted three pilot studies to assess the DARC's feasibility, reliability, comparability across Spanish and English,…

August, Diane; Francis, David J.; Hsu, Han-Ya Annie; Snow, Catherine E.

2006-01-01

222

Understanding and Teaching Cohesion Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concerned with improving student comprehension of text, this book focuses particularly on teaching students how sentences tie together. Articles in the three sections are grouped as follows: Part 1, What Is Cohesion Comprehension? contains "Cohesion, Coherence, and Comprehension" (Alden J. Moe and Judith W. Irwin); "Identifying Types of Anaphoric…

Irwin, Judith W., Ed.

223

Announced United States nuclear tests, July 1945--December 1989  

SciTech Connect

This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by event name all nuclear tests conducted and announced by the United States from July 1945 through December 1989, with the exception of the GMX experiments. The 24 GMX experiments, conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between December 1954 and February 1956, were equation-of-state'' physics studies that used small chemical explosives and small quantities of plutonium. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air. On August 5, 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty which effectively banned testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. All United States nuclear tests conducted prior to that date have been announced and are listed in this document. Some tests conducted underground since the signing of the Treaty and designed to be contained completely have not been announced. Information concerning these events is classified. Occasionally, the name and detonation date of an unannounced test is declassified which permits its listing in subsequent revisions to this document.

Not Available

1990-04-01

224

Announced United States nuclear tests, July 1945--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by event name all nuclear tests conducted and announced by the United States from July 1945 through December 1991, with the exception of the GMX experiments. The 24 GMX experiments, conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between December 1954 and February 1956, were equation-of-state'' physics studies that used small chemical explosives and small quantities of plutonium. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air. On August 5, 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty which effectively banned testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. All United States nuclear tests conducted prior to that date have been announced and are listed in this document. Some tests conducted underground since the signing of the Treaty and designed to be contained completely have not been announced. Information concerning these events is classified. Occasionally, the name and detonation date of an unannounced test is declassified which permits its listing in subsequent revisions to this document.

Not Available

1992-05-01

225

Comprehensive multiplatform collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the architecture and implementation of our comprehensive multi-platform collaboration framework known as Columbia InterNet Extensible Multimedia Architecture (CINEMA). It provides a distributed architecture for collaboration using synchronous communications like multimedia conferencing, instant messaging, shared web-browsing, and asynchronous communications like discussion forums, shared files, voice and video mails. It allows seamless integration with various communication means like telephones, IP phones, web and electronic mail. In addition, it provides value-added services such as call handling based on location information and presence status. The paper discusses the media services needed for collaborative environment, the components provided by CINEMA and the interaction among those components.

Singh, Kundan; Wu, Xiaotao; Lennox, Jonathan; Schulzrinne, Henning G.

2003-12-01

226

Intercomparison experiments of systems for the measurement of xenon radionuclides in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive xenon monitoring is one of the main technologies used for the detection of underground nuclear explosions. Precise and reliable measurements of 131mXe, 133gXe, 133mXe, and 135gXe are required as part of the International Monitoring System for compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). For the first time, simultaneous testing of four highly sensitive and automated fieldable radioxenon measurement systems

M. Auer; A. Axelssson; X. Blanchard; Ted W. Bowyer; G. Brachet; I. Bulowski; Y. Dubasov; K. Elmgren; J. P. Fontaine; W. Harms; James C. Hayes; Tom R. Heimbigner; Justin I. McIntyre; Mark E. Panisko; Y. Popov; Anders Ringbom; H. Sartorius; S. Schmid; J. Schulze; Clemens Schlosser; T. Taffary; W. Weiss; B. Wernsperger

2004-01-01

227

Mapping Crustal Heterogeneity Using Lg Propagation Efficiency Throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we describe a technique for mapping the lateral variation ofLgcharacteristics such asLgblockage, efficientLgpropagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions.Lgis used in a variety of seismological applications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring\\u000a compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These applications can

D. E. McNAMARAl; W. R. Walter

228

Mapping Crustal Heterogeneity Using Lg Propagation Efficiency Throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In this paper we,describe a technique,for mapping,the lateral variation of Lg characteristics such as Lg blockage, efficient Lg propagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions. Lg is used in a variety of seismologicalapplications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive,Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

D. E. McNamara; W. R. Walter

2001-01-01

229

Isotopic signature of atmospheric xenon released from light water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The isotopic activity ratios of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe are of interest for distinguishing nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of light water reactor (LWR) fuel burn-up through three operational reactor

Martin B. Kalinowski; Christoph Pistner

2006-01-01

230

Observation and Modeling of Ripple-Fired Explosions at the Centralia Mine, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the issues associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is the discrimination of large mining explosions from nuclear tests. The Centralia coal mine is a significant source of seismic events in southwestern Washington. Some of the mine explosions have reported magnitudes as large as 3.5. We have assembled a set of waveform data from these explosions, derived from

Alan Rohay; Alan C

1999-01-01

231

The comprehensive peptaibiotics database.  

PubMed

Peptaibiotics are nonribosomally biosynthesized peptides, which - according to definition - contain the marker amino acid ?-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and possess antibiotic properties. Being known since 1958, a constantly increasing number of peptaibiotics have been described and investigated with a particular emphasis on hypocrealean fungi. Starting from the existing online 'Peptaibol Database', first published in 1997, an exhaustive literature survey of all known peptaibiotics was carried out and resulted in a list of 1043 peptaibiotics. The gathered information was compiled and used to create the new 'The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database', which is presented here. The database was devised as a software tool based on Microsoft (MS) Access. It is freely available from the internet at http://peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at and can easily be installed and operated on any computer offering a Windows XP/7 environment. It provides useful information on characteristic properties of the peptaibiotics included such as peptide category, group name of the microheterogeneous mixture to which the peptide belongs, amino acid sequence, sequence length, producing fungus, peptide subfamily, molecular formula, and monoisotopic mass. All these characteristics can be used and combined for automated search within the database, which makes The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database a versatile tool for the retrieval of valuable information about peptaibiotics. Sequence data have been considered as to December 14, 2012. PMID:23681723

Stoppacher, Norbert; Neumann, Nora K N; Burgstaller, Lukas; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer

2013-05-01

232

Comprehensive EUV lithography model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As EUV lithography nears pilot-line stage, photolithography modeling becomes increasingly important in order for engineers to build viable, production-worthy processes. In this paper, we present a comprehensive, calibrated lithography model that includes optical effects such as mask shadowing and flare, combined with a stochastic resist model that can predict effects such as line-edge roughness. The model was calibrated to CD versus pitch data with varying levels of flare, as well as dense lines with varying degrees of mask shadowing. We then use this model to investigate several issues critical to EUV. First, we investigate EUV photoresist technology: the impact of photoelectron-PAG exposure kinetics on photospeed, and then we examine the trade-off between LWR and photospeed by changing quencher loading in the photoresist model. Second, we compare the predicted process windows for dense lines as flare and lens aberrations are reduced from the levels in the current alpha tools to the levels expected in the beta tools. The observed interactions between optical improvements and resist LWR indicate that a comprehensive model is required to provide a realistic evaluation of a lithography process.

Smith, Mark D.; Graves, Trey; Biafore, John; Robertson, Stewart; Kim, Cheolkyun; Moon, James; Kim, Jaeheon; Bok, Cheolkyu; Yim, Donggyu

2011-03-01

233

Comprehensive national energy strategy  

SciTech Connect

This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

NONE

1998-04-01

234

Psychodermatology: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Psychodermatology is an interesting domain of dermatology that overlaps with psychiatry. This arena in dermatology has received limited diligence, partly due to lack of training in this realm. We present here a comprehensive review of salient features and treatment updates in primary psychiatric dermatoses and have also discussed the role of psyche in psychophysiological cutaneous disorders. Secondary psychiatric morbidity is relatively common among patients visiting the dermatologists but often overlooked and uncared for. Dermatologist should be able to initiate basic pharmacotherapy, should be knowledgeable about various non-pharmacological treatments and know the right time to refer the patient to the psychiatrist. Awareness and pertinent treatment of psychodermatological disorders among dermatologists will lead to a more holistic treatment approach and better prognosis in this unique group of patients. PMID:23442456

Yadav, Savita; Narang, Tarun; Kumaran, M Sendhil

235

Comprehensive catalyst management  

SciTech Connect

From January 2009, as SCR season expands from five months to year-round to meet new US Clean Air Interstate Rule standards, new catalyst strategies are increasingly important. Power plants will need a comprehensive management strategy that accounts for a wide range of old and new issues to achieve peak performance. An optimum plan is necessary for catalyst replacement or addition. SCR systems should be inspected and evaluated at least once a year. Levels of deactivation agents, most often arsenic and calcium oxide, need to match the particular coals used. Tools such as Cormetech's FIELD Guide are available to quantify the effect on catalyst life under various fuel-firing scenarios. Tests should be conducted to evaluate the NH{sub 3}/NOx distribution over time to maximise catalyst performance. The article gives a case study of catalyst management at the Tennessee Valley Authority Allen plant. Recent changes have created new variables to be considered in a catalyst management process, notably the expansion of the operating temperature range, mercury oxidation and SO{sub 3} emission limits. Cormetech has researched these areas. 5 figs., 2 photos.

Pritchard, S. [Cormetech (United States)

2007-05-15

236

Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

237

Expectation-based syntactic comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple information-theoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension, and demonstrates its equivalence to the theory of Hale [Hale, J. (2001). A probabilistic Earley parser as

Roger Levy

2008-01-01

238

Reading Comprehension Strategy: Rainbow Dots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An action research study was conducted using the Rainbow Dots strategy to evaluate its effectiveness on reading comprehension skills in a third-grade class with students both with and without a specific learning disability. Results of the study indicated that students' overall performances in reading comprehension have increased. Students also…

Moore, Claire; Lo, Lusa

2008-01-01

239

Arizona Comprehensive Health Essential Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document sets forth the comprehensive health skills which provide the framework for health education programs for students from K-12. Objectives for each level are described as well as key indicators of what the students should be expected to comprehend at the conclusion of each section. For each of the 13 areas of comprehensive health…

Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

240

Comprehensive Plan: Cape Elizabeth, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Comprehensive Plan Committee was charged by the town with the preparation of a comprehensive plan, policies and necessary land use regulations. It is intended that the land use policies in this report, combined with specific studies in areas such as p...

1980-01-01

241

Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1911 as the Institute for Cancer Research, the Cancer Center at Columbia University became an NCI-designated cancer center in 1972 and achieved comprehensive status in 1979. Known as the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center (HICCC), it is the University’s organizational component for the conduct of basic, clinical, and population-based cancer research and patient care.

242

Metadiscourse Awareness and ESAP Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the effect of explicit instruction about linguistic hedging on the English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) reading comprehension performance of English Language Learning (ELL) university students through an awareness raising task. A reading comprehension test was developed and validated as the pre-test and…

Jalififar, A. R.; Shooshtari, Z. G.

2011-01-01

243

Comprehension in "hyperlexic" readers.  

PubMed

Mentally retarded children who can read aloud written words better than one would expect from their Mental Age are often called hyperlexic. The reading comprehension thought to be impaired in such children was investigated in four experiments. Mentally retarded advanced decoders, including autistic and nonautistic children, were compared with younger nonretarded children matched for Mental Age and Reading Age. Experiment 1 established that mildly mentally retarded readers could match sentences to pictures as well as could be expected from their verbal ability. This was the same whether they read the sentences or heard them. Experiment 2 demonstrated that only the more able retarded subjects, but not the less able ones, used sentence context in a normal way in order to pronounce homographs. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that these same more able children could extract meaning at both sentence and story level, and their performance was indistinguishable from that of normal controls. Hence, it is doubtful whether these advanced decoders should be called hyperlexic. In contrast, the readers of relatively low verbal ability performed much worse than their normal controls. Although they could be induced under certain conditions to read sentence-by-sentence rather than word-by-word, they did not do so spontaneously. Furthermore, they did not make use of already existing general knowledge in order to answer questions about the stories they had read. The ability to comprehend in terms of large units of meaning seems to be specifically impaired in these low verbal ability fluent readers. We suggest that it is this impairment that marks true hyperlexia. Since there were no differences between autistic and nonautistic readers on any of our tasks, we conclude that hyperlexia is not an autism-specific phenomenon. PMID:3806010

Snowling, M; Frith, U

1986-12-01

244

Syntactic comprehension deficits in agrammatism.  

PubMed

Eleven agrammatic and 16 fluent aphasic patients were given a comprehension task consisting of simple, active and passive reversible sentences. The purpose of the study is to reconsider the comprehension disorders in agrammatism, and particularly of passive reversible sentences, to test to what extent Grodzinsky's trace deletion hypothesis (TDH) is generalizable to other types of NP-movement, and finally to ascertain whether the pattern of impairment observed in agrammatism differs from that of fluent aphasic patients. The study confirms that trace analysis may be selectively impaired in agrammatism. However, this deficit is not the only mechanism underlying comprehension disorders and cannot be said to occur in all agrammatic patients. Comprehension disorders also involve the processing of clitic object pronouns which also underly NP-movement. Finally, the impairment found in fluent aphasic patients differs, both in type and severity, from that of agrammatic patients, thus confirming the peculiar aspects of the agrammatic comprehension deficit suggested by Grodzinsky's TDH. PMID:10857717

Luzzatti, C; Toraldo, A; Ghirardi, G; Lorenzi, L; Guarnaschelli, C

245

High Sensitivity Detection of Xe Isotopes Via Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which includes a beta-gamma counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing

Ted W. Bowyer; Justin I. McIntyre; Paul L. Reeder

1999-01-01

246

Investigations of surface coatings to reduce memory effect in plastic scintillator detectors used for radioxenon detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work Al2O3 and SiO2 coatings are tested as Xe diffusion barriers on plastic scintillator substrates. The motivation is improved beta–gamma coincidence detection systems, used to measure atmospheric radioxenon within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. One major drawback with the current setup of these systems is that the radioxenon tends to diffuse into the plastic scintillator

L. Bläckberg; A. Fay; I. Jõgi; S. Biegalski; M. Boman; K. Elmgren; T. Fritioff; A. Johansson; L. Mårtensson; F. Nielsen; A. Ringbom; M. Rooth; H. Sjöstrand; M. Klintenberg

2011-01-01

247

Aerial and ground-based inspections of mine sites in the Western U.S.-implications for on-site inspection overflights, under the CTBT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The verification regime of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI`s) to resolve questions concerning suspicious events which may have been clandestine nuclear tests. Overflights by fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft, as part of an OSI, are permitted by the Treaty. These flights are intended to facilitate the narrowing of the inspection area, from

Heuze

1997-01-01

248

Deep infrasound radiated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrasound arrays in the Pacific and Indian oceans that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) recorded distinct signatures associated with the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M\\/9, http:\\/\\/earthquake.usgs.gov\\/) and tsunami. Although the radiation of infrasound from large continental earthquakes is established [e.g., Le Pichon et al., 2003], the results presented

M. Garcés; P. Caron; C. Hetzer; A. Le Pichon; H. Bass; D. Drob; J. Bhattacharyya

2005-01-01

249

Characteristics of infrasound from lightning and sprites near thunderstorm areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research about thunder was mainly performed 20–30 years ago but has been renewed in recent years due to new interest about infrasound in the framework of the verification of the compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. During the Eurosprite 2005 campaign, an infrasound miniarray has been set up in France to measure the characteristics of infrasound from lightning and sprites

Thomas Farges; Elisabeth Blanc

2010-01-01

250

Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Walter, W.R.; Hunter, S.L.; Glenn, L.A.

1996-01-01

251

Broadband Seismic Station Deployment at Hadabat Al-Marhi, Halban, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

A broadband three-component seismic station was deployed on the Arabian Shield near the town of Halban in central Saudi Arabia. This site is near the proposed site of a primary seismic array (PS38) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The purpose of this deployment was to collect calibration data for the primary array to be deployed in the future.

Rodgers, A; Lewis, J P; Al-Amri, A

2002-02-11

252

Calculation of Minimum-Detectable-Concentration Levels of Radioxenon Isotopes Using the PNNL ARSA System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The automated Radio-xenon Analyzer\\/Sampler (ARSA), built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, can detect 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe via a beta-gamma counting system. Due to the variable background and sources of these four radio-xenon isotopes, it is important

Justin I. McIntyre; Ted W. Bowyer; Paul L. Reeder

2006-01-01

253

An Important Issue: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Facts and Philosophy: In August, 1947, I participated in a secret meeting concerning the validity and use of a hydrogen bomb. I vigorously supported a ``Super Manhattan Project" to build an ``H" bomb. My philosophy at the time was `bigger and better,' to ensure that no nation attacked the U.S. Our retaliation with ``H" bombs vs. ``A" bombs would be too overwhelming for any nation to risk attacking us should they obtain their own ``A" bombs. Thus, all nations would be forced to use diplomacy. I am older and wiser, and am now convinced that World Test Ban Treaties, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and space free of any military weapons is the best policy for all nations and humanity. With current nuclear testing at nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada, Vandenberg AF/Missile site, Cal Tech, etc., I therefore propose that our new APS California Division form a three-person committee to tabulate all pertinent data and submit it to a qualified expert for review and further action. Comments and suggestions are invited.

Castellano, Doc

2001-03-01

254

UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The University of California Davis Cancer Center (UCDCC) was founded in 1991 and received its NCI designation in 2002. In 2011, it attained comprehensive status. The Center is a program of the UC Davis School of Medicine and Medical Center.

255

Comprehensive Solutions for Urban Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The comprehensive school reform (CSR) models build consistency throughout a district while addressing the needs of individual schools. The high-quality CSR programs offer a most effective option for urban education reform.|

Kilgore, Sally

2005-01-01

256

Comprehensive Planning for Metropolitan Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report surveys the literature of comprehensive planning for metropolitan areas and assesses the processes of metropoltan planning as they currently operate. Federal policy toward metropolitan is analyzed, the intergovernmental context of planning is d...

1970-01-01

257

Woodville, Wisconsin Comprehensive Planning Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a broad comprehensive planning program for a small village (1960 population, 430) which has considerable future growth potential as a result of the interstate highway. Plan projections and recommendations are made to the year 1990. (Au...

1969-01-01

258

Announced United States nuclear tests, July 1945--December 1991. Revision 12  

SciTech Connect

This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by event name all nuclear tests conducted and announced by the United States from July 1945 through December 1991, with the exception of the GMX experiments. The 24 GMX experiments, conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between December 1954 and February 1956, were ``equation-of-state`` physics studies that used small chemical explosives and small quantities of plutonium. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air. On August 5, 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty which effectively banned testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. All United States nuclear tests conducted prior to that date have been announced and are listed in this document. Some tests conducted underground since the signing of the Treaty and designed to be contained completely have not been announced. Information concerning these events is classified. Occasionally, the name and detonation date of an unannounced test is declassified which permits its listing in subsequent revisions to this document.

Not Available

1992-05-01

259

Calculation of Minimum-Detectable-Concentration Levels of Radioxenon Isotopes Using the PNNL ARSA System  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The automated Radio-xenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA), built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, can detect 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe via a beta-gamma counting system. Due to the variable background and sources of these four radio-xenon isotopes, it is important to have as sensitive a detection system as possible and to quantify the Minimum-Detectable-Concentrations (MDC) that such a system will be able to detect to preclude false negative and false positive results. From data obtained from IAR in Germany MDC values for 133Xe were well below the 1 mBq/SCMA as required by the PTS for the Comprehensive Test BAn Treaty [WGB TL-11,1999].

McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Reeder, Paul L.

2006-03-11

260

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-11-01

261

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-01-01

262

Nuclear Structure Data for the Present Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Nuclear Data Program maintains and provides easy and free access to several comprehensive databases that assist scientists to sift through and assess the vast quantity of published nuclear structure and decay data. These databases are an invaluable asset for nuclear-science experimentalists and theorists alike, and the recommended values provided for nuclear properties such as decay modes, level energies

Coral M. Baglin; Coral M

2005-01-01

263

Help with Teaching Reading Comprehension: Comprehension Instructional Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents five instructional frameworks demonstrated by research as being effective in teaching reading comprehension: (1) The Scaffolded Reading Experience (SRE); (2) Questioning the Author (QtA); (3) Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR); (4) Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS); and (5) Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction…

Liang, Lauren Aimonette; Dole, Janice A.

2006-01-01

264

Describing Comprehension: Teachers' Observations of Students' Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers' observations of student performance in reading are abundant and insightful but often remain internal and unarticulated. As a result, such observations are an underutilized and undervalued source of data. Given the gaps in knowledge about students' reading comprehension that exist in formal assessments, the frequent calls for teachers'…

Vander Does, Susan Lubow

2012-01-01

265

Story Comprehension in Children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of research is available examining children's story comprehension. However, little attention has been directed toward understanding the story comprehension of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present paper attempts to integrate the developmental literature on children's story comprehension with the little that is known about the story comprehension processes of children with ADHD. This review is

Elizabeth Pugzles Lorch; Richard Milich; Rebecca P. Sanchez

1998-01-01

266

Comprehension: What Do the Words Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examples of comprehension activities are presented in the areas of: context clues, literal comprehension, recall of details, main ideas, maps and charts, interpretive comprehension, sequence, and evaluative comprehension. This article is one of four in this issue comprising the Teacher's Reading Seminar 1979. (SJL)|

Steuer, Loreli Olson; Murphy, Theresa Gaffney

1979-01-01

267

Preschool Children's Comprehension of Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new methodology for testing preschool children's comprehension of television is described and the results of the first experiment with this method are presented. Original program material was created by filming 30 second animated stories in color and transferring them to videotape for subsequent editing and addition of sound. Thirty-five…

Smith, Robin

268

Contextual Information and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a discussion of the differences between oral and written speech, this paper examines the act of reading written speech and the role that contextual information plays in reading comprehension. It notes the interaction that occurs between reader and text, points out the way in which written language makes demands upon readers'…

Teale, William H.

269

Embodied cognition and linguistic comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the language faculty was supposed to be a device that maps linguistic inputs to semantic or conceptual representations. These representations themselves were supposed to be distinct from the representations manipulated by the hearer’s perceptual and motor systems. Recently this view of language has been challenged by advocates of embodied cognition. Drawing on empirical studies of linguistic comprehension, they have

Daniel A. Weiskopf

2010-01-01

270

Comprehensive Plan Report, Schulenburg, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The comprehensive plan for Schulenburg, TX, is based on a projected population increase from 2,709 persons to a planning area population of 3,812. Adequate land use, community and public utilities, and transportation facilities have been provided accordin...

R. W. Caldwell C. W. Caldwell J. Nall C. Williams

1973-01-01

271

Cognitive Development and Television Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine whether several key concepts related to child development could be extended to existing theory and research concerning the comprehension of television by kindergartners and early primary school children. Much of the current research in the effects tradition has concentrated on the role of television in eliciting aggressive behavior. A neglected area is

Roger Jon Desmond

1978-01-01

272

Comprehensive Engagement: A Winning Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comprehensive engagement is a way for the United States to develop a more positive perception of its actions and motives in the world. This strategy focuses on engaging groups/nations that the United States can help achieve what is called a status quo. In...

B. H. Kane

2008-01-01

273

Comprehensive Planning: An Organizational Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The status of current planning efforts at public institutions of higher education are identified, based on information derived from literature and a status survey. The components necessary for the most effective operation of an ideal centralized comprehensive planning unit are identified based on the Delphi study of selected experts. (JMD)

Salloway, Shirley E.; Tack, Martha W.

1978-01-01

274

Comprehensive school suicide prevention programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses responses to suicide by school systems and proposes a comprehensive suicide prevention program. It is suggested that programs must consist of prevention, intervention, and postvention. Prevention refers to program efforts that aim to prevent or inhibit the development of the problem. Intervention refers to reducing the level and duration of the problem at an early phase so

Roger Tierney; Richard Ramsay; Bryan Tanney; William Lang

1990-01-01

275

Quantifier Comprehension in Corticobasal Degeneration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we investigated patients with focal neurodegenerative diseases to examine a formal linguistic distinction between classes of generalized quantifiers, like "some X" and "less than half of X." Our model of quantifier comprehension proposes that number knowledge is required to understand both first-order and higher-order quantifiers.…

McMillan, Corey T.; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Grossman, Murray

2006-01-01

276

Quantifier Comprehension in Corticobasal Degeneration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated patients with focal neurodegenerative diseases to examine a formal linguistic distinction between classes of generalized quantifiers, like "some X" and "less than half of X." Our model of quantifier comprehension proposes that number knowledge is required to understand both first-order and higher-order quantifiers.…

McMillan, Corey T.; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Grossman, Murray

2006-01-01

277

Sentence Comprehension in Autistic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comprehension and strategy use of 18 autistic children was compared with that of normal 3- and 4-year olds. Subjects were asked to act out certain syntactic and semantic patterns in two experiments. Autistic children performed below the levels of the normal subjects, suggesting that autism is a semantic/cognitive deficit. (PJM)|

Tager-Flusberg, Helen

1981-01-01

278

Reading Comprehension and the Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A practicum study was conducted to raise the reading comprehension level of students at least one grade level by using Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI), and to determine the kind of student who would most benefit by the use of CAI. A control group of 35 students and three experimental groups of 19 computer students, all in fourth or fifth…

Boyer, Nancy W.

279

Moral Theme Comprehension in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some claim that reading moral stories to children will improve their moral literacy (see, e.g., Bennett, 1993), little research has been done that bears on this question. The purposes of this study were to (a) test the idea that children can extract the theme from a moral story and (b) test for developmental differences in moral theme comprehension. Participants

Darcia Narvaez; Tracy Gleason; Christyan Mitchell; Jennifer Bentley

1999-01-01

280

Comprehensive Schools and the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article argues that comprehensive reorganisation was not a one-off policy reform but a complex, bottom-up campaign for equity and fairness in education, with varied consequences and outcomes. Recent battles over student fees, free schools and academies show that the quest for democratic education does not lead to a permanent achievement but…

Barker, Bernard

2012-01-01

281

Developing a Comprehensive Homework Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe the results of surveys conducted by a small school district in Massachusetts to determine homework practices and beliefs, including time spent on homework, parent assistance, homework format, and balancing of homework and other activities. The result was the establishment of a comprehensive homework policy, including…

Fairbanks, Ellen Kelly; Clark, Margery; Barry, Joan

2005-01-01

282

Scaffolding Students' Comprehension of Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors explore the concept of instructional scaffolding as it applies to facilitating students' reading comprehension. They argue that scaffolding is a highly flexible and adaptable model of instruction that supports students as they acquire both basic skills and higher order thinking processes, allows for explicit…

Clark, Kathleen F.; Graves, Michael F.

2005-01-01

283

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1973, the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University received its NCI designation that same year. The mission of the Kimmel Cancer Center is to go beyond the cutting edge in science and medicine to perform the most advanced research and offer patients the very best therapies for their disease.

284

Trichotillomania: A comprehensive behavioral model  

Microsoft Academic Search

As our knowledge of chronic hair pulling as neither rare nor benign has increased, so has the need for a comprehensive framework to guide our conceptualization of this disorder for both research and clinical work. Such a model is presented which incorporates 1.(a) the varied antecedents that both cue the impulse to pull and facilitate pulling,2.(b) the wide array of

Ruth Goldfinger Golomb

1997-01-01

285

USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1971, the University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center (USC Norris) received its NCI designation in 1973. The Center is committed to investigating the complex origins and progression of cancer, developing treatment and prevention strategies, and searching for cures.

286

Announced United States nuclear tests, July 1945-December 1983  

SciTech Connect

This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by event name all nuclear tests conducted and announced by the United States from July 1945 through December 1983, with the exception of the GMX experiments. The 22 GMX experiments, conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between December 1954 and February 1956, were equation-of-state physics studies that used small chemical explosives and small quantities of plutonium. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air. On August 5, 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty which effectively banned testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. All US nuclear tests conducted prior to that date have been announced and are listed in this document. Some tests conducted underground since the signing of the Treaty and designed to be contained completely have not been announced. Information concerning these events is classified. Occasionally, the name and detonation date of an unannounced test is declassified which permits its listing in subsequent revisions to this document. Data on United States tests were obtained from and verified by the Department of Energy's three weapons laboratories - Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Additionally, data were obtained from public announcements issued by the Atomic Energy Commission and its successors, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, respectively.

Not Available

1984-01-01

287

Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

2004-03-01

288

Comprehensive chromatographic separations in proteomics.  

PubMed

In such a complicated field as proteomic analysis, scientists are more and more challenged in implementing separation systems capable to provide enhanced separation power, as well as sensitivity of detection for adequate identification and, to a lesser extent, quantification of the separated compounds. To address such issues, several combinations of different separation modes have been investigated in comprehensive liquid chromatographic platforms, in which the entire sample eluted from the first dimension is subjected to a secondary chromatographic separation. The different applications exploited for comprehensive LC analysis of intact or digested proteins are the focus of this review, in which advantages and disadvantages of the different columns combinations, interfaces, and operating modes are pointed out. The combination with mass spectrometry as part of the total system is stressed, and illustrated in more detail. Theoretical concerns and practical requirements will be briefly discussed, as well. PMID:21689821

Donato, P; Cacciola, F; Mondello, L; Dugo, P

2011-05-30

289

Disfluencies and human language comprehension.  

PubMed

Spoken language contains disfluencies, which include editing terms such as uh and um as well as repeats and corrections. In less than ten years the question of how disfluencies are handled by the human sentence comprehension system has gone from virtually ignored to a topic of major interest in computational linguistics and psycholinguistics. We discuss relevant empirical findings and describe a computational model that captures how disfluencies influence parsing and comprehension. The research reviewed shows that the parser, which presumably evolved to handle conversations, deals with disfluencies in a way that is efficient and linguistically principled. The success of this research program reinforces the current trend in cognitive science to view cognitive mechanisms as adaptations to real-world constraints and challenges. PMID:15120682

Ferreira, Fernanda; Bailey, Karl G D

2004-05-01

290

Indo-US Nuclear Agreement and IAEA Safeguards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear transfers to a non-nuclear weapon state (NNWS) are conditioned on IAEA safeguards on all current and future peaceful nuclear activities, what are called the full-scope safeguards (FSS) or comprehensive safeguards. Since India is a NNWS according to the NPT definition, the NSG Guidelines as currently implemented would, therefore, invoke FSS if India seeks nuclear technology or nuclear power plants

R Ramachandran

2005-01-01

291

Comprehensive treatment of generalized parodontitis.  

PubMed

The complexity of pathogenesis of periodontitis makes the use of comprehensive treatment necessary. We observed 60 patients, 20 women and 40 men among them aged from 20 to 50. In the course of parodontitis, we determined the intensity of inflammatory-destructive changes (Pi) in the course of periodontitis, the degree of fang denudation, the depth of gum and parodontal recesses, degree of the teeth becoming loose; we conducted the microbiological study of the oral cavity microflora and drew up an antibiotic graph. We included laser therapy in the comprehensive treatment course of generalized parodontitis. We divided the patients into two groups. The patients of the first group were treated in two stages. We used peridex, composed of chlorhexidine for antiseptic treatment of oral cavity. We used a combined solution of sage, eucalyptus, camomile and calendula to irrigate the oral cavity. At the second stage we used ointment applications with the composition of 3% indometacin, heparin, vitamins, sea-buckthorn oil and antibiotics. In the course of comprehensive treatment of the patients of the II group we included laser therapy. Our interest in the laser beam, as in the means of parodontitis treatment was stimulated by a number of properties of the laser beam and namely, its anti-inflammatory, desensitizing and antibacterial action promotes intensifying the reparation processes and does not entail any complications. The mentioned method has produced the best therapeutic results and has resulted in the reduced treatment period. PMID:16905811

Mdinaradze, N

2006-06-01

292

Nuclear costs spiral above coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capital costs for power plants due to inflation and regulatory requirements were originally estimated to be higher for new coal plants than for nuclear plants, but experience shows a trend that reverses the assumed ratio and gives coal the advantage. The cost of nuclear plants completed during the 1970s was higher than anticipated, although no comprehensive study has been made.

Komanoff

1981-01-01

293

Comprehensive Vocational Rehabilitation and the School Psychologist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors describe the comprehensive vocational rehabilitation center concept and their roles as school psychologists on the comprehensive rehabilitation center team. Also discussed are training considerations in preparing for employment in such a center. (Editor/CT)|

Shelton, Kenneth L.; Prout, H. Thompson

1982-01-01

294

City of Temple, Texas. Comprehensive Plan Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The City of Temple's Comprehensive Plan Report contains those final planning elements previously prepared as interim reports. The report serves as a guide for the development of the city's future urban area. Data and plans presented in the comprehensive r...

1972-01-01

295

Comprehensive Family Assessment Guidelines for Child Welfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document defines and describes the comprehensive family assessment (CFA) process in child welfare; articulates the assumptions of quality practice that support the comprehensive family assessment; identifies the key points in the casework process whe...

P. Schene

2005-01-01

296

A Classroom Strategy: Improving Social Studies Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates practical classroom techniques for improving comprehension of social studies materials. Based upon the Three Levels Construct developed by Harold Herber, the article presents exercises relating to reading selections appropriate to each level of reading comprehension. (Author/DB)

Hash, Ronald J.; Bailey, Mollie B.

1978-01-01

297

Children's Comprehension of Narrative Picture Books.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explains the creation and validation of the Narrative Comprehension of Picture Books task (NC task), an assessment of young childrens comprehension of wordless picture books. Study 1 explored developmental improvements in the task, as well as r...

A. H. Paris S. G. Paris

2001-01-01

298

Soviet nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

This book assesses both Western and Soviet literature on Soviet nuclear weapons policy. The author discusses the development of the various Western schools of interpretation and their effect on U.S. policy and provides an introduction to Soviet sources (Russian language as well as translated material). Analytical chapters are followed by comprehensive annotated listings of a broad range of civilian and military publications.

Green, W.C.

1987-01-01

299

A multidisciplinary study of DPRK nuclear tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Democratic People Republic of Korea announced two underground nuclear tests carried out in their territory respectively on October 9th, 2006 and May 25th, 2009. The scarce information on the precise location and the size of those explosions has stimulated various kinds of studies, mostly based on seismological observations, by several National Agencies concerned with the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification. We analysed the available seismological data collected through a global high quality network for the two tests. After picking up the arrival times at the various stations, a standard location program has been applied to the observed data. If we use all the available data for each single event, due to the different magnitude and different number of available stations, the locations appear quite different. On the contrary, if we use only the common stations, they happen to be only few km apart from each other and within their respective error ellipses. A more accurate relative location has been carried out by the application of algorithms such as Double Difference Joint Hypocenter Determination (DDJHD) and waveform alignment. The epicentral distance between the two events obtained by these methods is 2 km, with the 2006 event shifted to the ESE with respect to that of 2009. We then used a dataset of VHR TerraSAR-X satellite images to detect possible surface effects of the underground tests. This is the first ever case where these highly performing SAR data have been used to such aim. We applied InSAR processing technique to fully exploit the capabilities of SAR data to measure very short displacements over large areas. Two interferograms have been computed, one co-event and one post-event, to remove possible residual topographic signals. A clear displacement pattern has been highlighted over a mountainous area within the investigated region, measuring a maximum displacement of about 45 mm overall the relief. Hypothesizing that the 2009 nuclear test had been carried out close to the area where the displacement has been observed through the DInSAR technique, its relation with the epicenter location obtained through seismological processing has been discussed as a possible alternative hypothesis with respect to the preferred solutions reported by the Nuclear Explosion Database (NEDB). The distance of about 10 km between the two places can be considered acceptable in light of the possible systematic location shifts commonly observed in the seismological practice over a global scale.

Materni, Valerio; Bignami, Christian; Giuntini, Alessandra; Chiappini, Stefano; Carluccio, Roberto; D'Ajello Caracciolo, Francesca; Pignatelli, Alessandro; Stramondo, Salvatore; Console, Rodolfo; Chiappini, Massimo

2013-04-01

300

Idiom Comprehension in Mandarin-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group).…

Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie

2010-01-01

301

Working Memory Resources and Children's Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies the relationship between working memory capacity and reading comprehension in fourth-grade children and the nature of the working memory resources involved in reading comprehension. Shows that working memory capacity was a direct predictor of reading comprehension when contrasted with vocabulary and decoding skills. Discusses the reasons…

Seigneuric, Alix; Ehrlich, Marie-France; Oakhill, Jane V.; Yuill, Nicola M.

2000-01-01

302

A Cognitive Model for Teaching Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a fresh way for teaching reading comprehension skills to learners of a language. Gives theoretical background, illustrates the basic steps used in the model for teaching reading comprehension, and discusses the advantages and features of this new model for teaching reading comprehension. (Author/VWL)|

Sheng, He Ji

2000-01-01

303

Text Comprehension Strategy Instruction with Poor Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates effects of teaching text-comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading-comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Finds no differential program effects for the two listening levels. Finds no stable evidence of transfer of comprehension strategy-training to standardized general listening and…

van den Bos, Kees P.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.

1998-01-01

304

UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

In 1948, the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) established the Cancer Research Institute, a precursor to consolidation of its cancer activities in more recent decades. NCI designation as a comprehensive cancer center came in 1999 and the Center was renamed the UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2007. The Center is a member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

305

Authorial intentions and metaphor comprehension.  

PubMed

Three experiments investigated the role of authorial intentions in metaphor comprehension. In these studies, subjects read metaphoric (e.g., "A family album is like a museum"), literal (e.g., "An art gallery is like a museum"), and anomalous (e.g., "A tortoise shell is like an art gallery") comparisons and rated their degree of meaningfulness (Experiment 1), made speeded decisions as to whether each phrase was meaningful or not (Experiment 2), or wrote out interpretations of each comparison statement (Experiment 3). The subjects were told that the comparisons were written either by famous 20th century poets or by a computer program that randomly generated the statements from a list of words. Our general hypothesis was that knowing that intentional agents (the poets) authored the different comparisons should facilitate subjects' comprehension of the metaphors. Experiment 1 showed that subjects rated both metaphoric and literal comparisons as being more meaningful in the poet condition than when these statements were supposedly written by computer. Experiment 2 demonstrated that subjects were faster in making their meaningfulness judgments for metaphors in the poet condition than in the computer context, but that subjects were also slower in rejecting anomalous comparisons when these were supposedly written by the poets. Experiment 3 indicated that subjects produced more meanings or interpretations for comparisons presumably written by poets than by computer. These results highlight the importance of implied, authorial intentions in understanding metaphorical statements. We discuss the implications of this work for psycholinguistic theories of figurative language comprehension, as well as for theories of literary interpretation. PMID:2010880

Gibbs, R W; Kushner, J M; Mills, W R

1991-01-01

306

Predictive mechanisms in idiom comprehension.  

PubMed

Prediction is pervasive in human cognition and plays a central role in language comprehension. At an electrophysiological level, this cognitive function contributes substantially in determining the amplitude of the N400. In fact, the amplitude of the N400 to words within a sentence has been shown to depend on how predictable those words are: The more predictable a word, the smaller the N400 elicited. However, predictive processing can be based on different sources of information that allow anticipation of upcoming constituents and integration in context. In this study, we investigated the ERPs elicited during the comprehension of idioms, that is, prefabricated multiword strings stored in semantic memory. When a reader recognizes a string of words as an idiom before the idiom ends, she or he can develop expectations concerning the incoming idiomatic constituents. We hypothesized that the expectations driven by the activation of an idiom might differ from those driven by discourse-based constraints. To this aim, we compared the ERP waveforms elicited by idioms and two literal control conditions. The results showed that, in both cases, the literal conditions exhibited a more negative potential than the idiomatic condition. Our analyses suggest that before idiom recognition the effect is due to modulation of the N400 amplitude, whereas after idiom recognition a P300 for the idiomatic sentence has a fundamental role in the composition of the effect. These results suggest that two distinct predictive mechanisms are at work during language comprehension, based respectively on probabilistic information and on categorical template matching. PMID:19580384

Vespignani, Francesco; Canal, Paolo; Molinaro, Nicola; Fonda, Sergio; Cacciari, Cristina

2010-08-01

307

Anti-nuclear liberals and the bomb: A comparative history of Kampf dem Atomtod and the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, 1957-1963  

SciTech Connect

The premises of Kampf dem Atomtod (KdA) and Citizens for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) were based on nineteenth century traditions of liberal peace advocacy. Both groups gained substantial public support for their goals to prevent the nuclear armament of the Bundeswehr and to stop nuclear testing. Both organizations won well-educated middle-class and mostly white supporter. The dissertation examines the role of women: whether housewife or doctor, women stressed their special concerns as mothers. Both KdA and SANE had troubled relations with the labor movement. Their leaders hoped to gain government leaders' respect by winning a respectable, non-Communist constituency and claiming their goals were reasonable ones. Government officials attacked KdA and SANE as dupes of Moscow. Many supporters left the organizations because of their strict anti-Communism. Local groups accused their leaders of lacking initative. KdA and SANE's leaders wasted time and energy rehashing issues and postponing decisions. After a period of providing initiatives and ideas local committees disintegrated. Both organizations considered education their paramount goal but their arguments primarily reached the converted, who often preferred more political action. KdA and SANE's leaders instead chose to support respectable projects based on humanitarian ideals. Since these projects offered little in the way of concrete action agendas, supporters defected to more active organizations or slipped into apathy. Neither organization achieved its national goals. Both governments generally denied them access to the policymaking process, ignored them as irrelavant, or attacked them as Communist sympathizers. While SANE and KdA were heard by those concerned by nuclear policy, and while members of SANE's National Board did help muster support for the Partial Test Ban Treaty, both organizations failed to make liberal peace values productive in the nuclear decisionmaking process.

Thiede, B.

1992-01-01

308

International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) database  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an integral part of DOE`s International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) at Argonne National Laboratory, the INSC Database has been established to provide an interactively accessible information resource for the world`s nuclear facilities and to promote free and open exchange of nuclear safety information among nations. The INSC Database is a comprehensive resource database aimed at a scope and level

T. Sofu; H. Ley; R. B. Turski

1997-01-01

309

Medicinal marijuana: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbooks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on the quality of the data. Some data exists that lends credence to many of the claims about marijuana's properties. In general, however, the body of literature about marijuana is extremely poor in quality. Marijuana and/or its components may help alleviate suffering in patients with a variety of serious illnesses. Health care providers can best minimize short term adverse consequences and drug interactions for terminally ill patients by having a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of marijuana, potential adverse reactions, infection risks, and drug interactions (along with on-going monitoring of the patient). For chronic conditions, the significance and risk of short and long term adverse effects must be weighed against the desired benefit. Patients who are best suited to medicinal marijuana will be those who will gain substantial benefit to offset these risks, and who have failed a well-documented, compliant and comprehensive approach to standard therapies. PMID:9692375

Gurley, R J; Aranow, R; Katz, M

310

What it would take to ban testing  

SciTech Connect

The history of disarmament negotiations is often said to be a history of missed opportunities. This is certainly true of most arms-control measures, but it is not true of the proposal to ban all nuclear weapons test explosions for all time. On three occasions during the past 30 years a test ban seemed imminent to outsiders and even to some negotiators: in 1958, when an East-West conference of seismic experts produced a report on the feasibility of detecting nuclear explosions; in 1962-1963, when the lack of agreement in the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament on the number of mandatory on-site inspections per year was alleged to be the sole obstacle to a test ban treaty; and in 1977-1980, when Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union appeared to make progress toward concluding a treaty in their trilateral negotiations. Having closely followed the debate, the author is convinced that at no time were the negotiators close to reaching agreement on a comprehensive test ban. But if the United States and the Soviet Union were to change the military doctrines that calls for ever more accurate and specialized nuclear weapons, he feels a treaty limiting tests to a very-low-yield explosions could now be negotiated. 2 references.

Goldblat, J.

1988-10-01

311

Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere.

Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

1984-05-01

312

The comprehensive antibiotic resistance database.  

PubMed

The field of antibiotic drug discovery and the monitoring of new antibiotic resistance elements have yet to fully exploit the power of the genome revolution. Despite the fact that the first genomes sequenced of free living organisms were those of bacteria, there have been few specialized bioinformatic tools developed to mine the growing amount of genomic data associated with pathogens. In particular, there are few tools to study the genetics and genomics of antibiotic resistance and how it impacts bacterial populations, ecology, and the clinic. We have initiated development of such tools in the form of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca). The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences. This unique platform provides an informatic tool that bridges antibiotic resistance concerns in health care, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:23650175

McArthur, Andrew G; Waglechner, Nicholas; Nizam, Fazmin; Yan, Austin; Azad, Marisa A; Baylay, Alison J; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Canova, Marc J; De Pascale, Gianfranco; Ejim, Linda; Kalan, Lindsay; King, Andrew M; Koteva, Kalinka; Morar, Mariya; Mulvey, Michael R; O'Brien, Jonathan S; Pawlowski, Andrew C; Piddock, Laura J V; Spanogiannopoulos, Peter; Sutherland, Arlene D; Tang, Irene; Taylor, Patricia L; Thaker, Maulik; Wang, Wenliang; Yan, Marie; Yu, Tennison; Wright, Gerard D

2013-05-06

313

Satellite control: A comprehensive approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prelaunch and post launch controls undertaken by the Telemetry Tracking and Telecommand (TTC) systems operated under the executive control of the Earth Segment using the European Test and Operations Language (ETOL) are discussed. The condition and status of the European Space Agency communication satellites that are in orbit are also monitored through ETOL. To employ common equipment and methodology throughout the complete life cycle of the satellite, prelaunch activities must be a simulation of expected post launch conditions. Such a comprehensive approach gives opportunities for reusing equipment and methodologies; it was applied to small satellites with industrial partners under direct ESA control using the CSMF (Communication Satellite Monitoring Facility) stand alone workstations and presents a cost effective solution enhancing safety of system operations.

Garner, J. T.

1993-01-01

314

Geospatial Analysis - A comprehensive guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text of "Geospatial Analysis - A comprehensive guide" is provided on this website. It covers the full spectrum of analytical techniques that are provided within modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related software products.Click here for a PDF extract (first 55 pages).Topics covered in detail include: * Geospatial analysis concepts * Core components of geospatial analysis, including distance and directional analysis, geometrical processing, map algebra, and grid models * Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) and spatial statistics, including spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression * Surface analysis, including surface form and flow analysis, gridding and interpolation methods, and visibility analysis * Network and locational analysis, including shortest path calculation, travelling salesman problems, facility location and arc routing Geocomputational methods, including agent-based modelling, artifical neural networks and evolutionary computing

De Smith, Michael J.; Goodchild, Michael F.; Longley, Paul A.

315

Nuclear Power Plant's Safety and Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Starting with a comprehensive safety strategy as evolved over the past years and the present legal provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the risk of the intended operation, of accidents and unforeseen events is discussed. ...

1975-01-01

316

Separating comprehension from the verification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiments aimed at separating comprehension of a sentence from its verification. Presentation of a first sentence\\u000a was terminated by the subject’s keypress after his comprehension. This gave a measure of sentence comprehension. A second\\u000a sentence appeared immediately for a fixed interval. Then, a picture was presented, and the subject verified the first sentence\\u000a against the picture. Finally, a

In-Mao Liu

1980-01-01

317

Listening comprehension across the adult lifespan  

PubMed Central

Short Summary The current study provides the first systematic assessment of listening comprehension across the adult lifespan. A total of 433 participants ranging in age from 20-90 listened to spoken passages and answered comprehension questions following each passage. In addition, measures of auditory sensitivity were obtained from all participants to determine if hearing loss and listening comprehension changed similarly across the adult lifespan. As expected, auditory sensitivity declined from age 20 to age 90. In contrast, listening comprehension remained relatively unchanged until approximately age 65-70, with declines evident only for the oldest participants.

Sommers, Mitchell S.; Hale, Sandra; Myerson, Joel; Rose, Nathan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent

2011-01-01

318

Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

2012-07-01

319

Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis), lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors) or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma). Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities. PMID:23858317

Rodriguez, Erika F; Monaco, Sara E; Khalbuss, Walid; Austin, R Marshall; Pantanowitz, Liron

2013-04-24

320

Announced United States nuclear tests, July 1945 through December 1984. Revision 5  

SciTech Connect

This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by event name all nuclear tests conducted and announced by the United States from July 1945 through December 1983, with the exception of the GMX experiments. The 22 GMX experiments, conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between December 1954 and February 1956, were ''equation-of-state'' physics studies that used small chemical explosives and small quantities of plutonium. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air. On August 5, 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty which effectively banned testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. All US nuclear tests conducted prior to that date have been announced and are listed in this document. Some tests conducted underground since the signing of the Treaty and designed to be contained completely have not been announced. Information concerning these events is classified. Occasionally, the name and detonation date of an unannounced test is declassified which permits its listing in subsequent revisions to this document. Data on United States tests were obtained from and verified by the Department of Energy's three weapons laboratories: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California; and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Additionally, data were obtained from public announcements issued by the Atomic Energy Commission and its successors, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, respectively.

Not Available

1985-01-01

321

Improving Reading Comprehension of Intermediate Grade Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This practicum was designed to improve reading comprehension of intermediate grade children attending compensatory education classes in a Florida elementary school. It involved 11 students in grades 2 through 5 who were low achievers in reading and/or math. It was designed to improve reading comprehension by providing training using six specific…

Nachman, Leah B.

322

Writing Composition Activities to Enhance Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program of written composition based on reading comprehension can help students gain greater in-depth understanding of reading materials. Once the reading comprehension skill has been clearly defined for the class, the writing activity can provide clarification by allowing for analysis of the definition through written manipulation of language.…

Gold, Janet T.

323

Working memory resources and children's reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory capacity is described as a pool of limited resources that carry out processing and storage functions. Its role has been emphasised in adults' reading comprehension. The present study had two aims: First, to study the relationship between working memory capacity and reading comprehension in fourth-grade children. Second, to study the nature of the working memory resources involved in

Alix Seigneuric; Marie-France Ehrlich; Jane V. Oakhill; Nicola M. Yuill

2000-01-01

324

Metaphor Comprehension in Alzheimer's Disease: Novelty Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The comprehension of non-literal language was investigated in 20 probable Alzheimer's disease (pAD) patients by comparing their performance to that of 20 matched control subjects. pAD patients were unimpaired in the comprehension of conventional metaphors and idioms. However, their performance was significantly lower in the case of…

Amanzio, Martina; Geminiani, Giuliano; Leotta, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano

2008-01-01

325

A Janus Look at Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that researchers in the fields of cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and linguistics are taking a constructivist view of reading comprehension, this paper undertakes a comparison of that view with views concerning comprehension that have been expressed at the Claremont Reading Conferences over the past 50 years. The first…

McNeil, John D.

326

A Dynamic Developmental Link between Verbal Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) and Reading Comprehension: Verbal Comprehension-Knowledge Drives Positive Change in Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intelligence and general academic achievement have a well-established relation, but the interrelated development of the two constructs over time is less well-known. In this study, the dynamic developmental relation between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension was examined by applying bivariate dual change score models…

Reynolds, Matthew R.; Turek, Joshua J.

2012-01-01

327

Predictors of Nutrition Information Comprehension in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of the present study was to examine relationships among several predictors of nutrition comprehension. We were particularly interested in exploring whether nutrition knowledge or motivation moderated the effects of attention on comprehension across a wide age range of adults. Methods Ninety-three participants, ages 18 to 80, completed measures of nutrition knowledge and motivation and then read nutrition information (from which attention allocation was derived) and answered comprehension questions. Results In general, predictor variables were highly intercorrelated. However, knowledge, but not motivation, had direct effects on comprehension accuracy. In contrast, motivation influenced attention, which in turn influenced accuracy. Results also showed that comprehension accuracy decreased- and knowledge increased -with age. When knowledge was statistically controlled, age declines in comprehension increased. Conclusion Knowledge is an important predictor of nutrition information comprehension and its role increases in later life. Motivation is also important; however, its effects on comprehension differ from knowledge. Practice Implications Health educators and clinicians should consider cognitive skills such as knowledge as well as motivation and age of patients when deciding how to best convey health information. The increased role of knowledge among older adults suggests that lifelong educational efforts may have important payoffs in later life.

Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Gibson, Tanja N.; Applegate, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

328

Comprehensive Income – Past, Present And Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the performance measurement in accounting is achieved with the help of the compre-hensive income, which contains the determined result in the profit and loss account, also the profits and losses are accepted directly in the equity. However, not so long ago, the comprehensive income was only a concept debated at the academic level, at present it has become

Mihaela Dumitrana; Iulia Jianu; Gabriel Jinga

2010-01-01

329

Leadership Lessons from Comprehensive School Reforms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume explores the role of leadership in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "The Development of Comprehensive School Reform" (Joseph Murphy and Amanda Datnow); (2) "Expeditionary Learning Schools: Tenacity, Leadership, and School Reform" (Greg Farrell); (3) "The Modern Red School House: Leadership in…

Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Datnow, Amanda, Ed.

330

National Survey of Reading Comprehension in Finland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the cognitively high-level text processing, or macro-processing, of expository passages. Investigates reading comprehension during the sixth and ninth school years. Finds that girls outperformed boys regardless of the comprehension measure and also finds that performance on both measures, but particularly on hierarchy-rating, correlated…

Lehto, Juhani E.; Scheinin, Patrik; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hautamaki, Jarkko

2001-01-01

331

Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Second Language Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation research investigates the cognitive mechanisms underlying second language (L2) listening comprehension. I use three types of sentential contexts, congruent, neutral and incongruent, to look at how L2 learners construct meaning in spoken sentence comprehension. The three types of contexts differ in their context predictability.…

Hu, Guiling

2009-01-01

332

Cognitive Development and Comprehension of Physics Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated cognitive development of eleventh-grade students (N=389) in Jordan and its relationship to comprehension of concrete and formal physics concepts. Results revealed that cognitive level (17% formal; 52% concrete) was related to comprehension of both concrete and formal concepts. Findings related to sex differences are also reported.…

Billeh, Victor Y.; Khalili, Khalil

1982-01-01

333

Alleviating Comprehension Problems in Movies. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the various barriers to comprehension that learners may encounter when viewing feature films in a second language. Two clusters of interfacing factors that may contribute to comprehension hot spots emerged from a quantitative analysis of problems noted in student logbooks. One cluster had a strong acoustic basis, whereas the…

Tatsuki, Donna

334

Comprehensive Education Portfolio with a Career Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are many types of student portfolios used within academia: the prior learning portfolio, credentialing portfolio, developmental portfolio, capstone portfolio, individual course portfolio, and the comprehensive education portfolio. The comprehensive education portfolio (CEP), as used by the authors, is a student portfolio, developed over…

Kruger, Evonne J.; Holtzman, Diane M.; Dagavarian, Debra A.

2013-01-01

335

Teaching Vocabulary to Adolescents To Improve Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that providing vocabulary instruction is one of the most significant ways in which teachers can improve students' reading and listening comprehension. Describes a 16-week intervention in which the comprehension of middle and high school students reading below grade level was improved significantly by instruction that developed their…

Curtis, Mary E.; Longo, Ann Marie

2001-01-01

336

Extended Notions of Grammar and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Full reading comprehension is dependent on a knowledge of language usage, specifically, how syntactic constructions function in relation to pragmatic knowledge. To avoid some of the problems which might arise concerning the pragmatic aspects of reading comprehension, the following steps may be taken: teach children very early the relationship…

Wolfram, Walt

337

Effects of Cultural Familiarity on Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effect of cultural background on reading comprehension, specifically examining content knowledge (schemata) and overall familiarity with the setting. It tested the hypothesis that when a setting is familiar to readers, the text will be most readable, and will yield the shortest time to read, the best comprehension, and the…

Sasaki, Yoshinori; And Others

338

Reciprocal Teaching and Reading Comprehension: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that reciprocal teaching (interaction of novices and experts in explicit, overt demonstrations of strategy use) is a successful way of increasing comprehension scores of students. Outlines the theoretical underpinnings of reciprocal teaching and reviews research examining its effects on comprehension disabled subjects. (MM)|

Moore, Phillip J.

1988-01-01

339

National Survey of Reading Comprehension in Finland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the cognitively high-level text processing, or macro-processing, of expository passages. Investigates reading comprehension during the sixth and ninth school years. Finds that girls outperformed boys regardless of the comprehension measure and also finds that performance on both measures, but particularly on hierarchy-rating, correlated…

Lehto, Juhani E.; Scheinin, Patrik; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hautamaki, Jarkko

2001-01-01

340

Comprehensive, Technology-Based Clinical Education: The \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of technology to promote more comprehensive clinical education in the biopsychosocial aspects of primary care. Comprehensive refers to the inclusion, in addition to scientific and technical knowledge, of knowledge that is less easily characterized, quantified, and taught: empathy, intuition, the demonstration of artistry. Clinical education will be increasingly facilitated by the proliferation of computers capable

Joseph V. Henderson

1998-01-01

341

CYGD: the Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database (CYGD) compiles a comprehensive data resource for information on the cellular functions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species, cho- sen as the best understood model organism for eukar- yotes. The database serves as a common resource generated by a European consortium, going beyond the provision of sequence information and functional annotations on individual

Ulrich Güldener; Martin Münsterkötter; Gabi Kastenmüller; Normann Strack; Jacques Van Helden; Christian Lemer; J. Richelles; Shoshana J. Wodak; J. García-martínez; J. E. Pérez-ortín; Holger Michael; Andreas Kaps; E. Talla; Bernard Dujon; B. André; J. L. Souciet; J. De Montigny; E. Bon; C. Gaillardin; Hans-werner Mewes

2005-01-01

342

Brain Activation Modulated by Sentence Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comprehension of visually presented sentences produces brain activation that increases with the linguistic complexity of the sentence. The volume of neural tissue activated (number of voxels) during sentence comprehension was measured with echoplanar functional magnetic resonance imaging. The modulation of the volume of activation by sentence complexity was observed in a network of four areas: the classical left-hemisphere language

Marcel Adam Just; Patricia A. Carpenter; Timothy A. Keller; William F. Eddy; Keith R. Thulborn

1996-01-01

343

An Analysis of a Commercial Furniture Refinisher: A Comprehensive Introductory NMR Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment designed to introduce undergraduate organic chemistry students to measurement/interpretation of NMR parameters. Students investigate chemical shift analysis, spin-spin coupling, peak integrations, effect of deuterium oxide extraction, and comparisons with literature spectra;…

Markow, Peter G.; Cramer, John A.

1983-01-01

344

The neural correlates of strategic reading comprehension: Cognitive control and discourse comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroimaging studies of text comprehension conducted thus far have shed little light on the brain mechanisms underlying strategic learning from text. Thus, the present study was designed to answer the question of what brain areas are active during performance of complex reading strategies. Reading comprehension strategies are designed to improve a reader's comprehension of a text. For example, self-explanation is

Jarrod Moss; Christian D. Schunn; Walter Schneider; Danielle S. McNamara; Kurt VanLehn

2011-01-01

345

An Analysis of Decoding, Comprehension, and Story Text Comprehensibility in Four First-Grade Reading Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a content analysis of four popular first-grade basal series, examining decoding and comprehension instruction in teachers' manuals, student texts, workbooks, and supplementary activity packages. Reports that none of the programs present a balanced approach to teaching decoding and comprehension with very comprehensible stories. (MM)|

Meyer, Linda A.; And Others

1987-01-01

346

Nuclear material operations manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

Tyler, R.P.

1981-02-01

347

Test Differences in Diagnosing Reading Comprehension Deficits  

PubMed Central

We examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. We had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, we found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are due to weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables - word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill – to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed.

Keenan, Janice M.; Meenan, Chelsea E.

2012-01-01

348

Test Differences in Diagnosing Reading Comprehension Deficits.  

PubMed

The authors examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. They had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, the authors found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are the result of weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables-word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill-to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed. PMID:22442251

Keenan, Janice; Meenan, Chelsea E

2012-03-21

349

Idiom comprehension in Mandarin-speaking children.  

PubMed

This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group). Laval (Journal of Pragmatics 35(2):723-739, 2003) showed that familiarity had an effect on idiom comprehension for French 9-year-olds. However, our finding showed that familiarity was important for 6-year-old Chinese children when a context was not given. Abkarian et al. (Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 35:580-587, 1992) claimed that context has little or no effect on comprehension for children under 6. Our results show that context has an effect on 6-year-old children's understanding of idioms in a different way. Overall, our major research findings are: (1) Familiarity first appeared in responses at age 6. (2) Context played an important role in idiom comprehension and had different effects on different age groups. (3) Linguistic convention starts from age 6 on, and a significant effect took place at the age of 9. (4) Metapragmatic knowledge showed at the age of 6 and could surface even younger. As context and linguistic convention have a substantial effect on the comprehension of idioms, it is necessary to take them into account to explain language functioning and communicative situations. PMID:20043210

Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie

2010-12-01

350

Nuclear waste: beyond Faust and fate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regarding development of the nuclear industry and the resulting turmoil over generation of nuclear wastes, Dr. Maxey presents as a fundamental bioethical principle for organizing evidence and dealing with conflicting opinions the following formulation: social justice requires an equitable mangement of potential hazards that might have harmful health effects and unjustifiable social consequences. By equitable management she means: (1) comprehensively

Maxey

1979-01-01

351

Comprehensive Risk Analysis for Structure Type Selection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optimization of bridge selection and design traditionally has been sought in terms of the finished structure. This study presents a more comprehensive risk-based analysis that includes user costs and accidents during the construction phase. Costs for brid...

B. Beams D. E. Hattan R. B. Corotis

2010-01-01

352

Using Television Commercials to Develop Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that teachers can use reluctant readers' sensitivity to and sophistication with "musicomedy" to both assess and develop reading comprehension. Discusses several class activities using the musical and humorous expressions in television commercials for fulfilling this objective. (RS)

Bowman, James D.; Bowman, S. Ray

1991-01-01

353

Comprehensive Plan for Lake Zurich, Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The comprehensive plan report analyses the economic base of the community, existing physical conditions, population projections, housing conditions, soil, flooding conditions, etc. Projections and recommendations based on the above studies are shown on th...

1969-01-01

354

TextLearner System: Reading Learning Comprehension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of DARPA's Reading Learning Comprehension seedling was to determine the feasibility of autonomous knowledge acquisition through the analysis of text. This report describes the results of that effort by detailing the capabilities of the TextLearne...

J. Curtis M. Witbrock J. Baxter P. Wagner B. Aldag

2006-01-01

355

Role of Working Memory in Language Comprehension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This chapter provides an account of the transient computational and storage demands that typically arise during comprehension, and of the information management policies that attempt to satisfy those demands. The chapter describes a number of recent studi...

P. A. Carpenter M. A. Just

1988-01-01

356

Mycoinsecticides: comprehensive list and current status  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study aimed to assemble a comprehensive list of mycoinsecticides developed worldwide. A variety of sources, including scientific publications, personal communications, and websites from manufacturers and regulatory agencies, was accessed. During the last four decades, ca. 80 companies worldwide...

357

A Comprehensive Bibliography of Ball Lightning Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive bibliography of ball lightning reports and associated references has been accumulated. The ball lightning references were taken from reports published on scientific journals during the past 350 years. The bibliography is listed in alphabet...

J. D. Barry

1974-01-01

358

Greater St. Louis Comprehensive Health Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first edition of the Greater St. Louis Comprehensive Health Plan is presented by the Alliance for Regional Community Health, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri. The planning area encompasses three Illinois counties and four Missouri counties, as well as St. Lo...

1975-01-01

359

Automated Comprehension Assessment in a Reading Tutor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can vocabulary and comprehension assessments be generated automatically for a given text? We describe the automated method used to generate, administer, and score multiple-choice vocabulary and comprehension questions in the 2001-2002 version of Project LISTEN's Reading Tutor. To validate the method against the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, we analyzed 69,326 multiple-choice cloze items generated in the course of regular Reading

Jack Mostow; Brian Tobin; Andrew Cuneo

2002-01-01

360

The validity of reading comprehension therapy materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the degree to which reading comprehension therapy materials measure reading comprehension. Thirty-six non-brain-damaged adults (18 females, 18 males) ranging in age from 55 to 75 years participated. They answered written multiple-choice questions from aphasia therapy workbooks before and after reading the paragraphs (n = 40) to which the questions related. Results showed that for each of four

Colette A. Thomas; Susan T. Jackson

1997-01-01

361

Improving the comprehension of disabled readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students with learning disabilities (LD) often have difficulty comprehending what they read. Although reading comprehension\\u000a problems frequently are associated with inadequate word recognition, students also have difficulties related to comprehension\\u000a itself—a passive approach to the reading task, insensitivity to text structure, and poor metacognitive skills. The reading\\u000a and language arts curricula that have emerged from today’s constructivist paradigm can pose

Joanna P. Williams

1998-01-01

362

Language comprehension errors: A further investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehension errors made when attempting mathematical word problems have been noted as one of the high frequency categories in error analysis. This error category has been assumed to be language based. The study reported here provides some support for the linkage of comprehension errors to measures of language competency. Further, there is evidence that the frequency of such errors is related to competency in both the mother tongue and the language of instruction for bilingual students.

Clarkson, Philip C.

1991-06-01

363

Semantic Adaptation and Competition during Word Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Word comprehension engages the left ventrolateral prefrontal (lVLPFC) and posterior lateral-temporal cortices (PLTC). The contributions of these brain regions to comprehension remain controversial. We hypothesized that the PLTC activates meanings, whereas the lVLPFC resolves competition between representations. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the independent effects of adaptation and competition on neural activity.

Marina Bedny; Megan McGill; S. L. Thompson-Schill

2008-01-01

364

EPS Workshop on Nuclear Winters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop was held in Geneva in October 1986 and was attended by invited delegates from both East (14) and West (13), members of the ACPS (5) and the President. Relevant disciplines as well as Physics were represented which lead to comprehensive discussions.The factors which have a bearing on the probabilities of a nuclear winter were reviewed using the SCOPE-ENUWAR

D H Parkinson

1988-01-01

365

EPS Workshop on Nuclear Winters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop was held in Geneva in October 1986 and was attended by invited delegates from both East (14) and West (13), members of the ACPS (5) and the President. Relevant disciplines as well as Physics were represented which lead to comprehensive discussions. The factors which have a bearing on the probabilities of a nuclear winter were reviewed using the

D. H. Parkinson

1988-01-01

366

The Effects of Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling

Glasstone; Samuel

1957-01-01

367

A Multidisciplinary Study of the DPRK Nuclear Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Democratic People Republic of Korea announced two underground nuclear tests carried out in their territory respectively on October 9th, 2006 and May 25th, 2009. The scarce information on the precise location and the size of those explosions has stimulated various kinds of studies, mostly based on seismological observations, by several national agencies concerned with the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification. We analysed the available seismological data collected through a global high-quality network for the two tests. After picking up the arrival times at the various stations, a standard location program has been applied to the observed data. If we use all the available data for each single event, due to the different magnitude and different number of available stations, the locations appear quite different. On the contrary, if we use only the common stations, they happen to be only few km apart from each other and within their respective error ellipses. A more accurate relative location has been carried out by the application of algorithms such as double difference joint hypocenter determination (DDJHD) and waveform alignment. The epicentral distance between the two events obtained by these methods is 2 km, with the 2006 event shifted to the ESE with respect to that of 2009. We then used a dataset of VHR TerraSAR-X satellite images to detect possible surface effects of the underground tests. This is the first ever case where these highly performing SAR data have been used to such aim. We applied InSAR processing technique to fully exploit the capabilities of SAR data to measure very short displacements over large areas. Two interferograms have been computed, one co-event and one post-event, to remove possible residual topographic signals. A clear displacement pattern has been highlighted over a mountainous area within the investigated region, measuring a maximum displacement of about 45 mm overall the relief. Hypothesizing that the 2009 nuclear test had been carried out close to the area where the displacement has been observed through the DInSAR technique, its relation with the epicenter location obtained through seismological processing has been discussed as a possible alternative hypothesis with respect to the preferred solutions reported by the nuclear explosion database (NEDB). The distance of about 10 km between the two places can be considered acceptable in light of the possible systematic location shifts commonly observed in the seismological practice over a global scale. The difference between the m b magnitudes of the two tests could reflect differences in geological conditions of the two test sites, even if the yield of the two explosions had been the same.

Carluccio, R.; Giuntini, A.; Materni, V.; Chiappini, S.; Bignami, C.; D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Pignatelli, A.; Stramondo, S.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.

2012-12-01

368

Nuclear energy and materials in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Nuclear Vision Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is examining a range of long-term nuclear energy futures as well as exploring and assessing optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies. An established global energy, economics, environmental (E³) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are

R. A. Krakowski; J. W. Davidson; C. G. Bathke

1997-01-01

369

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2010-10-01

370

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2009-10-01

371

Upland Farmers' Comprehension of Pictorial Messages on Environmental Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study to explore Filipino farmers' comprehension of pictorial messages on environmental protection found that educational attainment, visual exposure, and knowledge of environmental protection positively influenced visual comprehension. Color did not necessarily improve comprehension. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)|

Gravoso, R. S.; Stuart, T. H.

2000-01-01

372

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2012-10-01

373

Contamination of Alpine snow and ice at Colle Gnifetti, Swiss/Italian Alps, from nuclear weapons tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium is present in the environment as a consequence of atmospheric nuclear tests, nuclear weapons production and industrial releases over the past 50 years. To study temporal trends, a high resolution Pu record was obtained by analyzing 52 discrete samples of an alpine firn/ice core from Colle Gnifetti (Monte Rosa, 4450 m a.s.l.), dating from 1945 to 1990. The 239Pu signal was recorded directly, without decontamination or preconcentration steps, using an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Sector Field Mass Spectrometer (ICP-SFMS) equipped with an high efficiency sample introduction system, thus requiring much less sample preparation than previously reported methods. The 239Pu profile reflects the three main periods of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing: the earliest peak lasted from 1954/55 to 1958 and was caused by the first testing period reaching a maximum in 1958. Despite a temporary halt of testing in 1959/60, the Pu concentration decreased only by half with respect to the 1958 peak due to long atmospheric residence times. In 1961/62 Pu concentrations rapidly increased reaching a maximum in 1963, which was about 40% more intense than the 1958 peak. After the signing of the "Limited Test Ban Treaty" between USA and USSR in 1964, Pu deposition decreased very sharply reaching a minimum in 1967. The third period (1967-1975) is characterized by irregular Pu concentrations with smaller peaks (about 20-30% of the 1964 peak) which might be related to the deposition of Saharan dust contaminated by the French nuclear tests of the 1960s. The data presented are in very good agreement with Pu profiles previously obtained from the Col du Dome ice core (by multi-collector ICP-MS) and Belukha ice core (by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, AMS). Although a semi-quantitative method was employed here, the results are quantitatively comparable to previously published results.

Gabrieli, Jacopo; Cozzi, Giulio; Vallelonga, Paul; Schwikowski, Margit; Sigl, Michael; Eickenberg, Jost; Wacker, Lukas; Boutron, Claude; Gäggeler, Heinz; Cescon, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo

2011-01-01

374

Field test of the PNNL Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA)  

SciTech Connect

As part of the requirements of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Automated Radioxenon/Sampler Analyzer (ARSA) was designed and engineered by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The instrument is to provide near real-time detection and measurement of the radioxenons released into the atmosphere after a nuclear test. Forty-six field tests, designed to determine the performance of the ARSA prototype under simulated field conditions, were conducted at EML from March to December 1997. This final report contains detailed results of the tests with recommendations for improvements in instrument performance.

Lagomarsino, R.J.; Ku, E.; Latner, N.; Sanderson, C.G.

1998-07-01

375

Temporal dynamics of verbal object comprehension  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the stage composition and the temporal dynamics of human cognitive operations is critical for building theories of higher mental activity. This information has been difficult to acquire, even with different combinations of techniques such as refined behavioral testing, electrical recording/interference, and metabolic imaging studies. Verbal object comprehension was studied herein in a single individual, by using three tasks (object naming, auditory word comprehension, and visual word comprehension), two languages (English and Farsi), and four techniques (stimulus manipulation, direct cortical electrical interference, electrocorticography, and a variation of the technique of direct cortical electrical interference to produce time-delimited effects, called timeslicing), in a subject in whom indwelling subdural electrode arrays had been placed for clinical purposes. Electrical interference at a pair of electrodes on the left lateral occipitotemporal gyrus interfered with naming in both languages and with comprehension in the language tested (English). The naming and comprehension deficit resulted from interference with processing of verbal object meaning. Electrocorticography indices of cortical activation at this site during naming started 250–300 msec after visual stimulus presentation. By using the timeslicing technique, which varies the onset of electrical interference relative to the behavioral task, we found that completion of processing for verbal object meaning varied from 450 to 750 msec after current onset. This variability was found to be a function of the subject’s familiarity with the objects.

Hart, John; Crone, Nathan E.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Sieracki, Jeffrey; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Hall, Charles; Sherman, David; Gordon, Barry

1998-01-01

376

CYGD: the Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database.  

PubMed

The Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database (CYGD) compiles a comprehensive data resource for information on the cellular functions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species, chosen as the best understood model organism for eukaryotes. The database serves as a common resource generated by a European consortium, going beyond the provision of sequence information and functional annotations on individual genes and proteins. In addition, it provides information on the physical and functional interactions among proteins as well as other genetic elements. These cellular networks include metabolic and regulatory pathways, signal transduction and transport processes as well as co-regulated gene clusters. As more yeast genomes are published, their annotation becomes greatly facilitated using S.cerevisiae as a reference. CYGD provides a way of exploring related genomes with the aid of the S.cerevisiae genome as a backbone and SIMAP, the Similarity Matrix of Proteins. The comprehensive resource is available under http://mips.gsf.de/genre/proj/yeast/. PMID:15608217

Güldener, U; Münsterkötter, M; Kastenmüller, G; Strack, N; van Helden, J; Lemer, C; Richelles, J; Wodak, S J; García-Martínez, J; Pérez-Ortín, J E; Michael, H; Kaps, A; Talla, E; Dujon, B; André, B; Souciet, J L; De Montigny, J; Bon, E; Gaillardin, C; Mewes, H W

2005-01-01

377

CYGD: the Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database  

PubMed Central

The Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database (CYGD) compiles a comprehensive data resource for information on the cellular functions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species, chosen as the best understood model organism for eukaryotes. The database serves as a common resource generated by a European consortium, going beyond the provision of sequence information and functional annotations on individual genes and proteins. In addition, it provides information on the physical and functional interactions among proteins as well as other genetic elements. These cellular networks include metabolic and regulatory pathways, signal transduction and transport processes as well as co-regulated gene clusters. As more yeast genomes are published, their annotation becomes greatly facilitated using S.cerevisiae as a reference. CYGD provides a way of exploring related genomes with the aid of the S.cerevisiae genome as a backbone and SIMAP, the Similarity Matrix of Proteins. The comprehensive resource is available under http://mips.gsf.de/genre/proj/yeast/.

Guldener, U.; Munsterkotter, M.; Kastenmuller, G.; Strack, N.; van Helden, J.; Lemer, C.; Richelles, J.; Wodak, S. J.; Garcia-Martinez, J.; Perez-Ortin, J. E.; Michael, H.; Kaps, A.; Talla, E.; Dujon, B.; Andre, B.; Souciet, J. L.; De Montigny, J.; Bon, E.; Gaillardin, C.; Mewes, H. W.

2005-01-01

378

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear

C. Cassel; M. McCally; H. Abraham

1984-01-01

379

Prediction in Language Comprehension beyond Specific Words: An ERP Study on Sentence Comprehension in Polish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recently, several ERP studies have shown that the human language comprehension system anticipates words that are highly likely continuations of a given text. However, it remains an open issue whether the language comprehension system can also make predictions that go beyond a specific word. Here, we address the question of whether readers predict…

Szewczyk, Jakub M.; Schriefers, Herbert

2013-01-01

380

Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first- through fifth-grade classrooms, a total of 751 minutes (or 25% of instructional time) was

Molly Ness

2011-01-01

381

Windows on Comprehension: Reading Comprehension Processes as Revealed by Two Think-Aloud Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address methodological questions regarding use of the think-aloud (TA) procedure and theoretical questions regarding the roles of prior knowledge and strategy use in reading comprehension, 24 college students each read 3 passages in 3 different presentation modes (marked TA, unmarked TA, and control) and answered essay comprehension questions. There was no effect of presentation mode on essay scores. TA

Catherine Crain-Thoreson; Marcia Z. Lippman; Deborah McClendon-Magnuson

1997-01-01

382

Direct Instruction of Comprehension: Instructional Examples From Intervention Research on Listening and Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of direct instruction in promoting listening and reading comprehension. Instructional examples from 2 programs of intervention research focused on improving comprehension; the Story Read Aloud Program and the Embedded Story Structure Routine are used to illustrate principles of direct instruction. An analysis of these 2 approaches suggests that direct instruction principles are effective in supporting

Michael D. Coyne; Richard P. Zipoli Jr; David J. Chard; Michael Faggella-Luby; Maureen Ruby; Lana E. Santoro; Scott Baker

2009-01-01

383

Deconstructing Comprehensibility: Identifying the Linguistic Influences on Listeners' L2 Comprehensibility Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comprehensibility, a major concept in second language (L2) pronunciation research that denotes listeners' perceptions of how easily they understand L2 speech, is central to interlocutors' communicative success in real-world contexts. Although comprehensibility has been modeled in several L2 oral proficiency scales--for example, the Test of…

Isaacs, Talia; Trofimovich, Pavel

2012-01-01

384

Cognitive Control and Discourse Comprehension in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits across a wide range of domains have been consistently observed in schizophrenia and are linked to poor functional outcome (Green, 1996; Carter, 2006). Language abnormalities are among the most salient and include disorganized speech as well as deficits in comprehension. In this review, we aim to evaluate impairments of language processing in schizophrenia in relation to a domain-general control deficit. We first provide an overview of language comprehension in the healthy human brain, stressing the role of cognitive control processes, especially during discourse comprehension. We then discuss cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia, before turning to evidence suggesting that schizophrenia patients are particularly impaired at processing meaningful discourse as a result of deficits in control functions. We conclude that domain-general control mechanisms are impaired in schizophrenia and that during language comprehension this is most likely to result in difficulties during the processing of discourse-level context, which involves integrating and maintaining multiple levels of meaning. Finally, we predict that language comprehension in schizophrenia patients will be most impaired during discourse processing. We further suggest that discourse comprehension problems in schizophrenia might be mitigated when conflicting information is absent and strong relations amongst individual words are present in the discourse context. “There is no “centre of Speech” in the brain any more than there is a faculty of Speech in the mind. The entire brain, more or less, is at work in a man who uses language”William JamesFrom The Principles of Psychology, 1890“The mind in dementia praecox is like an orchestra without a conductor”Kraepelin, 1919

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Carter, Cameron S.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2012-01-01

385

Cognitive control and discourse comprehension in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits across a wide range of domains have been consistently observed in schizophrenia and are linked to poor functional outcome (Green, 1996; Carter, 2006). Language abnormalities are among the most salient and include disorganized speech as well as deficits in comprehension. In this review, we aim to evaluate impairments of language processing in schizophrenia in relation to a domain-general control deficit. We first provide an overview of language comprehension in the healthy human brain, stressing the role of cognitive control processes, especially during discourse comprehension. We then discuss cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia, before turning to evidence suggesting that schizophrenia patients are particularly impaired at processing meaningful discourse as a result of deficits in control functions. We conclude that domain-general control mechanisms are impaired in schizophrenia and that during language comprehension this is most likely to result in difficulties during the processing of discourse-level context, which involves integrating and maintaining multiple levels of meaning. Finally, we predict that language comprehension in schizophrenia patients will be most impaired during discourse processing. We further suggest that discourse comprehension problems in schizophrenia might be mitigated when conflicting information is absent and strong relations amongst individual words are present in the discourse context."There is no "centre of Speech" in the brain any more than there is a faculty of Speech in the mind.The entire brain, more or less, is at work in a man who uses language"William JamesFrom The Principles of Psychology, 1890"The mind in dementia praecox is like an orchestra without a conductor"Kraepelin, 1919. PMID:22970364

Boudewyn, Megan A; Carter, Cameron S; Swaab, Tamara Y

2012-04-08

386

ADVANCED WAVEFORM SIMULATION FOR SEISMIC MONITORING EVENTS  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive test ban monitoring in terms of location and discrimination has progressed significantly in recent years. However, the characterization of sources and the estimation of low yields remains a particular challenge.

Helmberger, Donald V.; Tromp, Jeroen; Rodgers, Arthur J.

2007-06-30

387

Statistical classification methods applied to seismic discrimination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides background information on various statistical classification methods and discusses the relevance of each method in the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) seismic discrimination setting. Criteria for classification method selection a...

F. M. Ryan D. N. Anderson K. K. Anderson D. N. Hagedorn K. T. Higbee

1996-01-01

388

Waveform Correlation Event Detection System project, Phase II: Testing with the IDC primary network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Further improvements to the Waveform Correlation Event Detection System (WCEDS) developed by Sandia Laboratory have made it possible to test the system on the accepted Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) seismic monitoring network. For our test interval ...

C. J. Young J. I. Beiriger S. G. Moore

1998-01-01

389

Does simile comprehension differ from metaphor comprehension? A functional MRI study.  

PubMed

Since Aristotle, people have believed that metaphors and similes express the same type of figurative meaning, despite the fact that they are expressed with different sentence patterns. In contrast, recent psycholinguistic models have suggested that metaphors and similes may promote different comprehension processes. In this study, we investigated the neural substrates involved in the comprehension of metaphor and simile using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate whether simile comprehension differs from metaphor comprehension or not. In the metaphor and simile sentence conditions, higher activation was seen in the left inferior frontal gyrus. This result suggests that the activation in both metaphor and simile conditions indicates similar patterns in the left frontal region. The results also suggest that similes elicit higher levels of activation in the medial frontal region which might be related to inference processes, whereas metaphors elicit more right-sided prefrontal activation which might be related to figurative language comprehension. PMID:22534570

Shibata, Midori; Toyomura, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroki; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Abe, Jun-Ichi

2012-04-24

390

A comprehensive bibliography of linguistic steganography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will attempt to give a comprehensive bibliographic account of the work in linguistic steganography published up to date. As the field is still in its infancy there is no widely accepted publication venue. Relevant work on the subject is scattered throughout the literature on information security, information hiding, imaging and watermarking, cryptology, and natural language processing. Bibliographic references within the field are very sparse. This makes literature research on linguistic steganography a tedious task and a comprehensive bibliography a valuable aid to the researcher.

Bergmair, Richard

2007-02-01

391

Large mining blasts from the Kursk Mining Region, Russia  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at magnitude levels where industrial explosions (primarily, mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded, and may for some countries dominate the seismicity. Thus, data on blasting practice have both political significance for the negotiation of treaties involving seismic monitoring of nuclear tests, and operational applications in terms of establishing monitoring and inspection needs on a mine-by-mine basis. While it is generally accepted that mining explosions contribute to seismicity at lower seismic magnitudes (less than about magnitude 3.5), the rate of mining seismicity as a function of seismic magnitude is unknown for most countries outside the U.S. This results in a large uncertainty when estimating the task of discriminating nuclear explosions from chemical explosions and earthquakes, by seismic means, under a comprehensive nuclear test ban. This uncertainty directly affects estimates of seismic network enhancements required to achieve treaty verification requirements at magnitudes less than about 3.5. 24 refs., 64 figs., 11 tabs.

Leith, W. Adushkin, V.; Spivak, A.

1997-01-01

392

Reading Comprehension and Understanding Idiomatic Expressions: A Developmental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a…

Chiara Levorato, Maria; Nesi, Barbara; Cacciari, Cristina

2004-01-01

393

Electrofibrous Prefilters for Use in Nuclear Ventilation Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have established a comprehensive program for the US Department of Energy to develop electrofibrous prefilters to extend the life of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters that are used in the nuclear industry. We have selected the electrofibrou...

W. Bergman W. D. Kuhl W. L. Russell R. D. Taylor H. D. Hebard

1981-01-01

394

Nuclear weapons databook. Volume V: British, French, and Chinese nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

How insecurity and the search military independence drove post World War II nuclear proliferation beyond the United States and the Soviet Union is the subject of the latest and most voluminous title in the Natural Resources Defense Council`s highly acclaimed Nuclear Weapons Databook series. Volume 5 explains how atomic and thermonuclear weapons spread to Britain, France, and China despite the political turmoil and economic hardship that beset these countries. The history of the British nuclear weapons program includes the most comprehensive collection of photos and specifications of British warheads and nuclear tests ever assembled in one publication. The role of the United States in the French nuclear weapons program is discussed. This is a comprehensive source for the mechanics and politics of nuclear weapons proliferation.

Norris, R.S.; Burrows, A.S.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

1994-12-31

395

The Yeast Nuclear Pore Complex: Composition, Architecture, and Transport Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of how the nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic exchange requires a comprehensive inventory of the molecular components of the NPC and a knowledge of how each component contributes to the overall structure of this large molecular translocation machine. Therefore, we have taken a comprehensive approach to classify all components of the yeast NPC (nucleoporins). This in- volved

Michael P. Rout; John D. Aitchison; Adisetyantari Suprapto; Kelly Hjertaas; Yingming Zhao; Brian T. Chait

2000-01-01

396

Instructional Approaches that Significantly Increase Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the most widely used literacy instructional approaches on the reading comprehension of Grade 2-6 students. Participants (N = 660) were enrolled in 4 districts in the United States; 53% were male (n = 348) and 47% were female (n = 312); 51% were Caucasian (n = 338), 23% were African American…

Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Reed, Kelly L.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.; Cleveland, Maggie D.

2009-01-01

397

A Comprehensive Analysis of Marketing Journal Rankings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive assessment of journal standings in Marketing from two perspectives. The discipline perspective of rankings is obtained from a collection of published journal ranking studies during the past 15 years. The studies in the published ranking stream are assessed for reliability by examining internal…

Steward, Michelle D.; Lewis, Bruce R.

2010-01-01

398

Osteoporosis: the need for comprehensive treatment guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that results in nearly 1.3 million fractures per year in the United States. The cost of treating these fractures has been estimated to be as high as $10 billion per year. These costs are expected to more than double during the next 50 years unless comprehensive programs of prevention and treatment are initiated. Both pharmacologic

Thomas A. Abbott; Bryan J. Lawrence; Stanley Wallach

1996-01-01

399

On Linguistic Structure and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stella Center's belief in the basic importance of grammatical structure as a factor in reading comprehension substantiated the author's theory that the ability to comprehend syntactic structure is positively correlated with the ability to comprehend meaning. Original instruments devised to test this hypothesis included a test which utilized…

O'Donnell, Roy C.

400

Listening Skill Development through Massive Comprehensible Input.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreign language listening comprehension instruction too often relies on brief selections read aloud or sporadic teacher talk interspersed with native language (NL) utterances, which fail to provide sustained listening practice. NL is overused for grammar-related talk, reducing target language exposure, encouraging translation, and hindering…

Kalivoda, Theodore B.

401

Disfluencies, language comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disfluencies include editing terms such as uh and um as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and psycholinguistics, and then we summarize the results of our

Fernanda Ferreira; Ellen F. Lau; Karl G. D. Bailey

2004-01-01

402

Higher Education in India: A Comprehensive Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a comprehensive bibliography of higher education in India. It constitutes a resource for scholars, policymakers, planners, and administrators concerned with higher education in India. The book contains 2,485 entries arranged under 50 themes. Each theme is classified into four types of material: books; articles; annotated…

Raza, Moonis; Malhotra, Nirmal

403

Cue-Dependent Interference in Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of interference as a primary determinant of forgetting in memory has long been accepted, however its role as a contributor to poor comprehension is just beginning to be understood. The current paper reports two studies, in which speed-accuracy tradeoff and eye-tracking methodologies were used with the same materials to provide converging…

Van Dyke, Julie A.; McElree, Brian

2011-01-01

404

Comprehensive Community Environmental Inventory, Yarmouth, Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is a compilation and evaluation of data gathered from an inventory of the natural and man-made features of a community (Yarmouth, Maine). It brings together comprehensive information which may help local governmental officials, citizens, and students gain a broad understanding of their environment and its associated problems.…

Bennett, Dean B.

405

Functional MRI studies of auditory comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location of brain regions essential for auditory language comprehension is an important consideration in the planning of neurosurgical procedures that involve resections within the dominant temporal lobe. Language testing during intraoperative and extraoperative cortical stimulation has been the primary method for localizing these regions; however, noninvasive alternatives using functional neuroim- aging have been sought. Here we report on a

Michael J. Schlosser; Nobuhisa Aoyagi; Robert K. Fulbright; John C. Gore; Gregory McCarthy

1998-01-01

406

Morphology in language comprehension, production and acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Special Issue on Morphological Processing is based on the sixth MOrphological PROcessing Conference (MOPROC), which was kept in June 2009 in Turku, Finland. The issue contains 13 articles by leading scholars in the field of morphological processing. These articles investigate the role morphemes play in language comprehension, production and acquisition. Specific questions relate to the time course with which

Raymond Bertram; Jukka Hyönä; Matti Laine

2011-01-01

407

Comprehensive Musicianship: An Anthology of Evolving Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This anthology of articles and speeches by associates of the Contemporary Music Project traces the development of the theory of comprehensive musicianship during the first ten years (1959-1969) of the Project activities, providing a history of the program. Part I details the initial music education program--the Young Composers Project through…

Music Educators National Conference, Washington, DC. Contemporary Music Project.

408

Disfluencies, Language Comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disfluencies include editing terms such as "uh" and "um" as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and…

Ferreira, Fernanda; Lau, Ellen F.; Bailey, Karl G. D.

2004-01-01

409

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in the Office  

PubMed Central

Because of their increased incidence of illness and disability, geriatric patients require extra time and diligence to assess and track medical problems. This article describes a comprehensive geriatirc assessment, organized on a one-page, easily updated checklist, that can be used to generate a medical and functional problem list and a risk assessment. Imagesp2190-a

Pereles, Laurie R.M.; Boyle, Neil G.H.

1991-01-01

410

Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

2006-01-01

411

City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1913, City of Hope began focusing on cancer research and treatment in the late 1940s. Receiving its NCI designation in 1981 and its designation as a comprehensive cancer center in 1998, City of Hope is today a biomedical research, treatment, and education center.

412

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (NMCD): A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Information Rx column reviews resources of interest to medical libraries. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (NMCD) is an evidence-based database for medical, nursing, pharmacy, and pharmacy technician programs and health care providers. It provides descriptions and efficacy information on complementary, alternative, and integrative medicines and techniques. There are four versions of NMCD: book version, PDA version, professional version, and consumer

Lisa D. Travis

2011-01-01

413

Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and…

Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

2007-01-01

414

Children's Production and Comprehension of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to discover possible patterns in question acquisition. For the production study, questions were collected from 22 children aged two to eleven. In the comprehension study, 100 children, aged three to five, were tested. The test controlled syntax and vocabulary and varied specific "wh-" question-words. (Author/RM)

Tyack, Dorothy; Ingram, David

1977-01-01

415

Disfluencies, Language Comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Disfluencies include editing terms such as "uh" and "um" as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and…

Ferreira, Fernanda; Lau, Ellen F.; Bailey, Karl G. D.

2004-01-01

416

Dichotic listening performance predicts language comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dichotic listening performance is considered a reliable and valid procedure for the assessment of language lateralisation in the brain. However, the documentation of a relationship between language functions and dichotic listening performance is sparse, although it is accepted that dichotic listening measures language perception. In particular, language comprehension should show close correspondence to perception of language stimuli. In the present

Arve E. Asbjørnsen; Turid Helland

2006-01-01

417

Comprehensive Characterization a Tidal Energy Site (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington is the proposed location of a pilot tidal energy project. Site-specific characterization of the physical and biological environment is required for device engineering and environmental analysis. However, the deep water and strong currents which make the site attractive for tidal energy development also pose unique challenges to collecting comprehensive information. This talk focuses on

B. L. Polagye; J. M. Thomson; C. S. Bassett; J. Epler

2010-01-01

418

Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

2010-01-01

419

Segmentation in Reading and Film Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

When reading a story or watching a film, comprehenders construct a series of representations in order to understand the events depicted. Discourse comprehension theories and a recent theory of perceptual event segmentation both suggest that comprehenders monitor situational features such as characters’ goals, to update these representations at natural boundaries in activity. However, the converging predictions of these theories had

Jeffrey M. Zacks; Nicole K. Speer; Jeremy R. Reynolds

2009-01-01

420

Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

Connell, Louise

2007-01-01

421

Examining Reading Comprehension in Adult Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, I use a literature review to examine the nature of reading comprehension in adult literacy practice. I suggest that we need to better understand learners' sociocultural profiles and that we need to be clearer about commonly used vocabulary terms (such as background knowledge). I also suggest that we pay more attention to how…

Jacobson, Erik

2011-01-01

422

Primary school students' reading comprehension skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading comprehension is a complex process: the reader constructs meaning by interacting with text using his or her previous knowledge and experience and the information that can be found in the text. The more background information related to the text the reader possesses, the easier it is for him or her to understand the text. When reading the text he

Tuula Merisuo-Storm

423

Retell as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K-12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was…

Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon

2012-01-01

424

Comprehensive Planning for Mental Health in Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report by the Illinois Mental Health Planning Board on comprehensive community-based mental health planning in the State is provided. Five goals of mental health planning are delineated: (1) create a system that is physically able to offer appropriate s...

1975-01-01

425

Higher Education in India: A Comprehensive Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides a comprehensive bibliography of higher education in India. It constitutes a resource for scholars, policymakers, planners, and administrators concerned with higher education in India. The book contains 2,485 entries arranged under 50 themes. Each theme is classified into four types of material: books; articles; annotated…

Raza, Moonis; Malhotra, Nirmal

426

Comprehensive review of the maritime safety regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a comprehensive review of the maritime safety regimes and provides recommendations on how to improve the system. The results show a complex legal framework which generates a high amount of inspections and overlapping of inspection areas where no cross-recognition is established by the various stakeholders. While the safety system seems to be successful in eliminating substandard vessels

S. Knapp; Ph. H. B. F. Franses

2007-01-01

427

Promoting Student Comprehension with Cooperative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One study, covering the last 25 years, reports that undergraduates in college complete about 30 percent of assigned work. Would it be surprising--in these days of DVRs, Internet, texting, email, and video games--if high school and middle school students' homework completion rates were even less? What are teachers to do? Comprehension strategies,…

Fernsten, Linda A.

2012-01-01

428

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

2008-01-01

429

The Neural Substrates of Spoken Idiom Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the neural correlates of spoken idiom comprehension, we conducted an event-related functional MRI study with a "rapid sentence decision" task. The spoken sentences were equally familiar but varied in degrees of "idiom figurativeness". Our results show that "figurativeness" co-varied with neural activity in the left ventral dorsolateral…

Hillert, Dieter G.; Buracas, Giedrius T.

2009-01-01

430

Small Change: The Comprehensive School Improvement Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive School Improvement Program (CSIP), which was mandated by New York State to address issues of school reform, was a disappointment both in the way the State conceived the program and in the way it was implemented. CSIP was designed to encourage cooperative planning among teachers, principals, parents, and other school staff to…

Kelley, Tina

431

Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

Brown, Barry N.

2009-01-01

432

Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial number of…

Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

2002-01-01

433

ROTORCRAFT AEROMECHANICS APPLICATIONS OF A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II are presented, illustrating recent developments in the aerodynamics and dynamics models, and demonstrating the technology that is needed for an adequate calculation of rotorcraft behavior. Calculations of rotor performance, airloads, structural loads, and stability are presented, including comparisons with experimental data.

Wayne Johnson; Johnson Aeronautics

1998-01-01

434

Electromagnetic micro power generator — A comprehensive survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive survey on vibration powered electromagnetic micro generator, which harvest mechanical energy from environment and convert this energy into useful electrical power for micro system and sensor node. The on-going research works on electromagnetic micro generator are reviewed as a background of this paper. Basic theories of micro generator to produce power from ambient motion by

Wong Chin Chye; Zuraini Dahari; Othman Sidek; Muhammad Azman Miskam

2010-01-01

435

The Dark Side of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), the focus of the January 2011 special issue of the "American Psychologist," is a $125 million resilience training initiative designed to reduce and prevent the adverse psychological consequences of combat for soldiers and veterans. These are worthy goals. Soldiers and veterans deserve the best care possible,…

Eidelson, Roy; Pilisuk, Marc; Soldz, Stephen

2011-01-01

436

Instructional Approaches That Significantly Increase Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the most widely used literacy instructional approaches on the reading comprehension of Grade 2–6 students. Participants (N = 660) were enrolled in 4 districts in the United States; 53% were male (n = 348) and 47% were female (n = 312); 51% were Caucasian (n = 338), 23% were

Cathy Collins Block; Sheri R. Parris; Kelly L. Reed; Cinnamon S. Whiteley; Maggie D. Cleveland

2009-01-01

437

A Comprehensive Framework for School Violence Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to help school personnel and community members who are interested in violence prevention in schools. It discusses the starting point for prevention and claims that the same basic framework can be used to develop effective plans in elementary schools and secondary schools. The paper advocates a comprehensive approach to…

George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Hamilton Fish Inst.

438

The Dark Side of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), the focus of the January 2011 special issue of the "American Psychologist," is a $125 million resilience training initiative designed to reduce and prevent the adverse psychological consequences of combat for soldiers and veterans. These are worthy goals. Soldiers and veterans deserve the best care possible,…

Eidelson, Roy; Pilisuk, Marc; Soldz, Stephen

2011-01-01

439

Comprehension: The Challenge for Children's Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to determine young children's comprehension of selected TV program content. The subjects were 210 children in grades K-2. All subjects in groups of five, were shown segments from four TV programs: a scalloped potatoes comm...

S. R. Storm

1977-01-01

440

World knowledge Driving Young Readers' Comprehension Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal in this project is to develop a better understanding of young readers' difficulties in comprehending text, and how those difficulties vary as a function of reader aptitudes and text genre. Therefore, we examined the effects of reading decoding abilities and world knowledge (assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement) on 61 third-grade readers' comprehension of narrative and

Danielle S. McNamara; Randy G. Floyd; Rachel Best; Max Louwerse

441

Improving Students' Inferential and Literal Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This action research project describes a program for improving literal and inferential reading comprehension skills aimed at increasing overall academic achievement. The targeted population consisted of third, fourth, and fifth grade students in middle class communities located in the Midwest. Evidence for the existence of the problem includes…

Fabrikant, Wendy; Siekierski, Nancy; Williams, Carolyn

442

Improving Reading Comprehension of Underprepared College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A practicum was designed to improve reading comprehension of 10 basic skills college students by providing training using 5 specific strategies and techniques. Five specific strategies based on a review of the literature were selected: (1) metacognitive awareness; (2) discussion; (3) self-monitoring charts; (4) use of pictures as an introduction…

Doughty, Irma Darrow

443

Career Education. The Comprehensive Curriculum. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development and implementation of a comprehensive career education curriculum was the major purpose of a project conducted in the Cashmere and Peshastin-Dryden School Districts (Washington), K-12. The objectives of the project were divided into the following eight work areas: curriculum development; curriculum installation; advisor/advisee…

Peshastin-Dryden School District, WA.

444

Reading Ability: Lexical Quality to Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The lexical quality hypothesis (LQH) claims that variation in the quality of word representations has consequences for reading skill, including comprehension. High lexical quality includes well-specified and partly redundant representations of form (orthography and phonology) and flexible representations of meaning, allowing for rapid and…

Perfetti, Charles

2007-01-01

445

Review of Comprehensive Sex Education Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation was undertaken by the Administration for Children and Families within the Department of Health and Human Services to inform federal policymakers of the content, medical accuracy, and effectiveness of comprehensive sex education (CSE) curricula currently in use. Nine curricula were chosen based on the frequency and strength of…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2007

2007-01-01

446

Strategic Production of Predictive Inferences During Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although some types of inferences are mandatory for readers, predictive inferences (inferences for what will happen next) are generally considered elaborative or optional. Three experiments measuring probe word lexical decision latencies produced evidence for the online generation of predictive inferences during narrative text comprehension.…

Allbritton, David

2004-01-01

447

A Language Teaching Strategy for Listening Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of listening comprehension skills in foreign language classes compared the level of retention achieved by students trained to listen and perform versus students trained to listen and observe. Physical movement during training was not shown to be a critical factor in achievement. However, the experiment revealed a significant difference in…

Maiztegui, Susana M.; Kestelman, Rosa

448

Gender and injury in Finnish comprehensive schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to analyze the gender differences in injuries at Finnish comprehensive schools. Nine schools reported a total of 1135 injuries to the injury register over two school years. Boys (56%) were injured more often than girls, their injuries happened more often during breaks at school yard, whereas girls hurt themselves during sport lectures in the

Simo Salminen; Anne Lounamaa; Marja Kurenniemi

2008-01-01

449

Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

2010-01-01

450

The Neural Substrates of Spoken Idiom Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To examine the neural correlates of spoken idiom comprehension, we conducted an event-related functional MRI study with a "rapid sentence decision" task. The spoken sentences were equally familiar but varied in degrees of "idiom figurativeness". Our results show that "figurativeness" co-varied with neural activity in the left ventral dorsolateral…

Hillert, Dieter G.; Buracas, Giedrius T.

2009-01-01

451

Newark Comprehensive Health Plan, 1976-77.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fourth annual edition of the Newark, N.J., Comprehensive Health Plan is intended to indicate the direction in which the city's health care delivery system should move in 1976 and 1977. It focuses on three main areas: personal health services, environm...

1975-01-01

452

Problems of comprehensive shared diabetes care  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its first year 747 diabetics were entered into a comprehensive shared care scheme in which general practitioners agreed to follow up their own patients. After two years patients were recalled to hospital for review through a computer based recall system. Analysis of the first 209 patients reviewed showed that the recall system worked well with failure to trace only

J L Day; H Humphreys; H Alban-Davies

1987-01-01

453

TOWARDS A COMPREHENSIVE UNDERGRADUATE INFORMATION ASSURANCE PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the experience of our institution in creating a comprehensive undergraduate information assurance (IA) program. An interdisciplinary approach was undertaken in order to include a larger portion of the student body and faculty and thus influence a broader audience. The program includes a wide variety of mutually supporting information assurance activities including a research center, coursework, an information

Gregory Conti; John Hill; Scott Lathrop; Kenneth Alford; Daniel Ragsdale

454

Segmentation in Reading and Film Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When reading a story or watching a film, comprehenders construct a series of representations in order to understand the events depicted. Discourse comprehension theories and a recent theory of perceptual event segmentation both suggest that comprehenders monitor situational features such as characters' goals, to update these representations at…

Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Speer, Nicole K.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.

2009-01-01

455

Antecedents of Children's Comprehension of Television Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares the importance of role taking and the logical operations stage of child development in predicting children's understanding of the purpose of television advertising. Research on children's comprehension of television commercials is briefly reviewed and the subjects of the study, as well as the study methodology, are described. (Author/JL)|

Faber, Ronald J.; And Others

1982-01-01

456

A comprehensive meteorological modeling system—RAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a range of applications of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a comprehensive mesoscale meterological modeling system. Applications discussed in this paper include large eddy simulations (LES) and simulations of thunderstorms, cumulus fields, mesoscale convective systems, mid-latitude cirrus clouds, winter storms, mechanically- and thermally-forced mesoscale systems, and mesoscale atmospheric disperision. A summary of current RAMS options

R. A. Pielke; W. R. Cotton; R. L. Walko; C. J. Tremback; W. A. Lyons; L. D. Grasso; M. E. Nicholls; M. D. Moran; D. A. Wesley; T. J. Lee; J. H. Copeland

1992-01-01

457

Children's Comprehension of Text: Research into Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting the concerns of researchers and practitioners about children's text comprehension, this book defines and provides examples of narrative and expository text and describes research-based strategies for helping children comprehend these two types of text. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "Research on Stories: Implications for…

Muth, K. Denise, Ed.

458

A Comprehensive Staff Approach to Problem Wandering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes specific comprehensive program implemented in intermediate care facility/skilled nursing facility that reduced problematic wandering by patients, increased patient freedom and safety, and increased staff skill and comfort in handling wandering behaviors. Describes program components, problem identification, prevention programs,…

Rader, Joanne

1987-01-01

459

Producing a Comprehensive Academic Advising Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive academic advising handbook that is attractive, useful, versatile, and inexpensive is the cornerstone of a well-developed and implemented academic advising program. Seven steps have proven effective in handbook development: (1) making the commitment--appropriate campus administrators must commit the human and financial resources to…

Ford, Jerry; Ford, Sheila Stoma

460

Using Peer Tutors to Improve Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction" presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Applying techniques to…

LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

2010-01-01

461

Deep Read: a reading comprehension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper describes initial work on Deep Read , an automated reading comprehension system that accepts arbitrary text input (a story) and answers questions about it We have acquired a corpus of 60 development and 60 test stories of 3 to 6th grade material; each story is followed by short - answer questions (an answer key was also provided)

Lynette Hirschman; Marc Light; Eric Breck; John D. Burger

1999-01-01

462

Story Comprehension of the First Grader  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the competence of twenty-five first graders aged 6 and 7, in terms of their comprehension of story, their orally told and written original fairy tales were analyzed. The first assessment scale, developed by Nancy Stein, measured the structure of the story according to six components. The second scale, designed by the author, analyzed the degree of

Marjorie Rosengard

1986-01-01

463

Sentence Comprehension and General Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the role of working memory in sentence comprehension has received substantial attention, the nature of this relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction between general, nonverbal working memory (WM) and sentence parsing (SP) in normal English-speaking adults. Accuracy and reaction times were…

Moser, Dana C.; Fridriksson, Julius; Healy, Eric W.

2007-01-01

464

Skilled Comprehension and Its Development through Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Addresses myth that children can comprehend text simply because they can decode the words in it. Provides evidence to support claim that developing readers benefit from explicit teaching of comprehension strategies via direct explanation and modeling of strategies. (Author/JDM)|

Pressley, Michael; Wharton-McDonald, Ruth

1997-01-01

465

Teaching Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Numerous comprehension strategies can be used successfully with both children's literature and a basal reading series to help children focus on written text during reading. One of the most important techniques is developing background knowledge prior to reading--the overall purpose of which is to help readers relate their existing schemata to the…

Weisenbach, E. Lynne

466

A Comprehensive Tech Prep Curriculum Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Butte College Tech Prep Consortium (TPC), in Oroville, California, is a cooperative effort of secondary and postsecondary schools, local businesses, and community organizations to develop and implement Tech Prep opportunities in the area. The TPC has developed a competency-based, comprehensive tech prep curriculum model that is applicable to…

Newman, Larry

467

The Psychology of Reading and Language Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, intended for researchers in the psychology of reading and language, college students in psychology and education, teachers of reading, and educators in general, is designed to be used in a course on the psychology of reading or the psychology of language comprehension. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "An Introduction and…

Just, Marcel Adam; Carpenter, Patricia A.

468

Autism and immune factors: A comprehensive review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cases of autistic disorder (autism) have frequently been reported in association with congenital rubella and other infections. These observations stimulated further investigation into markers of immune function in autism. Postinfectious and autoimmune mechanisms of pathophysiology have been proposed. This review comprehensively addresses immune findings to date, including the role of viruses, neuroimmune factors, cellular and humoral immunity, immunogenetics, and immunotherapy

Kimberly A. Stigler; Thayne L. Sweeten; David J. Posey; Christopher J. McDougle

2009-01-01

469

Volunteer's Guide to Comprehensive Health Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The organization and functions of areawide comprehensive health planning (CHP) agencies are described in a manual for volunteer members of small and medium-sized CHP 314(b) agencies. Although the manual can be used in orienting new agency staff members, i...

1973-01-01

470

Item Difficulty Modeling of Paragraph Comprehension Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent assessment research joining cognitive psychology and psychometric theory has introduced a new technology, item generation. In algorithmic item generation, items are systematically created based on specific combinations of features that underlie the processing required to correctly solve a problem. Reading comprehension items have been more…

Gorin, Joanna S.; Embretson, Susan E.

2006-01-01

471

A Comprehensive Enzyme Kinetic Exercise for Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme kinetics strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. Kinetic parameters are obtained for the stable…

Barton, Janice S.

2011-01-01

472

Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because an adult's literacy is measured on different dimensions from a child's or youth's, several competency-based, standardized tests of literacy are commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy. Tests such as The Adult Basic Learning Examination (ABLE), Comprehension Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS), Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE), National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAALS),

Mike Hock; Daryl Mellard

2005-01-01

473

Development of a Comprehensive Medical Error Ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical step towards reducing errors in health care is the collection and assessment of medical error data so that potential harms to patients can be identified and steps taken to prevent or mitigate them. However, no standardized framework for classifying and evaluating such data currently exists. This paper describes our efforts in developing a comprehensive medical error ontology to

Pallavi Mokkarala; Julie Brixey; Todd R. Johnson; Vimla L. Patel; Jiajie Zhang; James P. Turley

474

Regional Comprehensive Health Plan. Edition Number One.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive health plan is presented for the three counties comprising the region served by the Tri-County Health Planning Agency, Inc. The region includes 13 percent of Maine's total land area and 16 percent of the population. The twin cities of Lewi...

1975-01-01

475

Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical…

Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

2010-01-01

476

Comprehensive Written Exams: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains four papers that are answers to comprehensive examination questions of a doctoral student in instructional technology. The first paper, "Federal Support and Funding of School Library Media Programs into the 21st Century," includes sections on why federal support and funding are needed, how school library media programs…

Hardy, Janice Valerye

477

Comprehensive Community Programs for Drug Abuse Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes both a pilot and a larger research effort to implement and evaluate a comprehensive community-based approach to drug abuse prevention. Since heart disease is a side effect of youth and adult chemical abusers, models for community-based prevention in the heart disease prevention area are discussed as well as issues that are specific to the area of drug

C. Anderson Johnson; William B. Hansen; Mary Ann Pentz

1986-01-01

478

The brain circuitry of syntactic comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syntactic comprehension is a fundamental aspect of human language, and has distinct properties from other aspects of language (e.g. semantics). In this article, we aim to identify if there is a specific locus of syntax in the brain by reviewing imaging studies on syntactic processing. We conclude that results from neuroimaging support evidence from neuropsychology that syntactic processing does not

Edith Kaan; Tamara Y. Swaab

2002-01-01

479

Comprehension strategy instruction in the intermediate grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an experimental set of reading lessons focusing on strategies applied to social studies textbook material. Students received weekly lessons in comprehension monitoring, reciprocal teaching, and independent self?questioning and summarizing. Procedures were carried out for four months by classroom teachers with fifth? and sixth?grade students of average or above average

Barbara M. Taylor; Barbara J. Frye

1992-01-01

480

Comprehensive Multigene Phylogenies of Excavate Protists Reveal the Evolutionary Positions of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the protists thought to represent the deepest branches on the eukaryotic tree are assigned to a loose assemblage called the ''excavates.'' This includes the mitochondrion-lacking diplomonads and parabasalids (e.g., Giardia and Trichomonas) and the jakobids (e.g., Reclinomonas). We report the first multigene phylogenetic analyses to include a comprehensive sampling of excavate groups (six nuclear-encoded protein-coding genes, nine of

Alastair G. B. Simpson; Yuji Inagaki; Andrew J. Roger

2005-01-01

481

MitBASE : a comprehensive and integrated mitochondrial DNA database. The present status  

Microsoft Academic Search

MitBASE is an integrated and comprehensive database of mitochondrial DNA data which collects, under a single interface, databases for Plant, Vertebrate, Invertebrate, Human, Protist and Fungal mtDNA and a Pilot database on nuclear genes involved in mito- chondrial biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MitBASE reports all available information from different organisms and from intraspecies variants and mutants. Data have been drawn

Marcella Attimonelli; N. Altamatura; R. Benne; A. Brennicke; J. M. Cooper; Domenica D'elia; A. De Montalvo; B. De Pinto; Mariateresa De Robertis; P. Golik; V. Knoop; Cecilia Lanave; Jaga Lazowska; Flavio Licciulli; B. S. Malladi; F. Memeo; M. Monnerot; R. Pasimeni; Sandrine Pilbout; A. H. V. Schapira; P. Sloof; Cecilia Saccone

2000-01-01

482

Nuclear threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although significant nuclear disarmament is on the cards, the existence of nuclear weapons will continue to threaten national and international security. The main threats created by nuclear weapons are discussed in detail. Future nuclear arsenals will be much smaller than they were, but perceptions will still grow that an effective nuclear first?strike may be possible and perhaps even desirable. Such

Frank Barnaby

1992-01-01

483

Reading comprehension and understanding idiomatic expressions: A developmental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his\\/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a simple word-by-word comprehension strategy and to integrate figurative meaning into

Maria Chiara Levorato; Barbara Nesi; Cristina Cacciari

2004-01-01

484

Reliability-centered maintenance improves operations at TMI nuclear plant  

SciTech Connect

This article describes one of the first comprehensive power plant demonstrations of reliability-centered maintenance which has been successfully implemented at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant. The equipment failure trend is down significantly. This program implemented at the TMI nuclear plant is, to date, one of the most comprehensive applications of RCM methodology to a US power generation plant. Top corporate management and plant staff consider the program to be an out