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1

Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in Jeopardy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Debate in the US Senate began today on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) scheduled for a vote on Tuesday. The treaty would ban not only atmospheric testing, but also underground testing for the nations that sign and ratify it. Currently, with Senate Republicans united in their opposition, the treaty is far short of the 67 votes needed for passage. As a result, the White House and leading senate Democrats are seeking to delay the vote rather than have the treaty go down to defeat. Internationally, the treaty is still far short of sufficient support to be put into effect, needing ratification in another 21 countries before it would be considered binding. Despite the strong Senate opposition to ratification, the United States has actually observed the terms of the treaty since 1992. The sites listed provide information about the test ban treaty and the debate.

Charbonneau, David D.

2

The Test Ban Challenge: Nuclear Nonproliferation and the Quest for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past sixty years, a number of American presidents have attempted to craft a working comprehensive nuclear test ban. This digital collection from The National Security Archive at The George Washington University brings together a host of documents from the U.S. State Department and other agencies to illustrate how "nonproliferation goals shaped U.S. internal discussions of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) from the 1950s through the late 1970s." There are eleven key documents here, dating back to the 1957 draft background paper which identifies nuclear proliferation as the "fourth country" problem. The "fourth country" concept arose as the next country after the United States, Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom to obtain nuclear devices would be the so-called "fourth country". The collection was edited by William Burr and released in August 2010, and it is one that policy experts and diplomacy types will find very intriguing.

3

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT) is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. Three treaties currently bar all but underground tests with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. The Natural Resources Defense Council states th...

J. Medalia

2008-01-01

4

National Academy Study on the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the 51-48 defeat of the CTBT in the Senate, General John Schalikashvili (Former Chair, Joint Chiefs of Staff) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to examine the following technical issues, which will be summarized*: (1) US Capacity to maintain safety/reliability and design/evaluation of its nuclear stockpile without testing. (2) International/US capability to monitor a nuclear test ban, including evasion scenarios. (3) Ability of nations to increase nuclear capability with/without cheating and the potential effect on of cheating on US security * Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, National Academy Press, 2003. D. Hafemeister, Physics of Societal Issues, Springer-Verlag/AIP Press, 2004.

Hafemeister, David

2004-03-01

5

Capability to Monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 1996, the United States was the first country to sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), an international agreement to ban all nuclear test explosions, now signed by 177 nations. The treaty is intended to impede the development of nuclear weapons as part of the international nonproliferation regime. The treaty is not yet in effect because it has not been ratified by enough countries-including the United States. As a result, many of its verification provisions have not yet been fully implemented. When implemented, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the Seismological Society of America (SSA) are confident that the combined worldwide monitoring resources will meet the verification goals of the CTBT.

2008-01-01

6

Comprehensive test ban negotiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United States concerned about the problem of possible Soviet cheating and the USSR concerned about the protection of its national sovereignty. In addition, internal bureaucratic politics have played a major role in preventing the successful conclusion of an agreement. Despite these problems, the superpowers have concluded several significant partial meausres: a brief (1958-1961) total moratorium on nuclear weapons tests; the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, banning tests in the air, water and outer space; the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (150 KT limit on underground explosions); and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976 (150 KT limit on individal PNEs). Today, the main U.S. objections to a CTBT center is the nuclear weapons laboratories, the Department of Energy, and the Pentagon, who all stress the issues of stockpile reliability and verification. Those who remain committed to a CTBT emphasize and the potential political leverage it offers in checking both horizontal and vertical proliferation.

Grab, G. Allen; Heckrotte, Warren

1983-10-01

7

Introduction to the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, known as CTBT, was adopted. In this brief paper, some background information on the new organization to prepare for the effective implementation of the Treaty is given. For the benefit of the scientific community, some research topics for the implementation of the Treaty are outlined. The focus is on topics selected from the realm of

Wolfgang Hoffmann; Rashad Kebeasy; Petr Firbas

1999-01-01

8

Xenon monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do you monitor (verify) a CTBT? It is a difficult challenge to monitor the entire world for nuclear tests, regardless of size. Nuclear tests "normally" occur underground, above ground or underwater. Setting aside very small tests (let's limit our thinking to 1 kiloton or more), nuclear tests shake the ground, emit large amounts of radioactivity, and make loud noises if in the atmosphere (or hydroacoustic waves if underwater).

Bowyer, Theodore Ted W.

2014-05-01

9

Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1,000 squared kilometers. In active mining districts this area could include several different mining operations. So, an OSI could be disruptive both to the mining community and to the US Government which must host the foreign inspection team. Accordingly, it is in the best interest of all US parties to try and eliminate the possible occurrence of false alarms. This can be achieved primarily by reducing the ambiguity of mine-induced seismic signals, so that even if these remain visible to the IMS they are clearly consistent with recognizable mining patterns.

Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

1998-12-09

10

Verifying the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty by Radioxenon Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The current status of the ongoing establishment of a verification system for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty using radioxenon detection is discussed. As an example of equipment used in this application the newly developed fully automatic noble gas sampling and detection system SAUNA is described, and data collected with this system are discussed. It is concluded that the most important remaining scientific challenges in the field concern event categorization and meteorological backtracking.

Ringbom, Anders [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), S-172 90, Stockholm (Sweden)

2005-05-24

11

Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of

Trevor J. Stocki; Guichong Li; Nathalie Japkowicz; R. Kurt Ungar

2010-01-01

12

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

Graham, Thomas, Jr.

2014-05-01

13

Inverse transport for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international monitoring system is being built as a verification tool for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Forty stations will measure on a worldwide daily basis the concentration of radioactive noble gases. The paper introduces, by handling preliminary real data, a new approach of backtracking for the identification of sources of passive tracers after positive measurements. When several measurements are

J.-P. Issartel; J. Baverel

2003-01-01

14

Development of calibration techniques for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) international monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype International Data Centre (pIDC) is developing and testing concepts for the International Monitoring System that will be put into place to monitor compliance with the recently-signed Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The testing includes the routine production of a daily bulletin of global seismic activity, several days after real time, since the beginning of 1995. A wider variety

István Bondár; Robert G North

1999-01-01

15

Resolution establishing the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Adopted on 19 November 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document reproduces the text of the Resolution on the Establishment of a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization which was adopted on 19 November 1996 at a meeting of the States Signatories of the Comprehensiv...

1996-01-01

16

Post-installation activities in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provisional operation and maintenance of IMS infrasound stations after installation and subsequent certification has the objective to prepare the infrasound network for entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The goal is to maintain and fine tune the technical capabilities of the network, to repair faulty equipment, and to ensure that stations continue to meet the minimum

J. A. Vivas Veloso; D. R. Christie; T. L. Hoffmann; P. Campus; M. Bell; A. Langlois; P. Martysevich; E. Demirovik; J. Carvalho; A. Kramer; Sean F. Wu

2002-01-01

17

Modeling Noble Gas Transport and Detection for The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detonation gases released by an underground nuclear test include trace amounts of 133Xe and 37Ar. In the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, On Site Inspection Protocol, such gases released from or sampled at the soil surface could be used to indicate the occurrence of an explosion in violation of the treaty. To better estimate the levels of detectability from an underground nuclear test (UNE), we developed mathematical models to evaluate the processes of 133Xe and 37Ar transport in fractured rock. Two models are developed respectively for representing thermal and isothermal transport. When the thermal process becomes minor under the condition of low temperature and low liquid saturation, the subsurface system is described using an isothermal and single-gas-phase transport model and barometric pumping becomes the major driving force to deliver 133Xe and 37Ar to the ground surface. A thermal test is simulated using a nonisothermal and two-phase transport model. In the model, steam production and bubble expansion are the major processes driving noble gas components to ground surface. After the temperature in the chimney drops below boiling, barometric pumping takes over the role as the major transport process.

Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

2014-03-01

18

Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.  

PubMed

A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of (131m)Xe, (133)Xe, (133m)Xe, and (135)Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of different circumstances of a nuclear explosion, and are used as training data sets to establish an effective classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning. A study was conducted involving classic induction algorithms in machine learning including Naïve Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines, that revealed that they can successfully be used in this practical application. In particular, our studies show that many induction algorithms in machine learning outperform a simple linear discriminator when a signal is found in a high radioxenon background environment. PMID:19811861

Stocki, Trevor J; Li, Guichong; Japkowicz, Nathalie; Ungar, R Kurt

2010-01-01

19

Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

2014-05-01

20

Radioxenons: Their role in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring for xenon radionuclides which are produced in a nuclear detonation can provide a strong deterrent to the violation of a Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). There are 18 known radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear fission with...

R. W. Perkins L. A. Casey

1996-01-01

21

Implementation of radionuclide measurements for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and associated on-site inspections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) plans the installation of an International Monitoring System (IMS) based upon four global networks. Seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound waves will help detect underground, underwater and atmospheric nuclear tests and will permit their discrimination from natural events. 80 particulate stations will detect radioactive aerosols, this network being completed with a sub-set of 40 stations which will

G. Brachet

2001-01-01

22

Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-Site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced by neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,?)37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient

Craig E. Aalseth; Anthony R. Day; Derek A. Haas; Eric W. Hoppe; Brian J. Hyronimus; Martin E. Keillor; Emily K. Mace; John L. Orrell; Allen Seifert; Vincent T. Woods

2011-01-01

23

Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-Site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-BanTreaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced by neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,alpha)37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient

C. E. Aalseth; A. R. Day; D. A. Haas; E. W. Hoppe; B. J. Hyronimus; M. E. Keillor; E. K. Mace; J. L. Orrell; A. Seifert; V. T. Woods

2011-01-01

24

Global radionuclide monitoring in near-real time for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global radionuclide monitoring system is being engineered as part of a multi-technology verification system for the Comprehensive\\u000a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The system detects airborne radioactive aerosols and gases that can indicate nuclear weapons test\\u000a debris. The backbone of the system is a network of 80 remote detection stations that utilize high-volume air sampling and\\u000a high-resolution gamma spectrometry to

L. R. Mason; J. D. Bohner; D. L. Williams

1998-01-01

25

Detection and analysis of xenon isotopes for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty international monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the xenon isotopes for detection of nuclear explosions is of great interest for monitoring compliance with the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). Recently, the automated radioxenon sampler-analyzer (ARSA) was tested at the Institute for Atmospheric Radioactivity (IAR) in Freiburg, Germany to ascertain its use for the CTBT by comparing its results to laboratory-based analyses, determining its detection sensitivity

Ted W. Bowyer; C. Schlosser; Keith H. Abel; M. Auer; James C. Hayes; Tom R. Heimbigner; Justin I. McIntyre; Mark E. Panisko; Paul L. Reeder; H. Satorius; J. Schulze; W. Weiss

2002-01-01

26

Status report on the establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infrasound component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification aims for global detection and localization of low-frequency sound waves originating from atmospheric nuclear explosions. The infrasound network will consist of 60 array stations, distributed as evenly as possible over the globe to assure at least two-station detection capability for 1-kton explosions at any point on

J. A. Vivas Veloso; D. R. Christie; P. Campus; M. Bell; T. L. Hoffmann; A. Langlois; P. Martysevich; E. Demirovik; J. Carvalho; A. Kramer

2002-01-01

27

Low level noble gas measurements in the field and laboratory in support of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 300 daily environmental radioxenon samples were analyzed using French developed SPALAX for automatic sample preparation including high-resolution ?-spectrometry. The 133Xe sensitivity was significantly better than 1mBq\\/m3 (specified criterion for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification).Radioxenon analysis was extended to include the X-ray region by improved detector window, sample cell design, efficiency calibration, line shape fitting and background analysis. The resulting analysis

Trevor J Stocki; Marc Bean; R Kurt Ungar; Harri Toivonen; Weihua Zhang; Jeff Whyte; Dorothy Meyerhof

2004-01-01

28

Automated radioxenon monitoring for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty in two distinctive locations: Ottawa and Tahiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preparation for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty, automated radioxenon monitoring is performed in two distinctive environments: Ottawa and Tahiti. These sites are monitored with SPALAX (Système de Prélèvement d'air Automatique en Ligne avec l'Analyse des radioXénons) technology, which automatically extracts radioxenon from the atmosphere and measures the activity concentrations of 131m,133m,133,135Xe. The resulting isotopic concentrations can be useful to

T. J. Stocki; X. Blanchard; R. D'Amours; R. K. Ungar; J. P. Fontaine; M. Sohier; M. Bean; T. Taffary; J. Racine; B. L. Tracy; G. Brachet; M. Jean; D. Meyerhof

2005-01-01

29

The verification system of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty was opened for signature in September 1996. To date, the treaty has been signed by 165 countries and ratified by 93; among the latter, 31 out of the 44 whose ratification is needed for the treaty to enter into force. The treaty calls for the installation and operation of a verification system to ensure compliance. The verification system is composed of the International Monitoring System (IMS), the International Data Centre (IDC), and the On Site Inspection Division (OSI). The IMS is a global network of 321 stations hosted by 90 countries. The primary network is composed of 50 seismic stations, 31 of which are seismic arrays and 19 three-component, broad-band stations, 11 hydroacoustic stations, 60 infrasound arrays, and 80 radionuclide monitoring stations measuring radioactive particulates and noble gases in the atmosphere. The radionuclide network is supported by 16 laboratories. The auxiliary network of 120 seismic stations is interrogated on request by the IDC to improve the accuracy of the locations. The data from the 321 stations and from the laboratories is transmitted to the IDC in Vienna via a dedicated Global Communication Infrastructure (GCI) based on VSAT antennas. The IDC collects and processes the data collected from the four technologies and produces bulletins of events. The raw data and bulletins are distributed to state signatories. Upon entry into force, an on-site inspection may be carried out if it is suspected that a nuclear explosion has taken place. Since mid-1997, when the Provisional Technical Secretariat responsible for the implementation of the verification system began its work in Vienna, over 86% of the sites have been surveyed and the final location of the stations selected. By the end of 2002 this number will reach about 90%, essentially completing this phase. To date, 131 stations have been built or upgraded, and 80 are now sending data to the IDC; 112 others are under construction or under negotiation. Over 392 authorized users from 53 state signatories are now receiving data and products from the IDC. In addition, under the auspices of the signatories of the treaty, several projects are being funded to improve the calibration of seismic stations, the software used routinely at the NDC, and the analysis of radionuclides, among others.

Suarez, Gerardo

2002-11-01

30

Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for\\u000athe Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide\\u000aisotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature\\u000aof a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with\\u000acalcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar\\u000aprovides both high specific activity and sufficient

C. E. Aalseth; A. R. Day; D. A. Haas; E. W. Hoppe; B. J. Hyronimus; M. E. Keillor; E. K. Mace; J. L. Orrell; A. Seifert; V. T. Woods

2010-01-01

31

Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Warren, N. Jill [Editor

1999-09-21

32

The in-comprehensive test ban  

SciTech Connect

The author examines why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) treaty might not make it through the political minefields. Negotiators at the 60-nation U.N. The conference on Disarmament in Geneva reached an impasse, prompted by India`s assertions that the treaty was an inadequate document that perpetuated {open_quotes}nuclear apartheid{close_quotes} while violating India`s sovereignty. Because the Conference on Disarmament-often called the {open_quotes}Geneva Conference{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}CD{close_quotes}-operates by consensus, India was able to veto the adoption of the treaty, which the conference had planned to transmit to the United Nations in early September. Australia saved the treaty with a last minute decision to bypass the Geneva Conference and take the CTB directly to the General Assembly in the form of a resolution. Some 127 nations co-sponsored Australia`s resolution, to which the treaty draft was attached. The General Assembly endorsed the treaty by a vote of 158 to three. India, Bhutan, and Libya voted against it. Despite the overwhelming vote, the treaty`s long-range outlook is uncertain. On the day of the vote, India`s chief test-ban negotiator, declared that India would {open_quotes}never sign this unequal treaty because Article XIV of the treaty, which requires that all 44 nuclear-capable nations who also belong to the Conference on Disarmament must sign and ratify the treaty. That requirement was viewed as contrary to international law because it denied India`s right of voluntary consent to an international treaty, thus violating India`s sovereignty.

Johnson, R. [Disarmament Intelligence Review, London (United Kingdom)

1996-11-01

33

Detection and analysis of xenon isotopes for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty international monitoring system.  

PubMed

The use of the xenon isotopes for detection of nuclear explosions is of great interest for monitoring compliance with the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). Recently, the automated radioxenon sampler-analyzer (ARSA) was tested at the Institute for Atmospheric Radioactivity (IAR) in Freiburg, Germany to ascertain its use for the CTBT by comparing its results to laboratory-based analyses, determining its detection sensitivity and analyzing its results in light of historical xenon isotope levels and known reactor operations in the area. Xe-133 was detected nearly every day throughout the test at activity concentrations ranging between approximately 0.1 mBq/m3 to as high as 120 mBq/m3. Xe-133m and 135Xe were also detected occasionally during the test at concentrations of less than 1 to a few mBq/m3. PMID:11900202

Bowyer, T W; Schlosser, C; Abel, K H; Auer, M; Hayes, J C; Heimbigner, T R; McIntyre, J I; Panisko, M E; Reeder, P L; Satorius, H; Schulze, J; Weiss, W

2002-01-01

34

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

Richards, Paul G.

2014-05-01

35

Radioxenons: Their role in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring for xenon radionuclides which are produced in a nuclear detonation can provide a strong deterrent to the violation of a Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). There are 18 known radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear fission with half-lives ranging from less than one second to 11.9 days. However, only four of these remain in significant amounts more than

R. W. Perkins; L. A. Casey

1996-01-01

36

On-Site inspections as a tool for nuclear explosion monitoring in the framework of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site inspections (OSIs) constitute the final verification measure under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs are launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out, thus they are conducted to verify States' compliance with the Treaty. During such an inspection, facts are gathered within a limited investigation area of 1000 Km2 to identify possible violators of

R. Arndt; L. Gaya-Pique; P. Labak; J. Tanaka

2009-01-01

37

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Updated 'Safeguards' and Net Assessments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Limitations on nuclear testing have been on the international agenda since 1954. The United States ratified one such treaty in 1963 and two in 1990 that together bar all but underground nuclear tests with an explosive yield of 150 kilotons or less. The Un...

J. Medalia

2009-01-01

38

Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD\\/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD\\/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force

James W

2000-01-01

39

The Nuclide Identification System SHAMAN in the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHAMAN is an expert system for radionuclide identification and spectrum peak interpretation in gamma-ray spectrometry. SHAMAN utilizes a comprehensive reference library with 2616 radionuclides and 81,642 gamma-ray lines, as well as a rule base consisting of sixty inference rules. Identification results are presented both via a graphical user interface and as configurable text reports. SHAMAN has been installed as an

P. A. Aarnio; J. J. Ala-Heikkilä; T. T. Hakulinen; M. T. Nikkinen

2001-01-01

40

Atmospheric Transport Modeling and Data Fusion in Support of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waveform signals can be processed to distinguish between explosions and natural events and can help locating explosion centers fast and with high accuracy. However, they cannot be used to demonstrate a possible nuclear nature for the event. This final pro...

A. W. Becker G. Wotawa

2007-01-01

41

Dealing with decoupled nuclear explosions under a comprehensive Test Ban treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detonation of nuclear explosions in large underground cavities so as to muffle or decouple the seismic waves they generated has been debated for more than 35 years. This report reviews the history of the decoupling concept, assesses what countries have the technological capabilities to carry out such a test of a given yield, and evaluates a number of decoupling

1994-01-01

42

Seismic methods for verifying nuclear test bans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismological research of the past 25 years related to verification of a Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TIBT) indicates that a treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in all environments, including underground explosions, can be monitored with high reliablility down to explosions of very small size (about one kiloton). There would be high probability of successful identification of explosions of that size even if elaborate measures were taken to evade detection. Seismology provides the principal means of detecting, locating and identifying underground explosions and of determining their yields. We discuss a number of methods for identifying detected seismic events as being either explosions or earthquakes including the event's location, depth and spectral character. The seismic waves generated by these two types of sources differ in a number of fundamental ways that can be utilized for identification or discrimination. All of the long-standing issues related to a comprehensive treaty were resolved in principle (and in may cases in detail) in negotiations between the U.S., the U.S.S.R. and Britian from 1977 to 1980. Those negotiations have not resumed since 1980. Inadequate seismic means of verifying a CTBT, Soviet cheating on the 150-kt limit of the Treshold Test Ban Treaty of 1976, and the need to develop and test new nuclear weapons were cited in 1982 by the U.S. government as reasons for not continuing negotiations for a CTBT. The first two reservations, which depend heavily on seismological information, are not supported scientifically. A CTBT could help to put a lid on the seemingly endless testing of new generations of nuclear weapons by both superpowers.

Sykes, Lynn R.; Evernden, Jack F.; Cifuentes, Inés

1983-10-01

43

American National Security and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acting Under Secretary of Arms Control and International Security Rose Gottemoeller will discuss the importance of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and how, upon its entry into force, it will contribute to American national security, as well as international security. She will outline the technological changes over the past decade, both with verification improvements and nuclear stockpile management. Acting Under Secretary Gottemoeller will also highlight the potential for 21st century technology to strengthen the CTBT, including discussion of how technological innovation can modernize verification and monitoring of nuclear testing worldwide.

Gottemoeller, R.

2013-12-01

44

The signing of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

On September 24, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was formally opened for signature at the United Nations in New York. In the following days, 94 countries signed the treaty including the five nuclear-weapon states (the United States, Russia, China, France and Britain) and Israel, one of the three so-called {open_quotes}threshold{close_quotes} states. Although prospects for the CTBT`s formal entry into force remain uncertain because of India`s refusal to sign, the signing of treaty may nevertheless effectively preclude an future nuclear tests.

NONE

1996-09-01

45

A Concept Review of an Underground High Explosive Test Program Supporting Comprehensive Test Ban Monitoring Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The detection and identification of underground nuclear tests, during a Comprehensive Test Ban (CTB), places new, and stringent, requirements on monitoring systems. In particular, because of the factor of about 70 reduction in apparent yield that can be a...

G. W. Ullrich

1979-01-01

46

Radioxenons: Their role in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring for xenon radionuclides which are produced in a nuclear detonation can provide a strong deterrent to the violation of a Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). There are 18 known radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear fission with half-lives ranging from less than one second to 11.9 days. However, only four of these remain in significant amounts more than a day after a detonation. In order for radioxenon monitoring to be practical, it was necessary to develop an automated measurement system which could operate unattended for periods of months, measure the entire spectrum of radioxenons, and provide hundreds of times better sensitivities than current laboratory procedures. This capability was developed at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory based on rapid separation of atmospheric xenon coupled with a unique high sensitivity measurement device for the radioxenons. A fieldable prototype analyzer is scheduled for testing in August 1996 with commercial availability planned by 1998.

Perkins, R.W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Casey, L.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-06-01

47

A ultra low level laboratory for nuclear test ban measurements.  

PubMed

The radionuclide laboratory at the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf (ATL03) was installed to support the international monitoring system for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT and Text of the establishment of a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty Organization, 1996). Therefore, the background of a high-purity germanium detection system has been reduced by developing a high sophisticated active and passive detector shielding. The entire system is encapsulated in an iron-castle and placed into a fall-out shelter. The final count rate, achieved over the energy interval from 40 to 2700 keV, amounts to 0.18 counts s(-1) kg(-1) (Ge). PMID:11839044

Schwaiger, M; Steger, F; Schroettner, T; Schmitzer, C

2002-01-01

48

Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Nichols, James W., LTC [Editor

2000-09-15

49

Nuclear test ban monitoring: New requirements, new resources  

SciTech Connect

The authors of this article make the case for using open seismic networks in the monitoring of nuclear explosions for compliance with a global Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These stations could be integrated with global communications networks to reduce the cost of monitoring for a CTBT. They would be multiuse stations not only for monitoring explosions but also for recording earthquake activity, assessment of seismic risk, and exploration of the earth's interior. Such networks now exist, but political aspects of negotiations for a CTBT have prevented them from being incorporated into the verification effort.

van der Vink, G.E.; Park, J.

1994-02-04

50

Nuclear Test Ban: Converting Political Visions to Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negotiations to ban or at least restrict nuclear explosions began not long after the first test was conducted, in the Alamogordo desert of New Mexico on 16 July 1945. In August of that same year, the world witnessed the devastation of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the horrifically destructive power that these weapons are capable of unleashing. Almost 50 years later, the long and tortuous road to negotiating a treaty that comprehensively bans nuclear explosions, whether for alleged peaceful purposes or for weapons development, culminated on 24 September 1996 when the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature. In a surge of enthusiasm, that first day the treaty was signed by more than 70 nations, including the five acknowledged nuclear powers. Addressing the United Nations General Assembly, U.S. President Bill Clinton described the CTBT as “the longest-sought, hardest-fought prize in the history of arms control.”

Suárez, Gerardo

2010-05-01

51

Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future  

SciTech Connect

This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

Sweeney, J.

1999-04-01

52

Lessons learned from the first U.S./Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998, whose objectives were the following: (1) To simulate the actions of the Inspection Team (IT), including interactions with the inspected State Party (ISP), in order to examine different ways the United States and Russian Federation (RF) approach inspections and develop appropriate recommendations for the international community. (2) To identify ambiguities and contradictions in the interpretation of Treaty and Protocol provisions that might become apparent in the course of an inspection and that need clarification in connection with the development of Operational Manuals and on-site inspection (OSI) infrastructure. (3) To confirm the efficacy of using bilateral tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. (4) To identify strong and weak points in the preparation and implementation methods of such exercises for the purpose of further improving possible future exercises.

Filarowski, C; Gough, R; Hawkins, W; Knowles, S; Kreek, S; MacLeod, G; Rockett, P; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Wohletz, K

1999-03-24

53

Cooperative seismic data interpretation for nuclear test ban treaty verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the cooperative interpretation of data from a global network of seismic stations in the context of nuclear test ban treaty verification. The problem, as solved by humans, involves the cooperation of a community of seismologists and the intellectual mechanism of assumption-based reasoning. Our computational agents cooperate by exchanging partial results that act as clues or heuristics about

Cindy L. Mason

1995-01-01

54

Lessons learned from the first US/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data interpretation. Each of the exercises began at the POE and proceeded with several iterations of negotiations between the IT and ISP, instrument deployments, and data evaluation by the IT. By the end of each of the exercises, each IT had located the site of the underground nuclear explosion (UNE). While this validated the methods employed by each of the ITS, the Evaluation Team noted that each IT employed different search strategies and that each strategy had both advantages and disadvantages. The exercises also highlighted ambiguities in interpretation of certain treaty provisions related to overflights and seismic monitoring. Likewise, a substantial number of lessons were learned relating to radionuclide monitoring and the impact of logistical constraints on successful OSI execution. These lessons are discussed more fully in the body of this report. Notwithstanding the overall positive assessment by the U.S. and RF participants, as well as by the Evaluation Team, that the exercise had met its objectives, there were a variety of areas identified that could be improved in subsequent OSI exercises. Some of these included reexamination of the methods used to convey visual observation data in an exercise; the amount of time compression employed; and the need for better verification of agreements pertaining to the structure, format, and other rules of the exercise. This report summarizes the lessons learned pertaining to both the technical and operational aspects of an OSI as well as to those pertaining to the planning and execution of an OSI exercise. It concludes with comments from the Evaluation Team and proposed next steps for future U.S./RF interactions on CTBT OSIs.

Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R; Rockett, P; MacLeod, G; Hawkins, W; Wohletz, K; Knowles, S

1999-03-24

55

Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events. (ACR)

Hannon, W.J.

1987-03-06

56

Slimhole drilling and directional drilling for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban: An initial assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Site-Inspection (OSI), under the Comprehensive Test Ban being negotiated in the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, may include drilling at the site of a suspected clandestine underground nuclear explosion to recover radioactive samples. It is in the interest of the drilling party to operate as light and compact a system as possible because it is likely that the drilling

Heuze

1995-01-01

57

Nuclear test ban verification: Recent Canadian research in forensic seismology  

SciTech Connect

Seismology provides the primary means for monitoring nuclear explosions that take place underground. Improved seismographic hardware, Canadian research expertise, and the availability of a vast proving ground (the Canadian land mass which bears close resemblance with other regions of nuclear test ban verification interest), are all helping Canada become an increasingly notable contributor to the highly specialized branch of forensic seismology. The report describes: (1) verification and its rationale; (2) the basic tasks of seismic verification; (3) the physical basis for earthquake/explosion source discrimination and explosion yield determination; (4) the technical problems pertaining to seismic monitoring of underground nuclear tests; (5) the basic problem solving strategy deployed by the forensic seismology research team at the University of Toronoto; and (6) the scientific significance of the team's research.

Chun, K.Y.

1991-07-01

58

A seismic event analyzer for nuclear test ban treaty verification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an expert system that interprets seismic data from Norway's regional seismic array, NORESS, for underground nuclear weapons test ban treaty verification. Three important aspects of the expert system are (1) it emulates the problem solving behavior of the human seismic analyst using an Assumption Based Truth Maintenance System, (2) it acts as an assistant to the human analyst by automatically interpreting and presenting events for review, and (3) it enables the analyst to interactively query the system's chain of reasoning and manually perform and interpretation. The general problem of seismic treaty verification is described. The expert system is presented in terms of knowledge representation structures, assumption based reasoning system, user interface elements, and initial performance results. 8 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Mason, C.L.; Johnson, R.R. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Searfus, R.M.; Lager, D.; Canales, T. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1988-01-01

59

Technical Challenges for a Comprehensive Test Ban: A historical perspective to frame the future (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 1958 scientists from the Soviet block and the US allies met in Geneva to discuss what it would take to monitor a forerunner to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty at the 'Conference of Experts to Study the Possibility of Detecting Violations of a Possible Agreement on Suspension of Nuclear Tests'. Although armed with a limited resume of observations, the conference recommended a multi-phenomenology approach (air sampling, acoustics, seismic and electromagnetic) deployed it a network of 170 sites scattered across the Northern Hemisphere, and hypothesized a detection threshold of 1kt for atmospheric tests and 5kt for underground explosions. The conference recommendations spurred vigorous debate, with strong disagreement with the stated detection hypothesis. Nevertheless, the technical challenges posed lead to a very focused effort to improve facilities, methodologies and, most importantly, research and development on event detection, location and identification. In the ensuing 50 years the various challenges arose and were eventually 'solved'; these included quantifying yield determination to enter a Limited Threshold Test Ban, monitoring broad areas of emerging nuclear nations, and after the mid-1990s lowering the global detection threshold to sub-kiloton levels for underground tests. Today there is both an international monitoring regime (ie, the International Monitoring System, or IMS) and a group of countries that have their own national technical means (NTM). The challenges for the international regime are evolving; the IMS has established itself as a very credible monitoring system, but the demand of a CTBT to detect and identify a 'nuclear test' of diminished size (zero yield) poses new technical hurdles. These include signal processing and understanding limits of resolution, location accuracy, integration of heterogeneous data, and accurately characterizing anomalous events. It is possible to extrapolate past technical advances to predict what should be available by 2020; detection of coupled explosions to 100s of tons for all continental areas, as well as a probabilistic assessment of event identification.

Wallace, T. C.

2013-12-01

60

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force  

SciTech Connect

This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

NONE

1998-06-01

61

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and its security implications for the United Kingdom and the United States  

SciTech Connect

The United Kingdom has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The United States signed the treaty in September 1996, and currently the decision on whether to ratify it is pending in the Senate. Key differences reside in the political and objective strategic situations of the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom`s parliamentary system a single party (or a coalition) makes decisions. The United States, however, was designed to have a separation of powers, and this insures that the legislative and executive branches have opportunities for discord as well as cooperation. Currently the United Kingdom has operational weapons production facilities, whereas the United States does not. The United Kingdom has only one nuclear weapons program (the Trident missile) to maintain, whereas the United States has multiple delivery systems and warhead types to maintain. The United Kingdom`s nuclear deterrent provides for the country`s security needs, yet the United Kingdom is also covered by US nuclear commitments. Indeed, the United States provides extended deterrence protection for allies and security partners around the world. These responsibilities imply that the implications of the CTBT could be more momentous for the United States than for the United Kingdom.

Sironi, L.

1998-12-01

62

Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Preamble; Article I - Basic Obligations; Article II - The Organization; Article III - National Implementation Measures; Article IV - Verification; Article V - Measures to Redress A Situation and to Ensure Compliance, including Sanctions; Article...

1998-01-01

63

A systems perspective of Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring and verification  

SciTech Connect

On September 24, 1996, after decades of discussion and more than two years of intensive international negotiations, President Clinton, followed by representatives of (to date) more than 125 other countries, including the other four declared nuclear weapons states, signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Each signatory now faces a complex set of technical and political considerations regarding the advisability of joining the treaty. Those considerations vary from country to country, but for many countries one of the key issues is the extent to which the treaty can be verified. In the case of the US, it is anticipated that treaty verifiability will be an important issue in the US Senate Advice and Consent Hearings. This paper will address treaty verifiability, with an emphasis on the interplay between the various elements of the International monitoring regime, as prescribed in the CTBT Treaty Text and its associated Protocol. These elements, coupled with the National regimes, will serve as an integrated set of overlapping, interlocking measures to support treaty verification. Taken as a whole, they present a formidable challenge to potential testers who wish not to be caught.

Walker, L.S.

1996-11-01

64

Airborne radionuclides of concern and their measurement in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting radioanalytical developmental programs with the goal of providing near-real-time analysis technology for airborne signature radionuclides which are indicative of a nuclear weapons test in any of the earth`s environments. If a test were conducted in the atmosphere or above the atmosphere, then the full spectrum of fission and activation products, together with residues from the device would be dispersed in the atmosphere. However, if a nuclear test were conducted underground or under water, the emission could range from a major to a very minor vent, and the material released would likely consist mainly of noble gas radionuclides and the radioiodines. Since many of the noble gases decay to form particulate radionuclides, these may serve as the more sensitive signatures. For example, Ba-140 is a daughter of Xe-140 (13.6 s), and Cs-137 is a daughter of Xe-137 (3.82 min). Both of these have been observed in large amounts relative to other fission products in dynamic venting of U.S. underground nuclear detonations. Large amounts of radionuclides are produced from even a comparatively small nuclear detonation. For example, a 10-KT fission device will produce approximately a megacurie of Ba-140 and of several other radionuclides with half-lives of days to weeks. If such a device were detonated in the atmosphere at midlatitude, it would easily be observable at downwind monitoring sites during its first and subsequent circumnavigations of the earth. Efficient and practical methods for the near-real-time analysis of both particulate and gaseous radionuclides are important to an effective monitoring and attribution program in support of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); methods for this purpose are being pursued.

Perkins, R.W.; Miley, H.S.; Hensley, W.K.; Abel, K.H.

1995-01-01

65

Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency V...

1994-01-01

66

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development FY95-96 program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the United States Government`s (USG) research and development (R&D) functions for monitoring nuclear explosions in the context of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This responsibility includes the November 1993 transfer of the Department of Defense`s (DoD) CTBT R&D responsibility to DOE. The DOE research program builds on the broad base of USG expertise developed historically and includes R&D for detecting, locating, identifying, and characterizing nuclear explosions in all environments. The Office of Research and Development (NN-20), within the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, formulates and executes the efforts necessary to meet the Department`s responsibilities. The following DOE laboratories as a team will support NN-20 in implementing the program plan: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. DOE has committed to a cooperative program that draws upon the core competencies of the national laboratories and upon the strengths of other government agencies and the private sector (academia and industry). The integration of resources under a common direction will allow the program to be flexible and responsive to changing technical and policy requirements while maximizing the effectiveness of funding appropriations. DOE will develop and demonstrate appropriate technologies, algorithms, procedures, and integrated systems in a cost-effective and timely manner. The program comprises seismic, radionuclide, hydroacoustic, and infrasound monitoring; on-site inspection; space-based monitoring; and automated data processing elements.

None

1994-11-01

67

Automated aerosol sampling and analysis for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Detecting nuclear debris from a nuclear weapon exploded in or substantially vented to the Earth`s atmosphere constitutes the most certain indication that a violation of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty has occurred. For this reason, a radionuclide portion of the International Monitoring System is being designed and implemented. The IMS will monitor aerosols and gaseous xenon isotopes to detect atmospheric and underground tests, respectively. An automated system, the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA), has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to meet CTBT aerosol measurement requirements. This is achieved by the use of a novel sampling apparatus, a high-resolution germanium detector, and very sophisticated software. This system draws a large volume of air ({approximately} 20,000 m{sup 3}/day), performs automated gamma-ray spectral measurements (MDC({sup 140}Ba) < 30 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}), and communicates this and other data to a central data facility. Automated systems offer the added benefit of rigid controls, easily implemented QA/QC procedures, and centralized depot maintenance and operation. Other types of automated communication include pull or push transmission of State-Of-Health data, commands, and configuration data. In addition, a graphical user interface, Telnet, and other interactive communications are supported over ordinary phone or network lines. This system has been the subject of a USAF commercialization effort to meet US CTBT monitoring commitments. It will also be available to other CTBT signatories and the monitoring community for various governmental, environmental, or commercial needs. The current status of the commercialization is discussed.

Miley, H.S.; Bowyer, S.M.; Hubbard, C.W.; McKinnon, A.D.; Perkins, R.W.; Thompson, R.C.; Warner, R.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1998-06-01

68

Automated separation and measurement of radioxenon for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully automatic radioxenon sampler\\/analyzer (ARSA) has been developed and demonstrated for the collection and quantitative\\u000a measurement of the four xenon radionuclides,131mXe(11.9 d),133mXe(2.2 d),133Xe(5.2 d), and135Xe(9.1 hr), in the atmosphere. These radionuclides are important signatures in monitoring for compliance to a Comprehensive\\u000a Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Activity ratios of these radionuclides permit source attribution. Xenon, continuously and automatically\\u000a separated from

T. W. Bowyer; K. H. Abel; C. W. Hubbard; A. D. McKinnon; M. E. Panisko; R. W. Perkins; P. L. Reeder; R. C. Thompson; R. A. Warner

1998-01-01

69

Field testing of collection and measurement of radioxenon for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, with guidance and support from the U.S. Department of Energy's NN-20 Comprehensive\\u000a Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Research and Development program, has developed and demonstrated a fully automatic sampler-analyzer\\u000a (ARSA) for the collection and quantitative measurement of the four xenon radionuclides,131mXe (11.9 d),133mXe (2.19 d),133Xe (5.24 d), and135Xe (9.10 h), in the atmosphere. These radionuclides are important

T. W. Bowyer; K. H. Abel; C. W. Hubbard; M. E. Panisko; P. L. Reeder; R. C. Thompson; R. A. Warner

1999-01-01

70

A Discussion of Procedures and Equipment for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection Environmental Sampling and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is intended to serve as a scientific basis to start discussions of the available environmental sampling techniques and equipment that have been used in the past that could be considered for use within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspections (OSI). This work contains information on the techniques, equipment, costs, and some operational procedures associated with environmental sampling that have actually been used in the past by the United States for the detection of nuclear explosions. This paper also includes a discussion of issues, recommendations, and questions needing further study within the context of the sampling and analysis of aquatic materials, atmospheric gases, atmospheric particulates, vegetation, sediments and soils, fauna, and drill-back materials.

Wogman, Ned A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Onishi, Yasuo; Hayes, James C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2011-02-01

71

Seismic surveillance - nuclear test ban verification. Final report, 1 Jan 89-31 Dec 91  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project is aimed at seismic surveillance as part of on-going efforts for improving nuclear test ban verification capabilities. The problem is complex in the sense that underground explosions are most efficiently monitored by seismic means, but that the distinction between signals emitted by natural earthquakes and explosions remains unclear, at least at local and regional distances. In other words,

E. S. Husebye; B. O. Ruud

1992-01-01

72

Seismic surveillance: Nuclear test ban verification. Technical report, 1 Jan31 Dec 90  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project is aimed at seismic surveillance as part of on-going efforts for improving nuclear test ban verification capabilities. The problem is complex in the sense that underground explosions are most efficiently monitored by seismic means, but that the distinction between signals emitted by natural earthquakes and explosions remains unclear, at least at local and regional distances. In other words,

E. S. Husebye; B. O. Ruud

1991-01-01

73

Mapping and Imaging Methodologies within the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's On-Site Inspection Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-site inspection (OSI) is the final verification measure of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs rely heavily on geologic and geophysical investigations. The objective is to apply methods that are effective, efficient and minimally intrusive. We present a general overview of the OSI as provisioned in the CTBT, specifying the allowed techniques and the timeline for their application. A CTBT OSI relies on many geological, geophysical and radiological methods. The search area for an OSI is mostly defined by uncertainty in the location of a suspect event detected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) and reported through the International Data Center and can be as large as 1000 km2. Thus OSI methods are fundamentally divided into general survey methods that narrow the search area and more focused, detailed survey methods to look for evidence of a potential underground explosion and try to find its location within an area of several km2. The purpose and goal of a CTBT OSI, as specified in the Article IV of the Treaty, is 'to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty' and to 'gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator.' Through the use of visual, geophysical, and radiological techniques, OSIs can detect and characterize anomalies and artifacts related to the event that triggered the inspection. In the context of an OSI, an 'observable' is a physical property that is important to recognize and document because of its relevance to the purpose of the inspection. Potential observables include: (1) visual observables such as ground/environmental disturbances and manmade features, (2) geophysical techniques that provide measurements of altered and damaged ground and buried artifacts, and (3) radiological measurements on samples. Information provided in this presentation comes from observations associated with historical testing activities that were not intended to go undetected. Every CTBT OSI will be different, and the observables present and detectable within an Inspection Area (IA) will depend on many factors, such as location, geology, emplacement configuration, climate, and the time elapsed after the event before the deployment of the Inspection Team (IT). A successful OSI is contingent on familiarity with potential observables, the suitability of the equipment to detect and characterize relevant observables, and the team's ability to document and integrate all the information into comprehensive, logical, and factual reports. In preparation for an OSI, a variety of types, scales, and generations of open-source digital imagery can be compared using geographic information systems (GIS) to focus on areas of interest. Simple image comparison from various open sources within GIS afford the opportunity to view anthropogenic and natural changes to locations of interest over time, thus remotely elucidating information about a site's use and level of activity.

Hawkins, W.; Sussman, A. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Wohletz, K. H.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.

2013-12-01

74

Nuclear Test Ban Verification: Recent Canadian Research in Forensic Seismology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seismology provides the primary means for monitoring nuclear explosions that take place underground. Improved seismographic hardware, Canadian research expertise, and the availability of a vast 'proving ground' (the Canadian land mass which bears close re...

K. Y. Chun

1991-01-01

75

Slimhole drilling and directional drilling for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban: An initial assessment  

SciTech Connect

On Site-Inspection (OSI), under the Comprehensive Test Ban being negotiated in the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, may include drilling at the site of a suspected clandestine underground nuclear explosion to recover radioactive samples. It is in the interest of the drilling party to operate as light and compact a system as possible because it is likely that the drilling equipment will first be airlifted to the country being inspected, and then will be carried by air or surface to the inspection site. It will be necessary for the inspection party to have the capability for more than vertical drilling since there may not be a drilling site available vertically above the suspected nuclear cavity location. This means having, the ability to perform directional drilling and to obtain accurate positioning of the drilling tool. Consequently, several directions may be explored from a single surface drilling pad. If the target depth is expected to be at or less than 600 m (2000 ft), slant drilling may be required to a length well in excess of 600 m. Clearly, the operation must be designed with health and safety features to prevent radioactive exposure if the drilling encounters a nuclear source region. The DOE/LLNL community has developed a strong expertise in this regard. In this initial assessment we focus on the portability and directionality of drilling systems.

Heuze, F. E.

1995-07-01

76

Policing the peace: How nations will monitor a nuclear test ban  

SciTech Connect

Steve R. Bratt`s belt started chirping as if on cue, precisely as he was boasting about a new global watchdog system for detecting nuclear tests. Bratt, a seismologist with the US Department of Defense, retrieved the beeper from his hip and studied it for a few seconds. {open_quotes}I`ve got an alert. It`s from Lop Nor. Lop Nor is the Chinese test site,{close_quotes} he explained. Two stations in a worldwide network of seismometers had just picked up vibrations emanating from central Asia, near China`s known nuclear facility. The shock was small, about magnitude 3.5. In bomb equivalents, it would correspond to less than a half kiloton explosion. In this case, however, Bratt suspected the alert was just a minor earthquake. Timing provided an important clue: The shock had originated at 12:19 Greenwich Mean Time, which is not the kind of round, on-the-hour time that countries usually choose for performing a major weapon test. Seismic analysts would later confirm Bratt`s hunch when they determined that the Chinese vibrations actually originated at an unlikely place to stage a test, hundreds of kilometers away from the Lop Nor site. The impromptu demonstration nonetheless made a good advertisement for the new international monitoring system-an ever-figilant network of sensors strung around the globe, listening, sniffing, and waiting. This article describes the problems involved in test ban monitoring and the possibilities for solving them.

Monastersky, R.

1996-05-11

77

Barometric gas transport along faults and its application to nuclear test-ban monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Underground nuclear explosions produce a unique but evanescent set of radionuclide gases that potentially can be used in the context of an on-site, test-ban monitoring program to differentiate them from other detected events such as earthquakes or mining activity. In Part I of this report we describe an experiment to evaluate the upward transport of gases from an underground explosion using two gas tracers with very different diffusivities that were released in a 400- m-deep, chemical explosive detonation. The less diffusive (more massive) tracer was detected on a nearby geologic fault 50 days following the detonation while the more diffusive tracer was-- detected 375 days after release. Computer simulations indicate that the arrival time and the chromatographic behavior of transport are characteristic of barometrically induced flow in a fractured, porous matrix regime. For a hypothetical 1-kiloton fission explosion subject to the same weather and gas transport conditions of the chemical explosion, simulations predict the delectability of argon-37 after 80 days in spite of depletion by radioactive decay. Largely because of the earlier arrival of xenon-133, owing to its lower binary gas diffusivity, the exceedingly short lived isotope should also be detectable-arriving about 30 days earlier than argon. in Part II we consider that our prediction of the delectability of argon and xenon is based upon the small volume (0.00001 M3) sampling technique of the NPE tracer-gas sampling study while actual sampling for radionuclides would involve drawing much larger volume (possibly 0.1- 1 M3) gas samples from the near-surface.

Carrigan, C. R.; Heinle, R. A.; Hudson, G. B.; Nitao, J. J.; Zucca, J. J.

1997-06-01

78

Application of the nuclide identification system SHAMAN in monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHAMAN is an expert system for qualitative and quantitative radionuclide identification in gamma spectrometry. SHAMAN requires\\u000a as input the calibrations, peak search, and fitting results from reliable spectral analysis software, such as SAMPO. SHAMAN\\u000a uses a comprehensive reference library with 2600 radionuclides and 80 000 gamma-lines, as well as a rule base consisting of\\u000a sixty inference rules. Identification results are

P. A. Aarnio; J. J. Ala-Heikkilä; T. T. Hakulinen; M. T. Nikkinen

1998-01-01

79

Computation and Analysis of the Global Distribution of the Radioxenon Isotope 133 Xe based on Emissions from Nuclear Power Plants and Radioisotope Production Facilities and its Relevance for the Verification of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of radioactive noble gases, in particular xenon isotopes, is a crucial element of the verification of the Comprehensive\\u000a Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The capability of the noble gas network, which is currently under construction, to detect\\u000a signals from a nuclear explosion critically depends on the background created by other sources. Therefore, the global distribution\\u000a of these isotopes based on emissions

Gerhard Wotawa; Andreas Becker; Martin Kalinowski; Paul Saey; Matthias Tuma; Matthias Zähringer

2010-01-01

80

Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter  

SciTech Connect

This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

Casey, Leslie A.

1994-01-01

81

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions from seismic surface waves: compliance with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Magnitudes of the larger Soviet underground nuclear weapons tests from the start of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1976 through 1982 are determined for short- and long-period seismic waves. Yields are calculated from the surface wave magnitude for those explosions at the eastern Kazakh test site that triggered a small-to-negligible component of tectonic stress and are used to calibrate body wave magnitude-yield relationship that can be used to determined the sizes of other explosions at that test site. The results confirm that a large bias, related to differential attenuation of P waves, exists between Nevada and Central Asia. The yields of the seven largest Soviet explosions are nearly identical and are close to 150 kilotons, the limit set by the Threshold Treaty. 16 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Sykes, L.R.; Cifuentes, I.L.

1984-03-01

82

Rapid deployment drilling system for on-site inspections under a comprehensive test ban treaty vol. 1: description, acquisition, deployment, and operation vol. 2: appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has been signed by many countries, including the US. The US Senate will start discussions of CTBT ratification in the near future. The Treaty aims to prevent any nuclear explosion from being conducted. A verification system is being implemented. It includes the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI) in a country where a suspicious seismic signal has been identified, which could come from a clandestine nuclear test. As part of an OSI, the use of drilling is allowed by the CTBT so as to obtain irrefutable proof of a Treaty violation. Such proof could be in the form of diagnostics of very high gamma radiation levels and high temperatures underground, which could not be explained by a natural source. A typical situation is shown in Figure 1, where the OSI team must find a nuclear cavity underground when only an approximate location is inferred. This calls for the ability to do directional drilling. Because there is no need for large borings and to minimize the cost and size of the equipment, slim-hole drilling is adequate. On that basis, an initial study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [1] concluded that coiled-tubing (C-T) was the most attractive option for OSI drilling (Figure 2). Then, a preliminary design of a C-T Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) was performed by Maurer Engineering of Houston, TX [2]. Although a drilling mud system is also included in the RDDS definition, the preferred mode of operation of the RDDS would be drilling with air and foam. This minimizes water requirements in cases when water may be scarce at the OSI site. It makes the required equipment smaller than when a mud system is included. And it may increase the drilling rates, by eliminating the ''chip hold-down'' effect of a mud column. Following this preliminary design study, it was determined that the preferred bottom-hole assembly for such a system would be the Viper system of Schlumberger Anadrill, with one essential modification from the version used in the oil-and-gas industry: the ability to record very high gamma levels. Under contract with LLNL, Anadrill modified the Viper gamma tool, a NaI-based probe, and verified that it provided reliable gamma data up to 64,000 cps, as opposed to the less than 200 cps encountered in normal applications [3].

Heuze, F; Cohen, J; Pittard, G; Deskius, G; Vorkinn, P; Rock, D

1999-11-01

83

Role of portable instrumentation in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Annual report, January 1993-February 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report documents two efforts undertaken during the past 12 months. The first describes a combined near-source/regional monitoring of a series of mining blasts in Southern Russia. The second contribution describes a theoretical investigation of nuclear explosion source model resolution using near-source seismic data in a nonlinear inversion scheme. Mining explosion, Nuclear explosion, Seismic source function.

Stump, B.W.; Riviere-Barbier, F.; Chernoby, I.; Koch, K.

1994-04-13

84

Computation and Analysis of the Global Distribution of the Radioxenon Isotope 133Xe based on Emissions from Nuclear Power Plants and Radioisotope Production Facilities and its Relevance for the Verification of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of radioactive noble gases, in particular xenon isotopes, is a crucial element of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The capability of the noble gas network, which is currently under construction, to detect signals from a nuclear explosion critically depends on the background created by other sources. Therefore, the global distribution of these isotopes based on emissions and transport patterns needs to be understood. A significant xenon background exists in the reactor regions of North America, Europe and Asia. An emission inventory of the four relevant xenon isotopes has recently been created, which specifies source terms for each power plant. As the major emitters of xenon isotopes worldwide, a few medical radioisotope production facilities have been recently identified, in particular the facilities in Chalk River (Canada), Fleurus (Belgium), Pelindaba (South Africa) and Petten (Netherlands). Emissions from these sites are expected to exceed those of the other sources by orders of magnitude. In this study, emphasis is put on 133Xe, which is the most prevalent xenon isotope. First, based on the emissions known, the resulting 133Xe concentration levels at all noble gas stations of the final CTBT verification network were calculated and found to be consistent with observations. Second, it turned out that emissions from the radioisotope facilities can explain a number of observed peaks, meaning that atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool for the categorization of measurements. Third, it became evident that Nuclear Power Plant emissions are more difficult to treat in the models, since their temporal variation is high and not generally reported. Fourth, there are indications that the assumed annual emissions may be underestimated by factors of two to ten, while the general emission patterns seem to be well understood. Finally, it became evident that 133Xe sources mainly influence the sensitivity of the monitoring system in the mid-latitudes, where the network coverage is particularly good.

Wotawa, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Kalinowski, Martin; Saey, Paul; Tuma, Matthias; Zähringer, Matthias

2010-05-01

85

Lies that stopped a test ban  

SciTech Connect

The demise of arguments based on verification, on-site inspection, and treaty evasion has driven test ban opponents to desperate measures. One of the more questionable ploys has been the long standing accusation that the Soviets cheated on the 1974 negotiated treaty limiting tests to 150 kilotons; such cheating supposedly proves the Soviets to be untrustworthy. (The Soviets ratified the treaty but the United States has never done so, although both have tacitly agreed not to violate its terms.) The accusations were known to be false when first made and are false today. Proper procedures for estimating yields of Soviet explosions were in the US scientific literature several years before the treaty was negotiated. All investigations of the past 15 years have confirmed the validity of those procedures. However, either by design or as the result of being misinformed, President Reagan, Secretary of State George Shultz, and former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger have tried to convince the public that available data proved those published results to be wrong. No analyses supporting the view of these gentlemen have ever been accepted by scientific review. Thus, the last of the supposed seismological arguments against a treaty banning all but small nuclear tests is a false as most of the others. 10 references.

Evernden, J.F.

1988-10-01

86

LTBT Amendment Conference to continue, but no test ban in sight  

SciTech Connect

The only nations party to the LTBT that stand firmly against the immediate negotiation of a comprehensive test ban (CTB) are the US and Britain. And since Britain tests it nuclear weapons on US soil, the US holds the key vote. If the US wants to avoid undermining the possibility of a long-term extension of the NPT in 1995, it should reconsider its opposition to a CTB. As the Soviet military threat recedes, the US has no excuse not to place a higher priority on nuclear nonproliferation than on continued nuclear testing. If President Bush is truly committed to creating a new world order based on mutual respect and the rule of law, he should begin by honoring the US international obligation to end nuclear testing for all time. The administration's continued insistence on developing, testing, and deploying ever more sophisticated nuclear weapons sends the wrong signal to an increasingly multipolar, nuclear-armed world. As the Gulf War has so vividly demonstrated, a well-armed, aggressive leader can wreak havoc on international peace and security. US unwillingness to take the needed steps to slow further proliferation of nuclear weapons is a dangerous foundation on which to build a safer world.

Zamora, T.A. (Friends of the Earth, Washington, DC (USA))

1991-03-01

87

Statistical algorithms for a comprehensive test ban treaty discrimination framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seismic discrimination is the process of identifying a candidate seismic event as an earthquake or explosion using information from seismic waveform features (seismic discriminants). In the CTBT setting, low energy seismic activity must be detected and id...

N. D. Foote D. N. Anderson K. T. Higbee N. E. Miller T. Redgate

1996-01-01

88

Statistical algorithms for a comprehensive test ban treaty discrimination framework  

SciTech Connect

Seismic discrimination is the process of identifying a candidate seismic event as an earthquake or explosion using information from seismic waveform features (seismic discriminants). In the CTBT setting, low energy seismic activity must be detected and identified. A defensible CTBT discrimination decision requires an understanding of false-negative (declaring an event to be an earthquake given it is an explosion) and false-position (declaring an event to be an explosion given it is an earthquake) rates. These rates are derived from a statistical discrimination framework. A discrimination framework can be as simple as a single statistical algorithm or it can be a mathematical construct that integrates many different types of statistical algorithms and CTBT technologies. In either case, the result is the identification of an event and the numerical assessment of the accuracy of an identification, that is, false-negative and false-positive rates. In Anderson et al., eight statistical discrimination algorithms are evaluated relative to their ability to give results that effectively contribute to a decision process and to be interpretable with physical (seismic) theory. These algorithms can be discrimination frameworks individually or components of a larger framework. The eight algorithms are linear discrimination (LDA), quadratic discrimination (QDA), variably regularized discrimination (VRDA), flexible discrimination (FDA), logistic discrimination, K-th nearest neighbor (KNN), kernel discrimination, and classification and regression trees (CART). In this report, the performance of these eight algorithms, as applied to regional seismic data, is documented. Based on the findings in Anderson et al. and this analysis: CART is an appropriate algorithm for an automated CTBT setting.

Foote, N.D. [ed.; Anderson, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.; Hagedorn, D.N.

1996-10-01

89

Data visualization for comprehensive test ban treaty monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Data Visualization Project at Sandia Labs is to prototype and evaluate new approaches to the presentation of data for CTBT monitoring applications. The great amount of data expected to be available, and the complex interrelationships in that data, make this a promising area for scientific data visualization techniques. We are developing a powerful and flexible prototyping environment with which to explore these possibilities. A user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) should be an integral part of any data visualization tools developed. The GUI is necessary to select which data to visualize, and to modify and explore the displays that are the result of data visualization. Using our prototyping environment, we have produced data visualization displays of various kinds of data and have also experimented with different GUIs for controlling the visualization process. We present here an overview of that work, including promising results, lessons learned, and work in progress. To better understand what is needed, we have identified several data processing/analysis scenarios which we think will be important in CTBT monitoring. These scenarios help us identify what types of information we should display (together or in sequence), and help us focus on isolating the underlying goals. Each display we have produced is put in the context of one or more processing scenarios to help explain why and how it could be useful.

Simons, R.W.; Young, C.J.; Edwards, T.L.

1996-08-01

90

Authentication of data for monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

The important issue of data integrity in the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS) is discussed and a brief tutorial on data authentication techniques is offered. The utilization of data authentication as a solution to the data integrity problem is evaluated. Public key data authentication is recommended for multilateral monitoring regimes such as the CTBT. The ramifications and system considerations of applying data authentication at various locations in the IMS, or not at all, are reviewed in a data surety context. The paper concludes with a recommendation of authenticating data at all critical monitoring stations.

Craft, R.L.; Draelos, T.J.

1996-05-01

91

Using the normal-mode method of probing the infrasonic propagation for purposes of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the problem of assessing the state of Atmospheric Acoustic Channels, that is, of the possible propagation paths of acoustic signals, based on using a priori information about atmospheric conditions. It is concluded that this can only be best accomplished through the use of global atmospheric models. Based on the normal-mode method, an analysis is made of the generalized characteristics of atmospheric waveguide such as the location of the waveguide boundaries, the mode composition, and the transmissivity of the waveguide upper and lower boundaries. The method can be used to analyze the particular paths as well as the overall situation around a given point. Furthermore, all the surrounding space (extending as far as the whole of the geosphere) is divided into regions that are accessible and inaccessible for a given mode. To determine the particular height distributions of physical characteristics over the entire path, the NRLMSISE-2000 atmosphere model and the HWM-93 wind model are used. Some of the calculated paths are compared with the known source and receiver positions and with observational results. It is concluded that the method can be used in a general assessment of the accessibility of a given region for acoustic monitoring; however, it is not sufficiently reliable to permit real-time predictions.

Ponomarev, E. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Sorokin, A. G.; Dmitrienko, I. S.; Lobycheva, I. Yu.; Baryshnikov, A. K.

2006-03-01

92

A Surface Wave Dispersion Study of the Middle East and North Africa for Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- We present results from a large-scale study of surface-wave group velocity dispersion across the Middle East, North Africa, southern Eurasia and the Mediterranean. Our database for the region is populated with seismic data from regional events recorded at permanent and portable broadband, three-component digital stations. We have measured the group velocity using a multiple narrow-band filter on deconvolved displacement data. Overall, we have examined more than 13,500 seismograms and made good quality dispersion measurements for 6817 Rayleigh- and 3806 Love-wave paths. We use a conjugate gradient method to perform a group-velocity tomography. Our current results include both Love- and Rayleigh-wave inversions across the region for periods from 10 to 60 seconds. Our findings indicate that short-period structure is sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Mediterranean Sea and Persian Gulf. We find our long-period Rayleigh-wave inversion is sensitive to crustal thickness, such as fast velocities under the oceans and slow along the relatively thick Zagros Mts. and Turkish-Iranian Plateau. We also find slow upper mantle velocities along known rift systems. Accurate group velocity maps can be used to construct phase-matched filters along any given path. The filters can improve weak surface wave signals by compressing the dispersed signal. The signals can then be used to calculate regionally determined MS measurements, which we hope can be used to extend the threshold of mb:MS discriminants down to lower magnitude levels. Other applications include using the group velocities in the creation of a suitable background model for forming station calibration maps, and using the group velocities to model the velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle.

Pasyanos, M. E.; Walter, W. R.; Hazler, S. E.

93

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization: Report of the On-Site Inspection Workshop-5-Planning Examination of Inspection Phases  

SciTech Connect

On-Site Inspection (OSI) Workshop-5 met 8-12 November, 1999 in Farnborough, UK and was hosted by the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA). The purpose of the workshop was to provide guidance on OSI Operational Manual (OM) development for Working Group B (WGB) of the CTBT Preparatory Commission (PrepCom). The two main topics of the workshop involved logistics/preparatory activities for the pre-inspection phase and in-depth examination of technology application during the initial and continuation phases of an OSI. Reports from the PTS-sponsored Kazakhstan OSI experiment set the tone for the discussions of logistics and preparatory activities. The most important recommendation coming out of the experiment and workshop discussions is a need for Working Group A to develop specific administrative and financial rules regarding OSIs and define the status of inspectors and inspector assistants with respect to the CTBTO. There was also extensive discussion of a need for Working Group B to develop and/or adapt safety standards. With respect to OSI preparations, the group agreed that the time line and quick response required by an OSI necessitate development of special procedures; standing arrangements and/or advanced parties are suggested as one possible approach and a list of relevant issues has been initiated. A chart was developed that outlines the various elements of logistics required for an OSI that can serve as a basis for development of checklists, databases, and other preparation activities. Technology presentations and discussion focused on three major areas: phenomenology, synergy, and specifications.

Krioutchenkov, V.; Shchukin, V.; Davies, A.; Sweeney, J.J.

2000-01-01

94

Nuclear tests mean new weapons  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile maintenance does not require nuclear testing. With the consensus that there is not technical substitute for developmental nuclear weapons testing, there appears to be an unambiguous opportunity for a secure and meaningful comprehensive test ban. From a national security standpoint, nuclear innovations and nuclear tests are entirely dispensable. The prospects of nuclear retaliation are severe enough that no country could assume the ability to conduct a nuclear strike with impunity. The precise combination of yield, accuracy, and radiation effects from a nuclear weapon is insignificant, compared to the overall consequences of a nuclear attack. Deterrence, independent as it is of the details of nuclear warhead design, will persist whether or not nuclear tests are conducted. An abrupt adoption of a comprehensive test ban would interrupt the US nuclear weapons development program without harming the nation's ability to maintain a safe and reliable deterrent. But the nuclear weapons design laboratories have a long history of influential opposition to a test ban. In part, this is because the large-scale nuclear weapons research and development program gives the weapons laboratories not only a license but a mandate to continue introducing new weapons into the stockpile. A comprehensive test ban, accompanied by restructuring of the nuclear weapons program as a maintenance operation, would safeguard the nuclear deterrent while bringing the qualitative arms race to a halt. 5 references, 3 figures.

Stein, J.A.

1986-11-01

95

A computer model for analyzing low-yield threshold test ban treaties  

SciTech Connect

With the ratification of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), there has been increased interest in lowering the nuclear test ban threshold from its present level of 150 kilotons and much debate about what this lower threshold should be. The uncertainties associated with verifying the TTBT, along with the added difficulties associated with lower yields, have aroused concern that a Low-Yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty (LYTTBT) may not be sufficiently verifiable. This report documents a computer model for analyzing the verifiability of LYTTBT options. The model systematically accounts for the uncertainty inherent in the treaty verification process. It helps the user gain insights into the interactions among monitoring capability, beliefs about Soviet testing strategies, and the likelihood of missing violations or making false accusations of violations. The model can also account for possible Soviet evasion strategies that could systematically reduce the US estimates of Soviet test yields. There are eight components of the model, each facilitating a different type of analysis. The components are: cavity decoupling, verification effectiveness, probability of missed violation, probability of false accusation, detectable violation, distinguishable yield, required monitoring capability and expected utility. The next six components address the verifiability of alternate LYTTBTs from different perspectives. Finally, the Expected Utility component computes the expected overall utility of each threshold option. Decision makers can use the various components of the model to study issues related to the verifiability of various LYTTBT options. Because the model is explicit and quantitative, it provides decision makers with rational, defensible analyses, which can be used as input when making important treaty and verification decisions. 2 refs. 5 figs.

Bradford, R.M.; Sokkappa, P.R.

1990-11-01

96

Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994  

SciTech Connect

To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

Denny, Marvin D

1994-01-01

97

A high-efficiency radioactive xenon detection system for verification of test-ban treaties  

SciTech Connect

A system with promising characteristics was developed for the detection of 131rnXe,1 33rnXe'3, 3Xe, and I3'Xe metastable isotopes for treaty verification of nuclear test ban treaties. The proposed method uses high-resolution electron and gamma-ray spectrometry and coincidence timing for signal selectivity and background rejection. The system enables the identification, quantification, and determination of the provenance of the relevant xenon isotopes. X-ray fluorescence gating is used to lower the backgrounds from other sources to well below the sub-becquerel level. Using coincidence and anti-coincidence schemes among the several detectors that comprise the system, K-shell conversion electrons were clearly identified with good efficiencies and energy resolutions (about 1.4 keV for the 30 keV K-shell fluorescence x-rays and 25 keV for the conversion electrons).

Lopes, J. A. M.; Morgado, R. E. (Richard E.); Conde, C. A.

2002-01-01

98

The DOE CTBT R&D effort at Livermore: calibrating to enhance international monitoring for clandestine nuclear explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which was signed in 1996 and still needs to be ratified by the US, forbids all nuclear tests and creates an international monitoring system (IMS) to search for evidence of clandestine nuclear explosions. As specified in the treaty, the IMS will consist of 170 seismic stations that record underground elastic waves, 60 infrasound stations to

S Myers; D Harris; K Mayeda; A Rodgers; C Schultz; W Walters; J Zucca

1999-01-01

99

Limited Test Ban Treaty amendment conference: Analysis of the conference and its outcome. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On 5 August 1988, representatives from Indonesia, Mexico, Peru, Sri Lanka, and Yugoslavia, on behalf of their respective governments, submitted letters to the proper authorities of the three Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) depositary governments, the US Se...

A. R. Turrentine

1991-01-01

100

Regime Design Matters: The CTBT and India's Nuclear Dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that it was the flawed design of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) rather than the conventionally ascribed reasons of security, international status, or domestic imperatives that provided the necessary incentive for India to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 before the treaty foreclosed such an option altogether. The mandatory nature of the entry-into-force (EIF) clause of the

Jyotika Saksena

2006-01-01

101

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) FOR NUCLEAR TREATY MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development of a Geographical Information System (GIS) with global and regional coverage is underway at Cornell University. This GIS is being designed to provide essential data and research products required for successful monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system will support the National Data Center (NDC) and the International Monitoring System (IMS) by providing a common

David N. Steer; Dogan Seber; Eric Sandvol; Christine Orgren; Carrie Brindisi; Muawia Barazangi

102

75 FR 43198 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CONTACT: Scott F. Sibley at U.S. Geological Survey, 989 National Center, 12201...per response. This includes the time for reviewing instructions, gathering...Minerals Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey. [FR Doc....

2010-07-23

103

78 FR 57653 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...email); or by mail at U.S. Geological Survey, 989 National Center...agency's estimate of the burden time to the proposed collection...made publicly available at any time. While you can ask us in your...Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey. [FR Doc....

2013-09-19

104

78 FR 25298 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...email); or by mail at U.S. Geological Survey, 989 National Center...agency's estimate of the burden time to the proposed collection...made publicly available at any time. While you can ask us in your...Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey. [FR Doc....

2013-04-30

105

The nuclear-weapon states and article VI of the NPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Non-Proliferation Treaty rests on a basic bargain between the five declared nuclear-weapon states - the United States, Russia, Britain, France and China and 167 states that do not possess nuclear weapons. In addition, to the arms control and disarmaments commitments in Article VI, the parties pledge in the treaty`s pramble their determination to seek a comprehensive test ban (CTB)

J. Mendelsohn; D. Lockwood

1995-01-01

106

Ultra-high resolution mass separator--application to detection of nuclear weapons tests.  

PubMed

A Penning trap-based purification process having a resolution of about 1 ppm is reported. In this context, we present for the first time a production method for the most complicated and crucially important nuclear weapons test signature, (133m)Xe. These pure xenon samples are required by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to standardize and calibrate the worldwide network of xenon detectors. PMID:20044263

Peräjärvi, K; Eronen, T; Elomaa, V-V; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Kettunen, H; Kolhinen, V S; Laitinen, M; Moore, I D; Penttilä, H; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Toivonen, H; Turunen, J; Aystö, J

2010-03-01

107

Nucbid - A Comprehensive Nuclear Fuel Economics Code for Utility Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic unit energy cost algorithm for nuclear fuel is presented which adheres to engineering economic principles permitting precise treatment of time dependent cash and energy flow considerations. A comprehensive computer program, NUCBID, developed by TVA based on the algorithm is described.

Raymond Hoskins; Eleanor Cooper; James Belitz

1972-01-01

108

Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions -- OSI research final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of

Sweeney

1996-01-01

109

Satellite Earth Observations Support CTBT Monitoring: A Case Study of the Nuclear Test in North Korea of Oct. 9, 2006 and Comparison with Seismic Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty prescribes the use of seismic stations and arrays as the main measure for verification\\u000a of Treaty compliance. Since the inception of the Treaty, a vast amount of open source earth observation satellite data has\\u000a become available. This paper investigates the potential for combining seismic and satellite data for more effective monitoring\\u000a and response. With data acquired

J. Schlittenhardt; M. Canty; I. Grünberg

2010-01-01

110

75 FR 11136 - Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Nuclear Command and Control System Comprehensive Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Nuclear Command and Control System Comprehensive Review Committee; Charter Termination...terminating the charter for the U.S. Nuclear Command and Control System Comprehensive Review Committee. FOR FURTHER...

2010-03-10

111

Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations  

SciTech Connect

The essence of this paper is to enlighten the consistency achieved nowadays in nuclear data and uncertainties assessments in terms of compound nucleus reaction theory from neutron separation energy to continuum. Making the continuity of theories used in resolved (R-matrix theory), unresolved resonance (average R-matrix theory) and continuum (optical model) rangcs by the generalization of the so-called SPRT method, consistent average parameters are extracted from observed measurements and associated covariances are therefore calculated over the whole energy range. This paper recalls, in particular, recent advances on fission cross section calculations and is willing to suggest some hints for future developments.

Bouland, O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hale, G M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lynn, J E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bernard, D [FRANCE; Litaize, O [FRANCE; Noguere, G [FRANCE; De Saint Jean, C [FRANCE; Serot, O [FRANCE

2010-01-01

112

Rapid Deployment Drilling System for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban Preliminary Engineering Design  

SciTech Connect

While not a new drilling technology, coiled-tubing (CT) drilling continues to undergo rapid development and expansion, with new equipment, tools and procedures developed almost daily. This project was undertaken to: analyze available technological options for a Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) CT drilling system: recommend specific technologies that best match the requirements for the RDDS; and highlight any areas where adequate technological solutions are not currently available. Postshot drilling is a well established technique at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Drilling provides essential data on the results of underground tests including obtaining samples for the shot zone, information on cavity size, chimney dimensions, effects of the event on surrounding material, and distribution of radioactivity.

Maurer, W.C.; Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Cohen, J.H. [Maurer Engineering, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Heuze, F.E.; Butler, M.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-09-01

113

A comprehensive view of nuclear receptor cancer cistromes.  

PubMed

Nuclear receptors comprise a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that play important roles in both physiology and diseases including cancer. The technologies of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by array hybridization (ChIP-chip) or massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) has been used to map, at an unprecedented rate, the in vivo genome-wide binding (cistrome) of nuclear receptors in both normal and cancer cells. We developed a curated database of 88 nuclear receptor cistrome data sets and other associated high-throughput data sets including 121 collaborating factor cistromes, 94 epigenomes, and 319 transcriptomes. Through integrative analysis of the curated nuclear receptor ChIP-chip/seq data sets, we discovered novel factor-specific noncanonical motifs that may have important regulatory roles. We also revealed a common feature of nuclear receptor pioneering factors to recognize relatively short and AT-rich motifs. Most nuclear receptors bind predominantly to introns and distal intergenetic regions, and binding sites closer to transcription start sites were found to be neither stronger nor more evolutionarily conserved. Interestingly, while most nuclear receptors appear to be predominantly transcriptional activators, our analysis suggests that the binding of ESR1, RARA, and RARG has both activating and repressive effects. Through meta-analysis of different omic data of the same cancer cell line model from multiple studies, we generated consensus cistrome and expression profiles. We further made probabilistic predictions of the nuclear receptor target genes by integrating cistrome and transcriptome data and validated the predictions using expression data from tumor samples. The final database, with comprehensive cistrome, epigenome, and transcriptome data sets and downstream analysis results, constitutes a valuable resource for the nuclear receptor and cancer community. PMID:21940749

Tang, Qianzi; Chen, Yiwen; Meyer, Clifford; Geistlinger, Tim; Lupien, Mathieu; Wang, Qian; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yong; Brown, Myles; Liu, Xiaole Shirley

2011-11-15

114

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure  

SciTech Connect

Abstract. With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, NNSA management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by the U.S. DOE MPC&A Regulatory Development Project RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and schedule the development of documents; 5) Identify and develop processes to measure effectiveness of regulations. Utilizing this process is resulting in an effective regulatory process that is understood and is being adopted by the four RF organizations. It is anticipated that the current regulatory development process will continue after U.S. support ends. Utilization of the systematic methodology will ensure regulatory development is based on required MPC&A structural elements and will support the continued maintenance and development of an effective regulatory base.

O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Tuttle, John D.; Hazel, Michael J.; Schlegel, Steven C.; Miller, Daniel R.

2009-03-30

115

Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of eight recommended children's books new titles and reprints to use in reading comprehension activities. Suggests grade levels and learning activities for each title. (AEF)

Winkel, Lois

1999-01-01

116

Comprehensibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the difficulty involved in creating easily understood information. The act of communicating is not complete until the message has been both received and understood by the audience. Messages must always be comprehensible, otherwise they will have no effect. The readability, legibility, and reading value of a graphic message is…

Pettersson, Rune

117

Comprehensibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The act of communicating is not complete until the message is received and understood by the audience. This paper focuses on formulating messages for comprehensibility, in a discussion that is fundamentally applicable to all media. The ability to understand a verbovisual message depends on its readability, legibility, and its reading value.…

Pettersson, Rune

118

Earthquakes or Nuclear Explosions?: Seismic Clues to Dirty Deeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity requires students to read an article about earthquakes and nuclear explosions and answer questions about it. They discover that both earthquakes and nuclear explosions generate seismic waves that can be detected thousands of kilometers away and from the 1960s to the 1990s about one underground nuclear explosion was carried out each week. Students learn that this was how nations tested their nuclear weapons and certified them as ready for deployment. Seismology was often the only way to learn if a foreign power was developing nuclear weapons. Students will also realize that scientists pick up the seismic waves at monitoring stations and these seismic signals allow scientists to locate the explosion or earthquake and to tell the difference between the two. Students also learn about the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) outlawing nuclear weapon tests that was signed by 150 nations, although by 1999 it had only been ratified by 19 of the 44 countries which had nuclear power reactors.

119

Development of a Comprehensive Seismic Yield Estimation System for Underground Nuclear Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes progress which has been achieved during the past year in the development of a comprehensive new seismic yield estimation system (YES) for underground nuclear explosions. Specifically, a prototype version of YES which is applicable t...

J. R. Murphy J. N. Jenab

1992-01-01

120

Impact of contributions of Glenn T. Seaborg on nuclear science  

SciTech Connect

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-199) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten U.S. presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights the profound impact of his contributions on nuclear science, both in the U.S. and in the international community.

Hoffman, Darleane C.

2000-12-26

121

Nuclear Energy and the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

122

Soviet nuclear testing: The Republics say no  

SciTech Connect

Massive protests are taking place in Russia against nuclear weapons testing. Efforts have been mounted to stop all testing at Kazakhstan test site near the town of Semipalatinsk, site of the first nuclear detonation in 1949 and of more than 500 test conducted since. Boris Yeltsin proposed just after his election as president of the federation the elimination of testing grounds for nuclear and biological weapons on Russian territory. The central government in Moscow has announced that it is considering closing the Semipalatinsk site. Reaction has also been strong to testing at the Arctic island of Novaya Zemlya, and severe constraints, such as Arctic cold, frozen rocks, high winds, difficult access, and protests by Greenpeace activists and USSR's Nordic neighbors do not make this site attractive. The author feels that this movement in the USSR has set in motion a politically dynamic situation that makes for the best chance for a comprehensive test ban treaty yet witnessed.

Carter, L.J.

1990-11-16

123

SCALE 6: Comprehensive Nuclear Safety Analysis Code System  

SciTech Connect

Version 6 of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in February 2009, contains significant new capabilities and data for nuclear safety analysis and marks an important update for this software package, which is used worldwide. This paper highlights the capabilities of the SCALE system, including continuous-energy flux calculations for processing multigroup problem-dependent cross sections, ENDF/B-VII continuous-energy and multigroup nuclear cross-section data, continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations, Monte Carlo radiation shielding analyses with automated three-dimensional variance reduction techniques, one- and three-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for criticality safety evaluations, two- and three-dimensional lattice physics depletion analyses, fast and accurate source terms and decay heat calculations, automated burnup credit analyses with loading curve search, and integrated three-dimensional criticality accident alarm system analyses using coupled Monte Carlo criticality and shielding calculations.

Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL

2011-01-01

124

Seismic experiments, nuclear dismantlement go hand in hand in Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique seismic experiments involving large chemical explosions at different depths have been conducted in Kazakhstan, thanks to nuclear dismantlement activity there. Collaborative efforts of several bodies have provided this creative, cost-efficient extension of the dismantling work, improving technical monitoring and verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).For the past several years, the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) has been closing the nuclear test tunnels and bore-holes at the former Soviet nuclear test site nearSemipalatinsk, eastern Kazakhstan, as part of the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program. The existence of this program and the infrastructure that was in place to implement it made it possible to conduct the seismic experiments. As a result, benchmark data have been collected on the variations in seismic signals from explosions at different burial depths.

Leith, William; Kluchko, Luke J.

125

The continuing risk of nuclear war.  

PubMed

Climate change and nuclear war are currently the most dangerous challenges to human civilisation and survival. The effects of climate change are now sufficient to persuade many governments to take effective measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Today there are about 27,000 nuclear warheads, many at least ten times more powerful than the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs, and a meaningful medical response to a nuclear attack is impossible. Nevertheless, the threat of nuclear war does not raise public concern, and indeed the nuclear-weapon states are upgrading their capability. The only effective preventive measure is the abolition of nuclear weapons. Steps towards this include: a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, for the nuclear weapon states to observe their obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty to enter into force. The ultimate need is for a Nuclear Weapons Convention; International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War have launched an International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear weapons (ICAN) to promote a NWC. PMID:17987978

McCoy, Ronald

2007-01-01

126

Discrimination of Nuclear Explosions against Civilian Sources Based on Atmospheric Xenon Isotopic Activity Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support the interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of nuclear explosions and reactors, empirical data for both test and reactor releases as well as observations by measurement stations of the International Noble Gas Experiment (INGE) are used to provide a proof of concept for the isotopic ratio based method for source discrimination.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Axelsson, Anders; Bean, Marc; Blanchard, Xavier; Bowyer, Theodore W.; Brachet, Guy; Hebel, Simon; McIntyre, Justin I.; Peters, Jana; Pistner, Christoph; Raith, Maria; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, Paul R. J.; Schlosser, Clemens; Stocki, Trevor J.; Taffary, Thomas; Kurt Ungar, R.

2010-05-01

127

Discrimination of nuclear explosions against civilian sources based on atmospheric xenon isotopic activity ratios  

SciTech Connect

A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will be used to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of nuclear explosions, empirical data for both test and reactor releases as well as observations by measurement stations of the International Noble Gas Experiment (INGE) are used to provide a proof of concept for the isotopic ratio based method for source discrimination.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Axelssson, A.; Bean, Marc; Blanchard, X.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Brachet, G.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Peters, Jana; Pistner, Christoph; Raith, Maria; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, P. R.; Schlosser, C.; Stocki, Trevor J.; Taffary, T.; Ungar, R. Kurt

2010-05-01

128

Szilard Prize Lecture: Seismic Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic monitoring of the more than 2000 nuclear test explosions since 1945 has been vigorously pursued, both to track the weapons development of potential adversaries, and to support initiatives in nuclear arms control, including various test ban treaties. Major funding from the US Department of Defense built up new global seismographic networks and over several decades established practical capability in monitoring nuclear explosions ``teleseismically'' (i.e. from distances more than about 1500 km), for tests that the testing nation did not attempt to conceal. What then is the capability to monitor compliance with, for example, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) of 1996, particularly if evasion scenarios are considered? Note that the CTBT, though not ratified by some countries (including the US), is now being monitored by networks that include seismographic stations at ``regional'' distances (< 1500 km) from candidate explosion locations. Years of R and D have shown that regional signals can be used to monitor down to yields significantly lower than can be detected and identified teleseismically. A US National Academy of Sciences study in 2002 concluded that ``an underground nuclear explosion cannot be confidently hidden if its yield is larger than 1 or 2 kt.'' About 1000 earthquakes and chemical explosions are now detected per day, and documented via seismic data, providing plenty of challenges for nuclear explosion monitoring organizations. Explosion monitoring capability will improve in many parts of the world, due to the growth of networks that monitor even small earthquakes to study seismic hazard. But political problems can impede improved international explosion monitoring, due to national restrictions on data access.

Richards, Paul

2006-04-01

129

Nuclear testing: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined the experimental and analytic bases for understanding the performance of each of the weapon types that are currently planned to remain in the US enduring nuclear stockpile. They have also examined whether continued underground tests at various nuclear yield thresholds would add significantly to the confidence in this stockpile in the years ahead. The starting point for this examination was a detailed review of past experience in developing and testing modern nuclear weapons, their certification and recertification processes, their performance margins, and evidence of aging or other trends over time for each weapon type in the enduring stockpile. The findings, as summarized in Conclusions 1 through 6, are consistent with US agreement to enter into a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) of unending duration, that includes a standard ``supreme national interest`` clause. Recognizing that the challenge of maintaining an effective nuclear stockpile for an indefinite period without benefit of underground tests is an important and also a new one, the US should affirm its readiness to invoke the supreme national interest clause should the need arise as a result of unanticipated technical problems in the enduring stockpile.

Drell, S.; Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F. [and others

1995-08-01

130

A comprehensive characterization of the nuclear microRNA repertoire of post-mitotic neurons  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with important functions in the development and plasticity of post-mitotic neurons. In addition to the well-described cytoplasmic function of miRNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation, recent studies suggested that miRNAs could also be involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory processes in the nuclei of proliferating cells. However, whether miRNAs localize to and function within the nucleus of post-mitotic neurons is unknown. Using a combination of microarray hybridization and small RNA deep sequencing, we identified a specific subset of miRNAs which are enriched in the nuclei of neurons. Nuclear enrichment of specific candidate miRNAs (miR-25 and miR-92a) could be independently validated by Northern blot, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). By cross-comparison to published reports, we found that nuclear accumulation of miRNAs might be linked to a down-regulation of miRNA expression during in vitro development of cortical neurons. Importantly, by generating a comprehensive isomiR profile of the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, we found a significant overrepresentation of guanine nucleotides (nt) at the 3?-terminus of nuclear-enriched isomiRs, suggesting the presence of neuron-specific mechanisms involved in miRNA nuclear localization. In conclusion, our results provide a starting point for future studies addressing the nuclear function of specific miRNAs and the detailed mechanisms underlying subcellular localization of miRNAs in neurons and possibly other polarized cell types.

Khudayberdiev, Sharof A.; Zampa, Federico; Rajman, Marek; Schratt, Gerhard

2013-01-01

131

Nuclear Tests in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News discusses the recent nuclear tests in India and the world's reaction to those tests. The ten resources discussed offer analysis, commentary, and background information from a variety of perspectives. On May 11, 1998, India confirmed what the world already knew by conducting three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran Mountain Range in the Rajasthan Province. On May 13 two more sub-kiloton devices were exploded and the government announced that the planned series of tests was complete. Although India has indicated it may now be ready to sign on to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), reaction from the world community has been extremely negative. In the vanguard of this chorus of dissaproval has been the US, which announced over $20 billion in economic sanctions against India on May 13. The strongest critic of the tests, however, has been India's neighbor and rival Pakistan, which has fought three wars with India since 1947. Domestic pressure on Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to respond has been enormous and many commentators believe a Pakistani nuclear test is imminent. In India, however, the BJP-dominated government has been widely lauded. Many Indians have expressed pride and dismiss foreign criticism as a hypocritical holdover of colonial mentalities. While US sanctions are unlikely to have any large-scale effect on India, the end results of these tests on Indo-Pakistani relations and their ongoing missile race is yet to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

132

An Overview of Comprehensive Inspection Technologies Under Investigation at Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive Inspection Technologies (CIT) under investigation include methods that might be of use in detecting a clandestine underground nuclear test. These include techniques for detecting noble gases, visual observation methods, hyperspectral imaging, controlled- and passive-source seismic surveys, and other geophysical methods. Noble gas detection studies include a series of experiments called the Noble Gas Migration (NGM) experiments, that explore the fundamental parameters that determine the capability to detect radioxenon isotopes and 37Ar produced in underground nuclear tests. These isotopes are of interest to both the International Monitoring System (IMS) global monitoring and On-Site Inspection (OSI) regimes. Through a unique combination of field experiments, sampling of radioactive noble gas from a legacy underground nuclear test, large-scale hydrogeologic computer simulations, and a regimen involving carefully designed field-sampling techniques, the experiments are providing information about the production, release, and sampling challenges that determine the ability to detect these two important noble gases. Other CIT experiments explore and validate geophysical (controlled-source and passive-source seismic, gravity, electrical, magnetic, etc.) and optical techniques (both visual and instrument-based) that greatly enhance the understanding of the efficiency of these techniques for OSI, including how to better integrate the various technologies with each other and individually at different physical scales. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25936--1840.

Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.

2013-12-01

133

Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO).

Christoudias, Theodoros; Lelieveld, Jos

2013-04-01

134

Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

1987-12-01

135

Global backtracking of anthropogenic radionuclides by means of a receptor oriented ensemble dispersion modelling system in support of Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a methodology for quality assessment of backtracking models. We present results illustrating the level of agreement between the backtracking models, and the accuracy of each model and the ensemble model in resolving the geo-temporal reference of a single point source. Both assessments are based on an ensemble of 12 different Lagrangian particle dispersion modelling (LPDM)

Andreas Becker; Gerhard Wotawa; Lars-Erik De Geer; Petra Seibert; Roland R. Draxler; Craig Sloan; Real D’Amours; Matthew Hort; Hubert Glaab; Philippe Heinrich; Yves Grillon; Vyacheslav Shershakov; Keiichi Katayama; Yuetang Zhang; Paul Stewart; Marcus Hirtl; Michel Jean; Peter Chen

2007-01-01

136

Subsurface nuclear tests monitoring through the CTBT xenon network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first evaluation of the atmospheric xenon network to be installed as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the frame of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). We show that this network should, by itself, provide a significant contribution to the total efficiency of the IMS. For this evaluation, we introduce an inverse approach based upon

Frédéric Hourdin; J.-P. Issartel

2000-01-01

137

Ground Truthing Technologies for Mining and Nuclear Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seismic monitoring of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty may require the detection, location and identification of seismic events as small as mb=2.5 in limited areas. Considering the emphasis placed by the current Administration on such an agreement, it is i...

B. Stump F. Riviere-Barbier I. Chernoby K. Koch

1994-01-01

138

Detection and Identification of Nuclear Explosions Underground (Project VELA UNIFORM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project VELA UNIFORM is part of a broad research program designed as the first full-fledged national effort for developing a specific type of arms control technology. Based on earth science research, the VELA UNIFORM effort is directed towards obtaining a suitable system for the detection, identification and location of nuclear explosions underground in support of a possible nuclear test ban.

Charles Bates

1962-01-01

139

Ionospheric Effects of Underground Nuclear Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Telemetry from the Russian INTERCOSMOS 24 satellite recorded ELF and VLF electromagnetic disturbances in the outer ionosphere from an underground nuclear explosion that was detonated at Novaya Zemlya Island on 24 October 1994. The IC24 satellite observations were obtained at about 900 km altitude within a few degrees of ground zero. The disturbances were interpreted for magnetohydrodynamic excitation of the ionosphere’s E layer by the acoustic wave. Electrons are accelerated along the magnetic force lines to amplify longitudinal currents and magnetic disturbances that may be measured by magnetometers at ground-based observatories and on-board satellites. The underground nuclear test near P’unggye, North Korea on 25 May 2009 provides a further significant opportunity for studying the utility of ionospheric disturbances for characterizing ground zero. Of the seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide detection elements of the International Monitoring System (IMS) established by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), only the first two elements detected this event. However, the event also appears to have been recorded as a direct traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) in the slant total electron content (TEC) observations derived from a network of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. The TID was observed to distances of at least 600 km from the explosion site propagating with a speed of about 281m/s. Thus, the global distributions and temporal variations of the TEC, may provide important information to help detect and characterize clandestine underground nuclear explosions.

Park, J.; von Frese, R. R.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; Morton, Y.

2010-12-01

140

The detection and recognition of underground nuclear explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society's Joint Association for Geophysics and VERTIC (the Verification Technology Information Centre) held in London in 1992. The topics presented focused on the detection and recognition of underground nuclear explosions. The objective of the meeting was to emphasize the multi-methodological approach that is important in verifying compliance with test-ban

P. Argo; R. A. Clark; A. Douglas; V. Gupta; J. Hassard; P. M. Lewis; P. K. H. Maguire; K. Playford; F. Ringdal

1995-01-01

141

Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program; Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Application Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume is one of twenty-one summarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This portion describes the studies of advanced applications of nuclear reactors that were performed, including various types of aircraft, missiles, space vehicles, ships, and portable power plants.

Comassar

1962-01-01

142

The Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests by Turkish National Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) announced the conduct of a third underground nuclear test on 12 February 2013 in the northeastern part of the country as the previous tests that were conducted in 2009 and 2006. The latest nuclear test is the best detected nuclear event by the global seismic networks. The magnitude estimates show that each new test increased in size when compared with the previous one. As Turkish NDC (National Data Center), we have analyzed the 2013 and 2009 nuclear tests using seismic data from International Monitoring System (IMS) stations through the International Data Center (IDC) located in Vienna. Discrimination analysis was performed based on mb:Ms magnitude ratio and spectral analysis. We have also applied array based waveform cross-correlation to show the similarity of the nuclear tests and precise arrival time measurements for relative location estimates and basic infrasound analysis using two IMS infrasound stations for the 2013 event. Seismic analysis were performed using softwares such as Geotool, EP (Event processor from Norsar) and Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) and the infrasound data were analyzed by using PMCC from CEA-France. The IMS network is operating under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The CTBTO verification system is under continuous development, also making use of the state of the art technologies and methodologies.

Semin, K.; Meral Ozel, N.; Destici, T. C.; Necmioglu, O.; Kocak, S.

2013-12-01

143

Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Norbo Underground Nuclear Test in U8c, Nevada Nuclear Security Site, and the Impact on Stability of the Ground Surface  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Norbo underground nuclear test in U8c to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This request is similar to one made for the Salut site in U8c (Pawloski, 2012b). Review of the Norbo site is complicated because the test first exhibited subsurface collapse, which was not unusual, but it then collapsed to the surface over one year later, which was unusual. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Norbo detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeology due to the nuclear detonation. Aviva Sussman from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has also proposed work at this site. Both proposals require physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and focus on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow and deep geophysical surveys.

Pawloski, G A

2012-06-18

144

COMPREHENSIVE PROGRESS REPORT FOR FOURIER TRANSFORM NMR (NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE) OF METALS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Interactions of the metals cadmium and selenium with various biologically important substrates were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cadmium-113 NMR was used for a critical examination of three metalloproteins: concanavalin A, bovine superoxide dismutase ...

145

Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2006-09-19

146

Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

2011-09-13

147

Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2010-09-21

148

Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2007-09-25

149

Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-09-23

150

Comprehensive nuclear model calculations: Introduction to the theory and use of the GNASH code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A user's manual describing the theory and operation of the GNASH nuclear reaction computer code is presented. This work is based on a series of lectures describing the statistical Hauser-Feshbach plus preequilibrium version of the code with full angular momentum conservation. This version is expected to be most applicable for incident particle energies between 1 key and 50 MeV. General

P. G. Young; E. D Arthur; M. B. Chadwick

1992-01-01

151

The DOE CTBT R&D effort at Livermore: calibrating to enhance international monitoring for clandestine nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which was signed in 1996 and still needs to be ratified by the US, forbids all nuclear tests and creates an international monitoring system (IMS) to search for evidence of clandestine nuclear explosions. As specified in the treaty, the IMS will consist of 170 seismic stations that record underground elastic waves, 60 infrasound stations to record low-frequency sound waves in the air, 11 hydroacoustic stations to record underwater sound waves, and 80 radionuclide stations to record airborne radionuclide gases or particles. The International Data Center (IDC), located in Vienna, receives data from the IMS system and applies standard event screening criteria to any detected events with the objective of characterizing and highlighting events considered to be consistent with natural phenomena or a non-nuclear man made phenomena. The National Data Center (NDC) for each country must go a step further than the IDC and identify events as consistent with natural phenomena, non-nuclear manmade phenomena, or a banned nuclear test using these monitoring technologies.

Myers, S; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Rodgers, A; Schultz, C; Walters, W; Zucca, J

1999-04-01

152

A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Mortierellales (Mortierellomycotina) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA.  

PubMed

The basal fungal order Mortierellales constitutes one of the largest orders in the basal lineages. This group consists of one family and six genera. Most species are saprobic soil inhabiting fungi with the ability of diverse biotransformations or the accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids, making them attractive for biotechnological applications. Only few studies exist aiming at the revelation of the evolutionary relationships of this interesting fungal group. This study includes the largest dataset of LSU and ITS sequences for more than 400 specimens containing 63 type or reference strains. Based on a LSU phylogram, fungal groups were defined and evaluated using ITS sequences and morphological features. Traditional morphology-based classification schemes were rejected, because the morphology of the Mortierellales seems to depend on culture conditions, a fact, which makes the identification of synapomorphic characters tedious. This study belongs to the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analyses for the Mortierellales up to date and reveals unresolved species and species complexes. PMID:24027348

Wagner, L; Stielow, B; Hoffmann, K; Petkovits, T; Papp, T; Vágvölgyi, C; de Hoog, G S; Verkley, G; Voigt, K

2013-06-01

153

Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Roadmap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk reviews research and development highlights and accomplishments (https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/mrr) as well as future research directions of the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D (GNEM R&D) program within the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection, NA-222. GNEM R&D's mission is "…to develop, demonstrate, and deliver advanced technologies and systems to operational monitoring agencies to fulfill US monitoring requirements and policies for detecting, locating, and identifying nuclear explosions."* Work sponsored by GNEM R&D and collaborators is conducted by world-class scientists and engineers in national laboratories, universities, and private industry. In the past ten years, significant progress has been made in detection, location and identification with substantial improvements yet possible. There is increasing interest in GNEM R&D technology particularly in light of its relevance to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. GNEM R&D direction is captured in roadmaps: waveform technologies, including seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasound and radionuclide monitoring. The roadmaps have the same four areas: source physics, signal propagation, sensors, and signal analysis. Within each area illustrative R&D themes, program metrics, and future R&D directions will be presented. The goals of the R&D program are to: perform innovative scientific research, deliver capability-enhancing technologies to monitoring agencies and to motivate and nurture human capital to meet future monitoring challenges. * Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program Strategic Plan, DOE/NNSA/NA-22-NEMRE-2004, https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/cgi-bin/prod/nemre/index.cgi?Page=Strategic+Plan

Casey, Leslie; Ziagos, John; Rodgers, Arthur; Bell, Randy

2010-05-01

154

Development of a comprehensive seismic yield-estimation system for underground nuclear explosions. Scientific report no. 3  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress which has been achieved during the past year in the development of a comprehensive new seismic yield estimation system (YES) for underground nuclear explosions. Specifically, a prototype version of YES which is applicable to explosions at the Soviet Shagan River and Novaya Zemlya test sites is described in detail. In its current configuration, the YES encompasses a database of more than 10,000 digital seismograms recorded at stations of the USAEDS, GDSN, CDSN and IRIS networks from explosions at these two test sites. For both test areas, information regarding the explosion source environment is presented to the analyst in the context of SPOT (tm) satellite images of the sites, together with associated surface and subsurface geologic information and DMA topographic data. The on-line database for YES also contains a wide variety of tabular information including complete event and station location files containing both classified and unclassified locations, standard travel-time tables for the seismic arrivals used for yield estimation, propagation path and station corrections for use in magnitude determinations and a comprehensive instrument response database. The capabilities and functionality of the current version of the YES system are graphically illustrated in Section 2 using displays of the screens encountered by an analyst in a typical processing session.

Murphy, J.R.; Jenab, J.N.

1992-03-01

155

Comprehensive nuclear model calculations: Introduction to the theory and use of the GNASH code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A user`s manual describing the theory and operation of the GNASH nuclear reaction computer code is presented. This work is based on a series of lectures describing the statistical Hauser-Feshbach plus preequilibrium version of the code with full angular momentum conservation. This version is expected to be most applicable for incident particle energies between 1 key and 50 MeV. General

P. G. Young; E. D Arthur; M. B. Chadwick

1992-01-01

156

Managing Terrorism or Accidental Nuclear Errors, Preparing for Iodine-131 Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review  

PubMed Central

Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world’s leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15–30 mg or 1–2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations.

Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Loeffke, Bernard; Baker, Robert; Kreuk, Florian; Yang, Samantha Peiling; Hurley, James R.

2014-01-01

157

India`s nuclear weapons debate: Unlocking the door to the CTBT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States and the international community simply will not win Indian and Pakistani adherence to the test ban without a serious, practical commitment at least to pursue step-by-step measures to eliminate nuclear weapons. The author examines the issues.

Perkovich

1996-01-01

158

Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-09-21

159

The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

Nordyke, M.D.

1996-10-01

160

Categorization of Used Nuclear Fuel Inventory in Support of a Comprehensive National Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy - 13575  

SciTech Connect

A technical assessment of the current inventory [?70,150 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) as of 2011] of U.S.-discharged used nuclear fuel (UNF) has been performed to support decisions regarding fuel cycle strategies and research, development and demonstration (RD and D) needs. The assessment considered discharged UNF from commercial nuclear electricity generation and defense and research programs and determined that the current UNF inventory can be divided into the following three categories: 1. Disposal - excess material that is not needed for other purposes; 2. Research - material needed for RD and D purposes to support waste management (e.g., UNF storage, transportation, and disposal) and development of alternative fuel cycles (e.g., separations and advanced fuels/reactors); and 3. Recycle/Recovery - material with inherent and/or strategic value. A set of key assumptions and attributes relative to the various disposition options were used to categorize the current UNF inventory. Based on consideration of RD and D needs, time frames and material needs for deployment of alternative fuel cycles, characteristics of the current UNF inventory, and possible uses to support national security interests, it was determined that the vast majority of the current UNF inventory should be placed in the Disposal category, without the need to make fuel retrievable from disposal for reuse or research purposes. Access to the material in the Research and Recycle/Recovery categories should be retained to support RD and D needs and national security interests. This assessment does not assume any decision about future fuel cycle options or preclude any potential options, including those with potential recycling of commercial UNF. (authors)

Wagner, John C.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Mueller, Don E.; Gehin, Jess C.; Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Bldg. 5700, MS-6170, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Bldg. 5700, MS-6170, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Taiwo, Temitope; Nutt, Mark; Williamson, Mark A. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Todosow, Mike [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Wigeland, Roald [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory (United States); Halsey, William G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Omberg, Ronald P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)

2013-07-01

161

Nuclear Explosions, Arms-Control Treaties and Environmental Monitoring (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), among the most technically sophisticated arms-control agreements considered to date, would ban nuclear-explosion testing worldwide. Two reviews by the National Academy of Sciences over the past dozen years point to i) the feasibility of reliably monitoring the Treaty, and ii) the benefits the CTBT brings to US and international security. The CTBT, among other accords such as the Open Skies Treaty, highlights monitoring of the global environment that can advance science, while helping society both through warning and mitigation of natural hazards and through confidence building among nations. Thus, arms-control regimes contribute to scientific characterization of the global environment everywhere, all the time, with applications ranging from atmospheric science to oceanography and seismology. Geophysical research, and the science and engineering community more generally, can significantly enhance global monitoring through the development of ubiquitous sensors for deployment on the ground and in the oceans and atmosphere. Ubiquitous monitoring raises potential concerns that need to be addressed, but can offer enormous benefits both for science and for international security.

Jeanloz, R.

2013-12-01

162

Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Salut Underground Nuclear Test in U20ak, Nevada National Security Site, and the Impact of Stability of the Ground Surface  

SciTech Connect

At the request of Jerry Sweeney, the LLNL Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Salut underground nuclear test in U20ak to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Review of the Salut site is complicated because the test experienced a subsurface, rather than surface, collapse. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Salut detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeologogy due to the nuclear detonation. Sweeney's proposal requires physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Test Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site), and focuses on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow, and deep geophysical surveys.

Pawloski, G A

2012-04-25

163

Comprehensive modeling of special nuclear materials detection using three-dimensional deterministic and Monte Carlo methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study aim to design a useful neutron signature characterization device based on 3He detectors, a standard neutron detection methodology used in homeland security applications. Research work involved simulation of the generation, transport, and detection of the leakage radiation from Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). To accomplish research goals, we use a new methodology to fully characterize a standard "1-Ci" Plutonium-Beryllium (Pu-Be) neutron source based on 3-D computational radiation transport methods, employing both deterministic SN and Monte Carlo methodologies. Computational model findings were subsequently validated through experimental measurements. Achieved results allowed us to design, build, and laboratory-test a Nickel composite alloy shield that enables the neutron leakage spectrum from a standard Pu-Be source to be transformed, through neutron scattering interactions in the shield, into a very close approximation of the neutron spectrum leaking from a large, subcritical mass of Weapons Grade Plutonium (WGPu) metal. This source will make possible testing with a nearly exact reproduction of the neutron spectrum from a 6.67 kg WGPu mass equivalent, but without the expense or risk of testing detector components with real materials. Moreover, over thirty moderator materials were studied in order to characterize their neutron energy filtering potential. Specific focus was made to establish the limits of He-3 spectroscopy using ideal filter materials. To demonstrate our methodology, we present the optimally detected spectral differences between SNM materials (Plutonium and Uranium), metal and oxide, using ideal filter materials. Finally, using knowledge gained from previous studies, the design of a He-3 spectroscopy system neutron detector, simulated entirely via computational methods, is proposed to resolve the spectra from SNM neutron sources of high interest. This was accomplished by replacing ideal filters with real materials, and comparing reaction rates with similar data from the ideal material suite.

Ghita, Gabriel M.

164

Announced United States nuclear tests, July 1945--December 1990  

SciTech Connect

This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by event name all nuclear tests conducted and announced by the United States from July 1945 to December 1990 with the exception of the GMX experiments. Discussion is included on test dates, test series, test yields, test locations, test types and purposes, test totals for Nevada Test Site (NTS) detection of radioactivity from NTS events, and categorization of NTS nuclear tests. Briefly discussed are agreements between the US and the Soviet Union regarding test banning. (MB)

Not Available

1991-01-01

165

Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident.  

PubMed

The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of (131)I reached levels of 3.0×10(-2) Bqm(-3) in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas (133)Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm(-3). While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. PMID:22137556

Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Eslinger, P W; Friese, J A; Greenwood, L R; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Keillor, M; Miley, H S; Moring, M

2012-12-01

166

Geologic constraints on clandestine nuclear testing in South Asia  

PubMed Central

Cavity decoupling in salt is the most plausible means by which a nation could conduct clandestine testing of militarily significant nuclear weapons. The conditions under which solution-mined salt can be used for this purpose are quite restrictive. The salt must be thick and reasonably pure. Containment of explosions sets a shallow limit on depth, and cavity stability sets a deep limit. These constraints are met in considerably <1% of the total land area of India and Pakistan. Most of that area is too dry for cavity construction by solution mining; disposal of brine in rivers can be detected easily. Salt domes, the most favorable structures for constructing large cavities, are not present in India and Pakistan. Confidence that they are adhering to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is enhanced by their geological conditions, which are quite favorable to verification, not evasion. Thus, their participation in the CTBT is constrained overwhelmingly by political, not scientific, issues. Confidence in the verification of the CTBT could be enhanced if India and Pakistan permitted stations of the various monitoring technologies that are now widely deployed elsewhere to be operated on their territories.

Davis, Dan M.; Sykes, Lynn R.

1999-01-01

167

Geologic constraints on clandestine nuclear testing in South Asia.  

PubMed

Cavity decoupling in salt is the most plausible means by which a nation could conduct clandestine testing of militarily significant nuclear weapons. The conditions under which solution-mined salt can be used for this purpose are quite restrictive. The salt must be thick and reasonably pure. Containment of explosions sets a shallow limit on depth, and cavity stability sets a deep limit. These constraints are met in considerably <1% of the total land area of India and Pakistan. Most of that area is too dry for cavity construction by solution mining; disposal of brine in rivers can be detected easily. Salt domes, the most favorable structures for constructing large cavities, are not present in India and Pakistan. Confidence that they are adhering to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is enhanced by their geological conditions, which are quite favorable to verification, not evasion. Thus, their participation in the CTBT is constrained overwhelmingly by political, not scientific, issues. Confidence in the verification of the CTBT could be enhanced if India and Pakistan permitted stations of the various monitoring technologies that are now widely deployed elsewhere to be operated on their territories. PMID:10500134

Davis, D M; Sykes, L R

1999-09-28

168

Comprehensive Adenosine Stress Perfusion MRI Defines the Etiology of Chest Pain in the Emergency Room: Comparison With Nuclear Stress Test  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare standard of care nuclear SPECT imaging with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for emergency room (ER) patients with chest pain and intermediate probability for coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods Thirty-one patients with chest pain, negative electrocardiogram (ECG), and negative cardiac enzymes who underwent cardiac single photon emission tomography (SPECT) within 24 h of ER admission were enrolled. Patients underwent a comprehensive cardiac MRI exam including gated cine imaging, adenosine stress and rest perfusion imaging and delayed enhancement imaging. Patients were followed for 14 ± 4.7 months. Results Of 27 patients, 8 (30%) showed subendocardial hypoperfusion on MRI that was not detected on SPECT. These patients had a higher rate of diabetes (P = 0.01) and hypertension (P = 0.01) and a lower global myocardial perfusion reserve (P = 0.01) compared with patients with a normal cardiac MRI (n = 10). Patients with subendocardial hypoperfusion had more risk factors for cardiovascular disease (mean 4.4) compared with patients with a normal MRI (mean 2.5; P = 0.005). During the follow-up period, patients with subendocardial hypoperfusion on stress MRI were more likely to return to the ER with chest pain compared with patients who had a normal cardiac MRI (P = 0.02). Four patients did not finish the MR exam due to claustrophobia. Conclusion In patients with chest pain, diabetes and hypertension, cardiac stress perfusion MRI identified diffuse subendocardial hypoperfusion defects in the ER setting not seen on cardiac SPECT, which is suspected to reflect microvascular disease.

Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Skrok, Jan; Dombroski, David; Shea, Steven M.; Shapiro, Edward P.; Bohlman, Mark; Lorenz, Christine H.; Lima, Joao A.C.; Bluemke, David A.

2011-01-01

169

Synthetics vs. real waveforms from underground nuclear explosions as master templates for CTBT monitoring with cross-correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cross-correlation (CC) and master event technique is efficient in Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. Two primary goals of CTBT monitoring are detection and location of nuclear explosions. Therefore, the CC global monitoring should be focused on finding such events. The use of physically adequate masters may increase the number of valid events in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Centre by a factor of 2. Inadequate master events may increase the number of irrelevant events in REB and reduce the sensitivity of the CC technique to valid events. In order to cover the entire earth, including vast aseismic territories, with the CC based nuclear test monitoring we conducted a thorough research and defined the most appropriate real and synthetic master events representing underground explosion sources. A procedure was developed on optimizing the master event simulation based on principal component analysis with bootstrap aggregation as a dimension reduction technique narrowing the classes of CC templates used in global detection and location process. Actual waveforms and metadata from the DTRA Verification Database (http://www.rdss.info) were used to validate our approach. The detection and location results based on real and synthetic master events were compared

Rozhkov, M.; Kitov, I. O.; Bobrov, D.

2013-12-01

170

Estimation of Ground-Level Radioisotope Distributions for Underground Nuclear Test Leakage  

SciTech Connect

On-site inspections (OSI) will be an important process to deter and help verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An important tool in narrowing the possible locations to collect evidence of a nuclear test during an on-site inspection may be over-flights of the general area using aerial gamma spectroscopy which can measure the energy and intensity of gamma radiation and help identify areas that may warrant further investigation of areas of high concentrations of radioactivity. This paper will investigate the capabilities of gamma ray detectors that are typically used in aerial searches. Modeling and simulation results of the detector response for radionuclide species for an OSI will be presented for a variety of assumed releases, depositions on the ground, and times after a suspected Treaty violation for typical over flight heights and speeds. This data will provide information on the possible applicability for airborne spectroscopy and the challenges and limitations of this tool for OSI. Of particular interest will be analysis of the data for gross count, regions of interest, and isotope identification types of algorithms and the characteristics of each.

Ely, James H.; Fast, James E.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Warren, Glen A.

2009-06-19

171

Advanced Waveform Simulation for Seismic Monitoring Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comprehensive nuclear-test-ban monitoring in terms of location and discrimination has progressed significantly in recent years. However, the characterization of sources and the estimation of low yields remains a particular challenge. As the recent Korean ...

A. J. Rodgers, D. V. Helmberger, J. Tromp

2007-01-01

172

Characterization of Broadband Regional Distance Seismograms: Use of Global, Open Data to Study Regions of Interest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research undertook scientific problem inherent in the monitoring of a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty; establishing confidence that the seismograms from small and moderate-sized events are understood, thus, identifiable. This requires an unders...

T. C. Wallace S. L. Beck

1995-01-01

173

Analysis of Regional Travel Time Data from the November 1999 Dead Sea Explosions Observed in Saudi Arabi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two large chemical explosions were detonated in the Dead Sea in order to calibrate seismic travel times and improve location accuracy for the International Monitoring System (IMS) to monitor a Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These explosions...

A. Rodgers A. M. S. Al-Amri A. Ar-Rajehi T. Al-Khalifah M. S. Al-Amri M. S. Al-Haddad N. Al-Arifi

2000-01-01

174

Scientific Meetings Database: A New Tool for CTBT-Related International Cooperation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mission of international cooperation is defined in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Ways and means of implementation were the subject of discussion during the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna in November 1998, and dur...

J. F. Knapik M. L. Girven

1999-01-01

175

Creating a comprehensive, efficient, and sustainable nuclear regulatory structure. A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the strategies and process used by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to restructure its support for MPC&A regulations in the Russian Federation. The RDP adopted a project management approach to defining, implementing, and managing an effective nuclear regulatory structure. This approach included defining and developing the regulatory documents necessary to provide the Russian Federation with a comprehensive regulatory structure that supports an effective and sustainable MPC&A Program in Russia. This effort began in February 2005, included a series of three multi-agency meetings in April, June, and July, and culminated in August 2005 in a mutually agreed-upon plan to define and populate the nuclear regulatory system in the Russian Federation for non-military, weapons-usable material. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear material at the Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom), the Russian Agency for Industry (Rosprom), and the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT) facilities; nuclear material in transport and storage; and nuclear material under the oversight of the Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervisory Service of Russia (Rostechnadzor). The Russian and U.S. MPC&A management teams approved the plan, and the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) NA-255, Office of Infrastructure and Sustainability (ONIS), is providing funding. The Regulatory Development Project is managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) NNSA.

Davis, Gregory E.; Brownell, Lorilee; Wright, Troy L.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; O'Brien, Patricia E.

2006-07-01

176

Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach  

SciTech Connect

Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear weapons? Many competing objectives have been stated across the spectrum of political, social, and military thought. These objectives include goals of ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, recommitment to further downsizing of the nuclear arsenal, embracing a long-term goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons, limitations on both the production complex and upgrades to nuclear weapons and delivery systems, and controls and constraints to limit proliferation of nuclear materials and weapons, particularly to rogue states and terrorist groups.

Martz, Joseph C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Patrice A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Branstetter, Linda [SNL; Hoover, Edward [SNL; O' Brien, Kevin [SNL; Slavin, Adam [SNL; Caswell, David [STANFORD UNIV

2010-01-01

177

Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

2014-03-01

178

Ground truthing technologies for mining and nuclear explosions. Final report, July 1993-June 1994  

SciTech Connect

Seismic monitoring of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty may require the detection, location and identification of seismic events as small as mb=2.5 in limited areas. Considering the emphasis placed by the current Administration on such an agreement, it is important to assess the complexity of the proposed task. The discrimination between earthquakes, chemical mining explosions and nuclear explosions using regional seismic waves has been shown to be strongly region dependent. The establishment of a physical framework for discriminants is important if successful techniques developed in one region are to reliably transported and used in another location. Quick acquisition of region specific data, such as information related to crust and upper mantle velocity model, wave propagation characteristics and mining practices of interest, is required for practical implementation of a monitoring system. An experiment was executed during the last two weeks of August 1994 to test the applicability of such a seismic monitoring system combining near-source and regional data. It was conducted in and around an ore mine in Southern Russia. Validation of mining and blasting practices through direct field observations is identified as ground truthing. These direct observations are compared to official records of blasting practices.

Stump, B.; Riviere-Barbier, F.; Chernoby, I.; Koch, K.

1994-06-01

179

Natural ³?Ar concentrations in soil air: implications for monitoring underground nuclear explosions.  

PubMed

For on-site inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) measurement of the noble gas ³?Ar is considered an important technique. ³?Ar is produced underground by neutron activation of Calcium by the reaction ??Ca(n,?)³?Ar. The naturally occurring equilibrium ³?Ar concentration balance in soil air is a function of an exponentially decreasing production rate from cosmic ray neutrons with increasing soil depth, diffusive transport in the soil air, and radioactive decay (T(1/2): 35 days). In this paper for the first time, measurements of natural ³?Ar activities in soil air are presented. The highest activities of ~100 mBq m?³ air are 2 orders of magnitude larger than in the atmosphere and are found in 1.5-2.5 m depth. At depths > 8 m ³?Ar activities are < 20 mBq m?³ air. After identifying the main ³?Ar production and gas transport factors the expected global activity range distribution of ³?Ar in shallow subsoil (0.7 m below the surface) was estimated. In high altitude soils, with large amounts of Calcium and with low gas permeability, ³?Ar activities may reach values up to 1 Bq m?³. PMID:21877757

Riedmann, Robin A; Purtschert, Roland

2011-10-15

180

Development of a comprehensive seismic yield estimation system for underground nuclear explosions. Final report, 17 January 1989-15 April 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research which has been carried out in conjunction with the development of a comprehensive new seismic yield estimation system (YES) for underground nuclear explosions. Specifically, it provides a detailed description of the final version of YES which has been implemented at the ARPA Center for Seismic Studies (CSS) to estimate seismic yields of explosions at the Shagan River and Novaya Zemlya test sites of the former Soviet Union. In its current configuration, the YES encompasses a database of more than 15,000 digital seismograms recorded at stations of the USAEDS, GDSN, CDSN and IRIS networks from explosions at these two test sites. For both test areas, information regarding the explosion source environment is presented to the analyst in the context of SPOT(TM) satellite images of the sites, together with associated surface and subsurface geologic information and DMA topographic data. Nuclear Explosions, Software System, X Window, Yield Estimation, Shagan River, YES, Seismic, Novaya Zemlya, CSS.

Murphy, J.R.; Stevens, J.L.; O'Neill, D.C.; Barker, B.W.; McLaughlin, K.L.

1993-05-01

181

Seismic identification analyses of cavity decoupled nuclear and chemical explosions. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Successful seismic monitoring of any eventual Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty will require development of a capability to identify signals from small cavity decoupled nuclear explosions from among numerous signals to be expected from earthquakes, rockbursts and chemical explosion (CE) events of comparable magnitude. The investigations summarized in this report focus on preliminary studies which have been carried out in an attempt to distinguish between decoupled nuclear explosions and CE events though analyses of observed and simulated seismic data for these two source types in both the U.S. and former Soviet Union. Near-regional seismic data recorded from the U.S. nuclear cavity decoupling test STERLING and the nearby tamped CE test STERLING HE are compared in Section II in an attempt to identify diagnostic differences between these two source types. This is followed in Section III by an analysis in which short-period P wave data recorded at NORSAR from Soviet nuclear tests conducted in salt cavities at Azgir site north of the Caspian Sea are systematically compared with corresponding data recorded at the same stations from presumed CE events of comparable size which have been located in the vicinity of Azgir site. In Secion IV, broadband seismic data recorded at near-regional Soviet stations from an Azgir nuclear cavity decoupling test are theoretically scaled to 1 kt fully decoupled level and compared with data recorded at the nearby IRIS station KIV from well-documented CE events. The results of these preliminary comparison studies indicate that seismic discrimination between these two explosion source types is not trivial and suggest that a reliable discrimination strategy will have to be based on detailed analysis of data.

Murphy, J.R.; Barker, B.W.

1994-01-01

182

REACTOR AND SHIELD PHYSICS. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle, Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume is one of twenty-one summarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume describes the experimental and theoretical work accomplished in the areas of reactor and shield physics.

W. E. Edwards; J. D. Simpson

1962-01-01

183

Infrasound and the infrasonic monitoring of atmospheric nuclear explosions: A literature review. Final report, 7 September 1995-28 February 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews unclassified past work in infrasound and atmospheric acoustics deemed relevant to current interests in monitoring compliance with a CTBT(Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty). The report is one of four resulting from a DOE sponsored seventeen month investigation and review of past work in infrasound. The purpose of the report is to update previous reviews and to provide members of the research and development and governmental policy making communities, with an interest in or responsibility for monitoring compliance to CTBT, with a thorough and relatively self-contained document summarizing the primary essentials of current and past work in infrasonic research. Following a background section, the report reviews: (1) the measurement of infrasound; (2) early work in infrasound and atmospheric acoustics; (3) propagation and explosive source modeling; (4) various natural and man made sources of infrasound and (5) data and waveforms from a number of nuclear and chemical explosions. The report contains one Appendix which provides waveforms of atmospheric nuclear explosions recorded on Columbia University`s Lamont-Doherty Laboratory`s microbarograph arrays as originally published by Donn and Ewing (1967).

McKisic, J.M.

1997-02-28

184

Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, Program Summary and References  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is one of twenty-one volumes sumarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume discusses the background to the General Electric program, and summarizes the various direct-air-cycle nuclear test assemblies and power plants that were developed. Because of the requirements of high performance, low weight, and small size, vast improvements in existing technology were required

G. Thornton; A. J. Rothstein

1962-01-01

185

Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

2014-03-01

186

Putting the Puzzle Together: A Proposal for a Comprehensive Study of the Military Medical Management of Nuclear Casualties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document proposes a study to assess the capabilities of the U.S. military health care system to meet the medical management requirements that would result from the use of a nuclear weapon against U.S. military forces in a foreign theater of war. The ...

C. A. Curling J. K. Burr L. A. LaViolet P. J. Lee

2011-01-01

187

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program  

SciTech Connect

With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by DOE’s MPC&A Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and schedule the development of documents; 5) Identify and develop processes to measure effectiveness of regulations. Utilizing this process is resulting in an effective regulatory process that is understood and is being adopted by the four RF organizations. It is anticipated that the current regulatory development process will continue after U.S. support ends. Utilization of the systematic methodology will ensure regulatory development is based on required MPC&A structural elements and will support the continued maintenance and development of an effective regulatory base.

Wright, Troy L.; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Schlegel, Steven C.

2010-08-11

188

Comprehensive Care  

MedlinePLUS

... mobility, speech and swallowing, and memory and other cognitive functions. Rehabilitation is an important component of comprehensive, quality healthcare for people with MS at all stages of the disease . Rehabilitation ... and vocational rehabilitation, physical and occupational therapy, therapy ...

189

A nuclear criticality safety analysis of the PACT-8 melter for the INEL Pit-9 comprehensive demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

Between 1967 and 1969, {approximately}3100 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste from the Rocky Flats Plant was buried with other hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes in a 40- x 116-m disposal pit located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This pit, designated as pit 9, is estimated to contain {approximately}40 Ci of {sup 238}Pu, 1.7 kCi of {sup 239}Pu, 0.4 kCi of {sup 240}Pu, 3.0 kCi of {sup 240}Pu, and 3.1 kCi of {sup 241}Am. During the nearly 30 yr that have elapsed since burial, normal surface-water movement coupled with the disintegration of the original containers have contributed to limited migration of radionuclides past the boundaries of the original disposal containers. Sensitivity to issues germane to buried TRU waste has led to the decision to retrieve this material. Because the remediation operations involve fissile materials, a credible nuclear criticality safety (NCS) analysis must be performed as part of the safety evaluation process to demonstrate the improbability of any contingencies contributing to an inadvertent criticality. Environmental NCS analyses are problematic because no experimental benchmarks with comparable ranges of scale and fissile material concentration exit that can be applied to environmental situations.

Bennion, J.S. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Boston, R.D.; Johnson, A.S. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pruvost, N.L. [Galaxy Computer Services, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States)

1996-12-31

190

The Chloroplast Function Database II: a comprehensive collection of homozygous mutants and their phenotypic/genotypic traits for nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins.  

PubMed

The Chloroplast Function Database has so far offered phenotype information on mutants of the nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins in Arabidopsis that pertains to >200 phenotypic data sets that were obtained from 1,722 transposon- or T-DNA-tagged lines. Here, we present the development of the second version of the database, which is named the Chloroplast Function Database II and was redesigned to increase the number of mutant characters and new user-friendly tools for data mining and integration. The upgraded database offers information on genome-wide mutant screens for any visible phenotype against 2,495 tagged lines to create a comprehensive homozygous mutant collection. The collection consists of 147 lines with seedling phenotypes and 185 lines for which we could not obtain homozygotes, as well as 1,740 homozygotes with wild-type phenotypes. Besides providing basic information about primer lists that were used for the PCR genotyping of T-DNA-tagged lines and explanations about the preparation of homozygous mutants and phenotype screening, the database includes access to a link between the gene locus and existing publicly available databases. This gives users access to a combined pool of data, enabling them to gain valuable insights into biological processes. In addition, high-resolution images of plastid morphologies of mutants with seedling-specific chloroplast defects as observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are available in the current database. This database is used to compare the phenotypes of visually identifiable mutants with their plastid ultrastructures and to evaluate their potential significance from characteristic patterns of plastid morphology in vivo. Thus, the Chloroplast Function Database II is a useful and comprehensive information resource that can help researchers to connect individual Arabidopsis genes to plastid functions on the basis of phenotype analysis of our tagged mutant collection. It can be freely accessed at http://rarge.psc.riken.jp/chloroplast/. PMID:23230006

Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Akiyama, Kenji; Tomonaga, Yumi; Kato, Aya; Sato, Yuka; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo

2013-02-01

191

Numerical modeling for underground nuclear test monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symposium for Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring was held March 23-25 in Durango, Colo. Funded by the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (OACN) and hosted by the Source Region Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the meetings's purpose was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test-ban monitoring. In particular, we wished to focus on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems.The concept for the meeting arose through discussions with Marv Denny, who was on assignment at Department of Energy Headquarters from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In these conversations, the following question was discussed: how are numerical modeling techniques being used to understand the effects of explosion- source phenomenology on test-ban treaty monitoring? Numerical studies are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of capabilities for proliferation monitoring; this trend has accelerated with the curtailment of the nuclear testing program. During these discussions, the issue of the uniqueness and limitations of numerical models arose. It was decided to address these questions by convening a group of experts to present and discuss the problems associated with modeling of close-in data from explosions.

Taylor, Steven R.; Kamm, James R.

192

Comprehension Clinchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This author, an academic achievement teacher for second and third grade reading and math at Theodore Roosevelt Elementary School in Park Ridge, Illinois, contends that since fluency is such a measurable skill, over-emphasizing decoding and de-emphasizing comprehension results in short-changing students. In this article, she shares several reading…

Marcell, Barclay

2006-01-01

193

LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)  

SciTech Connect

Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the first arriving P-phase travel-time residuals for all distances ({Delta} = 300-2300 km). A grid search approach was used in the minimization. The most significant features of this model are the negative lid-gradient and a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle between the depths of 100-200 km; precise location of the LVZ is poorly constrained by the travel time data. We will extend our investigation to additional PNE lines to further investigate the amplitude and travel-time variations in eastern and central Eurasia. Finally, the dense station spacing of the PNE profiles allows us to model the spatial correlation of travel times and amplitude ratios through variogram modeling. The statistical analysis suggests that the correlation lengths of the travel-time and amplitude measurements are 12{sup o} and 10{sup o}, respectively.

Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

2000-07-14

194

Monte Carlo Simulations of Prototype Radioxenon Beta-gamma Counting Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the recently established methods for monitoring a Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is the collection and analysis of radioxenon isotopes as collected and measured by International Monitoring System (IMS) stations. Radioxenon isotopes are produced from several sources including nuclear power generating stations, medical isotope production and nuclear test detonations. Each of the potential sources produces a characteristic

David Penn; Steven Biegalski

2002-01-01

195

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

2012-12-12

196

Use of open source information and commercial satellite imagery for nuclear nonproliferation regime compliance verification by a community of academics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of nuclear weapons is a great threat to world peace and stability. The question of strengthening the nonproliferation regime has been open for a long period of time. In 1997 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (BOG) adopted the Additional Safeguards Protocol. The purpose of the protocol is to enhance the IAEA's ability to detect undeclared production of fissile materials in member states. However, the IAEA does not always have sufficient human and financial resources to accomplish this task. Developed here is a concept for making use of human and technical resources available in academia that could be used to enhance the IAEA's mission. The objective of this research was to study the feasibility of an academic community using commercially or publicly available sources of information and products for the purpose of detecting covert facilities and activities intended for the unlawful acquisition of fissile materials or production of nuclear weapons. In this study, the availability and use of commercial satellite imagery systems, commercial computer codes for satellite imagery analysis, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification International Monitoring System (IMS), publicly available information sources such as watchdog groups and press reports, and Customs Services information were explored. A system for integrating these data sources to form conclusions was also developed. The results proved that publicly and commercially available sources of information and data analysis can be a powerful tool in tracking violations in the international nuclear nonproliferation regime and a framework for implementing these tools in academic community was developed. As a result of this study a formation of an International Nonproliferation Monitoring Academic Community (INMAC) is proposed. This would be an independent organization consisting of academics (faculty, staff and students) from both nuclear weapon states (NWS) and non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS). This community analyzes all types of unclassified publicly and commercially available information to aid in detection of violations of the non-proliferation regime. INMAC shares all of this information with the IAEA and the public. Since INMAC is composed solely by members of the academic community, this organization would not demonstrate any biases in its investigations or reporting.

Solodov, Alexander

197

Notes on radioxenon measurements for CTBT verification purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) includes, beside three different waveform techniques, global monitoring of radioactive aerosols and noble gases. The noble gases are difficult to contain for the illicit tester and are therefore of particular importance to identify signals from underground or underwater nuclear tests. Several isotopes of xenon are sufficiently produced in fission and a few

P. R. J. Saey; L.-E. De Geer

2005-01-01

198

ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERIC RADIOXENON ACTIVITIES MEASURED BY A RADIONUCLIDE GAS STATION LOCATED IN FRANCE: SIMULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT WITH A MESOSCALE MODELLING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES The detection and measurement of radionuclides released in the frame of nuclear activities is a major task addressing various issues like the monitoring of the environment for regulatory requirements, or the verification of the compliance with the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). In the late 1990s, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) developed a high sensitive

Patrick Armand; Pascal Achim; Vincent Daniel; Thomas Taffary; Xavier Blanchard

199

Special Challenges in the Operation of International Monitoring System Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a global treaty that bans nuclear test explosions in any environment. The treaty was opened for signature on 24 September 1996. To date, 177 countries have signed the treaty and 138 have ratified it. Among those having ratified are 34 of 44 required for the treaty to enter into force. The three

L. Lastowka; T. Daly; A. Anichenko; M. Galindo; M. Villagran-Herrera; S. Mori; M. Malakhova; R. Otsuka; H. Stangel

2007-01-01

200

Assessment of Geophysical Techniques Application during CTBTO On-Site inspections using the Evaluation Matrix concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of geophysical methods to collect evidence of possible conduct of an underground nuclear explosion is an essential element of the on-site inspection (OSI) verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). As with any geophysical survey, effective use of resources during an OSI is essential. The evaluation matrix approach can be applied to both assess in a

Luis R. Gaya-Piqué; Stefka Stefanova; Ward L. Hawkins; Jerry J. Sweeney; Mordechai Melamud; Matjaz Prah

2010-01-01

201

Primer on Use of MultiSpectral and Infra Red Imaging for On-Site Inspections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred in violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and to gather information which might assist in identifying the violator (CTBT, Article IV, Paragraph 35) Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging (MSIR) is allowed by the treaty to detect observables which might help reduce

2010-01-01

202

INFRASOUND SIGNAL SEPARATION USING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important element of monitoring compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is an infrasound network. For reliable monitoring, it is important to distinguish between nuclear explosions and other sources of infrasound. This will require signal (event) classification after a detection is made. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using neural networks to classify various infrasonic events. However, classification of

Fredric M. Ham; Nizar A. Faour

203

A robust neural network classifier for infrasound events using multiple array data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integral part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Monitoring System is an infrasound monitoring network. This network has the capability to detect and verify infrasonic signals-of-interest, e.g., nuclear explosions, from other unwanted infrasound noise sources. The paper presents classification results of infrasonic events using a robust neural network

Fredric M. Ham; Sungjin Park

2002-01-01

204

The IMS radionuclide network of the CTBT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A world-wide radionuclide network consisting of 80 stations is under establishment in the framework of the comprehensive nuclear test-ban treaty (CTBT). These monitoring stations are essential for the verification regime of the treaty and they will be able to monitor the airborne particulate as well as xenon isotopes that are produced by nuclear tests. The equipment, the operation and the

Fausto Medici

2001-01-01

205

CTBT technical issues handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this handbook is to give the nonspecialist in nuclear explosion physics and nuclear test monitoring an introduction to the topic as it pertains to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The authors have tried to make the handbook visually ...

J. J. Zucca

1994-01-01

206

Intercomparison Experiments of Systems for the Measurement of Xenon Radionuclides in the Atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive xenon monitoring is one of the main technologies used for detection of underground nuclear explosions. Precise and reliable measurements of 131mXe, 133gXe, 133mXe, and 135gXe are required as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT).

Auer, M.; Axelssson, A.; Blanchard, X.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Brachet, G.; Bulowski, I.; Dubasov, Y.; Elmgren, K.; Fontaine, J. P.; Harms , W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Panisko, Mark E.; Popov, Y.; Ringbom, Anders; Sartorius, H.; Schmid, S.; Schulze, J.; Schlosser, Clemens; Taffary, T.; Weiss, W.; Wernsperger, B.

2004-06-01

207

Guidelines on the scope, content, and use of comprehensive risk assessment in the management of high-level nuclear waste transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the scope of risk assessment strategies in the management of the transport of high-level radioactive wastes. In spite of the shortcomings of probabilistic risk assessment(PRA), the Transportation Needs Assessment recommended this as the preferred methodology to assess the risks of high level nuclear waste (HLNW) transportation. A PRA also will need to heed the lessons learned from

D. Golding; A. White

1990-01-01

208

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET, SPECT, and BNCT agents. Comprehensive progress report, March 1, 1989-February 29, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the DOE Nuclear Medicine Program at The University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in computerized tomography. A portion of the research effort is directed towar...

G. W. Kabalka

1991-01-01

209

Nuclear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

210

Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation  

MedlinePLUS

... and print a PDF version of this document . Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate ... emotional and behavioral problems need a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. Comprehensive psychiatric evaluations usually require several hours over ...

211

Comprehension of Connected Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rationale was developed for researching reading comprehension based on information gain. Previous definitions of comprehension which were reviewed included operational vs. nonoperational and skills vs. processes. Comprehension was viewed as an informational processing event which includes a constellation of cognitive and learning processes. Two…

Mosberg, Ludwig; Shima, Fred

212

DOE Automated Radioxenon Sampler-Analyzer (ARSA) Beta-Gamma Coincidence Spectrometer Data Analyzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) measures four radioxenon isotopes, (131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133g)Xe, and (135g)Xe. The system produces...

J. C. Hayes J. I. McIntyre K. H. Abel T. R. Heimbigner T. W. Bowyer

2000-01-01

213

Improving the understanding of the global distribution of the Radioxenon Background caused by known civil emissions and its consequences for CTBT verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of radioactive noble gases, in particular xenon radioisotopes, is a crucial activity for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. In a previous study, it was found that the distribution and magnitude of the global background of the isotope xenon-133 measured at stations of the International Monitoring System is to a large extent consistent with the hypothesis that it

G. Wotawa; A. Becker; M. Kalinowski; P. Saey; M. Tuma; M. Zaehringer

2009-01-01

214

Existing Data Format for Twp-Parameter Beta-Gamma Histograms for Radioxenon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a need to establish a commonly acceptable format for storing beta- gated coincidence data for stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The current aerosol RMS type data format is ...

AD McKinnon E Wittinger JI McIntyre PL Reeder TR Heimbigner

1999-01-01

215

Environmental characterisation of a major radioxenon source in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) the atmospheric background of environmental radioxenon has been studied. It was recently shown that radiopharmaceutical facilities (RPF) have a major contribution to the general background of 133Xe and other xenon isotopes both in the northern and southern hemisphere. The daily International Monitoring System (IMS) noble gas measurements around

P. R. J. Saey; A. Ringbom; A. Becker; J. Camps; N. Paquet; M. Sonck; T. Taffary; K. van der Meer; B. Verboomen; M. Zähringer

2009-01-01

216

Application of the standard spectrum method for radioxenon spectrum analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring specific xenon isotopes in atmospheric air samples is a key element of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification system. Systems specially developed for the specific treaty verification tasks collect, purify and concentrate air samples and analyze them with either high purity Germanium detectors or special beta-gamma coincidence detectors. The purification process in combination with relatively stable operation conditions

M. Zähringer; W. Plenkers; M. Nikkinen

2009-01-01

217

Design and optimization of a noise reduction system for infrasonic measurements using elements with low acoustic impedance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of the infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the enforcement of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) increases the effort in the design of suitable noise reducer systems. In this paper we present a new design consisting of low impedance elements. The dimensioning and the optimization of this discrete mechanical system are based on numerical simulations,

Benoit Alcoverro; Alexis Le Pichon

2005-01-01

218

REPORT OF THE ISS OSI INVITED MEETING, VIENNA, 24-27 MARCH, 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Scientific Studies project (ISS) was initiated in early 2008 with the objective of creating a series of activities aimed at application of modern scientific methods to improve the efficiency of analysis and the quality of verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The ISS On-Site Inspection (OSI) Invited Meeting convened on March 24, 2009 with the

Sweeney

2009-01-01

219

Ground-based visual inspection for CTBT verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based visual inspection will play an essential role in On-Site Inspection (OSI) for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection will greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only

W. Hawkins; K. Wohletz

1997-01-01

220

Operation of a Prototype CTBT Infrasound Array in Arctic Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) infrasound array was established in Fairbanks, Alaska in a wooded area on the campus of the University of Alaska in December 1999. The implementation of the array was carried out as part of the seco...

C. R. Wilson J. V. Olson

2000-01-01

221

Low Noise Results From IMS Site Surveys: A Preliminary New High-Frequency Low Noise Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the establishment of the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Organization, a vigorous seismic site survey program has been carried out to identify locations as necessary for International Monitoring System (IMS) primary and auxiliary seismic stations listed in Annex 1 to the Protocol to the CTBT. The IMS Seismic Section maintains for this purpose a

C. Ebeling; L. Astiz; Y. Starovoit; N. Tavener; G. Perez; H. K. Given; S. Barrientos; M. Yamamoto; M. Hfaiedh; R. Stewart; C. Estabrook

2002-01-01

222

Transparency measures for subcritical experiments under the CTBT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines transparency measures that could be taken to build international confidence that “subcritical experiments” conducted underground by the U.S. or any other country do not violate the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Our calculations suggest that on?site measurement of the integrated radiation output from these experiments should be adequate to verify that nuclear yields greater than grams of TNT

Suzanne L. Joneso; Frank N. van Hippelb

1997-01-01

223

Cluster Analysis for CTBT Seismic Event Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mines at regional distances are expected to be continuing sources of small, ambiguous events which must be correctly identified as part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring process. Many of these events are small enough that they...

D. B. Carr C. J. Young R. C. Aster X. Zhang

1999-01-01

224

Scientific Meetings Database: A New Tool for CTBT-Related International Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mission of international cooperation is defined in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Ways and means of implementation were the subject of discussion during the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna in November 1998, and during the Regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation held in Cairo, Egypt in June 1999. In particular, a database of ''Scientific and Technical Meetings Directly

Jerzy F. Knapik; Mary L. Girven

1999-01-01

225

ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN HYDROACOUSTIC DATA FOR CTBT VERIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a collaborative research program for the purpose of monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), we are in the process of examining and analyzing hydroacoustic data from underwater explo- sions conducted in the former Soviet Union. We are using these data as constraints on modeling the hydroa- coustic source as a function of depth below the water surface.

M. Eneva; J. L. Stevens; J. Murphy; B. D. Khristoforov; V. V. Adushkin

226

Cluster Analysis for CTBT Seismic Event Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mines at regional distances are expected to be continuing sources of small, ambiguous events which must be correctly identified as part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring process. Many of these events are small enough that they are only seen by one or two stations, so locating them by traditional methods maybe impossible or at best leads to poorly

Dorthe B. Carr; Chris J. Young; Richard C. Aster; Xioabing Zhang

1999-01-01

227

Development of a bottom-hole gamma-ray diagnostic capability for high-level environments, during CTBT on-site inspection drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The verification regime of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for the possibility of on-site inspections (OSI`s) to resolve questions concerning suspicious events which may have been clandestine nuclear tests. The initial phase of an OSI may provide enough evidence to justify a request to the CTBT Organization for allowing drilling, so as to recover further evidence of a

Fontenot; Schlumberger-Anadrill; Sugarland

1998-01-01

228

Analysis of fission products— a method for verification of a CTBT during on?site inspections  

Microsoft Academic Search

If under a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty a suspicious event can be accurately located, it should be possible to sample possible fission products through an on?site inspection. Such sampling, focused on analysis of the relative abundance of a few key isotopes, can be used to determine the time of a nuclear explosion to an uncertainty of a few hours or

Li Bin

1998-01-01

229

Spectrum of Physics Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured…

Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

2012-01-01

230

Program indentation and comprehensibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consensus in the programming community is that indentation aids program comprehension, although many studies do not back this up. We tested program comprehension on a Pascal program. Two styles of indentation were used--blocked and nonblocked--in addition to four passible levels of indentation (0, 2, 4, 6 spaces). Both experienced and novice subjects were used. Although the blocking style made

Richard J. Miara; Joyce A. Musselman; Juan A. Navarro; Ben Shneiderman

1983-01-01

231

Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

Baumann, James F., Ed.

232

Teaching Language Through Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the comprehension approach to second language instruction, the major procedure is to provide students with comprehensible input, which it is the students' responsibility to understand. The aim is to encourage nucleation of the target language, that is the crystallization of the rule system. Teaching procedures focus on strategies for implicit…

Winitz, Harris; And Others

233

Comprehension Processes in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

234

Spectrum of physics comprehension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured during a physics lecture on a prearranged scale of 1-10 with the use of a personal response system designed for the purpose of this experiment. Through the use of this tool, we obtained about 2000 computer records of students' declared comprehension of a 45 min lecture, which we named ‘the spectrum of comprehension’. In this paper, we present and analyse the correlation between students' declared comprehension of the content presented in the lecture and their final learning results.

Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

2012-05-01

235

Improving Science Reading Comprehension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lend your struggling readers a helping hand with strategies that will enhance their comprehension of science reading materials. This article offers a few easy-to-implement strategies that teachers can use before, during, and after reading.

Johnson, Jill C.; Martin-Hansen, Lisa

2005-03-01

236

Comprehensive Metabolic Panel  

MedlinePLUS

... Pages On This Site Apart from the Related Tests noted above, there are no other related pages on this site. Elsewhere On The Web MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Comprehensive metabolic panel » See all ...

237

UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Established in 1971, the University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center (UAB), received its NCI designation in the same year. The Center has grown to include a membership of more than 330 physicians and researchers.

238

Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey, in situ measurements with high-purity germanium (HPGe) and hand-held LaBr3 systems, soil sampling with a variety of tools, and laboratory gamma spectrometric analysis of those samples. A further benefit of the measurement campaign was to gain familiarity with the many logistical aspects of performing radiological field work at NNSS ahead of the PRex. Many practical lessons concerning the proper methodologies and logistics of using the surveying and sampling equipment were noted. These Lessons Learned are compiled together in Appendix A. The vehicle-based survey was successful in that it found a previously unknown hotspot (determined to be 232Th) while it demonstrated that a better method for keeping a serpentine track without staking was needed. Some of the soil sampling equipment was found to be impractical for the application, though core sampling would not be the correct way to take soil samples for a fresh vent deposit (as opposed to an old site like DILUTED WATERS). Due to the site’s age, 137Cs was the only fission radioisotope identified, though others were searched for. While not enough samples were taken and analyzed to definitively link the 137Cs to DILUTED WATERS as opposed to other NNSS activities, results were consistent with the historical DILUTED WATERS plume. MDAs were compared for soil sampling and in situ measurements.

Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

2012-11-01

239

Case Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The Case Comprehensive Cancer Center (Case CCC) at Case Western Reserve University was both founded and became an NCI-designated cancer center in 1987. It was recognized as an NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center 11 years later. In 2004, the institutional and membership base from the founding partnership between Case Western Reserve and Ireland Cancer Center of University Hospitals (UH) expanded to include the Cleveland Clinic. Cancer research and care at these three institutions are now unified under the leadership of the Case CCC.

240

Radioxenon Time Series and Meteorological Pattern Analysis for CTBT Event Categorisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding radioxenon time series and being able to distinguish anthropogenic from nuclear explosion signals are fundamental\\u000a issues for the technical verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Every radioxenon event categorisation\\u000a methodology must take into account the background at each monitoring site to uncover anomalies that may be related to nuclear\\u000a explosions. Feedback induced by local meteorological patterns on the equipment

Wolfango Plastino; Romano Plenteda; George Azzari; Andreas Becker; Paul R. J. Saey; Gerhard Wotawa

2010-01-01

241

Sensitivity study on modeling radioxenon signals from radiopharmaceutical production facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), the International Monitoring System (IMS) was established to\\u000a monitor the world for nuclear weapon explosions. As part of this network, systems are in place to monitor the atmosphere for\\u000a radioxenon. The IMS routinely detects radioxenon from sources other than nuclear explosions. One of these radioxenon sources\\u000a is radiopharmaceutical production facilities. This

S. R. Biegalski; T. Saller; J. Helfand; K. M. F. Biegalski

2010-01-01

242

Proficiency test for gamma spectroscopic analysis with a simulated fission product reference spectrum.  

PubMed

Within the proficiency test programme for the radionuclide laboratories supporting the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, a simulated gamma spectrum with the characteristics of an atmospheric nuclear test was used as reference material. The spectrum was produced by the MCNP-based Virtual Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory (VGSL), using analysis results of a historical measurement of nuclear weapons debris as input. The method was found suitable for a proficiency test assessing laboratories' gamma spectroscopic analysis. PMID:16567096

Karhu, P; De Geer, L-E; McWilliams, E; Plenteda, R; Werzi, R

2006-01-01

243

Application of Geophysical Techniques in Identifying UNE Signatures at Semipalatinsk Test Site (for OSI Purposes)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes geological and geophysical studies of an underground nuclear explosion area in one of the boreholes at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan. During these studies, the typical elements of mechanical impact of the underground explosion on the host medium—fracturing of rock, spall zones, faults, cracks, etc., were observed. This information supplements to the database of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology and can be applied in fulfilling on-site inspection tasks under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

Belyashov, A.; Shaitorov, V.; Yefremov, M.

2014-03-01

244

Proficiency test for gamma spectroscopic analysis with a simulated fission product reference spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the proficiency test programme for the radionuclide laboratories supporting the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, a simulated gamma spectrum with the characteristics of an atmospheric nuclear test was used as reference material. The spectrum was produced by the MCNP-based Virtual Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory (VGSL), using analysis results of a historical measurement of nuclear weapons debris as input. The

P. Karhu; L.-E. De Geer; E. McWilliams; R. Plenteda; R. Werzi

2006-01-01

245

Graphics and Listening Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effectiveness of graphics as lecture comprehension supports for low-proficiency English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) listeners. The study compared the performance of Asian students in Canada listening to an audiotape while viewing an organizational graphic with that of a control group. Findings indicate that the graphics enhanced…

Ruhe, Valerie

1996-01-01

246

The Comprehensive Health Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains information from a fall 1991 health occupations assessment of 1,021 health-related employers in Eastern Iowa and the Illinois Quad Cities area. Twelve chapters present comprehensive results of all surveys; results of 10 labor market survey instruments developed for chiropractic offices, dentists' offices, emergency medical…

Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport.

247

Comprehensive care in hemophilia.  

PubMed

Hemophilia is a chronic and inherited X-linked bleeding disorder that requires life-long medical care. Hemophilia treatment is costly and complex partly because of the cost of the factor concentrates used in replacement therapy. However, the management of hemophilia is not based solely on achieving access to better treatment with safe factor concentrates; it also includes accurately diagnosing the disorder and providing specialized comprehensive care by a multidisciplinary team of specialists trained in hemophilia management. Comprehensive care for the person with hemophilia is defined as the continuous supervision of all medical and psychological aspects affecting the patient and his family and it demands the establishment of specialized centers, called Hemophilia Treatment Centers. The services that should be offered by a comprehensive hemophilia healthcare center are diverse and the multidisciplinary team should be coordinated preferably by a hematologist with the participation of other health professionals. It has been demonstrated that the benefits of establishing hemophilia centers are observed even in developing countries and that changes can be achieved when resources are re-organized, especially when education and training are provided at all levels. To reach these objectives, it is essential to have the participation of the patient and family members, and to strive to obtain the financial and legislative support from the State or Government in order to achieve a national comprehensive care program contemplating all the aspects needed for improving the quality of life for the community of patients with hemophilia and other bleeding disorders. PMID:22507803

Ruiz-Sáez, Arlette

2012-04-01

248

Comprehensive Developmental Screening Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive developmental screening model (CDSM) was designed to help local education agencies (LEAs), in Indiana, plan, develop, and implement screening programs for 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. The CDSM is presented in three parts; Part I provides both empirical and philosophical support to the reasons for developing a screening program;…

Griggs, Ruth Marie, Ed.

249

Writing for Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators continue to treat reading and writing as separate subjects. In response to this observation, the authors offer four research-based writing strategies that teachers can use to improve student reading comprehension through writing. The writing strategies--"About/Point", "Cubing", "Four Square Graphic Organizer", and "Read," "Respond",…

Wallace, Randy; Pearman, Cathy; Hail, Cindy; Hurst, Beth

2007-01-01

250

Comprehensive Trail Making Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is designed to be used in neuropsychological assessment for the purposes of detecting effects of brain defects and deficits and in tracking progress in rehabilitation. More specific purposes include the detection of frontal lobe deficits, problems with psychomotor speed, visual search and sequencing,…

Gray, Rebecca

2006-01-01

251

ESL Reading Comprehension Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several techniques and strategies for teaching reading comprehension, which have already proved effective in first language reading instruction, may also be used when teaching English as second language. The techniques presented here address the following issues: (1) background knowledge; (2) textual analysis; (3) metacognition and strategy…

Miller, Leah D.; Perkins, Kyle

252

Reading Comprehension Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. Do your middle school students not complete reading assignments or not comprehend them when they do? Is student motivation an issue you struggle with? Do you feel that your students need assistance comprehending the textbook? Students are faced with increasingly difficult text and many situations in which they must learn content by reading. This cross-curricular emphasis on reading comprehension is not just an effort to teach to the high-stakes tests that are so ubiquitous in our education system today. Instead, it is a way to teach students how to interact with text. This Wiki page can be used to help teachers prepare students for a lifetime of reading, comprehension, and reflection.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-07-01

253

Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test ban monitoring. We focused on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems. The second goal of the symposium was to establish a dialogue between seismologists and explosion-source code calculators. The meeting was divided into five main sessions: explosion source phenomenology, material response modeling, numerical simulations, the seismic source, and phenomenology from near source to far field. We feel the symposium reached many of its goals. Individual papers submitted at the conference are indexed separately on the data base.

Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R. [eds.

1993-11-01

254

Comprehensive Water Pollution Control Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Comprehensive water pollution control planning; Columbia River basin comprehensive water pollution control project; Use and role of water pollution control plan by other federal agencies; The state's role and use of pollution control plan; Why s...

1965-01-01

255

An assessment on the PTS global radionuclide monitoring capabilities to detect the atmospheric traces of nuclear explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to detect any kind of nuclear explosion world-wide the Provisional Technical Secretariat to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is building up a verification regime that performs global monitoring for typical signals expected from such an event. Backbone of this regime is the 321 facilities International Monitoring System (IMS) comprising 80 stations to monitor for particulate radionuclides known to be fission or activation products of a nuclear explosion. Every second station is also equipped with a system capable to monitor for the occurrence of the CTBT relevant isotopes Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m, and Xe-135, which have the highest post-explosion fission yields among the noble gases, and are also not subject to wet deposition in the atmosphere. Moreover, they have a good chance to escape from the cavity of an underground nuclear explosion in contrast to the particulates. Effective radionuclide monitoring requires an optimum overall probability of a one-station detection of an atmospheric or underground nuclear explosion within 14 days. Consequently, the distribution of this detection probability is crucial for assessing the capacity of the radionuclide IMS to meet this requirement. The CTBT monitoring capabilities of the RN IMS are quite different in dependence on the environment in which the nuclear test is conducted (underground, underwater or atmospheric) as this determines the first crucial factor for the overall detection probability, the degree of containment. Secondly, the detection probability is subject to the nuclide specific decay and the dilution of any release (containment failure) during its atmospheric dispersion from the release location to one of the IMS stations. Thirdly, the detection limits of the measurement systems in use factor in. In the study presented here the radionuclide monitoring capabilities for detecting atmospheric and underground explosions, the latter mimicked by a 90% contained atmospheric release (first factor), are assessed. We examine the typical yields of a 1-kt atmospheric explosion for five key nuclides, Barium(Lanthanum)-140, for the 80 stations particulate network, and the four aforementioned gaseous nuclides, Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m, and Xe-135, for the 40 stations noble-gas network. The second factor (decay & dispersion) is determined by consideration of the half-life time of the respective nuclide and by evaluation of the so called source-receptor-sensitivity (SRS) files generated daily by the CTBTO for each station to diagnose the one-station probability within 5, 10 and 14 days. A one year time period was used (August 2008 to 31 July 2009), which considered samples from the radionuclide particulate and xenon stations, taking into account their detection limits (third factor). It should be noted that the contribution of station No. 35 of the 80 station IMS particulate network, intended for the Indian Subcontinent, was not considered. Despite the obvious sensitivity to the maximum atmospheric transport time allowed from the source to the first detecting station, there is a general observation of the prevailing impact of the meteorological wind patterns for the global distribution and average of the one-station detection probability. Therefore, certain gaps in the tropical belt can only be ‘filled' by extending the allowed transport time or supplementing stations. This is in particular true for the noble gas network that comprises only 50% of the stations. Obviously, adding the xenon monitoring capability at a few of the so far particulate only stations that monitor the ‘gap areas' is a ‘low hanging fruit'. Moreover, we observe that the shorter the half-life time the more the nuclide specific detection limits become relevant. These findings will be elaborated in all required detail in the presentation.

Becker, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Auer, Matthias; Krysta, Monika

2010-05-01

256

CPMs: A Kinesthetic Comprehension Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a study to determine whether primary grade students can learn comprehension processes via hand motions to portray these mental processes. Comprehension Process Motions (CPMs) were designed to provide students with a way to make abstract comprehension processes more consciously accessible and also to give teachers a way to…

Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.

2008-01-01

257

Priming Ditransitive Structures in Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have shown evidence for syntactic priming during language production (e.g., Bock, 1986). It is often assumed that comprehension and production share similar mechanisms and that priming also occurs during comprehension (e.g., Pickering & Garrod, 2004). Research investigating priming during comprehension (e.g., Branigan et al., 2005 and…

Arai, Manabu; van Gompel, Roger P. G.; Scheepers, Cristoph

2007-01-01

258

Intercomparison experiments of systems for the measurement of xenon radionuclides in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive xenon monitoring is one of the main technologies used for the detection of underground nuclear explosions. Precise and reliable measurements of 131mXe, 133gXe, 133mXe, and 135gXe are required as part of the International Monitoring System for compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). For the first time, simultaneous testing of four highly sensitive and automated fieldable radioxenon measurement systems

M. Auer; A. Axelssson; X. Blanchard; Ted W. Bowyer; G. Brachet; I. Bulowski; Y. Dubasov; K. Elmgren; J. P. Fontaine; W. Harms; James C. Hayes; Tom R. Heimbigner; Justin I. McIntyre; Mark E. Panisko; Y. Popov; Anders Ringbom; H. Sartorius; S. Schmid; J. Schulze; Clemens Schlosser; T. Taffary; W. Weiss; B. Wernsperger

2004-01-01

259

On the impact of a doubled sampling frequency on the detection capability and accuracy of a xenon station at the example of the German IMS RN station Schauinsland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to detect any kind of nuclear explosion world-wide the Provisional Technical Secretariat to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is building up a verification regime that performs global monitoring for typical signals expected from such an event. Backbone of this regime is the 321 facilities International Monitoring System (IMS) comprising also 80 stations to monitor for airborne radionuclides known

Andreas Becker; Clemens Schlosser; Matthias Auer; Herbert Gohla; Timo Kumberg; Bernd Wernsperger

2010-01-01

260

CTBT radioxenon monitoring for verification: today’s challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Preparatory Commission of Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization is setting up a global network capable to\\u000a monitor treaty compliance. Specific monitoring systems and methodologies that match the needs of the International Monitoring\\u000a System (IMS), namely to clarify the nuclear character of suspect explosions, had to be developed for monitoring purposes during\\u000a the last decade. Four xenon isotopes, namely 133Xe, 135Xe,

M. Zähringer; A. Becker; M. Nikkinen; P. Saey; G. Wotawa

2009-01-01

261

Xenon diffusion studies with prompt gamma activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing a better understanding of xenon transport through porous systems is critical to predicting how this gas will enter\\u000a the atmosphere after a below ground nuclear weapons test. Radioxenon monitoring is a vital part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban\\u000a Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System. This work details the development of prompt gamma activation analysis for measuring\\u000a the diffusion rates of xenon

Carlos A. Rios Perez; Justin D. Lowrey; Steven Biegalski; Mark R. Deinert

262

Genesis and Equilibrium of Natural Lithospheric Radioxenon and its Influence on Subsurface Noble Gas Samples for CTBT On-site Inspections  

Microsoft Academic Search

During on-site inspections to verify the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT), soil gas samples may be taken and analysed\\u000a for their content of the xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 135Xe in order to identify a suspected underground nuclear test. These samples might contain natural radioxenon which is present\\u000a as a trace gas in the ground. This work analyses the different

Simon Hebel

2010-01-01

263

International Monitoring System infrasound measurements for the study of large-scale atmospheric waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has been designed for the detection and the localization of atmospheric nuclear explosions. It is composed of sixty stations, which measure micropressure changes produced in the atmosphere by infrasonic wave propagation. Most IMS infrasound stations use microbarometers MB2000 or MB2005 associated with acquisition

Julien Marty; Francis Dalaudier; Damien Ponceau; Elisabeth Blanc

2010-01-01

264

Source Characterization of a Large Rock Burst, Coeur D'Alene Mining District, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of mining-related seismic events is critical to the implementation of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitoring system. Mine seismicity from uncontrolled sources is particularly troublesome, with magnitudes up to 4 or 5, producing signal strengths comparable to 1- to 10- kiloton contained nuclear explosions. In this study, ground motions from four surface stations and one underground station were inverted to determine

Alan C. Rohay; Kenneth F. Sprenke; Michael C. Stickney

1999-01-01

265

Progress in CTBT Monitoring Since its 1999 Senate Defeat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is examined, beginning with the 2002 National Academy of Sciences CTBT study, followed by recent findings on regional seismology, array-monitoring, correlation-detection, seismic modeling, and non-seismic technologies. The NAS-CTBT study concluded that the fully completed International Monitoring System (IMS) will reliably detect and identify underground nuclear explosions with a threshold of

DAVID HAFEMEISTER

2007-01-01

266

STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE MEASURES OF THE HWM93 AND MSISE-90 EMPIRICAL ATMOSPHERIC MODELS AND THE RELATION TO INFRASONIC CTBT MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enforceable Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require accurate detection and location of low-yield nuclear detonations. Thorough knowledge of the upper atmosphere and advanced modeling techniques are required for reliable infrasonic detection and location of clandestine events. The purpose of this paper is to document a statistical performance measures study of the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) empirical upper atmospheric models.

Douglas P. Drob; J. M. Picone; E. O. Hulburt

267

Atmospheric transport modelling in support of CTBT verification—overview and basic concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a global monitoring system comprising different verification technologies is currently being set up. The network will include 80 radionuclide (RN) stations distributed all over the globe that measure treaty-relevant radioactive species. While the seismic subsystem cannot distinguish between chemical and nuclear explosions, RN monitoring would provide the “smoking gun” of a

Gerhard Wotawa; Lars-Erik De Geer; Philippe Denier; Martin Kalinowski; Harri Toivonen; Real D’Amours; Franco Desiato; Jean-Pierre Issartel; Matthias Langer; Petra Seibert; Andreas Frank; Craig Sloan; Hiromi Yamazawa

2003-01-01

268

Comprehensive national energy strategy  

SciTech Connect

This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

NONE

1998-04-01

269

International Verification Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: International Verification Organizations: An Introduction; Verification Regimes and the Comprehensive Test Ban: An Assessment; Chemical Weapons; International Verification Organizations: The Case of Conventional Arms Control; International Verif...

E. Morris

1991-01-01

270

Comprehensive catalyst management  

SciTech Connect

From January 2009, as SCR season expands from five months to year-round to meet new US Clean Air Interstate Rule standards, new catalyst strategies are increasingly important. Power plants will need a comprehensive management strategy that accounts for a wide range of old and new issues to achieve peak performance. An optimum plan is necessary for catalyst replacement or addition. SCR systems should be inspected and evaluated at least once a year. Levels of deactivation agents, most often arsenic and calcium oxide, need to match the particular coals used. Tools such as Cormetech's FIELD Guide are available to quantify the effect on catalyst life under various fuel-firing scenarios. Tests should be conducted to evaluate the NH{sub 3}/NOx distribution over time to maximise catalyst performance. The article gives a case study of catalyst management at the Tennessee Valley Authority Allen plant. Recent changes have created new variables to be considered in a catalyst management process, notably the expansion of the operating temperature range, mercury oxidation and SO{sub 3} emission limits. Cormetech has researched these areas. 5 figs., 2 photos.

Pritchard, S. [Cormetech (United States)

2007-05-15

271

The comprehensive microbial resource.  

PubMed

The Comprehensive Microbial Resource or CMR (http://cmr.jcvi.org) provides a web-based central resource for the display, search and analysis of the sequence and annotation for complete and publicly available bacterial and archaeal genomes. In addition to displaying the original annotation from GenBank, the CMR makes available secondary automated structural and functional annotation across all genomes to provide consistent data types necessary for effective mining of genomic data. Precomputed homology searches are stored to allow meaningful genome comparisons. The CMR supplies users with over 50 different tools to utilize the sequence and annotation data across one or more of the 571 currently available genomes. At the gene level users can view the gene annotation and underlying evidence. Genome level information includes whole genome graphical displays, biochemical pathway maps and genome summary data. Comparative tools display analysis between genomes with homology and genome alignment tools, and searches across the accessions, annotation, and evidence assigned to all genes/genomes are available. The data and tools on the CMR aid genomic research and analysis, and the CMR is included in over 200 scientific publications. The code underlying the CMR website and the CMR database are freely available for download with no license restrictions. PMID:19892825

Davidsen, Tanja; Beck, Erin; Ganapathy, Anuradha; Montgomery, Robert; Zafar, Nikhat; Yang, Qi; Madupu, Ramana; Goetz, Phil; Galinsky, Kevin; White, Owen; Sutton, Granger

2010-01-01

272

Metadiscourse Awareness and ESAP Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the effect of explicit instruction about linguistic hedging on the English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) reading comprehension performance of English Language Learning (ELL) university students through an awareness raising task. A reading comprehension test was developed and validated as the pre-test and…

Jalififar, A. R.; Shooshtari, Z. G.

2011-01-01

273

Reading Comprehension Strategy: Rainbow Dots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An action research study was conducted using the Rainbow Dots strategy to evaluate its effectiveness on reading comprehension skills in a third-grade class with students both with and without a specific learning disability. Results of the study indicated that students' overall performances in reading comprehension have increased. Students also…

Moore, Claire; Lo, Lusa

2008-01-01

274

The Challenges Facing Comprehensive Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an edited version of a talk written for delivery at a conference organized to celebrate 50 years of Kidbrooke Comprehensive School with the overall theme "The Comprehensive Ideal: Taking It Beyond the Individual School." Having honored the pioneering work at Kidbrooke, Clyde Chitty then takes a close look at three key issues: the…

Chitty, Clyde

2005-01-01

275

Expectation-Based Syntactic Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple information-theoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension,…

Levy, Roger

2008-01-01

276

Peer Tutoring of Comprehension Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four low achieving 12?year old readers were trained to tutor similar age low achieving readers in both general (monitoring) and specific (summarisation and illustration) for strategies reading comprehension. Repeated measures indicated that both tutors and tutees learned to use the strategies successfully. Use of both strategies enhanced comprehension for tutees. For tutors, there was evidence of generalisation of reading gains

Judith Pickens; Stuart McNaughton

1988-01-01

277

UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center was established at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill in 1975, when it also received NCI designation as a cancer center. The comprehensiveness designation was granted by NCI in 1990. The mission of UNC Lineberger is to reduce cancer occurrence and death through research, treatment, training, and outreach.

278

Comprehension in "hyperlexic" readers.  

PubMed

Mentally retarded children who can read aloud written words better than one would expect from their Mental Age are often called hyperlexic. The reading comprehension thought to be impaired in such children was investigated in four experiments. Mentally retarded advanced decoders, including autistic and nonautistic children, were compared with younger nonretarded children matched for Mental Age and Reading Age. Experiment 1 established that mildly mentally retarded readers could match sentences to pictures as well as could be expected from their verbal ability. This was the same whether they read the sentences or heard them. Experiment 2 demonstrated that only the more able retarded subjects, but not the less able ones, used sentence context in a normal way in order to pronounce homographs. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that these same more able children could extract meaning at both sentence and story level, and their performance was indistinguishable from that of normal controls. Hence, it is doubtful whether these advanced decoders should be called hyperlexic. In contrast, the readers of relatively low verbal ability performed much worse than their normal controls. Although they could be induced under certain conditions to read sentence-by-sentence rather than word-by-word, they did not do so spontaneously. Furthermore, they did not make use of already existing general knowledge in order to answer questions about the stories they had read. The ability to comprehend in terms of large units of meaning seems to be specifically impaired in these low verbal ability fluent readers. We suggest that it is this impairment that marks true hyperlexia. Since there were no differences between autistic and nonautistic readers on any of our tasks, we conclude that hyperlexia is not an autism-specific phenomenon. PMID:3806010

Snowling, M; Frith, U

1986-12-01

279

Denosumab: A comprehensive review.  

PubMed

The clinical sequelae from bone metastases, termed skeletal-related events (SREs), are among the most frequent and debilitating complications in patients with advanced cancer. Bone metastases are characterized by pathologically increased osteoclast activity, and accumulating evidence indicates that tumor cells interact within the bone to stimulate the receptor activator of nuclear factor kB (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) pathway. RANKL is an essential mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival. Because of the central role of RANKL in cancer-induced bone destruction, the inhibition of RANKL has the potential to result in the reduction of pathologic bone resorption. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody specific for RANKL that inhibits the formation, activation, and survival of osteoclasts. This in turn decreases bone resorption and reduces cancer-induced bone destruction. In this review, we give an overview of the drug Denosumab with its history, mechanism of action, clinical trial data, adverse effects, and future challenges. PMID:24455656

Narayanan, Prasad

2013-10-01

280

Comparison of phoswich and ARSA-type detectors for radioxenon measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of atmospheric radioxenon to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has driven\\u000a the development of improved detectors for measuring xenon, including the development of a phoswich detector. This detector\\u000a uses only one PMT to detect ?–? coincidence, thus greatly reducing the bulk and electronics of the detector in comparison\\u000a to the ARSA-type detector. In

Rebecca Ward; Steven R. Biegalski; Derek A. Haas; Wolfgang Hennig

2009-01-01

281

The influence on the radioxenon background during the temporary suspension of operations of three major medical isotope production facilities in the Northern Hemisphere and during the start-up of another facility in the Southern Hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical isotope production facilities (MIPF) have recently been identified to emit the major part of the environmental radioxenon measured at many globally distributed monitoring sites deployed to strengthen the radionuclide component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. Efforts to raise a global radioxenon emission inventory revealed that the yearly global total emission from MIPF’s is around 15 times

Paul R. J. Saey; Matthias Auer; Andreas Becker; Emmy Hoffmann; Mika Nikkinen; Anders Ringbom; Rick Tinker; Clemens Schlosser; Michel Sonck

2010-01-01

282

Field test of the PNNL Automated Radioxenon Sampler\\/Analyzer (ARSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the requirements of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Automated Radioxenon\\/Sampler Analyzer (ARSA) was designed and engineered by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The instrument is to provide near real-time detection and measurement of the radioxenons released into the atmosphere after a nuclear test. Forty-six field tests, designed to determine the performance of the ARSA

R. J. Lagomarsino; E. Ku; N. Latner; C. G. Sanderson

1998-01-01

283

Existing Data Format for Two-Parameter Beta-Gamma Histograms for Radioxenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to establish a commonly acceptable format for storing beta-gated coincidence data for stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The current aerosol RMS type data format is not applicable for radioxenon in that the current format contains implicit assumptions specific to conventional gamma-ray spectrometry. Some assumptions in the current RMS

TW Bowyer; TR Heimbigner; JI McIntyre; AD McKinnon; PL Reeder; E Wittinger

1999-01-01

284

Evaluation of environmental radioxenon isotopical signals from a singular large source emitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) the atmospheric background of environmental radioxenon is been studied near areas that could be affected by man-made sources. It was recently shown that radiopharmaceutical facilities (RPF) make a major contribution to the general background of 133Xe and other xenon isotopes both in the northern and southern hemisphere. The

P. R. J. Saey; T. W. Bowyer; M. Aldener; A. Becker; M. W. Cooper; K. Elmgren; A. Faanhof; J. C. Hayes; B. Hosticka; L. S. Lidey

2009-01-01

285

Modeling ?-? coincidence spectra of 131m Xe, 133 Xe, 133m Xe, and 135 Xe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), improvements have been made to the model of the Automated\\u000a Radioxenon Sampler\\/Analyzer (ARSA) ?-? coincidence detector for radioxenon monitoring. MCNPX is used to simulate the detector\\u000a response for all the electrons and photons emitted from 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, 135Xe, and 137Cs signals. A MatLab code was written to incorporate the MCNPX results

D. A. Haas; S. R. Biegalski; K. M. Foltz Biegalski

2008-01-01

286

Contribution to the development of atmospheric radioxenon monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the frame of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), this paper deals with the development of the new techniques\\u000a necessary for the xenon monitoring requested by the CTBT. An automatic system called SPALAX™, devoted to the on-site sampling\\u000a and measurement was developed by French atomic energy commission (CEA). Analytical methods and equipments have been studied\\u000a at our laboratory, using dual

G. Le Petit; P. Armand; G. Brachet; T. Taffary; J. P. Fontaine; P. Achim; X. Blanchard; J. C. Piwowarczyk; F. Pointurier

2008-01-01

287

Numerical model of electromagnetic scattering off a subterranean 3-dimensional dielectric  

SciTech Connect

As part of the effort to develop On-Site Inspection (OSI) techniques for verification of compliance to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a computer code was developed to predict the interaction of an electromagnetic (EM) wave with an underground cavity. Results from the code were used to evaluate the use of surface electromagnetic exploration techniques for detection of underground cavities or rubble-filled regions characteristic of underground nuclear explosions.

Dease, C.G.; Didwall, E.M.

1983-08-01

288

High Sensitivity Detection of Xe Isotopes Via Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which includes a beta-gamma counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing

Ted W. Bowyer; Justin I. McIntyre; Paul L. Reeder

1999-01-01

289

Deep infrasound radiated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrasound arrays in the Pacific and Indian oceans that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) recorded distinct signatures associated with the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M\\/9, http:\\/\\/earthquake.usgs.gov\\/) and tsunami. Although the radiation of infrasound from large continental earthquakes is established [e.g., Le Pichon et al., 2003], the results presented

M. Garcés; P. Caron; C. Hetzer; A. Le Pichon; H. Bass; D. Drob; J. Bhattacharyya

2005-01-01

290

ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY AND IMPACT OF THE SEPTEMBER 15, 2007 DESAGUADERO METEOROID  

Microsoft Academic Search

On September 15, 2007, around 11:45 local time in Peru, near the Bolivian border, the atmospheric entry of a meteoroid produced bright lights in the sky and intense detonations. Soon after, a crater was discovered south of Lake Titicaca. These events have been detected by the Bolivian seismic network and two infrasound arrays operating for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization,

K. Antier; A. Le Pichon; Y. Cansi; B. Hernandez; E. Minaya; B. Burgoa; D. Drob; L. G. Evers

291

Fitting formula for the injection volume of a gas chromatograph for radio-xenon sampling in the lower troposphere.  

PubMed

GC is usually used for xenon concentration and radon removal in the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. In a gas chromatograph, the injection volume is defined to calculate the column capacity. In this paper, the injection volume was investigated and a fitting formula for the injection volume was derived and discussed subsequently. As a consequence, the xenon injection volume exponentially decreased with the column temperature increased, but exponentially increased as the flow rate increased. PMID:24659471

Shu-Jiang, Liu; Zhan-Ying, Chen; Shi-Lian, Wang; Yin-Zhong, Chang; Qi, Li; Yuan-Qing, Fan; Yun-Gang, Zhao; Huai-Mao, Jia; Xin-Jun, Zhang; Jun, Wang

2014-06-01

292

Infrasound data inversion for atmospheric remote sensing: Application to volcanic eruption signals from Vanuatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network, designed in the framework of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), records various sources of infrasound, such as ocean swell, meteorites, supersonic aircraft and volcanoes erupting at long-range. Several studies have shown that accurate atmospheric specifications are necessary for understanding infrasonic observations. Indeed, current atmospheric models fail to explain a large variety of observed

J. Lalande; A. Le Pichon; E. Blanc; P. Blanc-Benon; R. S. Matoza; O. Sèbe; J. Vergoz; J. Guilbert

2010-01-01

293

Analysis of Russian Hydroacoustic Data for CTBT Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As part of a collaborative research program for the purpose of monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT),\\u000a we are in the process of examining and analyzing hydroacoustic data from underwater explosions conducted in the former Soviet\\u000a Union. We are using these data as constraints on modeling the hydroacoustic source as a function of depth below the water\\u000a surface. This is

Mariana Eneva; Jeffry L. Stevens; Boris D. Khristoforov; Jack Murphy; Vitaly V. Adushkin

294

Three years of operational experience from Schauinsland CTBT monitoring station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from three years of operation of a low-level aerosol sampler and analyzer (RASA) at Schauinsland monitoring station are reported. The system is part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The fully automatic system is capable to measure aerosol borne gamma emitters with high sensitivity and routinely quantifies 7Be and 212Pb. The

M. Zähringer; J. Bieringer; C. Schlosser

2008-01-01

295

AUTOMATIC AND INTERACTIVE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR BETA GAMMA COINCIDENCE SYSTEMS USED IN CTBT MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of software has been developed by Veridian Systems as part of the Prototype International Data Center (PIDC) to assist in the analysis of noble gas monitoring data for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test- Ban Treaty (CTBT). There are two acceptable noble gas monitoring methods for CTBT verification purposes: high-resolution gamma-ray (?) spectrometry and beta-gamma (?-?) coincidence. Data from ?- spectrometry

J. Rynes; K. M. F. Biegalski; P. Donohoe; S. Biegalski

296

CESIUM137 DISTRIBUTIONS AND TRENDS AT CTBT RADIONUCLIDE MONITORING STATIONS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS ON CTBT MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the development support for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), the prototype International Data Center (pIDC) has been processing radionuclide data since 1995. Radionuclide data received from field stations includes gamma-ray spectra, meteorological data, and state of health (SOH) information. To date over 20 radionuclide monitoring stations have transmitted data to the pIDC. The radionuclide monitoring system collects

S. R. Biegalski; J. Bohner; L. R. Mason

297

Locating Seismic Events in the CTBT Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

- The verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) requires the determination of accurate location of seismic events from a fixed network of seismic stations across the globe. The requirements of possible on-site inspections mean that the goal is to place the location estimate in a zone smaller than 1000 km2 that includes the true location. Because a defined set

B. L. N. Kennet; F. Ringdal

2001-01-01

298

Broadband Seismic Station Deployment at Hadabat Al-Marhi, Halban, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

A broadband three-component seismic station was deployed on the Arabian Shield near the town of Halban in central Saudi Arabia. This site is near the proposed site of a primary seismic array (PS38) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The purpose of this deployment was to collect calibration data for the primary array to be deployed in the future.

Rodgers, A; Lewis, J P; Al-Amri, A

2002-02-11

299

Location Calibration Data for CTBT Monitoring at the Prototype International Data Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

- Ground-truth information is essential for location calibration of the International Monitoring System network being developed under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The objective of the calibration effort is to improve the accuracy of seismic event locations and to reduce the size of the error ellipse, both in automatic and in human analyst-reviewed bulletins, in order to meet the On-Site Inspection

I. Bondár; X. Yang; R. G. North; C. Romney

2001-01-01

300

Will the IQ test ban decrease the effectiveness of reading prediction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared achievement, IQ, and other tests for effectiveness in predicting reading by 709 black and white 7- and 8-yr-old Ss in groups controlled for socioeconomic status, age, and duration of schooling. For pooled Ss and each separate group, the 7 yr olds' reading test predicted 8 yr olds' oral reading better than any other test. The battery and the reading

Norman B. Henderson; Warren H. Fay; Sally J. Lindemann; Quentin D. Clarkson

1973-01-01

301

An Important Issue: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Facts and Philosophy: In August, 1947, I participated in a secret meeting concerning the validity and use of a hydrogen bomb. I vigorously supported a ``Super Manhattan Project" to build an ``H" bomb. My philosophy at the time was `bigger and better,' to ensure that no nation attacked the U.S. Our retaliation with ``H" bombs vs. ``A" bombs would be too overwhelming for any nation to risk attacking us should they obtain their own ``A" bombs. Thus, all nations would be forced to use diplomacy. I am older and wiser, and am now convinced that World Test Ban Treaties, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and space free of any military weapons is the best policy for all nations and humanity. With current nuclear testing at nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada, Vandenberg AF/Missile site, Cal Tech, etc., I therefore propose that our new APS California Division form a three-person committee to tabulate all pertinent data and submit it to a qualified expert for review and further action. Comments and suggestions are invited.

Castellano, Doc

2001-03-01

302

Paraphrasing: An Effective Comprehension Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paraphrasing, somewhat different from retelling and summarizing, helps students monitor their understanding and incorporate new knowledge with what they already know about a topic. Paraphrasing helps students realize that comprehension is the goal of reading.

Kletzien, Sharon B.

2009-01-01

303

Comprehensive Solutions for Urban Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehensive school reform (CSR) models build consistency throughout a district while addressing the needs of individual schools. The high-quality CSR programs offer a most effective option for urban education reform.

Kilgore, Sally

2005-01-01

304

UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The University of California Davis Cancer Center (UCDCC) was founded in 1991 and received its NCI designation in 2002. In 2011, it attained comprehensive status. The Center is a program of the UC Davis School of Medicine and Medical Center.

305

Comprehensive Plan Elements, Sardis, Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes comprehensive plan elements based on a twenty-year planning period from the year 1970 to 1990 for Sardis, Mississippi, and its planning area. It includes goals, objectives, and standards; community facilities plan; thoroughfares plan; ...

1971-01-01

306

Comprehension Skills Can Be Taught.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction (ECRI) classrooms, teachers are given directives for teaching and testing literal, inferential, critical, and creative comprehension to help students understand what they read. (Author/MLF)

Reid, Ethna R.

1981-01-01

307

Comprehensive Nonlinear Analysis of Electromyogram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To test whether electromyogram (EMG) is nonlinear deterministic signal or just random noise, we comprehensively analyze four EMGs of an adult woman. At first, we calculate the correlation time, L-Z complexity, approximate entropy (ApEn), maximum Lyapunov ...

Y. Meng B. Liu Y. Liu

2001-01-01

308

Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The University of California, Irvine (UCI) Cancer Center was established in 1989 as a university-based cancer center. In 1994, it became an NCI-designated cancer center, and it achieved comprehensive cancer center status in 1997. Soon after, it was renamed in honor of the Chao family as the Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center (CFCCC), operating fully integrated research, prevention, diagnostic, treatment, and rehabilitation programs.

309

Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

In 1971, the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center (Georgetown Lombardi) was established at Georgetown University, becoming an NCI-designated cancer center in 1974. The Center achieved NCI comprehensive status in 1990. Georgetown Lombardi is part of Georgetown University Medical Center and Georgetown University Hospital. The mission of the Center is to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer through innovative basic science, clinical research, patient care, community outreach, and the training of cancer specialists of the future.

310

Calculation of Minimum-Detectable-Concentration Levels of Radioxenon Isotopes Using the PNNL ARSA System  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The automated Radio-xenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA), built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, can detect 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe via a beta-gamma counting system. Due to the variable background and sources of these four radio-xenon isotopes, it is important to have as sensitive a detection system as possible and to quantify the Minimum-Detectable-Concentrations (MDC) that such a system will be able to detect to preclude false negative and false positive results. From data obtained from IAR in Germany MDC values for 133Xe were well below the 1 mBq/SCMA as required by the PTS for the Comprehensive Test BAn Treaty [WGB TL-11,1999].

McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Reeder, Paul L.

2006-03-11

311

Revitalization of Undergraduate and Graduate Nuclear Instrumentation Program at the University of Texas  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive effort was undertaken to modernize nuclear instrumentation for undergraduate and graduate teaching and research for the Nuclear and Radiation Engineering Program at the University of Texas.

Dr. Sheldon Landsberger s.landsberger@mail.utexas.edu

2002-03-29

312

Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided consist of the following: (1) large format aerial photography; (2) video from aerial platforms; (3) multispectral scanning; and (4) airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in the summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis. 2 figures.

Lackey, J.G.; Burson, Z.G.

1984-01-01

313

Help with Teaching Reading Comprehension: Comprehension Instructional Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents five instructional frameworks demonstrated by research as being effective in teaching reading comprehension: (1) The Scaffolded Reading Experience (SRE); (2) Questioning the Author (QtA); (3) Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR); (4) Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS); and (5) Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction…

Liang, Lauren Aimonette; Dole, Janice A.

2006-01-01

314

Describing Comprehension: Teachers' Observations of Students' Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' observations of student performance in reading are abundant and insightful but often remain internal and unarticulated. As a result, such observations are an underutilized and undervalued source of data. Given the gaps in knowledge about students' reading comprehension that exist in formal assessments, the frequent calls for teachers'…

Vander Does, Susan Lubow

2012-01-01

315

SCUP 32: Comprehensive Enrollment Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive enrollment management (CEM) ensures that academic, student, and fiscal planning are done in concert in order to acknowledge the turbulence confronting an institution. A four-phase model of CEM has been developed that can be replicated at any college or university. In phase 1 of the model, the past 25 years of institutional enrollment…

McIntyre, Chuck

316

Metacomprehension during Rare Word Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine metacomprehension during comprehension, undergraduates (n = 133) were asked to provide descriptions of how they determined the meaning of four rare words presented in short passages. Content analysis of these written descriptions revealed task-specific metacomprehension reflecting lexical, textbase, and situation model processes.…

Mcginnis, Debra; Saunders, Nikola N.; Burns, Ryan J.

2007-01-01

317

A Comprehensive Middle School Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This extensive bibliography of middle childhood education is intended to help educators and education agencies improve junior high school education. Section 1 of the bibliography is a comprehensive list of relevant materials. Section 2 is a selected bibliography used as reference materials by the West Virginia Board of Education in developing "A…

Benish, Jean, Comp.

318

Improving Reading Comprehension: Measuring Readability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A standardized method, called programmed prose, has been developed which can be used to automatically convert prose training material into a form which forces trainees to read the material with at least a minimal level of comprehension. A new method for m...

R. P. Carver

1974-01-01

319

Comprehensive school suicide prevention programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses responses to suicide by school systems and proposes a comprehensive suicide prevention program. It is suggested that programs must consist of prevention, intervention, and postvention. Prevention refers to program efforts that aim to prevent or inhibit the development of the problem. Intervention refers to reducing the level and duration of the problem at an early phase so

Roger Tierney; Richard Ramsay; Bryan Tanney; William Lang

1990-01-01

320

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1973, the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University received its NCI designation that same year. The mission of the Kimmel Cancer Center is to go beyond the cutting edge in science and medicine to perform the most advanced research and offer patients the very best therapies for their disease.

321

Vocabulary, Intelligence, and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at Cuyahoga Community College to test the relationship between student scores on timed and untimed reading comprehension and vocabulary tests, and to investigate the relationship between those scores and intelligence. The study sample included 72 students enrolled in classes at developmental, freshman, and sophomore levels.…

Gabriel, Dennis; Richards, Irving

322

Phonemic Support in Children's Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the role of phonemic information in young readers' silent reading comprehension. Subjects, 56 children in grades 2 and 4, from Seattle parochial schools, were blocked into groups based on their grade and skill level (skilled and less skilled). Each subject saw 48 sentences presented in a random order on an Apple II…

Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; McCutchen, Deborah

323

A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

2013-01-01

324

Testing Foreign Language Listening Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and validation of a test of listening comprehension for English as a second language at the Dutch National Institute for Educational Measurement (Cito) is described. The test uses two distinct item formats: true-false items and modified cloze items with two options. Both item formats were found to measure foreign language listening…

de Jong, John H. A. L.

325

Comprehensive Schools and the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that comprehensive reorganisation was not a one-off policy reform but a complex, bottom-up campaign for equity and fairness in education, with varied consequences and outcomes. Recent battles over student fees, free schools and academies show that the quest for democratic education does not lead to a permanent achievement but…

Barker, Bernard

2012-01-01

326

Comprehensive Assessment of Educational Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive assessment of educational systems can assist educators in improving the nature of formal education. Goals of education are long range and very general. By observing, describing and classifying teacher and student behaviors, realistic and immediate goals can be established. Effective assessment aids administrative decisions by…

Gormly, John B.

1981-01-01

327

Connecticut Comprehensive School Counseling Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Connecticut Comprehensive School Counseling Program provides an important resource to Connecticut's school districts in their mission to prepare students to meet high academic standards and to become productive and contributing members of society in the 21st century. This new document represents a model that helps to prepare students for…

Connecticut School Counselor Association.

328

Semantic Productivity and Idiom Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes an alternative model of language comprehension regarding how people understand idioms in which literal meanings are systematically used to constrain the use and variation of conventional idioms and to generate novel idiom variance. Presents three experiments on how people process variant idioms. (SR)

McGlone, Matthew S.; And Others

1994-01-01

329

Literature, Comprehension, and Gifted Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many gifted children enter kindergarten already reading and in need of reading instruction that is different from the regular program. A reading program for gifted youngsters that is literature-based will help develop comprehension skills at the highest cognitive levels and will also foster the desire to read. Beginning with the interpretation of…

Howell, Helen

330

Means of Improving Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension is an important skill that every student needs in order to be successful. It is directly influenced by how readers construct a representation of the information that they are taking in. Overwhelmingly, the processing strategies found in research can appropriately fit into the Into, Through, Beyond strategies used in the…

Bondanza, Amy; Kelly, Katie; Treewater, Adam

331

Postsecondary, Teacher Directed Comprehension Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the theoretical and research perspectives (including metacognition, schema theory, and text structure) related to the direct instruction of comprehension at the college level for developmental readers. Concludes that many such strategies are not grounded in solid research bases and recommends that future research focus on the…

Mealey, Donna L.; Nist, Sherrie L.

1989-01-01

332

Neuronal basis of speech comprehension.  

PubMed

Verbal communication does not rely only on the simple perception of auditory signals. It is rather a parallel and integrative processing of linguistic and non-linguistic information, involving temporal and frontal areas in particular. This review describes the inherent complexity of auditory speech comprehension from a functional-neuroanatomical perspective. The review is divided into two parts. In the first part, structural and functional asymmetry of language relevant structures will be discus. The second part of the review will discuss recent neuroimaging studies, which coherently demonstrate that speech comprehension processes rely on a hierarchical network involving the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Further, the results support the dual-stream model for speech comprehension, with a dorsal stream for auditory-motor integration, and a ventral stream for extracting meaning but also the processing of sentences and narratives. Specific patterns of functional asymmetry between the left and right hemisphere can also be demonstrated. The review article concludes with a discussion on interactions between the dorsal and ventral streams, particularly the involvement of motor related areas in speech perception processes, and outlines some remaining unresolved issues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. PMID:24113115

Specht, Karsten

2014-01-01

333

A comprehensive dairy valorization model.  

PubMed

Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensive dairy valorization model that serves as a decision support tool for mid-term allocation of raw milk to end products and production planning. The developed model was used to identify the optimal product portfolio composition. The model allocates raw milk to the most profitable dairy products while accounting for important constraints (i.e., recipes, composition variations, dairy production interdependencies, seasonality, demand, supply, capacities, and transportation flows). The inclusion of all relevant constraints and the ease of understanding dairy production dynamics make the model comprehensive. The developed model was tested at the international dairy processor FrieslandCampina (Amersfoort, the Netherlands). The structure of the model and its output were discussed in multiple sessions with and approved by relevant FrieslandCampina employees. The elements included in the model were considered necessary to optimally valorize raw milk. To illustrate the comprehensiveness and functionality of the model, we analyzed the effect of seasonality on milk valorization. A large difference in profit and a shift in the allocation of milk showed that seasonality has a considerable impact on the valorization of raw milk. PMID:23200469

Banaszewska, A; Cruijssen, F; van der Vorst, J G A J; Claassen, G D H; Kampman, J L

2013-02-01

334

On the importance of listening comprehension.  

PubMed

Abstract The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills (i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities. PMID:24833426

Hogan, Tiffany P; Adlof, Suzanne M; Alonzo, Crystle N

2014-06-01

335

Children's Comprehension of Narrative Picture Books.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explains the creation and validation of the Narrative Comprehension of Picture Books task (NC task), an assessment of young childrens comprehension of wordless picture books. Study 1 explored developmental improvements in the task, as well as r...

A. H. Paris S. G. Paris

2001-01-01

336

Test report for the infrasound prototype: For a CTBT IMS station  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Infrasound Prototype Development Test and Evaluation (DT&E). During DT&E the infrasound prototype was evaluated against requirements listed in the System Requirements Document (SRD) based on the Conference on Disarmament/Ad Hoc Committee on a Nuclear Test Ban/Working Papers 224 and 283 and the Preparatory Commission specifications as defined in CTBT/PC/II/1/Add.2, Appendix X, Table 5. The evaluation was conducted during a two-day period, August 6-7, 18997. The System Test Plan (STP) defined the plan and methods to test the infrasound prototype. Specific tests that were performed are detailed in the Test Procedures (TP).

Breding, D.R.; Kromer, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitaker, R.W.; Sandoval, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-11-01

337

UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

In 1948, the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) established the Cancer Research Institute, a precursor to consolidation of its cancer activities in more recent decades. NCI designation as a comprehensive cancer center came in 1999 and the Center was renamed the UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2007. The Center is a member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

338

Years Later, Comprehension Strategies Still at Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, authors Ellin Oliver Keene and Susan Zimmermann reflect on comprehension strategy instruction 15 years after the publication of their book, "Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop." They reassert their claim that to teach comprehension well, we must first read widely and scrutinize our own reading…

Keene, Ellin Oliver; Zimmermann, Susan

2013-01-01

339

Idiom Comprehension in Mandarin-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group).…

Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie

2010-01-01

340

Assessing Narrative Comprehension in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the creation and validation of the Narrative Comprehension of Picture Books task (NC task), an assessment of young children's comprehension of wordless picture books. Creates and tests assessment materials and procedures that can be used with young children, whether or not they can decode print. Discusses how narrative comprehension is…

Paris, Alison H.; Paris, Scott G.

2003-01-01

341

Metacognition, comprehension monitoring, and the adult reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview and synthesis of the current literature on metacognition and comprehension monitoring among adult readers. It is organized around three major research questions: (1) How do adults conceptualize their own comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities? (2) How effectively do adults evaluate and regulate their ongoing efforts to understand? (3) How successfully do adults assess the final products

Linda Baker

1989-01-01

342

Rule-Based Measures of Literal Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension involves a number of distinctly different intellectual skills that can be assessed if the proper techniques are employed. As part of a reading assessment system, two measures of literal comprehension were developed: the Literal Comprehension Details Test (LCDT) and the Paraphrase Reading Test (PRT). Both the LCDT and the PRT…

Hayford, Paul D.; Salter, Ruth

343

The Effects of Anxiety on Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of test anxiety on reading comprehension were studied in two experiments. In the first experiment, 75 college students completed a test anxiety scale and the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System reading comprehension subtest. The low anxious students in this experiment showed higher reading comprehension than the high anxious students. In…

Wark, David; And Others

344

Comprehension Instruction in Content Area Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a broad introduction to comprehension instruction in content area classrooms. It begins with a brief overview of research and of thinking processes involved in reading comprehension. Then, it outlines several research-supported comprehension strategies, including: (1) Question asking and answering; (2) Clarifying a purpose…

Neufeld, Paul

2005-01-01

345

Predictive mechanisms in idiom comprehension.  

PubMed

Prediction is pervasive in human cognition and plays a central role in language comprehension. At an electrophysiological level, this cognitive function contributes substantially in determining the amplitude of the N400. In fact, the amplitude of the N400 to words within a sentence has been shown to depend on how predictable those words are: The more predictable a word, the smaller the N400 elicited. However, predictive processing can be based on different sources of information that allow anticipation of upcoming constituents and integration in context. In this study, we investigated the ERPs elicited during the comprehension of idioms, that is, prefabricated multiword strings stored in semantic memory. When a reader recognizes a string of words as an idiom before the idiom ends, she or he can develop expectations concerning the incoming idiomatic constituents. We hypothesized that the expectations driven by the activation of an idiom might differ from those driven by discourse-based constraints. To this aim, we compared the ERP waveforms elicited by idioms and two literal control conditions. The results showed that, in both cases, the literal conditions exhibited a more negative potential than the idiomatic condition. Our analyses suggest that before idiom recognition the effect is due to modulation of the N400 amplitude, whereas after idiom recognition a P300 for the idiomatic sentence has a fundamental role in the composition of the effect. These results suggest that two distinct predictive mechanisms are at work during language comprehension, based respectively on probabilistic information and on categorical template matching. PMID:19580384

Vespignani, Francesco; Canal, Paolo; Molinaro, Nicola; Fonda, Sergio; Cacciari, Cristina

2010-08-01

346

Cardiac rehabilitation: a comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a commonly used treatment for men and women with cardiovascular disease. To date, no single study has conclusively demonstrated a comprehensive benefit of CR. Numerous individual studies, however, have demonstrated beneficial effects such as improved risk-factor profile, slower disease progression, decreased morbidity, and decreased mortality. This paper will review the evidence for the use of CR and discuss the implications and limitations of these studies. The safety, relevance to special populations, challenges, and future directions of CR will also be reviewed.

Lear, Scott A; Ignaszewski, Andrew

2001-01-01

347

To test or not to test  

SciTech Connect

In response to congressional legislation mandating the end of US nuclear weapons testing by September 1996 and calling for the initiation of negotiations for a comprehensive test ban (CTB), President Clinton must soon make two decisions that will have profound implications for nuclear non-proliferation and demonstrate the priority he assigns to arms control. He must decide whether to seek a long-term multilateral treaty banning all nuclear explosions, and whether in the interim to end the current congressionally directed moratorium on US testing.

Keeny, S.M. Jr.

1993-06-01

348

Comprehensive geriatric assessment in oncology.  

PubMed

The incidence of cancer increases with advanced age and the majority of cancer deaths are in patients aged ? 65. The geriatric population is a heterogeneous group and a patient's chronologic age does not always correlate with underlying physiologic status. Oncologists need to be able to obtain information on physiologic and functional capacity in older patients in order to provide safe and effective treatment recommendations. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is a compilation of validated tools that predict morbidity and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. The various components of the CGA have also been shown to influence clinical decision-making and predict outcomes in older cancer patients. The combined data from the CGA can be used to stratify patients into risk categories to better predict their tolerance to treatment and risk for chemotherapy toxicity. However, the CGA is a comprehensive tool requiring significant time and training to perform. A variety of screening tools have been developed which may be useful in the general oncology practice setting to identify patients that may benefit from further testing and intervention. This chapter will review the components and predictive value of CGA in older cancer patients, with emphasis on how CGA can practically be incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:23503518

Mohile, Supriya G; Magnuson, Allison

2013-01-01

349

NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule  

SciTech Connect

Title 44 United States Code, Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules.

Not Available

1992-03-01

350

Anti-nuclear liberals and the bomb: A comparative history of Kampf dem Atomtod and the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, 1957-1963  

SciTech Connect

The premises of Kampf dem Atomtod (KdA) and Citizens for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) were based on nineteenth century traditions of liberal peace advocacy. Both groups gained substantial public support for their goals to prevent the nuclear armament of the Bundeswehr and to stop nuclear testing. Both organizations won well-educated middle-class and mostly white supporter. The dissertation examines the role of women: whether housewife or doctor, women stressed their special concerns as mothers. Both KdA and SANE had troubled relations with the labor movement. Their leaders hoped to gain government leaders' respect by winning a respectable, non-Communist constituency and claiming their goals were reasonable ones. Government officials attacked KdA and SANE as dupes of Moscow. Many supporters left the organizations because of their strict anti-Communism. Local groups accused their leaders of lacking initative. KdA and SANE's leaders wasted time and energy rehashing issues and postponing decisions. After a period of providing initiatives and ideas local committees disintegrated. Both organizations considered education their paramount goal but their arguments primarily reached the converted, who often preferred more political action. KdA and SANE's leaders instead chose to support respectable projects based on humanitarian ideals. Since these projects offered little in the way of concrete action agendas, supporters defected to more active organizations or slipped into apathy. Neither organization achieved its national goals. Both governments generally denied them access to the policymaking process, ignored them as irrelavant, or attacked them as Communist sympathizers. While SANE and KdA were heard by those concerned by nuclear policy, and while members of SANE's National Board did help muster support for the Partial Test Ban Treaty, both organizations failed to make liberal peace values productive in the nuclear decisionmaking process.

Thiede, B.

1992-01-01

351

Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable a...

C. H. Jang I. S. Jeong S. Y. Hong T. H. Song W. Y. Song

1996-01-01

352

Geospatial Analysis - A comprehensive guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text of "Geospatial Analysis - A comprehensive guide" is provided on this website. It covers the full spectrum of analytical techniques that are provided within modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related software products.Click here for a PDF extract (first 55 pages).Topics covered in detail include: * Geospatial analysis concepts * Core components of geospatial analysis, including distance and directional analysis, geometrical processing, map algebra, and grid models * Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) and spatial statistics, including spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression * Surface analysis, including surface form and flow analysis, gridding and interpolation methods, and visibility analysis * Network and locational analysis, including shortest path calculation, travelling salesman problems, facility location and arc routing Geocomputational methods, including agent-based modelling, artifical neural networks and evolutionary computing

De Smith, Michael J.; Goodchild, Michael F.; Longley, Paul A.

353

The thymus: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Since first being described as such by Galen of Pergamum (130-200 ad), the thymus has remained an "organ of mystery" throughout the 2000-year history of medicine. The thymus reaches its maximum weight in puberty and subsequently undergoes involution, and thus is hardly an eye-catching structure on imaging studies performed in healthy adults. However, once there has been involvement of the thymus by a disease process, the gland demonstrates a variety of clinical and radiologic manifestations that require comprehensive understanding of each entity. Furthermore, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with the current World Health Organization histologic classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumors and to understand its clinical-pathologic, radiologic, and prognostic features. PMID:16549602

Nishino, Mizuki; Ashiku, Simon K; Kocher, Olivier N; Thurer, Robert L; Boiselle, Phillip M; Hatabu, Hiroto

2006-01-01

354

The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database  

PubMed Central

The field of antibiotic drug discovery and the monitoring of new antibiotic resistance elements have yet to fully exploit the power of the genome revolution. Despite the fact that the first genomes sequenced of free living organisms were those of bacteria, there have been few specialized bioinformatic tools developed to mine the growing amount of genomic data associated with pathogens. In particular, there are few tools to study the genetics and genomics of antibiotic resistance and how it impacts bacterial populations, ecology, and the clinic. We have initiated development of such tools in the form of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca). The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences. This unique platform provides an informatic tool that bridges antibiotic resistance concerns in health care, agriculture, and the environment.

McArthur, Andrew G.; Waglechner, Nicholas; Nizam, Fazmin; Yan, Austin; Azad, Marisa A.; Baylay, Alison J.; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Canova, Marc J.; De Pascale, Gianfranco; Ejim, Linda; Kalan, Lindsay; King, Andrew M.; Koteva, Kalinka; Morar, Mariya; Mulvey, Michael R.; O'Brien, Jonathan S.; Pawlowski, Andrew C.; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Spanogiannopoulos, Peter; Sutherland, Arlene D.; Tang, Irene; Taylor, Patricia L.; Thaker, Maulik; Wang, Wenliang; Yan, Marie; Yu, Tennison

2013-01-01

355

University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center (UMCCC) was founded in 1986. UMCCC received its NCI designation as a cancer center in 1988 and its comprehensive designation in 1991. The Center is also a founding member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. As part of the University of Michigan Health System, UMCCC brings together in one place more than 400 scientists and clinicians in multidisciplinary teams devoted to cancer research and patient care.

356

LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY COMPREHENSIVE TANK SURVEY.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Comprehensive Tank Survey process, identifies and prioritizes the potential vulnerabilities posed by tanks and pressure vessels surveyed, and provides recommendations for action plans.

Reynolds, Robin P.; Bourque, Dr. Robert F.; Lemke, Terrill; Bollschweiler, Allen; Barnes, Janina; Foote, Jennifer; Muir, Renee; Winsemius, Shellie; Tardella, Daniel

2003-07-17

357

Listening comprehension across the adult lifespan  

PubMed Central

Short Summary The current study provides the first systematic assessment of listening comprehension across the adult lifespan. A total of 433 participants ranging in age from 20-90 listened to spoken passages and answered comprehension questions following each passage. In addition, measures of auditory sensitivity were obtained from all participants to determine if hearing loss and listening comprehension changed similarly across the adult lifespan. As expected, auditory sensitivity declined from age 20 to age 90. In contrast, listening comprehension remained relatively unchanged until approximately age 65-70, with declines evident only for the oldest participants.

Sommers, Mitchell S.; Hale, Sandra; Myerson, Joel; Rose, Nathan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent

2011-01-01

358

Nuclear illusion and reality  

SciTech Connect

Lord Zuckerman describes how we can extricate ourselves from nuclear dread. Reviewing the history, technology, the strategies and threats of nuclear weaponry, he argues that the inability to unlearn how to split the atom does not mean there is either sanity or safety in further stockpiling or refining of nuclear weapons. He challenges our beliefs that the use of tactical nuclear weapons in Europe cannot be kept from excalating, our fear of sudden superweapons and defenses, and the premise that scientists, technologists, and arms makers should keep the race going rather than the military because of their vested interests. Given the political will, he contends, a comprehensive ban should not be a difficult treaty to agree to, although efforts to slow down the nuclear arms race have been admittedly disappointing. 92 references.

Zuckerman, S.

1982-01-01

359

Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

2012-07-01

360

CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

Not Available

1993-08-01

361

Reading Comprehension and Semantic Memory. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research project investigated the process of reading comprehension through which the reader generates a semantic representation of the message conveyed by a text. The first focus of the project was an examination of the functioning of abstract knowledge in text comprehension. Studies were conducted to explore the activation of proposition…

Wickelgren, Wayne A.; And Others

362

Deaf Readers' Comprehension of Relative Clause Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testing of deaf readers' comprehension of relative clause structures in written English, signed English, and American Sign Language suggests that a specific syntactic disability does not differentiate good from poor deaf readers, but rather a processing deficit may underlie poor readers' comprehension difficulties. (Author/CB)

Lillo-Martin, Diane C.; And Others

1992-01-01

363

Reading comprehension skills: Testing the distinctiveness hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to explore the validity of the reading comprehension skills distinctiveness hypothesis. Students and teachers were randomly assigned to specific comprehension skill training groups: (a) locating details, (b) drawing conclusions, (c) finding the sequence, (d) determining the main idea, and to a control group wherein students engaged in sustained reading of self?selected trade books. After the training

D. Ray Reutzel; Paul M. Hollingsworth

1990-01-01

364

Improving Reading Comprehension through Cooperative Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving reading comprehension through cooperative learning. The targeted population consisted of elementary and middle school students in growing middle class communities, located in northern Illinois. The problems of reading comprehension in content areas were documented through teacher observation and…

Caposey, Tracey; Heider, Barbara

365

Leadership Lessons from Comprehensive School Reforms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume explores the role of leadership in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "The Development of Comprehensive School Reform" (Joseph Murphy and Amanda Datnow); (2) "Expeditionary Learning Schools: Tenacity, Leadership, and School Reform" (Greg Farrell); (3) "The Modern Red School House: Leadership in…

Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Datnow, Amanda, Ed.

366

A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)

Watson, G. R.; And Others

1996-01-01

367

Predictors of Nutrition Information Comprehension in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of the present study was to examine relationships among several predictors of nutrition comprehension. We were particularly interested in exploring whether nutrition knowledge or motivation moderated the effects of attention on comprehension across a wide age range of adults. Methods Ninety-three participants, ages 18 to 80, completed measures of nutrition knowledge and motivation and then read nutrition information (from which attention allocation was derived) and answered comprehension questions. Results In general, predictor variables were highly intercorrelated. However, knowledge, but not motivation, had direct effects on comprehension accuracy. In contrast, motivation influenced attention, which in turn influenced accuracy. Results also showed that comprehension accuracy decreased- and knowledge increased -with age. When knowledge was statistically controlled, age declines in comprehension increased. Conclusion Knowledge is an important predictor of nutrition information comprehension and its role increases in later life. Motivation is also important; however, its effects on comprehension differ from knowledge. Practice Implications Health educators and clinicians should consider cognitive skills such as knowledge as well as motivation and age of patients when deciding how to best convey health information. The increased role of knowledge among older adults suggests that lifelong educational efforts may have important payoffs in later life.

Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Gibson, Tanja N.; Applegate, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

368

A Janus Look at Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that researchers in the fields of cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and linguistics are taking a constructivist view of reading comprehension, this paper undertakes a comparison of that view with views concerning comprehension that have been expressed at the Claremont Reading Conferences over the past 50 years. The first…

McNeil, John D.

369

Lexical Competition in Nonnative Speech Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electrophysiological studies consistently find N400 effects of semantic incongruity in nonnative (L2) language comprehension. These N400 effects are often delayed compared with native (L1) comprehension, suggesting that semantic integration in one's second language occurs later than in one's first language. In this study, we investigated whether…

FitzPatrick, Ian; Indefrey, Peter

2010-01-01

370

Community College Comprehensive Career Development Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides information on the following components of Central Piedmont Community College's comprehensive career development model: (1) project mission (universal opportunity for career development) and vision statement; (2) recommendations of the Committee for Planning Comprehensive Career Development; (3) competencies; (4) an outline…

Central Piedmont Community Coll., Charlotte, NC.

371

Some Relationships between Operativity and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samples of 98 fourth graders and 111 sixth graders participated in a study of the relationships between operational thinking and reading comprehension of texts involving operational structures. Tests of operational thinking, reading comprehension, IQ, and vocabulary were administered in class groups. Results from correlational and factor analyses…

Stack, Wesner Brown

372

Metaphor Comprehension in Alzheimer's Disease: Novelty Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehension of non-literal language was investigated in 20 probable Alzheimer's disease (pAD) patients by comparing their performance to that of 20 matched control subjects. pAD patients were unimpaired in the comprehension of conventional metaphors and idioms. However, their performance was significantly lower in the case of…

Amanzio, Martina; Geminiani, Giuliano; Leotta, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano

2008-01-01

373

Binding in agrammatic aphasia: Processing to comprehension  

PubMed Central

Background Theories of comprehension deficits in Broca’s aphasia have largely been based on the pattern of deficit found with movement constructions. However, some studies have found comprehension deficits with binding constructions, which do not involve movement. Aims This study investigates online processing and offline comprehension of binding constructions, such as reflexive (e.g., himself) and pronoun (e.g., him) constructions in unimpaired and aphasic individuals in an attempt to evaluate theories of agrammatic comprehension. Methods & Procedures Participants were eight individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia and eight age-matched unimpaired individuals. We used eyetracking to examine online processing of binding constructions while participants listened to stories. Offline comprehension was also tested. Outcomes & Results The eye movement data showed that individuals with Broca’s aphasia were able to automatically process the correct antecedent of reflexives and pronouns. In addition, their syntactic processing of binding was not delayed compared to normal controls. Nevertheless, offline comprehension of both pronouns and reflexives was significantly impaired compared to the control participants. This comprehension failure was reflected in the aphasic participants’ eye movements at sentence end, where fixations to the competitor increased. Conclusions These data suggest that comprehension difficulties with binding constructions seen in agrammatic aphasic patients are not due to a deficit in automatic syntactic processing or delayed processing. Rather, they point to a possible deficit in lexical integration.

Janet Choy, Jungwon; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2010-01-01

374

Optimizing Visually-Assisted Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fact that visual aids such as pictures or graphs can lead to greater comprehension by language learners has been well established. Nonetheless, the order of presenting visuals to listeners is left unattended. This study examined listening comprehension from a strategy of introducing visual information, either prior to or during an audio…

Kashani, Ahmad Sabouri; Sajjadi, Samad; Sohrabi, Mohammad Reza; Younespour, Shima

2011-01-01

375

The Effects of Reading Fluency on Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report was to examine the effects reading fluency has on reading comprehension. The analysis was done through a synthesis of recent literature on the topic. Research shows improvement in reading fluency does improve reading comprehension and suggests reading development similarities for all readers. This consistency in…

Zugel, Kevin M.

2009-01-01

376

Assessment of the Comprehensive Perinatal Care Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study evaluated the progress of grantees of the Comprehensive Perinatal Care Program (CPCP) in providing pregnant women and their families with comprehensive, case-managed care at community and migrant health centers (C/MHCs). Site visits to nine C/MH...

1990-01-01

377

Is Comprehension the Purpose of Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study discusses the importance of comprehension in reading and describes a tool for measuring reading comprehension according to an individual reader's "structures of meaning." The procedure for developing a visual representation of this structure involves three distinct steps. After reading the text, student and teacher employ techniques,…

Augstein, Sheila; Thomas, Laurie

378

CYGD: the Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database (CYGD) compiles a comprehensive data resource for information on the cellular functions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species, cho- sen as the best understood model organism for eukar- yotes. The database serves as a common resource generated by a European consortium, going beyond the provision of sequence information and functional annotations on individual

Ulrich Güldener; Martin Münsterkötter; Gabi Kastenmüller; Normann Strack; Jacques Van Helden; Christian Lemer; J. Richelles; Shoshana J. Wodak; J. García-martínez; J. E. Pérez-ortín; Holger Michael; Andreas Kaps; E. Talla; Bernard Dujon; B. André; J. L. Souciet; J. De Montigny; E. Bon; C. Gaillardin; Hans-werner Mewes

2005-01-01

379

Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University was founded in 1974 and received its NCI designation in 1998. The Center is a founding member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, an alliance of 21 cancer centers dedicated to high standards of cancer research, patient care, education, and community outreach.

380

Comprehensive Community Initiatives: A Rural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article challenges the notion that the comprehensive community initiative (CCI) is a singularly urban intervention strategy by comparing a rural comprehensive initiative with the literature on urban CCIs. Characteristics of CCIs in urban settings are discussed and compared with Warren Family Institute (WFI), a demonstration project in rural…

Messinger, Lori

2004-01-01

381

Identifying Language Comprehension Impairment in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the validity of 3 discourse comprehension measures for preschool children and the ability of a combination of them to classify children with and without language impairment. Method: Thirty-seven children with typical language and 12 children with language impairment completed 3 measures of oral story comprehension: the…

Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth; Dempsey, Lynn; Lee, Christopher

2008-01-01

382

Early Intervention and Bilingual Language Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the impact of a bilingual intervention program on the language comprehension of Mexican American preschoolers, 28 boys and 28 girls who varied in program attendance were tested twice in both English and Spanish using a revision of Carrow's TACL. Results suggested that early bilingual education promotes bilingual language comprehension.…

McClintock, Evie; Baron, James

1979-01-01

383

Elementary School Teachers' Comprehension of Data Displays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated elementary school teachers' comprehension of data displays. Assessment, interview, and observation data were analyzed to determine their level of comprehension. Results revealed that the teachers were proficient at "reading the data" and computation types of "reading between the data" questions, but were unsuccessful with…

Jacobbe, Timothy; Horton, Robert M.

2010-01-01

384

Listen, Listen, Listen and Listen: Building a Comprehension Corpus and Making It Comprehensible  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listening comprehension input is necessary for language learning and acculturation. One approach to developing listening comprehension skills is through exposure to massive amounts of naturally occurring spoken language input. But exposure to this input is not enough; learners also need to make the comprehension corpus meaningful to their learning…

Mordaunt, Owen G.; Olson, Daniel W.

2010-01-01

385

Relationships between Listening Comprehension and Reading Comprehension Among Second-Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationships between reading comprehension and listening comprehension among second graders with regard to age, reading ability, and intelligence. One form of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test was administered to 66 second graders to measure reading comprehension and a revised alternate form of the same test measured…

Markert, Sandra J.

386

Readability and Its Effects on Reading Rate, Subjective Judgments of Comprehensibility and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prose passages read aloud or silently were rated for pronounceability and comprehensibility. The relationships of text-derived readability indices to reading rate, comprehensibility ratings and comprehension test scores were explored. Reading rate in syllables per minute was unrelated to readability. The high correlation between rate in words per…

Coke, Esther U.

387

Facilitating pictorial comprehension with color highlighting.  

PubMed

Pictorials can aid in communicating warning information, but viewers may not always correctly comprehend them. Two experiments focused on whether the use of relevant highlighting could benefit pictorial comprehension. A set of warning-related pictorials were manipulated according to three-color highlighting conditions: highlighting areas more relevant to correct comprehension, highlighting areas less relevant to comprehension, and no highlighting. Participants were asked to describe the purpose and meaning of each pictorial presented to them. The findings from both experiments indicate that comprehension of warning pictorials is higher for the relevant highlighting condition than the other two conditions. The highlighting of less relevant areas reduced comprehension compared to no highlighting. Use of appropriately placed highlighting could benefit the design of a complex symbol by pointing out pertinent areas to aid in determining its intended conceptual meaning. PMID:23759792

McDougald, Brannan R; Wogalter, Michael S

2014-09-01

388

An Analysis of a Commercial Furniture Refinisher: A Comprehensive Introductory NMR Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment designed to introduce undergraduate organic chemistry students to measurement/interpretation of NMR parameters. Students investigate chemical shift analysis, spin-spin coupling, peak integrations, effect of deuterium oxide extraction, and comparisons with literature spectra;…

Markow, Peter G.; Cramer, John A.

1983-01-01

389

Idiom comprehension in Mandarin-speaking children.  

PubMed

This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group). Laval (Journal of Pragmatics 35(2):723-739, 2003) showed that familiarity had an effect on idiom comprehension for French 9-year-olds. However, our finding showed that familiarity was important for 6-year-old Chinese children when a context was not given. Abkarian et al. (Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 35:580-587, 1992) claimed that context has little or no effect on comprehension for children under 6. Our results show that context has an effect on 6-year-old children's understanding of idioms in a different way. Overall, our major research findings are: (1) Familiarity first appeared in responses at age 6. (2) Context played an important role in idiom comprehension and had different effects on different age groups. (3) Linguistic convention starts from age 6 on, and a significant effect took place at the age of 9. (4) Metapragmatic knowledge showed at the age of 6 and could surface even younger. As context and linguistic convention have a substantial effect on the comprehension of idioms, it is necessary to take them into account to explain language functioning and communicative situations. PMID:20043210

Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie

2010-12-01

390

Test differences in diagnosing reading comprehension deficits.  

PubMed

The authors examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. They had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, the authors found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are the result of weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables-word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill-to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed. PMID:22442251

Keenan, Janice M; Meenan, Chelsea E

2014-01-01

391

Language comprehension and working memory language comprehension and working memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The present study examined the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia have deficits in language comprehension compared to normal controls, and that these deficits are associated with disturbances in working memory (WM). In addition, we hypothesized that language comprehension deficits would be associated with the severity of specific symptoms in the patients (formal thought disorder and hallucinations). Participants were 27 stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 28 demographically similar controls. Language comprehension was measured by presenting sentences auditorily that varied in length and syntactic complexity, followed by two or three comprehension questions. We measured working memory by administering a reading span task. Results indicated that, as predicted, language comprehension deficits were significantly greater in patients with schizophrenia than controls. Also as predicted, working memory was strongly correlated with language comprehension performance in both patients with schizophrenia and controls. Contrary to our predictions, language comprehension and working memory deficits were not associated with either formal thought disorder or hallucinations. PMID:12591591

Bagner, Daniel M; Melinder, Meredith R D; Barch, Deanna M

2003-04-01

392

Nuclear material operations manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

Tyler, R.P.

1981-02-01

393

Nuclear Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? What is Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)? What ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

394

Comprehensive iron-selenium-thiolate cluster chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Reconstitution of apoferredoxins and other proteins with iron salts and selenide has resulted in the incorporation of Fe{sub n}Se{sub n} clusters in proteins whose native clusters are Fe{sub n}S{sub n} (n = 2,4). These nonnative clusters have proven useful in interpreting certain electronic features of native cluster, and tend to occur in high-spin' forms (S {ge} 1/2). These observations have prompted investigation of a comprehensive set of Fe-Se-SR clusters. Reaction of (Et{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Fe(SEt){sub 4}) with 1 equiv of elemental Se in acetonitrile affords (Et{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Fe{sub 2}Se{sub 2}(SEt){sub 4}) (1, 55%). Ligand substitution of 1 with 4 equiv of PhSH gives (Et{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Fe{sub 2}Se{sub 2}(SPh){sub 4}) (2, 72%). Reaction of (Et{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Fe(SEt){sub 4}) with 1.4 equiv of elemental Se in acetone gives (Et{sub 4}N){sub 3}(Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 4}(SEt){sub 4}) (3, 67%), which with PhSH is converted to (Et{sub 4}N){sub 3}(Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 4}(SPh){sub 4}) (4, 66%). The reaction system FeCl{sub 3}/Se/4NaSEt in ethanol assembles (Et{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Fe{sub 4}Se{sub 4}(SEt){sub 4}) (5, 66%). The (Fe{sub 4}({mu}{sub 3}-Se){sub 4}){sup 2+} core has the familiar cubane stereochemistry with a compressed tetragonal distortion from cubic symmetry. Reduction of 3 with Zn in acetonitrile or 5 with sodium acenaphthylenide in THF/acetonitrile gives (Et{sub 4}N){sub 3}(Fe{sub 4}Se{sub 4}(SEt){sub 4}) (6, 56-68%). The reaction system FeCl{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}Se{sub 2}/3NaSEt assembles (Et{sub 4}N){sub 4}(Fe{sub 6}Se{sub 9}(SEt){sub 2}) (7, 68%). Of all properties, isotropic shifts most readily distinguish Fe-S and Fe-Se clusters of the same nuclearity. Comparison of the structures of (Fe{sub 4}Q{sub 4}){sup 2+} structures (Q = S, Se) provides strong evidence that a compressed tetragonal geometry is the intrinsically preferred structure of this oxidation state.

Shibao Yu; Holm, R.H. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Papaefthymiou, G.C. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States))

1991-09-04

395

A Comprehensive Bibliography of Ball Lightning Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive bibliography of ball lightning reports and associated references has been accumulated. The ball lightning references were taken from reports published on scientific journals during the past 350 years. The bibliography is listed in alphabet...

J. D. Barry

1974-01-01

396

Optimization Issues with Complex Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper investigates the use of the general purpose automatic differentiation (AD) tool called Automatic Differentiation of FORTRAN (ADIFOR) as a means of generating sensitivity derivatives for use in Boeing Helicopter's proprietary comprehensive rotor...

J. L. Walsh K. C. Young F. J. Tarzanin J. E. Hirsh

2004-01-01

397

Comprehensive Risk Analysis for Structure Type Selection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optimization of bridge selection and design traditionally has been sought in terms of the finished structure. This study presents a more comprehensive risk-based analysis that includes user costs and accidents during the construction phase. Costs for brid...

B. Beams D. E. Hattan R. B. Corotis

2010-01-01

398

THE COMPREHENSIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA RESOURCE (CEDR)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) is a Department of Energy (DOE) public-use repository of data collected for DOE-sponsored epidemiologic, environmental, and related health studies....

399

Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management: An Achievable Goal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This white paper was prepared for 'Challenges and Opportunities: Managing Hazardous Waste in the Pacific Northwest,' a hazardous waste management symposium. It discusses the elements of a comprehensive waste management system and the response of Federal a...

1987-01-01

400

12 CFR 3.209 - Comprehensive risk.  

...to permit rebalancing during periods of stress; and (D) Capture in the comprehensive...trading positions. (c) Requirements for stress testing. (1) A national bank or Federal...least weekly apply specific, supervisory stress scenarios to its portfolio of...

2014-01-01

401

12 CFR 217.209 - Comprehensive risk.  

...to permit rebalancing during periods of stress; and (D) Capture in the comprehensive...trading positions. (c) Requirements for stress testing. (1) A Board-regulated...least weekly apply specific, supervisory stress scenarios to its portfolio of...

2014-01-01

402

12 CFR 324.209 - Comprehensive risk.  

...to permit rebalancing during periods of stress; and (D) Capture in the comprehensive...trading positions. (c) Requirements for stress testing. (1) An FDIC-supervised...least weekly apply specific, supervisory stress scenarios to its portfolio of...

2014-01-01

403

A Comprehensive Plan, Mount Pleasant, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Comprehensive Plan includes an analysis of Mount Pleasant's economic characteristics and the problems that exist. It considers future national trends and how they will effect Mount Pleasant in the years to come. It discusses the city's population in r...

1973-01-01

404

Business Case Analysis of Comprehensive Maritime Awareness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project develops a business case analysis model to evaluate the costs and benefits of utilizing the Comprehensive Maritime Awareness (CMA) system within the DoD. The business case analysis model was developed to conduct a detailed evaluation...

D. H. Ryan J. B. Cornes J. C. Sego

2006-01-01

405

What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?  

MedlinePLUS

... include? A comprehensive eye examination includes: dilation , tonometry , visual field test and visual acuity test . Dilation: Drops are placed ... Elevated pressure is a possible sign of glaucoma. Visual field test: This test measures your side (peripheral) vision. It ...

406

A Multidisciplinary Study of the DPRK Nuclear Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Democratic People Republic of Korea announced two underground nuclear tests carried out in their territory respectively on October 9th, 2006 and May 25th, 2009. The scarce information on the precise location and the size of those explosions has stimulated various kinds of studies, mostly based on seismological observations, by several national agencies concerned with the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification. We analysed the available seismological data collected through a global high-quality network for the two tests. After picking up the arrival times at the various stations, a standard location program has been applied to the observed data. If we use all the available data for each single event, due to the different magnitude and different number of available stations, the locations appear quite different. On the contrary, if we use only the common stations, they happen to be only few km apart from each other and within their respective error ellipses. A more accurate relative location has been carried out by the application of algorithms such as double difference joint hypocenter determination (DDJHD) and waveform alignment. The epicentral distance between the two events obtained by these methods is 2 km, with the 2006 event shifted to the ESE with respect to that of 2009. We then used a dataset of VHR TerraSAR-X satellite images to detect possible surface effects of the underground tests. This is the first ever case where these highly performing SAR data have been used to such aim. We applied InSAR processing technique to fully exploit the capabilities of SAR data to measure very short displacements over large areas. Two interferograms have been computed, one co-event and one post-event, to remove possible residual topographic signals. A clear displacement pattern has been highlighted over a mountainous area within the investigated region, measuring a maximum displacement of about 45 mm overall the relief. Hypothesizing that the 2009 nuclear test had been carried out close to the area where the displacement has been observed through the DInSAR technique, its relation with the epicenter location obtained through seismological processing has been discussed as a possible alternative hypothesis with respect to the preferred solutions reported by the nuclear explosion database (NEDB). The distance of about 10 km between the two places can be considered acceptable in light of the possible systematic location shifts commonly observed in the seismological practice over a global scale. The difference between the m b magnitudes of the two tests could reflect differences in geological conditions of the two test sites, even if the yield of the two explosions had been the same.

Carluccio, R.; Giuntini, A.; Materni, V.; Chiappini, S.; Bignami, C.; D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Pignatelli, A.; Stramondo, S.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.

2014-03-01

407

Upland Farmers' Comprehension of Pictorial Messages on Environmental Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to explore Filipino farmers' comprehension of pictorial messages on environmental protection found that educational attainment, visual exposure, and knowledge of environmental protection positively influenced visual comprehension. Color did not necessarily improve comprehension. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)

Gravoso, R. S.; Stuart, T. H.

2000-01-01

408

Measurements of ambient radioxenon levels using the automated radioxenon sampler\\/analyzer (ARSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an Automated Radioxenon Sampler\\/Analyzer (ARSA) in support of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) to measure four radioxenon isotopes: 131mXe, 133mXe, 133gXe, and 135gXe. This system uses a beta-gamma coincidence counting detector to produce two-dimensional plots of gamma-energy versus beta-energy. Betas and conversion electrons (CE) are detected in a cylindrical plastic scintillation cell and gamma

Justin I. McIntyre; Keith H. Abel; T. W. Bowyer; J. C. Hayes; T. R. Heimbigner; M. E. Panisko; P. L. Reeder; R. C. Thompson

2001-01-01

409

Construction of a Shallow Underground Low-background Detector for a CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The International Monitoring System (IMS) is a verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and in addition to a series of radionuclide monitoring stations, contains sixteen radionuclide laboratories capable of verification of radionuclide station measurements. This paper presents an overview of a new commercially obtained low-background detector system for radionuclide aerosol measurements recently installed in a shallow (>30 meters water equivalent) underground clean-room facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Specifics such as low-background shielding materials, active shielding methods, and improvements in sensitivity to IMS isotopes will be covered.

Forrester, Joel B.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.

2013-05-01

410

Field test of the PNNL Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA)  

SciTech Connect

As part of the requirements of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Automated Radioxenon/Sampler Analyzer (ARSA) was designed and engineered by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The instrument is to provide near real-time detection and measurement of the radioxenons released into the atmosphere after a nuclear test. Forty-six field tests, designed to determine the performance of the ARSA prototype under simulated field conditions, were conducted at EML from March to December 1997. This final report contains detailed results of the tests with recommendations for improvements in instrument performance.

Lagomarsino, R.J.; Ku, E.; Latner, N.; Sanderson, C.G.

1998-07-01

411

Role of Seismic Calibration as a Confidence-Building Measure  

SciTech Connect

Confidence-Building Measures (CBMs) under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) address the political goal of alleviating compliance concerns raised by chemical explosions and the technical goal of calibrating the International Monitoring System (IMS; ref. Article IV, E, and Part 111 of the Protocol to the treaty). The term ''calibration'' only appears in the treaty associated with CBMs and On-Site Inspection and has different meanings in each case. This difference can be illustrated through the use of a simple, conceptual equation:

Casey, L A; Zucca, J JW S; Phillips, W S

2000-07-20

412

Proficiency tests for radionuclide laboratories supporting the network of IMS stations.  

PubMed

A tailored proficiency test programme in high-resolution gamma-spectrometric analysis has been established for the radionuclide laboratories designated to support the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). It entails certified reference samples that contain fission products relevant to the CTBT. The sample geometries and materials correspond to aerosol filter samples from the high-volume samplers of the radionuclide stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and the related calibration sources are matrix and geometry matched to the reference samples. PMID:15177381

Karhu, Paula; Jerome, Simon M

2004-01-01

413

Modeling the (212)Pb activity concentration in the lower atmosphere.  

PubMed

A worldwide radionuclide network of 80 stations, part of the International Monitoring System, is being setup to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The radioactivity sampled at these stations is primarily (220)Rn progenies affecting the detection capability. A model linking the (220)Rn emanation with the sampled (212)Pb activity was developed and is presented here. The model and the performed measurements show that the variation of the sampled (212)Pb activity can be fully explained by the variation of the local (220)Rn activity concentration. PMID:19875214

Werzi, R

2010-02-01

414

Improving the sensitivity of radionuclide particulate monitoring stations.  

PubMed

A worldwide radionuclide network of 80 stations, part of the International Monitoring System, is being setup to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The radioactivity sampled at these stations is primarily (220)Rn progenies. Using the knowledge of the diurnal change of the (220)Rn progeny (212)Pb the sampled activity at the end of the sampling process can be minimised by choosing the right collection start time. It is shown that improvements of several percents in the minimum detectible concentration (MDC) for CTBT relevant nuclides can be achieved. PMID:19910200

Werzi, R

2010-02-01

415

Field test of the PNNL Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the requirements of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Automated Radioxenon/Sampler Analyzer (ARSA) was designed and engineered by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The instrument is to provide near real-time detectio...

R. J. Lagomarsino E. Ku N. Latner C. G. Sanderson

1998-01-01

416

Radionuclide Site Survey Report Ashland, Kansas (RN-74).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to validate that the Ashland, Kansas site will fulfill treaty requirements as set forth by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization. The team performing the site survey followed accepted s...

F. Walker J. Lucas M. Owen E. M. McKethan J. Macartney

1999-01-01

417

Radionuclide Site Survey Report Salchaket (Eielson), Alaska (RN-76).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to validate that the Eielson, Alaska, site will fulfill treaty requirements as set forth by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization. The team performing the site survey followed accepted ...

F. Walker J. Lucas M. Owen E. M. McKethan J. Macartney

1999-01-01

418

Browser prototype for the CTBT knowledge base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) research and development effort, a Knowledge Base is being developed. This Knowledge Base will store the regional geophysical research results as well as geogra...

H. M. Armstrong R. G. Keyser

1997-01-01

419

A language-specific comprehension strategy.  

PubMed

Infants acquire whatever language is spoken in the environment into which they are born. The mental capability of the newborn child is not biased in any way towards the acquisition of one human language rather than another. Because psychologists who attempt to model the process of language comprehension are interested in the structure of the human mind, rather than in the properties of individual languages, strategies which they incorporate in their models are presumed to be universal, not language-specific. In other words, strategies of comprehension are presumed to be characteristic of the human language processing system, rather than, say, the French, English, or Igbo language processing systems. We report here, however, on a comprehension strategy which appears to be used by native speakers of French but not by native speakers of English. PMID:6866110

Cutler, A; Mehler, J; Norris, D; Segui, J

420

Embodiment and language comprehension: reframing the discussion.  

PubMed

The debate on whether language comprehension involves the manipulation of abstract symbols or is grounded in perception and action has reached an impasse, with authors from different theoretical persuasions unable to agree on the diagnostic value of empirical findings. To escape this impasse, I propose a pluralist view of cognition that encompasses abstract and grounded symbols. The contributions of these symbol types to language comprehension vary as a function of the degree to which language use is embedded in the environment. I distinguish five levels of embeddedness: demonstration, instruction, projection, displacement, and abstraction. Only through a closer analysis of context will we make significant progress toward understanding language comprehension and cognition in general. PMID:24630873

Zwaan, Rolf A

2014-05-01

421

Improving Reading Comprehension through the Use of Balanced Literacy and Specific Comprehension Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study described a sequence of steps that led to the increase of reading and listening comprehension. The targeted population consisted of kindergarten and first grade students in a rural community located in the Midwest. The problems of reading comprehension were documented through data collected by standardized test scores. The gain of…

Kern, Laurie; Kiningham, Beth; Vincent, Sheila

422

Does simile comprehension differ from metaphor comprehension? A functional MRI study.  

PubMed

Since Aristotle, people have believed that metaphors and similes express the same type of figurative meaning, despite the fact that they are expressed with different sentence patterns. In contrast, recent psycholinguistic models have suggested that metaphors and similes may promote different comprehension processes. In this study, we investigated the neural substrates involved in the comprehension of metaphor and simile using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate whether simile comprehension differs from metaphor comprehension or not. In the metaphor and simile sentence conditions, higher activation was seen in the left inferior frontal gyrus. This result suggests that the activation in both metaphor and simile conditions indicates similar patterns in the left frontal region. The results also suggest that similes elicit higher levels of activation in the medial frontal region which might be related to inference processes, whereas metaphors elicit more right-sided prefrontal activation which might be related to figurative language comprehension. PMID:22534570

Shibata, Midori; Toyomura, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroki; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Abe, Jun-Ichi

2012-06-01

423

Large mining blasts from the Kursk Mining Region, Russia  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at magnitude levels where industrial explosions (primarily, mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded, and may for some countries dominate the seismicity. Thus, data on blasting practice have both political significance for the negotiation of treaties involving seismic monitoring of nuclear tests, and operational applications in terms of establishing monitoring and inspection needs on a mine-by-mine basis. While it is generally accepted that mining explosions contribute to seismicity at lower seismic magnitudes (less than about magnitude 3.5), the rate of mining seismicity as a function of seismic magnitude is unknown for most countries outside the U.S. This results in a large uncertainty when estimating the task of discriminating nuclear explosions from chemical explosions and earthquakes, by seismic means, under a comprehensive nuclear test ban. This uncertainty directly affects estimates of seismic network enhancements required to achieve treaty verification requirements at magnitudes less than about 3.5. 24 refs., 64 figs., 11 tabs.

Leith, W. Adushkin, V.; Spivak, A.

1997-01-01

424

In Praise of Wiggle Room: Locating Comprehension in Unlikely Places  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension has often been conceptualized in ways that privilege either the "right" understanding of a text (comprehension-as-outcome), or getting to that "right" understanding (comprehension-as-procedure). This article makes a case that we should, instead, teach with an eye toward fostering comprehension-as-sense-making--a socially purposeful…

Aukerman, Maren

2008-01-01

425

Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study.  

PubMed

We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the "Simple View" of reading. PMID:20814768

Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dethorne, Laura S; Justice, Laura M; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A; Petrill, Stephen A

2010-12-01

426

Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study  

PubMed Central

We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the “Simple View” of reading.

Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

2010-01-01

427

Using Peer Tutors to Improve Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction" presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Applying techniques to…

LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

2010-01-01

428

A Comprehensive Primary Health Care Delivery Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This primary health care model is based on four assumptions: emphasis on collective, not individual, needs; coordination of preventive/episodic care with secondary/tertiary care; comprehensive, holistic approach; and partnership and equality among professional disciplines and community members. Stakeholders involved are medical, nursing, and…

Pullen, Carol; And Others

1994-01-01

429

Review of Comprehensive Sex Education Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation was undertaken by the Administration for Children and Families within the Department of Health and Human Services to inform federal policymakers of the content, medical accuracy, and effectiveness of comprehensive sex education (CSE) curricula currently in use. Nine curricula were chosen based on the frequency and strength of…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2007

2007-01-01

430

Comprehension: The Key to Reading Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for using explicit instruction of reading strategies through the implementation of guided reading groups to improve student comprehension. The targeted population consisted of elementary school students in growing, middle class communities, located in northern Illinois. Evidence for the existence of a deficiency of…

Chevalier, Kim; Del Santo, Jolene; Scheiner, Deb; Skok, Elly; Tucci, Leah Rae

431

Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

Connell, Louise

2007-01-01

432

Comprehensible rendering of 3-D shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new rendering technique that produces 3-D images with enhanced visual comprehensibility. Shape features can be readily understood if certain geometric properties are enhanced. To achieve this, we develop drawing algorithms for discontinuities, edges, contour lines, and curved hatching. All of them are realized with 2-D image processing operations instead of line tracking processes, so that they can

Takafumi Saito; Tokiichiro Takahashi

1990-01-01

433

Bilingualism Influences Inhibitory Control in Auditory Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals at suppressing task-irrelevant information. The present study aimed to identify how processing linguistic ambiguity during auditory comprehension may be associated with inhibitory control. Monolinguals and bilinguals listened to words in their native language (English) and identified them among…

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

2011-01-01

434

Comprehension: The Challenge for Children's Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to determine young children's comprehension of selected TV program content. The subjects were 210 children in grades K-2. All subjects in groups of five, were shown segments from four TV programs: a scalloped potatoes comm...

S. R. Storm

1977-01-01

435

Comprehension: The Challenge for Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to determine young children's comprehension of selected TV program content. The subjects were 210 children in grades K-2. All subjects in groups of five, were shown segments from four TV programs: a scalloped potatoes commercial, a "Batman" and Robin episode, a news story on the MIG-25 and a segment of the…

Storm, Susan R.

436

Language Comprehension in Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews experimental techniques that have been used to assess sentence comprehension by preschool children and describes a new technique, word monitoring, which permits an assessment of the momentary demands made upon sentence-processing mechanisms as a child listens to a sentence. (The time it takes the child to push a button in…

Foss, Donald J.

437

A Constructivist Technique Which Improves Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether seventh- and ninth-grade students who did prewriting activities in English class preceding a related literature comprehension test would produce higher raw test scores on literal and interpretive questions than would students who did not use prewriting. The study took place in 1993 and 1995. Participants included…

Raleigh, June

438

Parallel processing and sentence comprehension difficulty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye fixation durations during normal reading correlate with processing difficulty, but the specific cognitive mechanisms reflected in these measures are not well understood. This study finds support in German readers' eye fixations for two distinct difficulty metrics: surprisal, which reflects the change in probabilities across syntactic analyses as new words are integrated; and retrieval, which quantifies comprehension difficulty in terms

Marisa Ferrara Boston; John T. Hale; Shravan Vasishth; Reinhold Kliegl

2011-01-01

439

Sylvia Beach Language Comprehension Conference 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conference was held for internationally-known scholars in the field of language comprehension. It was a small, intense, two-and-a-half day conference in which participants had the opportunity to interact both formally and informally. Each participant ga...

M. A. Gernsbacher

1992-01-01

440

A Comprehensive Enzyme Kinetic Exercise for Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme kinetics strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. Kinetic parameters are obtained for the stable…

Barton, Janice S.

2011-01-01

441

Web-Based CALL to Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated effectiveness of Web-based CALL on listening comprehension. Both students' academic performance and attitudes were examined. T-tests were used to analyze the results of students' academic performance. Descriptive statistics interpreted students' attitudes toward this learning. Students' participation was also recorded.…

Chen, Li-Mei; Zhang, Ruiming

2010-01-01

442

When to Use a Comprehensive Final Examination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of comprehensive final examinations in medical school is addressed. It is argued that such testing should be discouraged when it involves repeating earlier content with new or reused test items. It is seen as valuable when it can be used to challenge the student to integrate earlier concepts in more sophisticated tasks. (JMD)

Markert, Ronald J.

1981-01-01

443

Fluency: Bridge Between Decoding and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A deep, developmental construct and definition of fluency, in which fluency and reading comprehension have a reciprocal relationship, is explicated and contrasted with superficial approaches to that construct. The historical development of fluency is outlined, along with conclusions of the U.S. National Reading Panel, to explore why fluency has…

Pikulski, John J.; Chard, David J.

2005-01-01

444

Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

Brown, Barry N.

2009-01-01

445

City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1913, City of Hope began focusing on cancer research and treatment in the late 1940s. Receiving its NCI designation in 1981 and its designation as a comprehensive cancer center in 1998, City of Hope is today a biomedical research, treatment, and education center.

446

Hierarchical Processing in Spoken Language Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding spoken language requires a complex series of processing stages to translate speech sounds into meaning. In this study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the brain regions that are involved in spoken language comprehension, fraction- ating this system into sound-based and more abstract higher-level processes. We distorted English sentences in three acoustically different ways, applying each distortion

Matthew H. Davis; Ingrid S. Johnsrude

2003-01-01

447

Comprehensive Family Services and Customer Satisfaction Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive Family Services (CFS) is a strengths-based and partnership-oriented approach to casework implemented through multiple initiatives. This study examines the relationship between the practice of CFS and satisfaction of clients, foster parents, and community partners. CFS indicators are paired with statewide customer satisfaction survey…

Huebner, Ruth A.; Jones, Blake L.; Miller, Viola P.; Custer, Melba; Critchfield, Becky

2006-01-01

448

Winning Basketball: A Comprehensive Sports Counseling Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the comprehensive sports counseling program, based on Glasser's reality theory, which was designed and used with the men's basketball team at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia. The program described took a multisensory approach in order to use visual, auditory, and kinesthetic modalities; and employed…

Nelson, Eileen S.

449

A Comprehensive Plan for School Effectiveness. Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document outlines a comprehensive plan developed by the Minnesota State Department of Education for improving school effectiveness throughout the state. The first four sections of the paper present prefatory material, including a general introduction, current comparative statistics on Minnesota schools, need statements (state legislation…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

450

The Comprehensive Guidance Program in Utah.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to public concern, the Utah Comprehensive Guidance Program Model was developed with guidance as a full-fledged education program. Adoption of the model in middle/junior high schools and high schools, and the relationship of training in the model and state funding are discussed in the "Introduction." The situation prior to model…

Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Applied Technology Education Services.

451

Validation and Comprehension: An Integrated Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I review and discuss the work presented in this special issue while focusing on a number of issues that warrant further investigation in validation research. These issues pertain to the nature of the validation processes, the processes and mechanisms that support validation during comprehension, the factors that influence…

Kendeou, Panayiota

2014-01-01

452

Visual Elaboration and Comprehension of Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which pictorial presentation would facilitate the comprehension of text-like passages among two populations of fourth-grade students was investigated. Subjects were 64 students each in high-socioeconomic status (SES) white and low-SES black groups. Simple passages amenable to pictorial presentation were read over a programed tape to…

Matz, Robert D.; Rohwer, William D., Jr.

453

Retell as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K-12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was…

Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon

2012-01-01

454

Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

Zhang, Hong-yan

2011-01-01

455

Emerging Trends: Holistic, Comprehensive Family Support Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of a qualitative study funded by the Annie E. Casey Foundation indicate that a promising path to improving the lives of disadvantaged families is through more holistic, comprehensive approaches to family support. These approaches combine traditional family support activities with the development of human and economic capital. The…

Trask, Bahira Sherif; Taliaferro, Jocelyn D.; Wilder, Margaret; Jabbar-Bey, Raheemah

2005-01-01

456

Parsing Tasks in Reading Comprehension Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychological process of segmenting sentences into meaningful units or "chunks" is believed to be an important aspect of text comprehension processes. The most characteristic type of parsing task elicits perceptions of text structure indirectly by asking individuals to make judgments about pause placement in sentences. In four studies of…

Snow, David

457

Comprehensive Hearing Impaired Reception Program; Spring, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a description and evaluation of the Comprehensive Hearing Impaired Reception Program (CHIRP). This program was designed to improve effective communication skills for hearing handicapped students whose native language was not English, and whose language deficiencies prevented them from effective participation in the learning…

Oxman, Wendy G.

458

The Comprehensive Competencies Program: A Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive Competencies Program (CCP) is intended for use in delivering individualized, competency-based instruction in such diverse settings as community-based organizations, schools, corrections facilities, and job training programs. The learning system covers academic competencies ranging from elementary reading and arithmetic through…

Taggart, Robert

459

Comprehensive polyvalent schooling: options for technological future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive education appeared as a progressive form of school organisation characterised by a common, core curriculum that was to be offered to every student independent of their social origins and economic position. Up till now, we can say that comprehensivisation has worked as a school conception, but it has failed to build a schooling system. That is to say, it

Benjamin zufiaurre

1999-01-01

460

Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

2010-01-01

461

SHIELD: a comprehensive earth-protection architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greatest natural threat to the long-term survivability of mankind is an asteroid or comet impact with the Earth. SHIELD is an architectural concept for a comprehensive Earth defense system designed to discover, catalog, calculate orbits of near-Earth objects, and to deflect potential impactors. SHIELD consists of Sentries, Soldiers, and an Earth Control Center. Sentries are spacecraft designed to search

R. E. Gold

2001-01-01

462

Some Linguistic Factors in Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listening comprehension of foreign languages is receiving increasing emphasis in language instruction. It is important therefore to consider some divergences between spoken and written language, together with their implications for language learning and teaching. This article analyzes some such differences in French. (CHK)

Littlewood, W. T.

1977-01-01

463

Self-Explanation Training Improves Proof Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we report 3 experiments demonstrating that a simple booklet containing self-explanation training, designed to focus students' attention on logical relationships within a mathematical proof, can significantly improve their proof comprehension. Experiment 1 demonstrated that students who received the training generated higher…

Hodds, Mark; Alcock, Lara; Inglis, Matthew

2014-01-01

464

Governmental Accounting: Comprehensive Annual Financial Report Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides student materials for a course project in which students read, analyze, and interpret the information in an actual comprehensive annual financial report (CAFR) of a government entity (a city with a population greater than 40,000), and is based on the actual reviewer's checklist used by the Government Finance Officers…

Moncada, Susan M.

465

Sentence Comprehension and General Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the role of working memory in sentence comprehension has received substantial attention, the nature of this relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction between general, nonverbal working memory (WM) and sentence parsing (SP) in normal English-speaking adults. Accuracy and reaction times were…

Moser, Dana C.; Fridriksson, Julius; Healy, Eric W.

2007-01-01

466

Funding Comprehensive School Reform. Rand Issue Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive school reform is a type of reform process directed at primary and secondary education that relies on the simultaneous change of all elements of a school's operating environment aligned with a central, guiding vision. This new approach was developed in response to the growing dissatisfaction with the traditional piecemeal reform,…

Keltner, Brent R.

467

Instructional Approaches that Significantly Increase Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the most widely used literacy instructional approaches on the reading comprehension of Grade 2-6 students. Participants (N = 660) were enrolled in 4 districts in the United States; 53% were male (n = 348) and 47% were female (n = 312); 51% were Caucasian (n = 338), 23% were African American…

Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Reed, Kelly L.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.; Cleveland, Maggie D.

2009-01-01

468

A Board's Guide to Comprehensive Campaigns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide examines the scope and structure of college and university comprehensive fund-raising campaigns. It focuses on the responsibilities of boards and trustees in planning, overseeing, and actively participating in such campaigns, which are defined as institutional fund-raising initiatives which take place over a predetermined time period,…

Schrum, Jake B., Ed.

2000-01-01

469

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The Ohio State University Cancer Research Center was established in 1973 and received its NCI designation in April 1976 as a comprehensive cancer center (OSUCCC). The patient care arm of the OSUCCC is the Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute.

470

A Comprehensive Staff Approach to Problem Wandering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes specific comprehensive program implemented in intermediate care facility/skilled nursing facility that reduced problematic wandering by patients, increased patient freedom and safety, and increased staff skill and comfort in handling wandering behaviors. Describes program components, problem identification, prevention programs,…

Rader, Joanne

1987-01-01

471

Self and External Monitoring of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared the effectiveness of 2 approaches to remedy the inaccuracy of self-monitoring of reading comprehension. The first approach attempts to enhance self-monitoring by strengthening the cues utilized in monitoring. The second approach replaces self-monitoring with external regulation based on objective evaluative information.…

Shiu, Ling-po; Chen, Qishan

2013-01-01

472

COMPREHENSIVE MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES FOR THE DEAF.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A THREE YEAR PILOT PROJECT DESIGNED TO DEMONSTRATE THE VALUE AND FEASIBILITY OF PROVIDING COMPREHENSIVE MENTAL HEALTH (PSYCHIATRIC) SERVICES FOR THE DEAF ESTABLISHED A CLINICAL UNIT FOR THE DEAF WITH INPATIENT, OUTPATIENT, AND AFTERCARE SERVICES. THE CLINIC SERVED 50 PATIENTS (MINIMUM AGE 16) IN THE WARDS AND 96 PATIENTS (ALL AGES) IN THE…

ALTSHULER, KENNETH Z.; RAINER, JOHN D.

473

Comprehensive and minimalist dimensions of ecotourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of core criteria of ecotourism suggests two “ideal types” based on the level of sustainability outcomes. The minimalist emphasizes superficial learning opportunities focused on charismatic megafauna, while its sustainability objectives are site-specific and status quo-oriented. The comprehensive model adopts a holistic and global approach to attractions and interpretation that fosters environmental enhancement, deep understanding, and transformation of behavior. It

David B. Weaver

2005-01-01

474

Putting Comprehensive Staff Development on Target  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional learning is necessary for a school or district to achieve its goals. It's logical, then, that professional development plans should not exist separately from school improvement plans. To be comprehensive, professional development plans must be integrated with improvement plans to produce a systematic effort that is results-driven,…

Hirsh, Stephanie

2004-01-01

475

Similarity for Ontologies - A Comprehensive Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a comprehensive framework for measuring similarity within and between ontologies as a basis for the collaboration across various application fields. In order to define such a framework, we base our work on an abstract ontology model that allows to adhere to various existing and evolv- ing ontology standards. The main characteristics of the framework is

Marc Ehrig; Peter Haase; Mark Hefke; Nenad Stojanovic

2005-01-01

476

A Comprehensive Tech Prep Curriculum Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Butte College Tech Prep Consortium (TPC), in Oroville, California, is a cooperative effort of secondary and postsecondary schools, local businesses, and community organizations to develop and implement Tech Prep opportunities in the area. The TPC has developed a competency-based, comprehensive tech prep curriculum model that is applicable to…

Newman, Larry

477

A Comprehensible Input Sequence for ESL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of comprehensible input in second language learning is applied to the teaching of English as a Second Language. Techniques for teacher adaptation of materials and classroom presentation are outlined. The first step is assembly of topic-appropriate pictures and the production of simple third-person statements to accompany them. Leisure…

Pino, Barbara Gonzalez

478

Comprehensive Health Plan, 1974. Edition Number Three.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An areawide comprehensive health plan for the 14-county Mid-South Medical Center Council region is presented. The region, whose principle population base is at Memphis, Tennessee, serves 1,057,983 (1970 Census) persons in three States. Goals and prioritie...

1974-01-01

479

Comprehensive Health Plan for Lane County, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive health plan is presented for Lane County, located in western Oregon and bounded by the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Cascade Mountain Range on the east. Almost 70 percent of the population reside in the Eugene - Springfield metropolita...

1973-01-01

480

Comprehensive Cooperative Learning Models for Heterogeneous Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes comprehensive cooperative learning approaches for elementary-school reading, writing, and mathematics. Team-Assisted Individualization (TAI) and Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) are used to implement principles of cooperative learning throughout schools, among teachers and administrators as well as…

Slavin, Robert E.

1989-01-01

481

Comprehension and Production of Adjectives and Seriation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore adjective language development and examine its relationship to seriation, several tasks were given to 40 children aged 4-8. Comprehension and production of adjective forms were measured--vocabulary, coordination, comparison. Ability to order objects by size was used to assess intuitive-level seriation. (CHK)

Ehri, Linnea C.

1976-01-01

482

Evidence for Implicit Learning in Syntactic Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides evidence for implicit learning in syntactic comprehension. By reanalyzing data from a syntactic priming experiment (Thothathiri & Snedeker, 2008), we find that the error signal associated with a syntactic prime influences comprehenders' subsequent syntactic expectations. This follows directly from error-based implicit learning…

Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian

2013-01-01

483

Segmentation in Reading and Film Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When reading a story or watching a film, comprehenders construct a series of representations in order to understand the events depicted. Discourse comprehension theories and a recent theory of perceptual event segmentation both suggest that comprehenders monitor situational features such as characters' goals, to update these representations at…

Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Speer, Nicole K.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.

2009-01-01

484

Measuring Reading Comprehension with the Lexile Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper shows how the concept of general objectivity can be used to improve behavioral science measurement, particularly as it applies to the Lexile Framework, a tool for objectively measuring reading comprehension. It begins with a dialogue between a physicist and a psychometrician that details some of the differences between physical science…

Stenner, A. Jackson

485

Internet Inquiry: Fundamental Competencies for Online Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article showcases the online research and comprehension competencies students will need to successfully engage with Internet Inquiry. The Common Core State Standards, the research on new literacies skills, and the future of technology-based assessments require educators to fully take on the challenges of meaningfully embedding and supporting…

Kingsley, Tara; Tancock, Susan

2014-01-01

486