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1

The Test Ban Challenge: Nuclear Nonproliferation and the Quest for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past sixty years, a number of American presidents have attempted to craft a working comprehensive nuclear test ban. This digital collection from The National Security Archive at The George Washington University brings together a host of documents from the U.S. State Department and other agencies to illustrate how "nonproliferation goals shaped U.S. internal discussions of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) from the 1950s through the late 1970s." There are eleven key documents here, dating back to the 1957 draft background paper which identifies nuclear proliferation as the "fourth country" problem. The "fourth country" concept arose as the next country after the United States, Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom to obtain nuclear devices would be the so-called "fourth country". The collection was edited by William Burr and released in August 2010, and it is one that policy experts and diplomacy types will find very intriguing.

2

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The first nuclear bomb was detonated in 1945, thus ushering in the nuclear age. A few political leaders quickly saw a need\\u000a to limit nuclear weapons through international cooperation and the first proposals to do so were made later in that same year.\\u000a The issue of nuclear testing, however, was not formally addressed until 1958 when the United States, the

Howard J. Patton; Brian J. Mitchell

3

Xenon monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

How do you monitor (verify) a CTBT? It is a difficult challenge to monitor the entire world for nuclear tests, regardless of size. Nuclear tests 'normally' occur underground, above ground or underwater. Setting aside very small tests (let's limit our thinking to 1 kiloton or more), nuclear tests shake the ground, emit large amounts of radioactivity, and make loud noises if in the atmosphere (or hydroacoustic waves if underwater)

Bowyer, Theodore W. [Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2014-05-09

4

Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1,000 squared kilometers. In active mining districts this area could include several different mining operations. So, an OSI could be disruptive both to the mining community and to the US Government which must host the foreign inspection team. Accordingly, it is in the best interest of all US parties to try and eliminate the possible occurrence of false alarms. This can be achieved primarily by reducing the ambiguity of mine-induced seismic signals, so that even if these remain visible to the IMS they are clearly consistent with recognizable mining patterns.

Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

1998-12-09

5

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

Graham, Thomas Jr. [7609 Glenbrook Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

2014-05-09

6

Modeling Noble Gas Transport and Detection for The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detonation gases released by an underground nuclear test include trace amounts of 133Xe and 37Ar. In the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, On Site Inspection Protocol, such gases released from or sampled at the soil surface could be used to indicate the occurrence of an explosion in violation of the treaty. To better estimate the levels of detectability from an underground nuclear test (UNE), we developed mathematical models to evaluate the processes of 133Xe and 37Ar transport in fractured rock. Two models are developed respectively for representing thermal and isothermal transport. When the thermal process becomes minor under the condition of low temperature and low liquid saturation, the subsurface system is described using an isothermal and single-gas-phase transport model and barometric pumping becomes the major driving force to deliver 133Xe and 37Ar to the ground surface. A thermal test is simulated using a nonisothermal and two-phase transport model. In the model, steam production and bubble expansion are the major processes driving noble gas components to ground surface. After the temperature in the chimney drops below boiling, barometric pumping takes over the role as the major transport process.

Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

2014-03-01

7

Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

2014-05-01

8

Detection and analysis of xenon isotopes for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty international monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the xenon isotopes for detection of nuclear explosions is of great interest for monitoring compliance with the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). Recently, the automated radioxenon sampler-analyzer (ARSA) was tested at the Institute for Atmospheric Radioactivity (IAR) in Freiburg, Germany to ascertain its use for the CTBT by comparing its results to laboratory-based analyses, determining its detection sensitivity

Ted W. Bowyer; C. Schlosser; Keith H. Abel; M. Auer; James C. Hayes; Tom R. Heimbigner; Justin I. McIntyre; Mark E. Panisko; Paul L. Reeder; H. Satorius; J. Schulze; W. Weiss

2002-01-01

9

Global radionuclide monitoring in near-real time for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global radionuclide monitoring system is being engineered as part of a multi-technology verification system for the Comprehensive\\u000a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The system detects airborne radioactive aerosols and gases that can indicate nuclear weapons test\\u000a debris. The backbone of the system is a network of 80 remote detection stations that utilize high-volume air sampling and\\u000a high-resolution gamma spectrometry to

L. R. Mason; J. D. Bohner; D. L. Williams

1998-01-01

10

Automated radioxenon monitoring for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty in two distinctive locations: Ottawa and Tahiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preparation for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty, automated radioxenon monitoring is performed in two distinctive environments: Ottawa and Tahiti. These sites are monitored with SPALAX (Système de Prélèvement d'air Automatique en Ligne avec l'Analyse des radioXénons) technology, which automatically extracts radioxenon from the atmosphere and measures the activity concentrations of 131m,133m,133,135Xe. The resulting isotopic concentrations can be useful to

T. J. Stocki; X. Blanchard; R. D'Amours; R. K. Ungar; J. P. Fontaine; M. Sohier; M. Bean; T. Taffary; J. Racine; B. L. Tracy; G. Brachet; M. Jean; D. Meyerhof

2005-01-01

11

The verification system of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty was opened for signature in September 1996. To date, the treaty has been signed by 165 countries and ratified by 93; among the latter, 31 out of the 44 whose ratification is needed for the treaty to enter into force. The treaty calls for the installation and operation of a verification system to ensure compliance. The verification system is composed of the International Monitoring System (IMS), the International Data Centre (IDC), and the On Site Inspection Division (OSI). The IMS is a global network of 321 stations hosted by 90 countries. The primary network is composed of 50 seismic stations, 31 of which are seismic arrays and 19 three-component, broad-band stations, 11 hydroacoustic stations, 60 infrasound arrays, and 80 radionuclide monitoring stations measuring radioactive particulates and noble gases in the atmosphere. The radionuclide network is supported by 16 laboratories. The auxiliary network of 120 seismic stations is interrogated on request by the IDC to improve the accuracy of the locations. The data from the 321 stations and from the laboratories is transmitted to the IDC in Vienna via a dedicated Global Communication Infrastructure (GCI) based on VSAT antennas. The IDC collects and processes the data collected from the four technologies and produces bulletins of events. The raw data and bulletins are distributed to state signatories. Upon entry into force, an on-site inspection may be carried out if it is suspected that a nuclear explosion has taken place. Since mid-1997, when the Provisional Technical Secretariat responsible for the implementation of the verification system began its work in Vienna, over 86% of the sites have been surveyed and the final location of the stations selected. By the end of 2002 this number will reach about 90%, essentially completing this phase. To date, 131 stations have been built or upgraded, and 80 are now sending data to the IDC; 112 others are under construction or under negotiation. Over 392 authorized users from 53 state signatories are now receiving data and products from the IDC. In addition, under the auspices of the signatories of the treaty, several projects are being funded to improve the calibration of seismic stations, the software used routinely at the NDC, and the analysis of radionuclides, among others.

Suarez, Gerardo

2002-11-01

12

Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Warren, N. Jill [Editor

1999-09-21

13

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

Richards, Paul G. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States)

2014-05-09

14

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

Richards, Paul G.

2014-05-01

15

Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

E-print Network

On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

C. E. Aalseth; A. R. Day; D. A. Haas; E. W. Hoppe; B. J. Hyronimus; M. E. Keillor; E. K. Mace; J. L. Orrell; A. Seifert; V. T. Woods

2010-08-04

16

Nuclear weapons test detection: Ensuring a verifiable treaty. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development program 1995 progress report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has an active program to provide technologies for monitoring and verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). DOE technologies will significantly increase the nation`s capability to identify potential nuclear explosions with high confidence and with minimal false alarms. This report presents the highlights of the first year of this program. The primary objectives of the CTBT monitoring system are to deter nuclear explosions in all environments (underground, underwater, or in the atmosphere) and, if such an explosion does occur, to detect, locate, and identify its source. The system is designed to provide credible evidence to national authorities to aid in resolving ambiguities and to serve as the basis for appropriate action. To collect this evidence, one must develop technologies that can detect and identify the signals from a nuclear test against a background of hundreds of thousands of benign events. The monitoring system must have high sensitivity to detect the events of interest and, to minimize false alarms, it must identify those events with a high level of confidence.

NONE

1995-12-31

17

Development of Standard Station Interface for Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organistation Monitoring Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the contract with the CTBTO, Instrumental Software Technologies Inc., (ISTI) has designed and developed a Standard Station Interface (SSI) - a set of executable programs and application programming interface libraries for acquisition, authentication, archiving and telemetry of seismic and infrasound data for stations of the CTBTO nuclear monitoring network. SSI (written in C) is fully supported under both the Solaris and Linux operating systems and will be shipped with fully documented source code. SSI consists of several interconnected modules. The Digitizer Interface Module maintains a near-real-time data flow between multiple digitizers and the SSI. The Disk Buffer Module is responsible for local data archival. The Station Key Management Module is a low-level tool for data authentication and verification of incoming signatures. The Data Transmission Module supports packetized near-real-time data transmission from the primary CTBTO stations to the designated Data Center. The AutoDRM module allows transport of seismic and infrasound signed data via electronic mail (auxiliary station mode). The Command Interface Module is used to pass the remote commands to the digitizers and other modules of SSI. A station operator has access to the state-of-health information and waveforms via an the Operator Interface Module. Modular design of SSI will allow painless extension of the software system within and outside the boundaries of CTBTO station requirements. Currently an alpha version of SSI undergoes extensive tests in the lab and onsite.

Dricker, I. G.; Friberg, P.; Hellman, S.

2001-12-01

18

Seismic methods for verifying nuclear test bans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismological research of the past 25 years related to verification of a Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TIBT) indicates that a treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in all environments, including underground explosions, can be monitored with high reliablility down to explosions of very small size (about one kiloton). There would be high probability of successful identification of explosions of that size even if elaborate measures were taken to evade detection. Seismology provides the principal means of detecting, locating and identifying underground explosions and of determining their yields. We discuss a number of methods for identifying detected seismic events as being either explosions or earthquakes including the event's location, depth and spectral character. The seismic waves generated by these two types of sources differ in a number of fundamental ways that can be utilized for identification or discrimination. All of the long-standing issues related to a comprehensive treaty were resolved in principle (and in may cases in detail) in negotiations between the U.S., the U.S.S.R. and Britian from 1977 to 1980. Those negotiations have not resumed since 1980. Inadequate seismic means of verifying a CTBT, Soviet cheating on the 150-kt limit of the Treshold Test Ban Treaty of 1976, and the need to develop and test new nuclear weapons were cited in 1982 by the U.S. government as reasons for not continuing negotiations for a CTBT. The first two reservations, which depend heavily on seismological information, are not supported scientifically. A CTBT could help to put a lid on the seemingly endless testing of new generations of nuclear weapons by both superpowers.

Sykes, Lynn R.; Evernden, Jack F.; Cifuentes, Inés

1983-10-01

19

American National Security and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acting Under Secretary of Arms Control and International Security Rose Gottemoeller will discuss the importance of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and how, upon its entry into force, it will contribute to American national security, as well as international security. She will outline the technological changes over the past decade, both with verification improvements and nuclear stockpile management. Acting Under Secretary Gottemoeller will also highlight the potential for 21st century technology to strengthen the CTBT, including discussion of how technological innovation can modernize verification and monitoring of nuclear testing worldwide.

Gottemoeller, R.

2013-12-01

20

Radioxenons: Their role in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring for xenon radionuclides which are produced in a nuclear detonation can provide a strong deterrent to the violation of a Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). There are 18 known radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear fission with half-lives ranging from less than one second to 11.9 days. However, only four of these remain in significant amounts more than a day after a detonation. In order for radioxenon monitoring to be practical, it was necessary to develop an automated measurement system which could operate unattended for periods of months, measure the entire spectrum of radioxenons, and provide hundreds of times better sensitivities than current laboratory procedures. This capability was developed at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory based on rapid separation of atmospheric xenon coupled with a unique high sensitivity measurement device for the radioxenons. A fieldable prototype analyzer is scheduled for testing in August 1996 with commercial availability planned by 1998.

Perkins, R.W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Casey, L.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-06-01

21

Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Nichols, James W., LTC [Editor

2000-09-15

22

Nuclear Test Ban: Converting Political Visions to Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negotiations to ban or at least restrict nuclear explosions began not long after the first test was conducted, in the Alamogordo desert of New Mexico on 16 July 1945. In August of that same year, the world witnessed the devastation of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the horrifically destructive power that these weapons are capable of unleashing. Almost 50 years later, the long and tortuous road to negotiating a treaty that comprehensively bans nuclear explosions, whether for alleged peaceful purposes or for weapons development, culminated on 24 September 1996 when the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature. In a surge of enthusiasm, that first day the treaty was signed by more than 70 nations, including the five acknowledged nuclear powers. Addressing the United Nations General Assembly, U.S. President Bill Clinton described the CTBT as “the longest-sought, hardest-fought prize in the history of arms control.”

Suárez, Gerardo

2010-05-01

23

Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent

S Russell; S Vaidya

2009-01-01

24

Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future  

SciTech Connect

This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

Sweeney, J.

1999-04-01

25

A seismic event analyzer for nuclear test ban treaty verification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an expert system that interprets seismic data from Norway's regional seismic array, NORESS, for underground nuclear weapons test ban treaty verification. Three important aspects of the expert system are (1) it emulates the problem solving behavior of the human seismic analyst using an Assumption Based Truth Maintenance System, (2) it acts as an assistant to the human analyst by automatically interpreting and presenting events for review, and (3) it enables the analyst to interactively query the system's chain of reasoning and manually perform and interpretation. The general problem of seismic treaty verification is described. The expert system is presented in terms of knowledge representation structures, assumption based reasoning system, user interface elements, and initial performance results. 8 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Mason, C.L.; Johnson, R.R. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Searfus, R.M.; Lager, D.; Canales, T. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1988-01-01

26

Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

Russell, S; Vaidya, S

2009-07-30

27

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development FY95-96 program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the United States Government`s (USG) research and development (R&D) functions for monitoring nuclear explosions in the context of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This responsibility includes the November 1993 transfer of the Department of Defense`s (DoD) CTBT R&D responsibility to DOE. The DOE research program builds on the broad base of USG expertise developed historically and includes R&D for detecting, locating, identifying, and characterizing nuclear explosions in all environments. The Office of Research and Development (NN-20), within the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, formulates and executes the efforts necessary to meet the Department`s responsibilities. The following DOE laboratories as a team will support NN-20 in implementing the program plan: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. DOE has committed to a cooperative program that draws upon the core competencies of the national laboratories and upon the strengths of other government agencies and the private sector (academia and industry). The integration of resources under a common direction will allow the program to be flexible and responsive to changing technical and policy requirements while maximizing the effectiveness of funding appropriations. DOE will develop and demonstrate appropriate technologies, algorithms, procedures, and integrated systems in a cost-effective and timely manner. The program comprises seismic, radionuclide, hydroacoustic, and infrasound monitoring; on-site inspection; space-based monitoring; and automated data processing elements.

None

1994-11-01

28

Data fusion as an example of a powerful constraint on the reconstruction of atmospheric sources of radionuclides for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the scientific issues falling within the horizon of interest of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is the reconstruction of accidental sources of radionuclides. The issue arises if a scenario of measurements is detected in the International Monitoring System (IMS) network. Source reconstruction problem for a dispersion of radionuclides faces both physical and mathematical limitations. Due to the presence of turbulent processes in the atmosphere, detections convey a limited amount of information on the location of such a source. From a numerical point of view, source reconstruction is performed up to a grid-box of the mesh covering a computational domain and, consequently, the number of grid-boxes determines the dimension of the source. Given its considerable size and, at the same time, a limited number of observations constituting a measurement scenario, the problem of source reconstruction is severely under-constrained. Nevertheless, it is both physics and mathematics which help to circumvent some of the difficulties. In the context of verification of the CTBT, atmospheric transport modelling (ATM) is supported by detections made within complementary monitoring networks, namely seismic, infrasound and hydroacoustic. The resulting events are listed in the form of bulletins and their spatio-temporal location is specified therein. The accuracy of their locations can be taken advantage of and employ in order to lower the demand on the radionuclide source reconstruction via fusion of relevant information with possible source regions determined by ATM. In the first step, possible source regions can be overlapped with the waveform events in order to differentiate between those which could have and could not have been at origin of the measurement scenario. Secondly, the waveform events can then be used to restrict possible source regions so that source reconstruction could be limited to those grid-boxes which overlap with the waveform events. Further constraints can be provided by mathematical techniques of regularization of an inverse problem which allow including additional information consistent with a point release. In this presentation we propose to report on the recent advancement at the CTBTO on the way towards taking full advantage of the opportunity offered by data fusion. To this end the scenario of the most recent National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise 2009 shall be discussed.

Krysta, Monika; Becker, Andreas

2010-05-01

29

A Discussion of Procedures and Equipment for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection Environmental Sampling and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is intended to serve as a scientific basis to start discussions of the available environmental sampling techniques and equipment that have been used in the past that could be considered for use within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspections (OSI). This work contains information on the techniques, equipment, costs, and some operational procedures associated with environmental sampling that have actually been used in the past by the United States for the detection of nuclear explosions. This paper also includes a discussion of issues, recommendations, and questions needing further study within the context of the sampling and analysis of aquatic materials, atmospheric gases, atmospheric particulates, vegetation, sediments and soils, fauna, and drill-back materials.

Wogman, Ned A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Onishi, Yasuo; Hayes, James C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2011-02-01

30

Barometric gas transport along geologic faults and its application to nuclear test-ban monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear explosions produce unique but rapidly decaying radionuclide gases that potentially can be used in the context of a test-ban monitoring program to identify clandestine underground testing activity. To evaluate the upward transport of such gases from an underground explosion, two, non-radioactive gas tracers, spanning a 49-fold difference in species mass, were released in a 400-m-deep, chemical explosive detonation. The more massive tracer was first detected on a fault 50 days following the detonation while the other tracer was detected 375 days after release. Models indicate that both the time scale of arrival and chromatographic behavior of transport are characteristic of barometrically induced flow in a fracture- matrix regime. For a 1-kiloton fission explosion, simulations predict that short-lived isotopes of argon and xenon would be detectable on nearby geologic faults.

Carrigan, C.R.; Heinle, R.A.; Hudson, G.B.; Nitao, J.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

31

Seismic surveillance: Nuclear test ban verification. Technical report, 1 Jan-31 Dec 90  

SciTech Connect

The project is aimed at seismic surveillance as part of on-going efforts for improving nuclear test ban verification capabilities. The problem is complex in the sense that underground explosions are most efficiently monitored by seismic means, but that the distinction between signals emitted by natural earthquakes and explosions remains unclear, at least at local and regional distances. In other words, seismic wave propagation in a heterogeneous Earth may easily mask specific source signatures. Section 2 presents a new scheme for seismic signal detection on the basis of three-component (3C) seismograph recording systems. A dual test statistics are introduced, namely a conventional STA/LTA on a stand alone basis or a combination of STA/LTA and a P-signal polarity measure. In the latter case a relatively low STA/LTA threshold can be used. An added advantage with the polarity estimate is that a corresponding slowness vector estimate is obtained. The detector is operated in three steps; (1) run detector on a suit of bandpass filtered records, (2) compress raw detection log while retaining parameters from the best filter, and (3) group detected and identified phases into event families and estimate epicenter parameters.

Husebye, E.S.; Ruud, B.O.

1991-02-27

32

Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic,

F. Chiappetta; F. Heuze; W. Walter; R. Hopler; V. Hsu; B. Martin; C. Pearson; B. Stump; K. Zipf

1998-01-01

33

Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter  

SciTech Connect

This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

Casey, Leslie A.

1994-01-01

34

Challenges for mining explosion identification under a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: Quantification of the problem and discussion of synergetic solutions  

SciTech Connect

Seismic networks provide the primary technology for monitoring compliance with a comprehensive test ban treaty. The design goal of the network is the identification of possibly clandestine explosions detonated below the earth`s surface and possible in the oceans. Complementary technologies such as infrasonic, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring supplement the seismic monitoring covering explosions in the atmosphere and oceans. This paper will focus on the problems or ambiguities that can arise in the identification process for chemical explosions. Key questions addressed include: How many mining explosions produce seismograms at regional distances that will have to be detected, located and ultimately identified by the National Data Center? What are the waveform characteristics of these particular mining explosions? Can discrimination techniques based on empirical studies be placed on a firm physical basis so that they can be applied to other regions where we have little monitoring experience? With this information, can evasion capabilities be assessed in a region? Can large scale chemical explosions be used to calibrate source and propagation path effects to regional stations? Can source depth of burial and decoupling effects be studied in such a controlled environment?

Stump, B.W.

1994-11-01

35

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions from seismic surface waves: Compliance with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty  

PubMed Central

Magnitudes of the larger Soviet underground nuclear weapons tests from the start of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1976 through 1982 are determined for short- and long-period seismic waves. Yields are calculated from the surface wave magnitude for those explosions at the eastern Kazakh test site that triggered a small-to-negligible component of tectonic stress and are used to calibrate body wave magnitude-yield relationship that can be used to determine the sizes of other explosions at that test site. The results confirm that a large bias, related to differential attenuation of P waves, exists between Nevada and Central Asia. The yields of the seven largest Soviet explosions are nearly identical and are close to 150 kilotons, the limit set by the Threshold Treaty. PMID:16593440

Sykes, Lynn R.; Cifuentes, Inés L.

1984-01-01

36

Doctors and the test ban: 25 years on.  

PubMed

Events leading up to the signing of the partial test ban treaty in 1963 are traced from the first public concern about nuclear testing in 1954 when a hydrogen bomb was detonated in the Pacific, through Albert Schweitzer's 1957 appeal for a ban on nuclear tests; agreements between the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom to start formal negotiations; growth in medical and scientific concern in the early 1960s; to the impetus provided by the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962. Arguments for and against a comprehensive test ban treaty are discussed. Current activity by doctors and health professionals grows out of the successful campaign waged by doctors and scientists against atmospheric testing and is held to constitute a uniquely important exercise in primary prevention. PMID:3408986

Haines, A; Hartog, M

1988-08-01

37

Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.

1996-01-01

38

Nuclear Arms Control Treaties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section contains summaries of all the major arms-control treaties including: Limited Test Ban Treaty, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I (Interim Agreement), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Threshold Test Ban Treaty, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty - INF, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty.

Christopher Griffith

39

Computation and Analysis of the Global Distribution of the Radioxenon Isotope 133Xe based on Emissions from Nuclear Power Plants and Radioisotope Production Facilities and its Relevance for the Verification of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of radioactive noble gases, in particular xenon isotopes, is a crucial element of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The capability of the noble gas network, which is currently under construction, to detect signals from a nuclear explosion critically depends on the background created by other sources. Therefore, the global distribution of these isotopes based on emissions and transport patterns needs to be understood. A significant xenon background exists in the reactor regions of North America, Europe and Asia. An emission inventory of the four relevant xenon isotopes has recently been created, which specifies source terms for each power plant. As the major emitters of xenon isotopes worldwide, a few medical radioisotope production facilities have been recently identified, in particular the facilities in Chalk River (Canada), Fleurus (Belgium), Pelindaba (South Africa) and Petten (Netherlands). Emissions from these sites are expected to exceed those of the other sources by orders of magnitude. In this study, emphasis is put on 133Xe, which is the most prevalent xenon isotope. First, based on the emissions known, the resulting 133Xe concentration levels at all noble gas stations of the final CTBT verification network were calculated and found to be consistent with observations. Second, it turned out that emissions from the radioisotope facilities can explain a number of observed peaks, meaning that atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool for the categorization of measurements. Third, it became evident that Nuclear Power Plant emissions are more difficult to treat in the models, since their temporal variation is high and not generally reported. Fourth, there are indications that the assumed annual emissions may be underestimated by factors of two to ten, while the general emission patterns seem to be well understood. Finally, it became evident that 133Xe sources mainly influence the sensitivity of the monitoring system in the mid-latitudes, where the network coverage is particularly good.

Wotawa, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Kalinowski, Martin; Saey, Paul; Tuma, Matthias; Zähringer, Matthias

2010-05-01

40

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive  

E-print Network

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty David Bowers and Neil D. Selby discrimination methods, underground explosion source, earthquake source Abstract One application of forensic facing the forensic seismologist is to discriminate between the many thousands of earthquakes

Jellinek, Mark

41

Aftershocks and on-site inspections under a test ban: A progress report  

SciTech Connect

An ambiguous seismic event detected remotely under a comprehensive test ban (CTB) may require an on-site inspection to determine the nature of the event. Provided they are present, aftershocks and microseismic events could play a key role in narrowing the inspection area and focusing the efforts of the inspectors. Of particular interest are the low-frequency, emergent aftershocks that have been observed after underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. If these events can be shown to have unique characteristics, their detection could greatly increase the chances for a successful inspection. The authors have been characterizing aftershock swarms from underground explosive events and from other events that may be encountered during an inspection. This report summarizes an analysis of aftershocks following an underground explosion and microseismic events associated with routine operations at the block-caving Henderson Mine in Colorado. They used as their example of a smaller, single-point explosion the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a one-kiloton, chemical, overburied, single-point explosion whose aftershock sequence is similar to an underground nuclear explosion. They were interested in studying the Henderson mine because the caving operation is an apparent analog to the chimney formation following an nuclear event and could give rise to similar microseismic events. Mine operations at Henderson result in both low-frequency emergent events and high-frequency impulsive events. The emergent events (hundreds per day) are apparently associated with rockfalls into the crater produced by the caving operations and have many similar characteristics to the low-frequency events from the NPE; however, the low-frequency NPE aftershocks are relatively much more impulsive than those of the Henderson Mine. Unlike the NPE or nuclear events, location of Henderson low-frequency events is extremely difficult using arrival-time methods because of their very gradual onset.

Smith, A.T.; Schultz, C.; Zucca, J.J.

1995-09-01

42

Authentication of data for monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

The important issue of data integrity in the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS) is discussed and a brief tutorial on data authentication techniques is offered. The utilization of data authentication as a solution to the data integrity problem is evaluated. Public key data authentication is recommended for multilateral monitoring regimes such as the CTBT. The ramifications and system considerations of applying data authentication at various locations in the IMS, or not at all, are reviewed in a data surety context. The paper concludes with a recommendation of authenticating data at all critical monitoring stations.

Craft, R.L.; Draelos, T.J.

1996-05-01

43

Data visualization for comprehensive test ban treaty monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Data Visualization Project at Sandia Labs is to prototype and evaluate new approaches to the presentation of data for CTBT monitoring applications. The great amount of data expected to be available, and the complex interrelationships in that data, make this a promising area for scientific data visualization techniques. We are developing a powerful and flexible prototyping environment with which to explore these possibilities. A user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) should be an integral part of any data visualization tools developed. The GUI is necessary to select which data to visualize, and to modify and explore the displays that are the result of data visualization. Using our prototyping environment, we have produced data visualization displays of various kinds of data and have also experimented with different GUIs for controlling the visualization process. We present here an overview of that work, including promising results, lessons learned, and work in progress. To better understand what is needed, we have identified several data processing/analysis scenarios which we think will be important in CTBT monitoring. These scenarios help us identify what types of information we should display (together or in sequence), and help us focus on isolating the underlying goals. Each display we have produced is put in the context of one or more processing scenarios to help explain why and how it could be useful.

Simons, R.W.; Young, C.J.; Edwards, T.L.

1996-08-01

44

Lessons learned from the first US\\/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A U.S.\\/Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of

C Filarowski; S Kreek; A Smith; J Sweeney; J Wild; R Gough; P Rockett; G MacLeod; W Hawkins; K Wohletz; S Knowles

1999-01-01

45

Gamma-Ray Bursts Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963  

E-print Network

min or 1/5 the moon's diameter #12;GRB 970228 William Hershel Telescope Isaac Newton Telescope Groot 1963 Velar ­ to watch The Vela 5 satellites were placed in orbit by the Advanced Research Projects of the DoD and the AEC. Launched on May 23, 1969 into high earth orbit (118,000 km), this pair of satellites

Harrison, Thomas

46

Politics of motherhood: the case of Women Strike for Peace and the test ban treaty  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation is a narrative history and organizational study of the formative years of Women Strike for Peace (1961-1963) and its campaign for a nuclear test ban treaty. WSP, a grass roots, participatory movement of American Women, was born on November 1, 1961 when an estimated 50,000 women in 60 communities across the nation walked out of their kitchens and off their jobs in a one day protest against Russian and American nuclear policies. In the process of transforming this one day strike into a national woman's movement, WSP developed a feminine political style characterized by an anti-heirarchical, anti-organizational format, simple, womanly rhetoric, and spontaneous, innovative national and international direct action. At a time when foreign policy dissenters were dismissed by the press and the public either as commies or kooks, the image that WSP projected to respectable middle-class, middle-aged peace mothers wearing white gloves and flowered hats while picketing the White House to save their children from nuclear holocaust caught the favorable attention of large sections of the media, the public, and even the President. Through an investigation of the program, internal debates, rhetoric, organizational structure, and tactics of WSP, along with the backgrounds of its leaders and members, this study uncovers the political and gender consciousness of the women who joined the movement.

Swerdlow, A.G.

1984-01-01

47

Characterizing noise in the global nuclear weapon monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the auspices of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, a worldwide monitoring system designed to detect the illegal testing of nuclear weaponry has been under construction since 1999. The International Monitoring System is composed of a range of sensors, including detectors for hydroacoustic and seismic signals, and when completed, will include 60 infrasound measurement arrays set to detect low-frequency sound waves produced by an atmospheric nuclear detonation.

Schultz, Colin

2013-03-01

48

78 FR 57653 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey [GX13LR000F60100] Agency Information...Ban Treaty (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION...Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley...

2013-09-19

49

78 FR 25298 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey [USGS-GX13LR000F60100] Agency...Ban Treaty (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION...Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Geological Survey, 807 National Center,...

2013-04-30

50

Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

2013-05-01

51

Comprehensive signal validation for nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Signal validation is the detection, isolation and characterization of faulty signals. A signal validation technique utilizing a process hypercube comparison (PHC) was originated during the research and other methods were extended. The hypercube is merely a multi-dimensional joint histogram of the process conditions. The hypercube is created off-line during a learning phase. In the event that a newly observed plant state does not match with those in the learned hypercube, the PHC algorithm performs signal validation by progressively hypothesizing that one or more signals is in error. This assumption is then either substantiated or denied. In the case where many signals are found to be in error, a conclusion that the process conditions are abnormal is reached. A comprehensive signal validation software system has been developed for application to nuclear power plants. This system combines some previously established fault detection methodologies as well as some newly developed ones. The techniques have been implemented in a modular architecture which allows the addition or removal of signal validation modules as deemed necessary. Intra-module confidence factors describing the validity of a given signal are derived using fuzzy membership functions. A final evaluation of signal status is made by the System Executive (SE) based on results from each signal validation module. In order to make reliable decisions in this parallel system a positive decision maker (PDM) was developed.

Holbert, K.E.

1989-01-01

52

Rapid Deployment Drilling System for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban Preliminary Engineering Design  

SciTech Connect

While not a new drilling technology, coiled-tubing (CT) drilling continues to undergo rapid development and expansion, with new equipment, tools and procedures developed almost daily. This project was undertaken to: analyze available technological options for a Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) CT drilling system: recommend specific technologies that best match the requirements for the RDDS; and highlight any areas where adequate technological solutions are not currently available. Postshot drilling is a well established technique at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Drilling provides essential data on the results of underground tests including obtaining samples for the shot zone, information on cavity size, chimney dimensions, effects of the event on surrounding material, and distribution of radioactivity.

Maurer, W.C.; Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Cohen, J.H. [Maurer Engineering, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Heuze, F.E.; Butler, M.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-09-01

53

Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations  

SciTech Connect

The essence of this paper is to enlighten the consistency achieved nowadays in nuclear data and uncertainties assessments in terms of compound nucleus reaction theory from neutron separation energy to continuum. Making the continuity of theories used in resolved (R-matrix theory), unresolved resonance (average R-matrix theory) and continuum (optical model) rangcs by the generalization of the so-called SPRT method, consistent average parameters are extracted from observed measurements and associated covariances are therefore calculated over the whole energy range. This paper recalls, in particular, recent advances on fission cross section calculations and is willing to suggest some hints for future developments.

Bouland, O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hale, G M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lynn, J E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bernard, D [FRANCE; Litaize, O [FRANCE; Noguere, G [FRANCE; De Saint Jean, C [FRANCE; Serot, O [FRANCE

2010-01-01

54

A comprehensive view of nuclear receptor cancer cistromes.  

PubMed

Nuclear receptors comprise a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that play important roles in both physiology and diseases including cancer. The technologies of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by array hybridization (ChIP-chip) or massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) has been used to map, at an unprecedented rate, the in vivo genome-wide binding (cistrome) of nuclear receptors in both normal and cancer cells. We developed a curated database of 88 nuclear receptor cistrome data sets and other associated high-throughput data sets including 121 collaborating factor cistromes, 94 epigenomes, and 319 transcriptomes. Through integrative analysis of the curated nuclear receptor ChIP-chip/seq data sets, we discovered novel factor-specific noncanonical motifs that may have important regulatory roles. We also revealed a common feature of nuclear receptor pioneering factors to recognize relatively short and AT-rich motifs. Most nuclear receptors bind predominantly to introns and distal intergenetic regions, and binding sites closer to transcription start sites were found to be neither stronger nor more evolutionarily conserved. Interestingly, while most nuclear receptors appear to be predominantly transcriptional activators, our analysis suggests that the binding of ESR1, RARA, and RARG has both activating and repressive effects. Through meta-analysis of different omic data of the same cancer cell line model from multiple studies, we generated consensus cistrome and expression profiles. We further made probabilistic predictions of the nuclear receptor target genes by integrating cistrome and transcriptome data and validated the predictions using expression data from tumor samples. The final database, with comprehensive cistrome, epigenome, and transcriptome data sets and downstream analysis results, constitutes a valuable resource for the nuclear receptor and cancer community. PMID:21940749

Tang, Qianzi; Chen, Yiwen; Meyer, Clifford; Geistlinger, Tim; Lupien, Mathieu; Wang, Qian; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yong; Brown, Myles; Liu, Xiaole Shirley

2011-11-15

55

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure  

SciTech Connect

Abstract. With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, NNSA management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by the U.S. DOE MPC&A Regulatory Development Project RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and schedule the development of documents; 5) Identify and develop processes to measure effectiveness of regulations. Utilizing this process is resulting in an effective regulatory process that is understood and is being adopted by the four RF organizations. It is anticipated that the current regulatory development process will continue after U.S. support ends. Utilization of the systematic methodology will ensure regulatory development is based on required MPC&A structural elements and will support the continued maintenance and development of an effective regulatory base.

O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Tuttle, John D.; Hazel, Michael J.; Schlegel, Steven C.; Miller, Daniel R.

2009-03-30

56

Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap  

SciTech Connect

This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

Casey, Leslie A.

2014-01-13

57

Impact of contributions of Glenn T. Seaborg on nuclear science  

SciTech Connect

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-199) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten U.S. presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights the profound impact of his contributions on nuclear science, both in the U.S. and in the international community.

Hoffman, Darleane C.

2000-12-26

58

Nuclear Energy and the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

59

Soviet nuclear testing: The Republics say no  

SciTech Connect

Massive protests are taking place in Russia against nuclear weapons testing. Efforts have been mounted to stop all testing at Kazakhstan test site near the town of Semipalatinsk, site of the first nuclear detonation in 1949 and of more than 500 test conducted since. Boris Yeltsin proposed just after his election as president of the federation the elimination of testing grounds for nuclear and biological weapons on Russian territory. The central government in Moscow has announced that it is considering closing the Semipalatinsk site. Reaction has also been strong to testing at the Arctic island of Novaya Zemlya, and severe constraints, such as Arctic cold, frozen rocks, high winds, difficult access, and protests by Greenpeace activists and USSR's Nordic neighbors do not make this site attractive. The author feels that this movement in the USSR has set in motion a politically dynamic situation that makes for the best chance for a comprehensive test ban treaty yet witnessed.

Carter, L.J.

1990-11-16

60

Criteria for a comprehensive strategy for nuclear arms control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This generation has the responsibility and the moral challenge of reducing and eliminating nuclear weapons for future generations, although only American leadership and commitment can control the nuclear arsenals. American presidents since Truman have struggled with the wise use of strength, but President Reagon waited 16 months to make a reduction proposal and weakened the climate for agreements in the

Mondale

2009-01-01

61

SCALE 6: Comprehensive Nuclear Safety Analysis Code System  

SciTech Connect

Version 6 of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in February 2009, contains significant new capabilities and data for nuclear safety analysis and marks an important update for this software package, which is used worldwide. This paper highlights the capabilities of the SCALE system, including continuous-energy flux calculations for processing multigroup problem-dependent cross sections, ENDF/B-VII continuous-energy and multigroup nuclear cross-section data, continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations, Monte Carlo radiation shielding analyses with automated three-dimensional variance reduction techniques, one- and three-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for criticality safety evaluations, two- and three-dimensional lattice physics depletion analyses, fast and accurate source terms and decay heat calculations, automated burnup credit analyses with loading curve search, and integrated three-dimensional criticality accident alarm system analyses using coupled Monte Carlo criticality and shielding calculations.

Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL

2011-01-01

62

Discrimination of nuclear explosions against civilian sources based on atmospheric xenon isotopic activity ratios  

SciTech Connect

A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will be used to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of nuclear explosions, empirical data for both test and reactor releases as well as observations by measurement stations of the International Noble Gas Experiment (INGE) are used to provide a proof of concept for the isotopic ratio based method for source discrimination.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Axelssson, A.; Bean, Marc; Blanchard, X.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Brachet, G.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Peters, Jana; Pistner, Christoph; Raith, Maria; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, P. R.; Schlosser, C.; Stocki, Trevor J.; Taffary, T.; Ungar, R. Kurt

2010-05-01

63

Szilard Prize Lecture: Seismic Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic monitoring of the more than 2000 nuclear test explosions since 1945 has been vigorously pursued, both to track the weapons development of potential adversaries, and to support initiatives in nuclear arms control, including various test ban treaties. Major funding from the US Department of Defense built up new global seismographic networks and over several decades established practical capability in monitoring nuclear explosions ``teleseismically'' (i.e. from distances more than about 1500 km), for tests that the testing nation did not attempt to conceal. What then is the capability to monitor compliance with, for example, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) of 1996, particularly if evasion scenarios are considered? Note that the CTBT, though not ratified by some countries (including the US), is now being monitored by networks that include seismographic stations at ``regional'' distances (< 1500 km) from candidate explosion locations. Years of R and D have shown that regional signals can be used to monitor down to yields significantly lower than can be detected and identified teleseismically. A US National Academy of Sciences study in 2002 concluded that ``an underground nuclear explosion cannot be confidently hidden if its yield is larger than 1 or 2 kt.'' About 1000 earthquakes and chemical explosions are now detected per day, and documented via seismic data, providing plenty of challenges for nuclear explosion monitoring organizations. Explosion monitoring capability will improve in many parts of the world, due to the growth of networks that monitor even small earthquakes to study seismic hazard. But political problems can impede improved international explosion monitoring, due to national restrictions on data access.

Richards, Paul

2006-04-01

64

Ionospheric detection of the 25 May 2009 North Korean underground nuclear test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total electron content (TEC) measurements of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) revealed traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) that locate North Korea's underground nuclear explosion (UNE) of 25 May 2009 to within about 3.5 km of its seismically determined epicenter. The random chance for this pattern of TIDs to register across the eleven GNSS stations is roughly 1 in 19 billion. Monte Carlo analysis of nearly 1,300 TIDs from a 7-station subset of the 11 GNSS stations supports the statistical strength of the array's signature. The UNE was also detected by seismic stations and possibly a local infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), but no radionuclide evidence was found. Thus, global GNSS infrastructure enables mapping spatial and temporal variations of TEC that augment and complement other methods of detecting and locating clandestine UNEs.

Park, Jihye; von Frese, Ralph R. B.; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; Morton, Yu; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.

2011-11-01

65

Nuclear Tests in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News discusses the recent nuclear tests in India and the world's reaction to those tests. The ten resources discussed offer analysis, commentary, and background information from a variety of perspectives. On May 11, 1998, India confirmed what the world already knew by conducting three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran Mountain Range in the Rajasthan Province. On May 13 two more sub-kiloton devices were exploded and the government announced that the planned series of tests was complete. Although India has indicated it may now be ready to sign on to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), reaction from the world community has been extremely negative. In the vanguard of this chorus of dissaproval has been the US, which announced over $20 billion in economic sanctions against India on May 13. The strongest critic of the tests, however, has been India's neighbor and rival Pakistan, which has fought three wars with India since 1947. Domestic pressure on Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to respond has been enormous and many commentators believe a Pakistani nuclear test is imminent. In India, however, the BJP-dominated government has been widely lauded. Many Indians have expressed pride and dismiss foreign criticism as a hypocritical holdover of colonial mentalities. While US sanctions are unlikely to have any large-scale effect on India, the end results of these tests on Indo-Pakistani relations and their ongoing missile race is yet to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

66

Spent nuclear fuel management: A comprehensive database for the DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Program  

SciTech Connect

An Integrated Spent Nuclear Fuel Database System (ISNFDS) has been designed by EG&G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to maintain an inventory of all US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The purpose of the ISNFDS is to provide a centralized source of SNF information containing accurate and consistent data. A description of the quality control methodology, tools, and techniques for the data collection, entry, and verification process as they apply to the ISNFDS are outlined.

Hale, D.L.

1994-12-31

67

Application of Dipole-dipole, Induced Polarization, and CSAMT Electrical Methods to Detect Evidence of an Underground Nuclear Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is little experience with application of electrical methods that can be applied during the continuation period of an on-site inspection (OSI), one of the verification methods of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In order add to such experience, we conducted controlled source audiomagnetotelluric (CSAMT), dipole-dipole resistivity, and induced polarization electrical measurements along three survey lines over and near to ground zero of an historic nuclear explosion. The presentation will provide details and results of the surveys, an assessment of application of the method toward the purposes of an OSI, and an assessment of the manpower and time requirements for data collection and processing that will impact OSI inspection team operations. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Sweeney, J. J.; Felske, D.

2013-12-01

68

Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO).

Christoudias, Theodoros; Lelieveld, Jos

2013-04-01

69

A comprehensive characterization of the nuclear microRNA repertoire of post-mitotic neurons  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with important functions in the development and plasticity of post-mitotic neurons. In addition to the well-described cytoplasmic function of miRNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation, recent studies suggested that miRNAs could also be involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory processes in the nuclei of proliferating cells. However, whether miRNAs localize to and function within the nucleus of post-mitotic neurons is unknown. Using a combination of microarray hybridization and small RNA deep sequencing, we identified a specific subset of miRNAs which are enriched in the nuclei of neurons. Nuclear enrichment of specific candidate miRNAs (miR-25 and miR-92a) could be independently validated by Northern blot, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). By cross-comparison to published reports, we found that nuclear accumulation of miRNAs might be linked to a down-regulation of miRNA expression during in vitro development of cortical neurons. Importantly, by generating a comprehensive isomiR profile of the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, we found a significant overrepresentation of guanine nucleotides (nt) at the 3?-terminus of nuclear-enriched isomiRs, suggesting the presence of neuron-specific mechanisms involved in miRNA nuclear localization. In conclusion, our results provide a starting point for future studies addressing the nuclear function of specific miRNAs and the detailed mechanisms underlying subcellular localization of miRNAs in neurons and possibly other polarized cell types. PMID:24324399

Khudayberdiev, Sharof A.; Zampa, Federico; Rajman, Marek; Schratt, Gerhard

2013-01-01

70

Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Comprehensive Health Risk Management—Global Radiocontamination and Information Disaster  

PubMed Central

The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the “Fukushima Health Management Survey Project” for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management. PMID:25425958

2014-01-01

71

Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management-global radiocontamination and information disaster.  

PubMed

The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the "Fukushima Health Management Survey Project" for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management. PMID:25425958

Yamashita, Shunichi

2014-06-01

72

An Overview of Comprehensive Inspection Technologies Under Investigation at Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive Inspection Technologies (CIT) under investigation include methods that might be of use in detecting a clandestine underground nuclear test. These include techniques for detecting noble gases, visual observation methods, hyperspectral imaging, controlled- and passive-source seismic surveys, and other geophysical methods. Noble gas detection studies include a series of experiments called the Noble Gas Migration (NGM) experiments, that explore the fundamental parameters that determine the capability to detect radioxenon isotopes and 37Ar produced in underground nuclear tests. These isotopes are of interest to both the International Monitoring System (IMS) global monitoring and On-Site Inspection (OSI) regimes. Through a unique combination of field experiments, sampling of radioactive noble gas from a legacy underground nuclear test, large-scale hydrogeologic computer simulations, and a regimen involving carefully designed field-sampling techniques, the experiments are providing information about the production, release, and sampling challenges that determine the ability to detect these two important noble gases. Other CIT experiments explore and validate geophysical (controlled-source and passive-source seismic, gravity, electrical, magnetic, etc.) and optical techniques (both visual and instrument-based) that greatly enhance the understanding of the efficiency of these techniques for OSI, including how to better integrate the various technologies with each other and individually at different physical scales. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25936--1840.

Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.

2013-12-01

73

Subsurface nuclear tests monitoring through the CTBT xenon network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first evaluation of the atmospheric xenon network to be installed as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the frame of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). We show that this network should, by itself, provide a significant contribution to the total efficiency of the IMS. For this evaluation, we introduce an inverse approach based upon

Frédéric Hourdin; J.-P. Issartel

2000-01-01

74

Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

1987-12-01

75

Energy coupling of nuclear bursts in and above the ocean surface: source region calculations and experimental validation  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Comprehensive Test Ban, research is under way on the long range propagation of signals from nuclear explosions in deep underwater sound (SOFAR) channel. Initially our work at LLNL on signals in the source region considered explosions in or above deep ocean. We studied the variation of wave properties and source region energy coupling as a function of height or depth of burst. Initial calculations on the CALE hydrodynamics code were linked at a few hundred milliseconds to a version of NRL`s weak code, NPE, which solves the nonlinear progressive wave equation. The simulation of the wave propagation was carried down to 5000 m depth and out to 10,000 m range. We have completed ten such simulations at a variety of heights and depths below the ocean surface.

Clarke, D.B.; Harben, P.E.; Rock, D.W.; White, J.W.; Piacsek, A.

1997-07-01

76

Ionospheric Effects of Underground Nuclear Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Telemetry from the Russian INTERCOSMOS 24 satellite recorded ELF and VLF electromagnetic disturbances in the outer ionosphere from an underground nuclear explosion that was detonated at Novaya Zemlya Island on 24 October 1994. The IC24 satellite observations were obtained at about 900 km altitude within a few degrees of ground zero. The disturbances were interpreted for magnetohydrodynamic excitation of the ionosphere’s E layer by the acoustic wave. Electrons are accelerated along the magnetic force lines to amplify longitudinal currents and magnetic disturbances that may be measured by magnetometers at ground-based observatories and on-board satellites. The underground nuclear test near P’unggye, North Korea on 25 May 2009 provides a further significant opportunity for studying the utility of ionospheric disturbances for characterizing ground zero. Of the seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide detection elements of the International Monitoring System (IMS) established by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), only the first two elements detected this event. However, the event also appears to have been recorded as a direct traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) in the slant total electron content (TEC) observations derived from a network of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. The TID was observed to distances of at least 600 km from the explosion site propagating with a speed of about 281m/s. Thus, the global distributions and temporal variations of the TEC, may provide important information to help detect and characterize clandestine underground nuclear explosions.

Park, J.; von Frese, R. R.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; Morton, Y.

2010-12-01

77

The utility and role of treaties in Nuclear Arms Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains information on research projects and activities for the period 1989-1990. The compilation of abstracts and attachments contain information on the historical aspects of US decision making on arms control, the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives, and the value of the Limited Test Ban Treaty. Also, a draft proposal for a workshop on the subject of National Security

Greb

1991-01-01

78

Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Norbo Underground Nuclear Test in U8c, Nevada Nuclear Security Site, and the Impact on Stability of the Ground Surface  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Norbo underground nuclear test in U8c to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This request is similar to one made for the Salut site in U8c (Pawloski, 2012b). Review of the Norbo site is complicated because the test first exhibited subsurface collapse, which was not unusual, but it then collapsed to the surface over one year later, which was unusual. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Norbo detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeology due to the nuclear detonation. Aviva Sussman from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has also proposed work at this site. Both proposals require physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and focus on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow and deep geophysical surveys.

Pawloski, G A

2012-06-18

79

DTRA's Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has a Program in Basic Research and Development for Nuclear Explosion Technology within the Nuclear Treaties Branch of the Arms Control Technology Division. While the funding justification is Arms Control Treaties (i.e., Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, CTBT), the results are made available for any user. Funding for the Program has averaged around \\10m per year recently. By Congressional mandate, the program has disbursed money through competitive, peer-reviewed, Program Research and Development Announcements (PRDAs); there is usually (but not always) a PRDA each year. Typical awards have been for about three years at ~\\100,000 per year, currently there are over 60 contracts in place. In addition to the "typical" awards, there was an initiative 2000 to fund seismic location calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT; there are three three-year contracts of ~\\$1,000,000 per year to perform such calibration for Eurasia, and North Africa and the Middle East. Scientifically, four technological areas have been funded, corresponding to the four technologies in the IMS: seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide, with the lion's share of the funding going to the seismic area. The scientific focus of the Program for all four technologies is detection of signals, locating their origin, and trying to determine of they are unambiguously natural in origin ("event screening"). Location has been a particular and continuing focus within the Program.

Nichols, J.; Dainty, A.; Phillips, J.

2001-05-01

80

Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-09-23

81

Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2006-09-19

82

Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2010-09-21

83

Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2007-09-25

84

Proceedings of the 23rd Seismic Research Symposium: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 23rd Seismic Research Review: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions, held 2-5 October, 2001 in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Warren, N. Jill [Editor; Chavez, Francesca C. [Editor

2001-10-02

85

Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Deal with Canada's Nuclear Legacy Liabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Government of Canada nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development (R and D) carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are largely located at AECL research sites, and consist of shutdown research buildings (including

Peter Brown; Douglas Metcalfe; Marcia Blanchette; George Dolinar; Steven Halpenny; Chris Purdy; David Smith; William Kupferschmidt

2008-01-01

86

Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Roadmap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk reviews research and development highlights and accomplishments (https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/mrr) as well as future research directions of the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D (GNEM R&D) program within the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection, NA-222. GNEM R&D's mission is "…to develop, demonstrate, and deliver advanced technologies and systems to operational monitoring agencies to fulfill US monitoring requirements and policies for detecting, locating, and identifying nuclear explosions."* Work sponsored by GNEM R&D and collaborators is conducted by world-class scientists and engineers in national laboratories, universities, and private industry. In the past ten years, significant progress has been made in detection, location and identification with substantial improvements yet possible. There is increasing interest in GNEM R&D technology particularly in light of its relevance to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. GNEM R&D direction is captured in roadmaps: waveform technologies, including seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasound and radionuclide monitoring. The roadmaps have the same four areas: source physics, signal propagation, sensors, and signal analysis. Within each area illustrative R&D themes, program metrics, and future R&D directions will be presented. The goals of the R&D program are to: perform innovative scientific research, deliver capability-enhancing technologies to monitoring agencies and to motivate and nurture human capital to meet future monitoring challenges. * Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program Strategic Plan, DOE/NNSA/NA-22-NEMRE-2004, https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/cgi-bin/prod/nemre/index.cgi?Page=Strategic+Plan

Casey, Leslie; Ziagos, John; Rodgers, Arthur; Bell, Randy

2010-05-01

87

Arms control movements and the media: From the Cold War to the nuclear freeze  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissertation examines news coverage of the two most recent arms control movements: The test ban (1957-1963) and the nuclear freeze (1981-1984). Four questions guide the research: (1) To what extent do the news media maintain a space for oppositional politics that is independent of elite influence? (2) DOes the existence and characters of the space matter to policy outcomes?

Rojecki

1993-01-01

88

Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-09-21

89

The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

Nordyke, M.D.

1996-10-01

90

Nuclear Explosions, Arms-Control Treaties and Environmental Monitoring (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), among the most technically sophisticated arms-control agreements considered to date, would ban nuclear-explosion testing worldwide. Two reviews by the National Academy of Sciences over the past dozen years point to i) the feasibility of reliably monitoring the Treaty, and ii) the benefits the CTBT brings to US and international security. The CTBT, among other accords such as the Open Skies Treaty, highlights monitoring of the global environment that can advance science, while helping society both through warning and mitigation of natural hazards and through confidence building among nations. Thus, arms-control regimes contribute to scientific characterization of the global environment everywhere, all the time, with applications ranging from atmospheric science to oceanography and seismology. Geophysical research, and the science and engineering community more generally, can significantly enhance global monitoring through the development of ubiquitous sensors for deployment on the ground and in the oceans and atmosphere. Ubiquitous monitoring raises potential concerns that need to be addressed, but can offer enormous benefits both for science and for international security.

Jeanloz, R.

2013-12-01

91

Development of a comprehensive seismic yield-estimation system for underground nuclear explosions. Scientific report no. 3  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress which has been achieved during the past year in the development of a comprehensive new seismic yield estimation system (YES) for underground nuclear explosions. Specifically, a prototype version of YES which is applicable to explosions at the Soviet Shagan River and Novaya Zemlya test sites is described in detail. In its current configuration, the YES encompasses a database of more than 10,000 digital seismograms recorded at stations of the USAEDS, GDSN, CDSN and IRIS networks from explosions at these two test sites. For both test areas, information regarding the explosion source environment is presented to the analyst in the context of SPOT (tm) satellite images of the sites, together with associated surface and subsurface geologic information and DMA topographic data. The on-line database for YES also contains a wide variety of tabular information including complete event and station location files containing both classified and unclassified locations, standard travel-time tables for the seismic arrivals used for yield estimation, propagation path and station corrections for use in magnitude determinations and a comprehensive instrument response database. The capabilities and functionality of the current version of the YES system are graphically illustrated in Section 2 using displays of the screens encountered by an analyst in a typical processing session.

Murphy, J.R.; Jenab, J.N.

1992-03-01

92

Managing terrorism or accidental nuclear errors, preparing for iodine-131 emergencies: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world's leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15-30 mg or 1-2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations. PMID:24739768

Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Loeffke, Bernard; Baker, Robert; Kreuk, Florian; Yang, Samantha Peiling; Hurley, James R

2014-04-01

93

Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Deal with Canada's Nuclear Legacy Liabilities  

SciTech Connect

The Government of Canada nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development (R and D) carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are largely located at AECL research sites, and consist of shutdown research buildings (including several prototype and research reactors), a wide variety of buried and stored wastes, and contaminated lands. The shutdown buildings and contaminated lands need to be safely decommissioned to meet federal regulatory requirements, and long-term solutions need to be developed and implemented for management of the wastes. More than half of the liabilities are the result of Cold War activities during the 1940's, 50's and early 60's. The remaining liabilities stem from R and D for medical isotopes and nuclear reactor technology, as well as national science programs. About 70 percent of the liabilities are located at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in Ontario, and a further 20 percent are located at AECL's shutdown Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba. The remaining 10 percent relate largely to three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec, which were key to the developmental stage of Canada's CANDU reactor technology. The inventory of legacy waste includes spent fuel, high-level, intermediate-level and low-level solid and liquid radioactive waste, and wastes (largely contaminated soils) from site clean-up work across Canada. Most of the wastes are in raw, unconditioned form, and limited characterization information is available for the wastes generated in past decades. In many cases unique and potentially costly solutions will be required to recover, handle and process the wastes. In conclusion: the Government of Canada has initiated a program to deal with nuclear legacy liabilities dating back to the Cold War and the birth of nuclear technologies and medicine in Canada. The 5-year start-up phase will address immediate health, safety and environmental priorities, as well as provide the facilities, studies and plans required for subsequent phases. Over the next few years, the long-term strategy will be further developed and refined, and public consultations are planned to inform this work and decisions on the next phase of the strategy.

Brown, Peter; Metcalfe, Douglas; Blanchette, Marcia [Natural Resources Canada, 580 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E4 (Canada); Dolinar, George; Halpenny, Steven; Purdy, Chris; Smith, David; Kupferschmidt, William [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2008-01-15

94

Categorization of Used Nuclear Fuel Inventory in Support of a Comprehensive National Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy - 13575  

SciTech Connect

A technical assessment of the current inventory [?70,150 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) as of 2011] of U.S.-discharged used nuclear fuel (UNF) has been performed to support decisions regarding fuel cycle strategies and research, development and demonstration (RD and D) needs. The assessment considered discharged UNF from commercial nuclear electricity generation and defense and research programs and determined that the current UNF inventory can be divided into the following three categories: 1. Disposal - excess material that is not needed for other purposes; 2. Research - material needed for RD and D purposes to support waste management (e.g., UNF storage, transportation, and disposal) and development of alternative fuel cycles (e.g., separations and advanced fuels/reactors); and 3. Recycle/Recovery - material with inherent and/or strategic value. A set of key assumptions and attributes relative to the various disposition options were used to categorize the current UNF inventory. Based on consideration of RD and D needs, time frames and material needs for deployment of alternative fuel cycles, characteristics of the current UNF inventory, and possible uses to support national security interests, it was determined that the vast majority of the current UNF inventory should be placed in the Disposal category, without the need to make fuel retrievable from disposal for reuse or research purposes. Access to the material in the Research and Recycle/Recovery categories should be retained to support RD and D needs and national security interests. This assessment does not assume any decision about future fuel cycle options or preclude any potential options, including those with potential recycling of commercial UNF. (authors)

Wagner, John C.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Mueller, Don E.; Gehin, Jess C.; Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Bldg. 5700, MS-6170, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Bldg. 5700, MS-6170, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Taiwo, Temitope; Nutt, Mark; Williamson, Mark A. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Todosow, Mike [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Wigeland, Roald [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory (United States); Halsey, William G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Omberg, Ronald P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)

2013-07-01

95

Tenth Warren K. Sinclair keynote address-the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management.  

PubMed

Just two years have passed since the Tokyo Electric Power Company-Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, a multidimensional disaster that combined to destroy the local infrastructure on which the safety system depended and gave a serious impact to the world. Countermeasures including evacuation, sheltering, and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese government. However, there is a clear need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection and also in the management of the radiation health risk during and even after the accident. To date there have been no acute radiation injuries. The radiation-related physical health consequences to the general public, including evacuees, are likely to be much lower than those arising from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, because the radiation fallout and the subsequent environmental contamination were much more limited. However, the social, psychological, and economic impacts of the Fukushima NPP accident are expected to be considerable. Currently, continued monitoring and characterization of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are vital for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the areas already radiocontaminated and returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is permitted; it is also important to perform a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. We are currently implementing the official plans of the Fukushima Health Management Survey, which includes a basic survey for the estimation of the external doses that were received during the first 4 mo after the accident and four more detailed surveys (thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and life-style survey, and survey of pregnant women and nursing mothers), with the aim to take care of the health of all of the residents of the Fukushima Prefecture for a long time. Introduction of the Sinclair Lecture (Video 2:01, http://links.lww.com/HP/A24). PMID:24378490

Yamashita, Shunichi

2014-02-01

96

Geologic constraints on clandestine nuclear testing in South Asia  

PubMed Central

Cavity decoupling in salt is the most plausible means by which a nation could conduct clandestine testing of militarily significant nuclear weapons. The conditions under which solution-mined salt can be used for this purpose are quite restrictive. The salt must be thick and reasonably pure. Containment of explosions sets a shallow limit on depth, and cavity stability sets a deep limit. These constraints are met in considerably <1% of the total land area of India and Pakistan. Most of that area is too dry for cavity construction by solution mining; disposal of brine in rivers can be detected easily. Salt domes, the most favorable structures for constructing large cavities, are not present in India and Pakistan. Confidence that they are adhering to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is enhanced by their geological conditions, which are quite favorable to verification, not evasion. Thus, their participation in the CTBT is constrained overwhelmingly by political, not scientific, issues. Confidence in the verification of the CTBT could be enhanced if India and Pakistan permitted stations of the various monitoring technologies that are now widely deployed elsewhere to be operated on their territories. PMID:10500134

Davis, Dan M.; Sykes, Lynn R.

1999-01-01

97

Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is tasked with monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) which bans nuclear weapon explosions underground, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere. The verification regime includes a globally distributed network of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations which collect and transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria shortly

Nicolas Brachet; David Brown; Pierrick Mialle; Ronan Le Bras; John Coyne; Jeffrey Given

2010-01-01

98

Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Nuclear disarmament after the cold war  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now that the cold war is long over, our thinking of nuclear weapons and the role that they play in international security has undergone serious changes. The emphasis has shifted from superpower confrontation to nuclear proliferation, spread of weapon materials, and to the dangers of countries developing nuclear weapon capability under a cover of a civilian program. At the same time, the old cold-war dangers, while receded, have not disappeared completely. The United States and Russia keep maintaining thousands of nuclear weapons in their arsenals, some of them in very high degree of readiness. This situation presents a serious challenge that the international community has to deal with. Although Russia and the United States are taking some steps to reduce their nuclear arsenals, the traditional arms control process has stalled -- the last treaty that was signed in 2002 does not place serious limits on strategic forces of either side. The START Treaty, which provides a framework for verification and transparency in reduction of nuclear arsenals, will expire at the end of 2009. Little effort has been undertaken to extend the treaty or renegotiate it. Moreover, in recent years Russia has stepped up the efforts to modernize its strategic nuclear forces. The United States has resisted joining the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and has been working on controversial new nuclear weapon development programs. The U.S. missile defense program makes the dialogue between Russia and the United States even more difficult. The reluctance of Russia and the United States to engage in a discussion about drastic reductions of their nuclear forces undermines the case of nuclear nonproliferation and seriously complicated their effort to contain the spread of nuclear weapon technologies and expertise. One of the reasons for the current lack of progress in nuclear disarmament is the contradiction between the diminished role that nuclear weapons play in security of nuclear weapon states and the inertia of cold-war institutions that are involved in their development and support. Dealing with this contradiction would require development of new mechanisms of cooperation between nuclear weapons states and their strong commitment to the cause of nuclear nonproliferation. One important area of cooperation is development of a framework that would prevent the spread of nuclear materials and technology at the time when increasing number of countries is turning toward expanded use of nuclear power to cover their energy needs.

Podvig, Pavel

2008-04-01

99

Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 1, Discussion and glass durability data  

SciTech Connect

The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. Data collected throughout the world are included in the data base; current emphasis is on waste glasses and their properties. The goal is to provide a data base of properties and compositions and an analysis of dominant property trends as a function of composition. This data base is a resource that nuclear waste producers, disposers, and regulators can use to compare properties of a particular high-level nuclear waste glass product with the properties of other glasses of similar compositions. Researchers may use the data base to guide experimental tests to fill gaps in the available knowledge or to refine empirical models. The data are incorporated into a computerized data base that will allow the data to be extracted based on, for example, glass composition or test duration. 3 figs.

Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

1987-12-01

100

Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

2014-03-01

101

Creating a comprehensive, efficient, and sustainable nuclear regulatory structure. A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the strategies and process used by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to restructure its support for MPC&A regulations in the Russian Federation. The RDP adopted a project management approach to defining, implementing, and managing an effective nuclear regulatory structure. This approach included defining and developing the regulatory documents necessary to provide the Russian Federation with a comprehensive regulatory structure that supports an effective and sustainable MPC&A Program in Russia. This effort began in February 2005, included a series of three multi-agency meetings in April, June, and July, and culminated in August 2005 in a mutually agreed-upon plan to define and populate the nuclear regulatory system in the Russian Federation for non-military, weapons-usable material. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear material at the Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom), the Russian Agency for Industry (Rosprom), and the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT) facilities; nuclear material in transport and storage; and nuclear material under the oversight of the Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervisory Service of Russia (Rostechnadzor). The Russian and U.S. MPC&A management teams approved the plan, and the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) NA-255, Office of Infrastructure and Sustainability (ONIS), is providing funding. The Regulatory Development Project is managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) NNSA.

Davis, Gregory E.; Brownell, Lorilee; Wright, Troy L.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; O'Brien, Patricia E.

2006-07-01

102

Seismic identification analyses of cavity decoupled nuclear and chemical explosions. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Successful seismic monitoring of any eventual Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty will require development of a capability to identify signals from small cavity decoupled nuclear explosions from among numerous signals to be expected from earthquakes, rockbursts and chemical explosion (CE) events of comparable magnitude. The investigations summarized in this report focus on preliminary studies which have been carried out in an attempt to distinguish between decoupled nuclear explosions and CE events though analyses of observed and simulated seismic data for these two source types in both the U.S. and former Soviet Union. Near-regional seismic data recorded from the U.S. nuclear cavity decoupling test STERLING and the nearby tamped CE test STERLING HE are compared in Section II in an attempt to identify diagnostic differences between these two source types. This is followed in Section III by an analysis in which short-period P wave data recorded at NORSAR from Soviet nuclear tests conducted in salt cavities at Azgir site north of the Caspian Sea are systematically compared with corresponding data recorded at the same stations from presumed CE events of comparable size which have been located in the vicinity of Azgir site. In Secion IV, broadband seismic data recorded at near-regional Soviet stations from an Azgir nuclear cavity decoupling test are theoretically scaled to 1 kt fully decoupled level and compared with data recorded at the nearby IRIS station KIV from well-documented CE events. The results of these preliminary comparison studies indicate that seismic discrimination between these two explosion source types is not trivial and suggest that a reliable discrimination strategy will have to be based on detailed analysis of data.

Murphy, J.R.; Barker, B.W.

1994-01-01

103

Development of a comprehensive seismic yield estimation system for underground nuclear explosions. Final report, 17 January 1989-15 April 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research which has been carried out in conjunction with the development of a comprehensive new seismic yield estimation system (YES) for underground nuclear explosions. Specifically, it provides a detailed description of the final version of YES which has been implemented at the ARPA Center for Seismic Studies (CSS) to estimate seismic yields of explosions at the Shagan River and Novaya Zemlya test sites of the former Soviet Union. In its current configuration, the YES encompasses a database of more than 15,000 digital seismograms recorded at stations of the USAEDS, GDSN, CDSN and IRIS networks from explosions at these two test sites. For both test areas, information regarding the explosion source environment is presented to the analyst in the context of SPOT(TM) satellite images of the sites, together with associated surface and subsurface geologic information and DMA topographic data. Nuclear Explosions, Software System, X Window, Yield Estimation, Shagan River, YES, Seismic, Novaya Zemlya, CSS.

Murphy, J.R.; Stevens, J.L.; O'Neill, D.C.; Barker, B.W.; McLaughlin, K.L.

1993-05-01

104

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program  

SciTech Connect

With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by DOE’s MPC&A Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and schedule the development of documents; 5) Identify and develop processes to measure effectiveness of regulations. Utilizing this process is resulting in an effective regulatory process that is understood and is being adopted by the four RF organizations. It is anticipated that the current regulatory development process will continue after U.S. support ends. Utilization of the systematic methodology will ensure regulatory development is based on required MPC&A structural elements and will support the continued maintenance and development of an effective regulatory base.

Wright, Troy L.; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Schlegel, Steven C.

2010-08-11

105

A Comprehensive Approach to Elimination of Highly-Enriched-Uranium From All Nuclear-Reactor Fuel Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of about a decade after President Eisenhower's “Atoms for Peace” speech, the U.S. and Soviet Union exported research reactors to about 40 countries. By the mid-1970s, most of these reactors were fueled with weapon-useable highly-enriched uranium (HEU), and most of those with weapon-grade uranium. In 1978, because of heightened concern about nuclear proliferation, both countries launched programs

Frank von Hippel

2004-01-01

106

Numerical modeling for underground nuclear test monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symposium for Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring was held March 23-25 in Durango, Colo. Funded by the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (OACN) and hosted by the Source Region Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the meetings's purpose was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test-ban monitoring. In particular, we wished to focus on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems.The concept for the meeting arose through discussions with Marv Denny, who was on assignment at Department of Energy Headquarters from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In these conversations, the following question was discussed: how are numerical modeling techniques being used to understand the effects of explosion- source phenomenology on test-ban treaty monitoring? Numerical studies are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of capabilities for proliferation monitoring; this trend has accelerated with the curtailment of the nuclear testing program. During these discussions, the issue of the uniqueness and limitations of numerical models arose. It was decided to address these questions by convening a group of experts to present and discuss the problems associated with modeling of close-in data from explosions.

Taylor, Steven R.; Kamm, James R.

107

Guidelines on the scope, content, and use of comprehensive risk assessment in the management of high-level nuclear waste transportation  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the scope of risk assessment strategies in the management of the transport of high-level radioactive wastes. In spite of the shortcomings of probabilistic risk assessment(PRA), the Transportation Needs Assessment recommended this as the preferred methodology to assess the risks of high level nuclear waste (HLNW) transportation. A PRA also will need to heed the lessons learned from the development and application of PRA elsewhere, such as in the nuclear power industry. A set of guidelines will aid this endeavor by outlining the appropriate scope, content, and use of a risk assessment which is more responsive to the uncertainties, human-technical interactions, social forces, and iterative relationship with risk management strategies, than traditional PRAS. This more expansive definition, which encompasses but is not totally reliant on rigorous data requirements and quantitative probability estimates, we term Comprehensive Risk Assessment (CRA) Guidelines will be developed in three areas: the limitations of existing methodologies and suggested modifications; CRA as part of a flexible, effective, adaptive risk management system for HLNW transportation; and, the use of CRA in risk communication.

Golding, D.; White, A. [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States). Center for Technology, Environment, and Development

1990-12-01

108

Comprehensive Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Providing emotional support Comprehensive care includes attention to emotional health as well as physical health. Mental health professionals provide support and education, as well as diagnose and treat the depression, ...

109

Towards a Comprehensive Seismic Velocity Model for the Broader Africa-Eurasia Collision Region, to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

We report on progress towards a new, comprehensive three-dimensional model of seismic velocity in a broad region encompassing the Middle East, northern Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, the Turkish-Iranian Plateau, Indus Valley, and the Hindu Kush. Our model will be based on regional waveform fits, surface wave group velocity measurements, teleseismic arrival times of S and P waves, receiver functions, and published results from active source experiments. We are in the process of assembling each of these data sets and testing the joint inversion for subsets of the data. Seismograms come from a variety of permanent and temporary seismic stations in the region. Some of the data is easily accessible through, for example, IRIS, while collection of other data is more involved. This work builds on ongoing work by Schmid et al. (GJI, 2004, and manuscript in preparation). In these proceedings we highlight our data sets and their inferences, demonstrate the proposed new data-inversion modeling methodology, discuss results from preliminary inversions of subsets of the data, and demonstrate the prediction of arrival times with three-dimensional velocity models. We compare our preliminary inversion results to the results of Schmid et al., and the predicted arrival times to ground-truth data from the NNSA Knowledge Base. Our data sets are simultaneously redundant and highly complementary. The combined data coverage will ensure that our three-dimensional model comprises the crust, the upper mantle, including the transition zone, and the top of the lower mantle, with spatially varying, but useful resolution. The region of interest is one of the most structurally heterogeneous in the world. Continental collision, rifting and sea-floor spreading, back-arc spreading, oceanic subduction, rotating micro plates, continental shelf, and stable platforms, are just some of the region's characteristics. Seismicity and the distribution of seismic stations are also geographically heterogeneous. The crustal thickness ranges from near 20 to near 45 km under dry places in the Mediterranean region alone, which contains at least seven of the fourteen types of crust defined globally by Mooney et al. (1998). The S-velocity varies laterally by an entire 1 km/s over 1000 km within the uppermost mantle. On average the S-velocity is 50 to 150 m/s slower, between a depth of 150 km and the Moho, than global model iasp91. These lowered S velocities reflect the high amount of tectonic activity in the study region. In the transition zone the S-velocity is roughly 150 m/s higher than iasp91. These heightened S velocities likely reflect the numerous fragments of oceanic lithosphere that subducted in the study region during geologically relatively recent times.

der Lee, S v; Flanagan, M P; Rodgers, A J; Pasyanos, M E; Marone, F; Romanowicz, B

2005-07-13

110

Comprehensive Analysis of Lipid Dynamics Variation with Lipid Composition and Hydration of Bicelles Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Bicelles of various lipid/detergent ratios are commonly used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of membrane-associated molecules without the need to freeze the sample. While a decrease in the size (defined at a low temperature or by the q value) of a bicelle decreases its overall order parameter, the variation of lipid dynamics with a change in the lipid/detergent ratio is unknown. In this study, we report a thorough atomistic level analysis on the variation of lipid dynamics with the size and hydration level of bicelles composed of a phospholipid, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), and a detergent, 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC). Two-dimensional (2D) separated-local-field NMR experiments were performed on magnetically aligned bicelles to measure 1H-13C dipolar couplings, which were used to determine order parameters at various (head-group, glycerol, and acyl chain) regions of lipids in the bilayer. From our analysis, we uncover the extreme sensitivity of the glycerol region to the motion of the bicelle, which can be attributed to the effect of viscosity because of an extensive network of hydrogen bonds. As such, the water-membrane interface region exhibits the highest order parameter values among all three regions of a lipid molecule. Our experimental results demonstrate that the laboratory-frame 2D proton-detected-local-field pulse sequence is well-suited for the accurate measurement of motionally averaged (or long-range) weak and multiple 1H-13C dipolar couplings associated with a single carbon site at the natural abundance of 13C nuclei. PMID:19397253

Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Soong, Ronald; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2009-01-01

111

On Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the difficulties of testing listening comprehension in a second language and describes test procedures which try to overcome these difficulties used in a French course taught at the University College in Cardiff. The specific tests are note taking and summary writing, oral translation, and transcription. (SED)

Evans, Colin

1984-01-01

112

Comprehensive Plan  

E-print Network

ASSUMPTIONS COMPREHENSIVE PLAN OF LAKEWAY, TEXAS 1-5 Urban Infra st r u c t u r e Water Services GOAL 1: MAINTAIN A QUALITY RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MUNICIPAL UTILITY, AND WATER CONTROL IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS THAT PROVIDE WATER SERVICE... TO LAKEWAY IN ORDER TO ENSURE CONSISTENT, EXCELLENT SERVICE. Sanitary Sewer Service GOAL 1: MAINTAIN A QUALITY RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MUNICIPAL UTILITY DISTRICTS THAT PROVIDE SANITARY SEWER SERVICE TO THE CITY IN ORDER TO ENSURE CONSISTENT...

1999-01-01

113

Science in the Public Interest: The American Association for the Advancement of Science  

E-print Network

material to produce a nuclear bomb. Iraq spent $5-$10 billion in the 1980's to produce a few grams. Enhancing nuclear weapons material security in Russia. 4. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. 5. Other fissile material (i.e. nuclear- weapons-grade materials) security in Russia. ­ Provided oversight

Gilfoyle, Jerry

114

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

2012-12-12

115

THE EUROPEAN UNION Brussels, 13 June 2003  

E-print Network

Foreign Ministers, to respond effectively in the field of non-proliferation, disarmament and arms control, Chemical Weapons Convention, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, Safeguards Protection of Nuclear Materials, Hague Code of Conduct). The restatement of this policy would serve

Sussex, University of

116

Use of open source information and commercial satellite imagery for nuclear nonproliferation regime compliance verification by a community of academics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of nuclear weapons is a great threat to world peace and stability. The question of strengthening the nonproliferation regime has been open for a long period of time. In 1997 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (BOG) adopted the Additional Safeguards Protocol. The purpose of the protocol is to enhance the IAEA's ability to detect undeclared production of fissile materials in member states. However, the IAEA does not always have sufficient human and financial resources to accomplish this task. Developed here is a concept for making use of human and technical resources available in academia that could be used to enhance the IAEA's mission. The objective of this research was to study the feasibility of an academic community using commercially or publicly available sources of information and products for the purpose of detecting covert facilities and activities intended for the unlawful acquisition of fissile materials or production of nuclear weapons. In this study, the availability and use of commercial satellite imagery systems, commercial computer codes for satellite imagery analysis, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification International Monitoring System (IMS), publicly available information sources such as watchdog groups and press reports, and Customs Services information were explored. A system for integrating these data sources to form conclusions was also developed. The results proved that publicly and commercially available sources of information and data analysis can be a powerful tool in tracking violations in the international nuclear nonproliferation regime and a framework for implementing these tools in academic community was developed. As a result of this study a formation of an International Nonproliferation Monitoring Academic Community (INMAC) is proposed. This would be an independent organization consisting of academics (faculty, staff and students) from both nuclear weapon states (NWS) and non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS). This community analyzes all types of unclassified publicly and commercially available information to aid in detection of violations of the non-proliferation regime. INMAC shares all of this information with the IAEA and the public. Since INMAC is composed solely by members of the academic community, this organization would not demonstrate any biases in its investigations or reporting.

Solodov, Alexander

117

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

118

Nuclear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

119

Atmospheric xenon radioactive isotope monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) organisation is implementing a world-wide monitoring network in order to check that the State Signatories comply with the treaty. One of the monitoring facilities consists of an atmospheric noble gas monitoring equipment. According to the requirements annexed in the treaty, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) developed a device, called SPALAXTM, which automatically

J.-P. Fontaine; F. Pointurier; X. Blanchard; T. Taffary

2004-01-01

120

Feature Extraction for Low-Frequency Signal Classification  

E-print Network

-Perú. In addition there are my friends here in Sweden and in Perú, and, of course, my family. By family I mean my the members of my family will be very proud that I concluded this work. #12;Abstract The development of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

Haviland, David

121

Forecast for Plume's Path Is a Function of Wind and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated map is based on a forecast by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization. The map shows how weather patterns might disperse radiation from a continuous source in Fukushima, Japan. The forecast does not show actual levels of radiation.

Times, The N.

122

Definition of Exclusion Zones Using Seismic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

- In verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), there is a motivation to be effective, efficient and economical and to prevent abuse of the right to conduct an On-site Inspection (OSI) in the territory of a challenged State Party. In particular, it is in the interest of a State Party to avoid irrelevant search in specific areas. In

Y. Bartal; M. Villagran; Y. Ben Horin; G. Leonard; M. Joswig

2001-01-01

123

Underground structure characterization using motor vehicles as passive seismic sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to detect and characterize underground voids will be critical to the success of On-Site Inspections (OSI) as mandated by the nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs may be conducted in order to successfully locate the Ground Zero of underground tests as well as infrastructure related to testing. Recently, our team has shown the potential of a new

H. A. Kuzma; Y. Liu; Y. Zhao; J. Rector; S. Vaidya

2009-01-01

124

WOSMIP II- Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production  

SciTech Connect

Medical and industrial fadioisotopes are fundamental tools used in science, medicine and industry with an ever expanding usage in medical practice where their availability is vital. Very sensitive environmental radionuclide monitoring networks have been developed for nuclear-security-related monitoring [particularly Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) compliance verification] and are now operational.

Matthews, Murray; Achim, Pascal; Auer, M.; Bell, Randy; Bowyer, Ted W.; Braekers, Damien; Bradley, Ed; Briyatmoko, Budi; Berglund, Helena; Camps, Johan; Carranza, Eduardo C.; Carty, Fitz; DeCaire, Richard; Deconninck, Benoit; DeGeer, Lars E.; Druce, Michael; Friese, Judah I.; Hague, Robert; Hoffman, Ian; Khrustalev, Kirill; Lucas, John C.; Mattassi, G.; Mattila, Aleski; Nava, Elisabetta; Nikkinin, Mika; Papastefanou, Constantin; Piefer, Gregory R.; Quintana, Eduardo; Ross, Ole; Rotty, Michel; Sabzian, Mohammad; Saey, Paul R.; Sameh, A. A.; Safari, M.; Schoppner, Michael; Siebert, Petra; Unger, Klaus K.; Vargas, Albert

2011-11-01

125

Infrasound Event Analysis into the IDC Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first atmospheric event built only from infrasound arrivals was reported in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2003. In the last decade, 42 infrasound stations from the International Monitoring System (IMS) have been installed and are transmitting data to the IDC. The growing amount

Pierrick Mialle; Paulina Bittner; Nicolas Brachet; David Brown; Jeffrey Given; Ronan Le Bras; John Coyne

2010-01-01

126

Infrasound monitoring, acoustic-gravity waves and global atmospheric dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty, the International Monitoring System has been developed. As part of this system, the infrasound network provides an unique opportunity to monitor continuously pressure waves in the atmosphere. Such infrasonic waves propagate in the channel formed by the temperature and wind gradients of the atmosphere. Long term observations provide information about

E. Blanc; A. Le Pichon; L. Ceranna; T. Farges

2008-01-01

127

Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report.  

SciTech Connect

The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors to consider in repository design and optimization were then discussed. Japan is considering various alternatives and options for the geologic disposal facility and the framework for future analysis of repository concepts was discussed. Regarding the advanced waste and storage form development, waste form technologies developed in both countries were surveyed and compared. Potential collaboration areas and activities were next identified. Disposal system optimization processes and techniques were reviewed, and factors to consider in future repository design optimization activities were also discussed. Then the potential collaboration areas and activities related to the optimization problem were extracted.

Nutt, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-05-25

128

Comprehensive data on ionising radiation from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the town of Miharu, Fukushima Prefecture: The Misho Project.  

PubMed

Data related to radioactivity released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 15 March 2011 gathered by residents of Miharu, Fukushima Prefecture, and by Tohoku University are presented. These data sets consist of (1) the earliest radiation monitoring by a Geiger counter in the town, (2) ratios of radioactivity between (132)Te and (137)Cs for a wide area between Fukushima and Tokyo, (3) radiation measurement of soil samples collected from 18 school grounds, and (4) external radiation exposure of 1400 students using OSL badges. By combining and analysing these various data sets, a curve for the cumulative total external exposure as a function of time, with 16?:?00 h on 15 March 2011 being time zero, is obtained. The average cumulative external dosage is estimated to be 10 mSv (? = 4.2 mSv) over 10 years. In addition, the initiative that the residents of Miharu took in response to the FDNPP accident, which became known as The Misho Project (MP), is documented; in particular, the time at which the municipality instructed the immediate ingestion of iodine tablets by those under the age of 40, 13?:?00 h on 15 March 2011, is assessed. PMID:25125455

Koike, T; Suzuki, Y; Genyu, S; Kobayashi, I; Komori, H; Otsu, H; Sakuma, H; Sakuma, K; Sarausad, E M; Shimada, K; Shinozuka, T; Tamura, H; Tsukada, K; Ukai, M; Yamamoto, T O

2014-09-01

129

Comprehension Processes in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

130

Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1980, the Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Iowa received its NCI designation in 2000 and Comprehensive designation in 2001. The Center is dedicated to bringing the finest cancer care and research to Iowa and beyond. Holden ensures that all the cancer research, clinical service, and education at Iowa are interdependent.

131

Spectrum of Physics Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured…

Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

2012-01-01

132

Spectrum of physics comprehension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured during a physics lecture on a prearranged scale of 1-10 with the use of a personal response system designed for the purpose of this experiment. Through the use of this tool, we obtained about 2000 computer records of students' declared comprehension of a 45 min lecture, which we named ‘the spectrum of comprehension’. In this paper, we present and analyse the correlation between students' declared comprehension of the content presented in the lecture and their final learning results.

Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

2012-05-01

133

UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Established in 1971, the University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center (UAB), received its NCI designation in the same year. The Center has grown to include a membership of more than 330 physicians and researchers.

134

Improving Science Reading Comprehension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lend your struggling readers a helping hand with strategies that will enhance their comprehension of science reading materials. This article offers a few easy-to-implement strategies that teachers can use before, during, and after reading.

Johnson, Jill C.; Martin-Hansen, Lisa

2005-03-01

135

Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test ban monitoring. We focused on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems. The second goal of the symposium was to establish a dialogue between seismologists and explosion-source code calculators. The meeting was divided into five main sessions: explosion source phenomenology, material response modeling, numerical simulations, the seismic source, and phenomenology from near source to far field. We feel the symposium reached many of its goals. Individual papers submitted at the conference are indexed separately on the data base.

Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R. [eds.

1993-11-01

136

Support for comprehensive reuse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reuse of products, processes, and other knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demands. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows comprehensive reuse of all kinds of software-related experience could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. A comprehensive framework of models, model-based characterization schemes, and support mechanisms for better understanding, evaluating, planning, and supporting all aspects of reuse are introduced.

Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

1991-01-01

137

Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

2014-01-01

138

Intercomparison experiments of systems for the measurement of xenon radionuclides in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive xenon monitoring is one of the main technologies used for the detection of underground nuclear explosions. Precise and reliable measurements of 131mXe, 133gXe, 133mXe, and 135gXe are required as part of the International Monitoring System for compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). For the first time, simultaneous testing of four highly sensitive and automated fieldable radioxenon measurement systems

M. Auer; A. Axelssson; X. Blanchard; Ted W. Bowyer; G. Brachet; I. Bulowski; Y. Dubasov; K. Elmgren; J. P. Fontaine; W. Harms; James C. Hayes; Tom R. Heimbigner; Justin I. McIntyre; Mark E. Panisko; Y. Popov; Anders Ringbom; H. Sartorius; S. Schmid; J. Schulze; Clemens Schlosser; T. Taffary; W. Weiss; B. Wernsperger

2004-01-01

139

Strategy: Search and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses search strategy, strategies for understanding information, and instructional strategies as they relate to information literacy. Topics include orientation to sources and services; awareness of key literature; critical thinking and problem solving; inquiry; reading comprehension to enhance understanding; and strategies used by proficient…

Callison, Daniel

2001-01-01

140

COMMUNICATION A comprehensive  

E-print Network

the basic skills you will need as a professional -- writing, speaking and visual communication -- and youCOMMUNICATION A comprehensive communication degree from the Elliott School of Communication relations, or applied communication. Our program is interdisciplinary in nature, reflecting the contemporary

141

Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

In the late 1960s, a group of scientists and volunteers at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) came together to develop a cancer center they hoped would become renowned for excellence in research, education and patient care. In 1976, the group was awarded NCI designation and became UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC).

142

The Comprehensive Health Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains information from a fall 1991 health occupations assessment of 1,021 health-related employers in Eastern Iowa and the Illinois Quad Cities area. Twelve chapters present comprehensive results of all surveys; results of 10 labor market survey instruments developed for chiropractic offices, dentists' offices, emergency medical…

Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport.

143

Adolescents and Comprehensive Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume consists of reports on the status and function of lower secondary comprehensive school systems in four countries with contrasting cultures and educational traditions: Denmark, France, the United Kingdom as represented by Scotland, and the United States as represented by Maryland and Minnesota. The volume begins with an analysis by…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

144

Reading Comprehension Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. Do your middle school students not complete reading assignments or not comprehend them when they do? Is student motivation an issue you struggle with? Do you feel that your students need assistance comprehending the textbook? Students are faced with increasingly difficult text and many situations in which they must learn content by reading. This cross-curricular emphasis on reading comprehension is not just an effort to teach to the high-stakes tests that are so ubiquitous in our education system today. Instead, it is a way to teach students how to interact with text. This Wiki page can be used to help teachers prepare students for a lifetime of reading, comprehension, and reflection.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-07-01

145

Lakeway Comprehensive Plan  

E-print Network

ASSUMPTIONS COMPREHENSIVE PLAN OF LAKEWAY, TEXAS 1-5 Urban Infra st r u c t u r e Water Services GOAL 1: MAINTAIN A QUALITY RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MUNICIPAL UTILITY, AND WATER CONTROL IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS THAT PROVIDE WATER SERVICE... TO LAKEWAY IN ORDER TO ENSURE CONSISTENT, EXCELLENT SERVICE. Sanitary Sewer Service GOAL 1: MAINTAIN A QUALITY RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MUNICIPAL UTILITY DISTRICTS THAT PROVIDE SANITARY SEWER SERVICE TO THE CITY IN ORDER TO ENSURE CONSISTENT...

1999-01-01

146

Expectation-based syntactic comprehension  

E-print Network

sentence comprehension may make predictions about readingand comprehension should therefore be easier. 19 In the last several years, a number of readingcomprehension will be. This leads to at least two types of empirically predicted high reading

Levy, Roger

2008-01-01

147

Reading comprehension difficulties in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports two studies investigating the nature of comprehension deficits in a group of 7–8 year old children whose decoding skills are normal, but whose reading comprehension skills are poor. The performance of these poor comprehenders was compared to two control groups, Chronological-Age controls and Comprehension-Age controls. The first study examined whether these comprehension difficulties are specific to reading.

Susan E. Stothard; Charles Hulme

1992-01-01

148

Priming Ditransitive Structures in Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have shown evidence for syntactic priming during language production (e.g., Bock, 1986). It is often assumed that comprehension and production share similar mechanisms and that priming also occurs during comprehension (e.g., Pickering & Garrod, 2004). Research investigating priming during comprehension (e.g., Branigan et al., 2005 and…

Arai, Manabu; van Gompel, Roger P. G.; Scheepers, Cristoph

2007-01-01

149

Comprehensive national energy strategy  

SciTech Connect

This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

NONE

1998-04-01

150

Web Application Design Using Server-Side JavaScript  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the application design philosophy for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Research & Development Web Site. This design incorporates object-oriented techniques to produce a flexible and maintainable system of applications that support the web site. These techniques will be discussed at length along with the issues they address. The overall structure of the applications and their relationships with one another will also be described. The current problems and future design changes will be discussed as well.

Hampton, J.; Simons, R.

1999-02-01

151

Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Walter, W.R.; Hunter, S.L.; Glenn, L.A.

1996-01-01

152

Towards a Portable Rule-Based Agent for Monitoring the Data of the International Monitoring System (IMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

WorkFlow is one of the main tools used to monitor system performance of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). Processing Engineers need such tools to visualize the pipeline progress as well as monitor the underlying processes and server s. The tool should provide the capability to automatic ally detect anomalies and failures in the

A. I. El-Desouky; H. A. Ali; S. Laban

153

Infrasound data inversion for atmospheric remote sensing: Application to volcanic eruption signals from Vanuatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network, designed in the framework of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), records various sources of infrasound, such as ocean swell, meteorites, supersonic aircraft and volcanoes erupting at long-range. Several studies have shown that accurate atmospheric specifications are necessary for understanding infrasonic observations. Indeed, current atmospheric models fail to explain a large variety of observed

J. Lalande; A. Le Pichon; E. Blanc; P. Blanc-Benon; R. S. Matoza; O. Sèbe; J. Vergoz; J. Guilbert

2010-01-01

154

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) as a public-use data base with the goal of broadening independent access to data collected during studies of the health effects of exposure to radiation and other physical or chemical agents associated with the production of nuclear materials. This catalog is intended for use by any individual interested in obtaining information about, or access to, CEDR data. This catalog provides information that will help users identify and request data file sets of interest.

NONE

1995-05-01

155

An Important Issue: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Facts and Philosophy: In August, 1947, I participated in a secret meeting concerning the validity and use of a hydrogen bomb. I vigorously supported a ``Super Manhattan Project" to build an ``H" bomb. My philosophy at the time was `bigger and better,' to ensure that no nation attacked the U.S. Our retaliation with ``H" bombs vs. ``A" bombs would be too overwhelming for any nation to risk attacking us should they obtain their own ``A" bombs. Thus, all nations would be forced to use diplomacy. I am older and wiser, and am now convinced that World Test Ban Treaties, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and space free of any military weapons is the best policy for all nations and humanity. With current nuclear testing at nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada, Vandenberg AF/Missile site, Cal Tech, etc., I therefore propose that our new APS California Division form a three-person committee to tabulate all pertinent data and submit it to a qualified expert for review and further action. Comments and suggestions are invited.

Castellano, Doc

2001-03-01

156

Comprehensive facilities plan  

SciTech Connect

The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Facilities Plan (CFP) document provides analysis and policy guidance for the effective use and orderly future development of land and capital assets at the Berkeley Lab site. The CFP directly supports Berkeley Lab`s role as a multiprogram national laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The CFP is revised annually on Berkeley Lab`s Facilities Planning Website. Major revisions are consistent with DOE policy and review guidance. Facilities planing is motivated by the need to develop facilities for DOE programmatic needs; to maintain, replace and rehabilitate existing obsolete facilities; to identify sites for anticipated programmatic growth; and to establish a planning framework in recognition of site amenities and the surrounding community. The CFP presents a concise expression of the policy for the future physical development of the Laboratory, based upon anticipated operational needs of research programs and the environmental setting. It is a product of the ongoing planning processes and is a dynamic information source.

NONE

1997-09-01

157

Expectation-Based Syntactic Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple information-theoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension,…

Levy, Roger

2008-01-01

158

Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in Canada: Policy or Window Dressing? Charles Plante, Upstream: Institute for a Healthy Society #12;Overview What is poverty? Current state of poverty in Saskatchewan What is a Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategy (CPRS)? Are CPRS effective at reducing

Peak, Derek

159

Metadiscourse Awareness and ESAP Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the effect of explicit instruction about linguistic hedging on the English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) reading comprehension performance of English Language Learning (ELL) university students through an awareness raising task. A reading comprehension test was developed and validated as the pre-test and…

Jalififar, A. R.; Shooshtari, Z. G.

2011-01-01

160

Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

161

Reading Comprehension Strategy: Rainbow Dots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An action research study was conducted using the Rainbow Dots strategy to evaluate its effectiveness on reading comprehension skills in a third-grade class with students both with and without a specific learning disability. Results of the study indicated that students' overall performances in reading comprehension have increased. Students also…

Moore, Claire; Lo, Lusa

2008-01-01

162

Paraphrasing: An Effective Comprehension Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paraphrasing, somewhat different from retelling and summarizing, helps students monitor their understanding and incorporate new knowledge with what they already know about a topic. Paraphrasing helps students realize that comprehension is the goal of reading.

Kletzien, Sharon B.

2009-01-01

163

Retrieval mechanisms in sentence comprehension  

E-print Network

This work investigates the nature of the memory mechanisms utilized in language comprehension. Through the use of the Speed Accuracy Tradeoff (SAT) paradigm (Wickelgren, 1977), healthy young adults were studied for the use ...

Whitlock, Jordan Ashley

2014-01-01

164

Comprehensive Plan 2020 Silsbee, Texas  

E-print Network

Acquired data and analyzed in preparation for the comprehensive plan. Formulation of plan objectives was developed with a citizen survey, polling residents about their needs and desires for city growth and development. The plan includes discussion...

Pugh, David; Ellis, David; Kindrick, Stephen; Adams, Gregory; Shannon, Van Zandt; Butorac, Marc; Estes, Brett; Patterson, J. Christopher; Phoopraset, Jaruret; Rogers, Scott; Schrank, David; Spooner-Mueller, Nancy; Stephenson, Amy; Ekroth, David; Pike, Amy; Pustejovsky, Kenneth; Ramos, Adam; Sung Rim, Chong; Smith, Ronald; Thompson, Blakeley; Waldrop, Sam; Wiethorn, Ronny; Willeke, Whitney; Zavala, Blanca; Ziolkowski, Rebecca

1997-01-01

165

Comprehensive Software Understanding with SEXTANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current tools for software understanding mostly concentrate on one comprehension technique, e.g., visualization, or bottom-up navigation through software elements via hyperlinks. In this paper, we argue that to effectively assist developers in understanding today's software systems, a combination of several comprehension techniques is needed including seamless integration of top-down querying and bottom-up navigation strategies that work across different kinds of

Michael Eichberg; Michael Haupt; Mira Mezini; Thorsten Schäfer

2005-01-01

166

Language comprehension and working memory language comprehension and working memory deficits in  

E-print Network

comprehension questions. We measured working memory by administering a reading span task. Results indicated thatLanguage comprehension and working memory language comprehension and working memory deficits examined the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia have deficits in language comprehension compared

167

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-11-01

168

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-01-01

169

Comprehensive analysis of commercial willow bark extracts by new technology platform: combined use of metabolomics, high-performance liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution radical scavenging assay.  

PubMed

Here, proof-of-concept of a new analytical platform used for the comprehensive analysis of a small set of commercial willow bark products is presented, and compared with a traditional standardization solely based on analysis of salicin and salicin derivatives. The platform combines principal component analysis (PCA) of two chemical fingerprints, i.e., HPLC and (1)H NMR data, and a pharmacological fingerprint, i.e., high-resolution 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS(+)) reduction profile, with targeted identification of constituents of interest by hyphenated HPLC-solid-phase extraction-tube transfer NMR, i.e., HPLC-SPE-ttNMR. Score plots from PCA of HPLC and (1)H NMR fingerprints showed the same distinct grouping of preparations formulated as capsules of Salix alba bark and separation of S. alba cortex. Loading plots revealed this to be due to high amount of salicin in capsules and ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba cortex, respectively. PCA of high-resolution radical scavenging profiles revealed clear separation of preparations along principal component 1 due to the major radical scavengers (+)-catechin and ampelopsin. The new analytical platform allowed identification of 16 compounds in commercial willow bark extracts, and identification of ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba bark extract is reported for the first time. The detection of the novel compound, ethyl 1-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-2-enecarboxylate, is also described. PMID:23021634

Agnolet, Sara; Wiese, Stefanie; Verpoorte, Robert; Staerk, Dan

2012-11-01

170

UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology  

E-print Network

UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Comprehensive Examination Guidelines 20132014 #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines Table #12;UBC Biochemistry Comprehensive Exam Guidelines

Strynadka, Natalie

171

A model of poetic comprehension  

SciTech Connect

This article introduces an account of aesthetic comprehension and experience together with an implemented miniature which generates analogical interpretations from a semi-automatic parse of Wordsworth`s {open_quotes}Lines Written in Early Spring{close_quotes}. In our account, a poem serves as an analogy teaching machine by using formal structure to cue the formation of novel analogies. This account builds on an analogical model of comprehension previously applied to large corpora of newspaper summaries. In the miniature, an automatic grammatical and semantic analysis of the text is augmented with information about rhyme and rhythm. These formal cues allow the system to determine analogies which it would not otherwise consider. The article describes the comprehension framework, the annotated piece, and the matcher`s performance on the piece. It closes with a discussion of possible objections to aspects of the thesis or experiment and suggested directions for future work.

Haase, K. [MIT Media Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

172

Overview of a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program: The role of fish and wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about the effects of potential releases from nuclear and non-nuclear activities on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington has evolved over four decades into a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. The program includes field sampling, and chemical and physical analyses of air, surface and ground water, fish and wildlife, soil, foodstuffs, and natural vegetation.

Gray

1988-01-01

173

Means of Improving Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension is an important skill that every student needs in order to be successful. It is directly influenced by how readers construct a representation of the information that they are taking in. Overwhelmingly, the processing strategies found in research can appropriately fit into the Into, Through, Beyond strategies used in the…

Bondanza, Amy; Kelly, Katie; Treewater, Adam

174

USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Founded in 1971, the University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center (USC Norris) received its NCI designation in 1973. The Center is committed to investigating the complex origins and progression of cancer, developing treatment and prevention strategies, and searching for cures.

175

Thinning Methodologies - A Comprehensive Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a comprehensive survey of thinning methodologies. It discusses the wide range of thinning algorithms, including iterative deletion of pixels and nonpixel-based meth- ods, whereas skeletonization algorithms based on medial axis and other distance transforms will be the subject matter of a subsequent study. This self-contained paper begins with an overview of the iterative thinning process and the

Louisa Lam; Seong-whan Lee; Ching Y. Suen

1992-01-01

176

Analyzing Retellings To Assess Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined the impact of different instructional reading materials and subsequent analysis of comprehension by retellings. The first study investigated the influence of the presentation of the material. Subjects, 83 freshmen enrolled in a biology course, were shown one of four combinations of course material involving a slide…

Feathers, Karen; And Others

177

OS Comprehensive Exam Spring 2007  

E-print Network

advantages and disadvantages for both. Suppose level 5 group contains n disks. 4.b.I. For r small reads per1 OS Comprehensive Exam Spring 2007 1. Both SPIN and the exokernel focused on providing safe system the processes used the Banker's Algorithm. #12;4 4.a. Compare RAID levels 1 and 5 storage schemes; discuss

Wang, Deli

178

Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading comprehension was studied as a function of individual differences in extraversion-introversion, neuroticism and academic and resultant achievement motivation. Seventy-eight college students were categorized into personality or motive groups on the basis of personality test scores, dividing the distribution into top, middle and bottom thirds. Academic achievement motivation was assessed by a recently developed measure previously used with British students;

Frank H. Farley; Anthony L. Truog

1970-01-01

179

Children's difficulties in reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a number of studies that have investigated the difficulties experienced by children who have a specific comprehension problem: Those who have adequate word recognition skills but who, nevertheless, have difficulty understanding text. In the studies I will discuss, the performance of a group of skilled comprehenders was compared with that of a less-skilled group. The first set

Jane Oakhill

1993-01-01

180

Medicinal Marijuana: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbo oks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on

R. Jan Gurley; Richard Aranow; Mitchell Katz

1998-01-01

181

@Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major.  

E-print Network

@Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major. From the basic laws of physics to the resulting emergent behavior, physics studies what the universe is made of and how it works. As a Physics major that surrounds us, to the structure and evolution of the entire universe. We offer three degrees in Physics

Yoo, S. J. Ben

182

Phonemic Support in Children's Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the role of phonemic information in young readers' silent reading comprehension. Subjects, 56 children in grades 2 and 4, from Seattle parochial schools, were blocked into groups based on their grade and skill level (skilled and less skilled). Each subject saw 48 sentences presented in a random order on an Apple II…

Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; McCutchen, Deborah

183

SCUP 32: Comprehensive Enrollment Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive enrollment management (CEM) ensures that academic, student, and fiscal planning are done in concert in order to acknowledge the turbulence confronting an institution. A four-phase model of CEM has been developed that can be replicated at any college or university. In phase 1 of the model, the past 25 years of institutional enrollment…

McIntyre, Chuck

184

The neural correlates of strategic reading comprehension: Cognitive control and discourse comprehension  

E-print Network

The neural correlates of strategic reading comprehension: Cognitive control and discourse comprehension Reading strategies fMRI Neuroimaging studies of text comprehension conducted thus far have shed strategies. Reading comprehension strategies are designed to improve a reader's comprehension of a text

VanLehn, Kurt

185

Robust and Comprehensive Analysis of 20 Osteoporosis Candidate Genes by Very High-Density Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Screen Among 405 White Nuclear Families Identified Significant Association and Gene–Gene Interaction  

PubMed Central

Many “novel” osteoporosis candidate genes have been proposed in recent years. To advance our knowledge of their roles in osteoporosis, we screened 20 such genes using a set of high-density SNPs in a large family-based study. Our efforts led to the prioritization of those osteoporosis genes and the detection of gene–gene interactions. Introduction We performed large-scale family-based association analyses of 20 novel osteoporosis candidate genes using 277 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the quantitative trait BMD variation and the qualitative trait osteoporosis (OP) at three clinically important skeletal sites: spine, hip, and ultradistal radius (UD). Materials and Methods One thousand eight hundred seventy-three subjects from 405 white nuclear families were genotyped and analyzed with an average density of one SNP per 4 kb across the 20 genes. We conducted association analyses by SNP- and haplotype-based family-based association test (FBAT) and performed gene–gene interaction analyses using multianalytic approaches such as multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) and conditional logistic regression. Results and Conclusions We detected four genes (DBP, LRP5, CYP17, and RANK) that showed highly suggestive associations (10,000-permutation derived empirical global p ? 0.01) with spine BMD/OP; four genes (CYP19, RANK, RANKL, and CYP17) highly suggestive for hip BMD/OP; and four genes (CYP19, BMP2, RANK, and TNFR2) highly suggestive for UD BMD/OP. The associations between BMP2 with UD BMD and those between RANK with OP at the spine, hip, and UD also met the experiment-wide stringent criterion (empirical global p ? 0.0007). Sex-stratified analyses further showed that some of the significant associations in the total sample were driven by either male or female subjects. In addition, we identified and validated a two-locus gene–gene interaction model involving GCR and ESR2, for which prior biological evidence exists. Our results suggested the prioritization of osteoporosis candidate genes from among the many proposed in recent years and revealed the significant gene–gene interaction effects influencing osteoporosis risk. PMID:17002564

Xiong, Dong-Hai; Shen, Hui; Zhao, Lan-Juan; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Tie-Lin; Guo, Yan; Wang, Wei; Guo, Yan-Fang; Liu, Yong-Jun; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

2007-01-01

186

A comprehensive dairy valorization model.  

PubMed

Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensive dairy valorization model that serves as a decision support tool for mid-term allocation of raw milk to end products and production planning. The developed model was used to identify the optimal product portfolio composition. The model allocates raw milk to the most profitable dairy products while accounting for important constraints (i.e., recipes, composition variations, dairy production interdependencies, seasonality, demand, supply, capacities, and transportation flows). The inclusion of all relevant constraints and the ease of understanding dairy production dynamics make the model comprehensive. The developed model was tested at the international dairy processor FrieslandCampina (Amersfoort, the Netherlands). The structure of the model and its output were discussed in multiple sessions with and approved by relevant FrieslandCampina employees. The elements included in the model were considered necessary to optimally valorize raw milk. To illustrate the comprehensiveness and functionality of the model, we analyzed the effect of seasonality on milk valorization. A large difference in profit and a shift in the allocation of milk showed that seasonality has a considerable impact on the valorization of raw milk. PMID:23200469

Banaszewska, A; Cruijssen, F; van der Vorst, J G A J; Claassen, G D H; Kampman, J L

2013-02-01

187

How Do We Motivate Reading Comprehension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the nature of motivation and its place in the development of reading comprehension. Uses A. Maslow's hierarchy of motivation as a heuristic for examining the motivational quality of several teaching methods commonly proposed for comprehension instruction. (FL)

Shanahan, Timothy

1982-01-01

188

Jasper County Comprehensive Plan Adoption Draft  

E-print Network

Jasper County Comprehensive Plan Adoption Draft Comprehensive Plan Jasper County, IN #12;#12;Table Mandate.......................................vii Jasper County's Fulfillment of the Mandate of Major Needs for Jasper County ...............5 Additional Opportunities

189

Nuclear Science References Database  

E-print Network

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

B. Pritychenko; E. B?ták; B. Singh; J. Totans

2014-07-08

190

Nuclear Science References Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

Pritychenko, B.; B?ták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

2014-06-01

191

Automatic Generation from List comprehension to C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List Comprehension representing comes from comprehension of mathematics, which provides a strong and concise representing method. Monad representing is concise and readability mainly because Monad extends List Comprehension to any Monad. This paper is concerned with the transforming from List Comprehension of functional programming language Haskell to C programs. Using Haskell itself we have also realized this transformation. Haskell is the only language that supports Monad, so our research is helpful to the building of Monad researching environments.

Wang, Qiushuang; Liu, Dongliang; Wang, Rujuan; Sun, Yan

192

Metacognition, comprehension monitoring, and the adult reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview and synthesis of the current literature on metacognition and comprehension monitoring among adult readers. It is organized around three major research questions: (1) How do adults conceptualize their own comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities? (2) How effectively do adults evaluate and regulate their ongoing efforts to understand? (3) How successfully do adults assess the final products

Linda Baker

1989-01-01

193

Rule-Based Measures of Literal Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension involves a number of distinctly different intellectual skills that can be assessed if the proper techniques are employed. As part of a reading assessment system, two measures of literal comprehension were developed: the Literal Comprehension Details Test (LCDT) and the Paraphrase Reading Test (PRT). Both the LCDT and the PRT…

Hayford, Paul D.; Salter, Ruth

194

Can automated questioning help children's reading comprehension?  

E-print Network

Can automated questioning help children's reading comprehension? Joseph E. BECK, Jack MOSTOW during assisted reading, and experimentally evaluate its effects on their comprehension. In 2002, after and Approach Teachers can improve children's reading comprehension by training them to generate questions [1

Mostow, Jack

195

Fun with Reading Comprehension Pranav Anand Harvard  

E-print Network

Fun with Reading Comprehension Pranav Anand Harvard Eric Breck MITRE Brianne Brown Bryn Mawr Marc;1 Introduction The reading comprehension project focused on building a system that can read text passages build systems to take reading comprehension exams? To start with, there are both direct and indirect

Breck, Eric

196

The Acquisition of Reading Comprehension Skill  

E-print Network

13 The Acquisition of Reading Comprehension Skill Charles A. Perfetti, Nicole Landi, and Jane the concept of reading comprehension and what it means to develop it. Introduction: Simple Ideas about Reading language. When that happens, then reading comprehension has devel- oped, for practical purposes, to its

197

IMPROVING READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH PHILOSOPHY FOR CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reading comprehension achievement of two groups of fifth grade students, 80 experimental and 20 control, was compared on pre and post measures using the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, reading comprehension subtest. The experimental group was exposed once each week to materials from the Philosophy for Children program as a supplement to their regular reading program for eight months

Mary I. Yeazell

1982-01-01

198

The Jewell High School Reading Comprehension Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assess the reading comprehension ability of high school students, this measure contains items which were constructed to test the subskills found by R. T. Lennon, on the basis of factor analysis of thirty studies of comprehension tests, to be the four components of comprehension tests that may be measured reliably. These subskills are a…

Jewell, Cedric B.

199

University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center (UMCCC) was founded in 1986. UMCCC received its NCI designation as a cancer center in 1988 and its comprehensive designation in 1991. The Center is also a founding member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, a consortium of 25 of the nation's premier centers, which develops national guidelines for the delivery of effective, quality care.

200

A Flexible Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comprehensive evaluations of complex systems are worthy of study deeply, and the subjectivity and fuzziness of evaluation objects further increase complexity of the evaluation systems. To attain the final comprehensive evaluation result in increasing evaluation reliability, a flexible fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is proposed, which is a top-down method for the multi-layer evaluation index system and uses the tunable

Juan Chen

2010-01-01

201

Code comprehension problems as learning events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code comprehension problems have been shown to be effective assessment items in computer science education. In this paper we present qualitative and quantitative results of a study evaluating the effectiveness of code comprehension questions with feedback as learning events. Students taking an introductory programming course that satisfies a university requirement interacted with an online tutoring system using code comprehension problems

Leigh Ann Sudol-DeLyser; Mark Stehlik; Sharon Carver

2012-01-01

202

[Comprehensive quality appraisal of "maidong"].  

PubMed

According to the contents of 14 kinds of constituents, 6 samples of Maidong from various habitats were comprehensively appraised by the weighted method with factor analysis and fuzzy mathematic method. The results showed that certified Maidong (Ophiopogon japonicus) was superior to its substitute Shanmaidong(Liriope spp.), and the sample from Xiaoshan county was the best in 3 samples of certified goods. Being consistent with the result of the traditional appraisal, the method used in this paper may provide a new means for appraising traditional medicinal materials. PMID:12587201

Sun, H; Zeng, X; Zhuang, J

2001-05-01

203

Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere.

Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

1984-05-01

204

Investigating Differences in General Comprehension Skill  

PubMed Central

For adults, skill at comprehending written language correlates highly with skill at comprehending spoken language. Does this general comprehension skill extend beyond language-based modalities? And if it does, what cognitive processes and mechanisms differentiate individuals who are more versus less proficient in general comprehension skill? In our first experiment, we found that skill in comprehending written and auditory stories correlates highly with skill in comprehending nonverbal, picture stories. This finding supports the hypothesis that general comprehension skill extends beyond language. We also found support for the hypotheses that poorer access to recently comprehended information marks less proficient general comprehension skill (Experiment 2) because less skilled comprehenders develop too many mental substructures during comprehension (Experiment 3), perhaps because they inefficiently suppress irrelevant information (Experiment 4). Thus, the cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in capturing and representing the structure of comprehensible information provide one source of individual differences in general comprehension skill. PMID:2140402

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Varner, Kathleen R.; Faust, Mark E.

2015-01-01

205

Comprehensive geriatric assessment in oncology.  

PubMed

The incidence of cancer increases with advanced age and the majority of cancer deaths are in patients aged ? 65. The geriatric population is a heterogeneous group and a patient's chronologic age does not always correlate with underlying physiologic status. Oncologists need to be able to obtain information on physiologic and functional capacity in older patients in order to provide safe and effective treatment recommendations. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is a compilation of validated tools that predict morbidity and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. The various components of the CGA have also been shown to influence clinical decision-making and predict outcomes in older cancer patients. The combined data from the CGA can be used to stratify patients into risk categories to better predict their tolerance to treatment and risk for chemotherapy toxicity. However, the CGA is a comprehensive tool requiring significant time and training to perform. A variety of screening tools have been developed which may be useful in the general oncology practice setting to identify patients that may benefit from further testing and intervention. This chapter will review the components and predictive value of CGA in older cancer patients, with emphasis on how CGA can practically be incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:23503518

Mohile, Supriya G; Magnuson, Allison

2013-01-01

206

Architecture of a Comprehensive Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combinatorial geometry of a partitioned (triangulated) string theory is discussed. Combinatorial analysis reveals that three spatial and three curvature dimensions, intrinsic to the partitioned string, are necessary to replicate Standard Model particles and interactions. The combinatorial analysis involves non-commutative 3D-matrix algebra which is shown to be the mathematical underpinnings of Dirac notation. This analysis necessitates that particulate mass be determined by a functional relationship involving these six extra dimensions. A functional relationship is defined which uses exponential (R-S) scaling to compute mass. Interpretation of complex gravity as 1-brane curvature allows a cyclic cosmological model to be developed. A relationship between string theory and general relativity (with the curvature tensor considered imaginary) is formulated. This formulation of cyclic cosmology inherently involves observed dark mass & energy. Thus, a comprehensive theory is constructed from geometric fundamentals which models massive, oscillating neutrinos, the galactic annihilation fountain and the current epoch of mini-inflation.

Lundberg, Wayne R.

2002-10-01

207

Geospatial Analysis - A comprehensive guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text of "Geospatial Analysis - A comprehensive guide" is provided on this website. It covers the full spectrum of analytical techniques that are provided within modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related software products.Click here for a PDF extract (first 55 pages).Topics covered in detail include: * Geospatial analysis concepts * Core components of geospatial analysis, including distance and directional analysis, geometrical processing, map algebra, and grid models * Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) and spatial statistics, including spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression * Surface analysis, including surface form and flow analysis, gridding and interpolation methods, and visibility analysis * Network and locational analysis, including shortest path calculation, travelling salesman problems, facility location and arc routing Geocomputational methods, including agent-based modelling, artifical neural networks and evolutionary computing

Michael J. de Smith

208

Strategic stalemate: Nuclear weapons and arms control in American politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents a concise analysis of the American debate over arms control measures from the atmospheric test ban treaty of 1963 to the present. The author demonstrates the continuity of positions held by the participants throughout. There are two ''camps:'' those who stress security through military means and those who believe above all in arms control or disarmament. The

Krepon

1984-01-01

209

Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

2012-07-01

210

Comprehensive stroke care: an overview.  

PubMed

Stroke is a global epidemic and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. It ranks next to cardiovascular disease and cancer as a cause of death. "India is likely to suffer huge social and economic burden in the rehabilitation of stroke patients owing to increased life expectancy" and urbanization. Though, there are national programs in malaria eradication and tuberculosis control, there is hardly any governmental support in stroke management and rehabilitation. We propose to formulate stroke-prevention strategies specific to our national needs and covering all the age groups. Allocation of resources towards the stroke management and research is needed. Emphasis on stroke awareness in community should be stressed and should be inclusive of means of primordial and primary prevention apart from management of stroke and its recurrence. Recent international experience in stroke management has suggested the need of specialized stroke units (comprehensive stroke care under one roof). We wish to establish the need of creating awareness regarding the urgency of specialized care in acute stroke. We also wish to motivate our national health institutions to offer affordable, evidence based management of stroke and offer opportunities in stroke training and research. PMID:16649738

Mishra, N K; Patel, H; Hastak, S M

2006-01-01

211

Enviroplan--A Summary Methodology for Comprehensive  

E-print Network

Enviroplan-- A Summary Methodology for Comprehensive Environmental Planning and Design1 Robert will discuss a comprehensive environmental assessment methodology that includes a numerical method for visual management and analysis. This methodology employs resource and human activity units as a means to produce

Standiford, Richard B.

212

Measuring Reading Comprehension: an Historical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the history of the measurement of reading comprehension follows the development of formal and informal reading comprehension tests dating from 1913 to the present. Upon reviewing the aspects, procedures, and criteria of these tests, the author noted that most of these tests resembled group verbal intelligence tests. Makeup of the…

Farr, Roger

213

Lexical comprehension and production in Alexia system  

E-print Network

Lexical comprehension and production in Alexia system T. SELV A 1 , F . I SS A C2 , T. CHANIER1 , C that the dictionary is used very often in a written comprehension task. However, its utility is not always obvious the translation or the reading of a text in a foreign language. Indeed, the learner is faced with the problem

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Can automated questions scaffold children's reading comprehension?  

E-print Network

Can automated questions scaffold children's reading comprehension? Joseph E. Beck, Jack Mostow questions assist children's reading comprehension? Are their benefits within a story cumulative or transient.Beck, Jack.Mostow}@cs.cmu.edu Abstract. Can automatically generated questions scaffold reading comprehen

Mostow, Jack

215

Working memory resources and children's reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory capacity is described as a pool of limited resources that carry out processing and storage functions. Its role has been emphasised in adults' reading comprehension. The present study had two aims: First, to study the relationship between working memory capacity and reading comprehension in fourth-grade children. Second, to study the nature of the working memory resources involved in

Alix Seigneuric; Marie-France Ehrlich; Jane V. Oakhill; Nicola M. Yuill

2000-01-01

216

Effect of Attention Therapy on Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantified the influence of visual attention therapy on the reading comprehension of Grade 6 children with moderate reading dis- abilities (RD) in the absence of specific reading remediation. Thirty stu- dents with below-average reading scores were identified using standard- ized reading comprehension tests. Fifteen children were placed randomly in the experimental group and 15 in the control group.

Harold A. Solan; John Shelley-Tremblay; Anthony Ficarra; Michael Silverman; Steven Larson

2004-01-01

217

Reading comprehension skills: Testing the distinctiveness hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to explore the validity of the reading comprehension skills distinctiveness hypothesis. Students and teachers were randomly assigned to specific comprehension skill training groups: (a) locating details, (b) drawing conclusions, (c) finding the sequence, (d) determining the main idea, and to a control group wherein students engaged in sustained reading of self?selected trade books. After the training

D. Ray Reutzel; Paul M. Hollingsworth

1990-01-01

218

Focusing Literature Discussion Groups on Comprehension Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many literacy classrooms, teachers provide instruction in comprehension by helping students to practice explicit comprehension strategy use when they encounter difficult texts. In many of those same literacy classrooms, students are placed in peer-led groups to discuss literary texts as a way to increase their engagement with difficult reading.…

Berne, Jennifer I.; Clark, Kathleen F.

2008-01-01

219

Signals and reading comprehension — theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation of the effects of logical connectives and paragraph headings on reading comprehension among 577 Hong Kong Secondary 6 students who learn English as a second language. An English reading comprehension test was used to allocate subjects into one of the three performance groups: High, Medium and Low. The test instruments used to discriminate between the

Jenny S. L Chung

2000-01-01

220

Binding in agrammatic aphasia: Processing to comprehension.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Theories of comprehension deficits in Broca's aphasia have largely been based on the pattern of deficit found with movement constructions. However, some studies have found comprehension deficits with binding constructions, which do not involve movement. AIMS: This study investigates online processing and offline comprehension of binding constructions, such as reflexive (e.g., himself) and pronoun (e.g., him) constructions in unimpaired and aphasic individuals in an attempt to evaluate theories of agrammatic comprehension. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Participants were eight individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia and eight age-matched unimpaired individuals. We used eyetracking to examine online processing of binding constructions while participants listened to stories. Offline comprehension was also tested. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: The eye movement data showed that individuals with Broca's aphasia were able to automatically process the correct antecedent of reflexives and pronouns. In addition, their syntactic processing of binding was not delayed compared to normal controls. Nevertheless, offline comprehension of both pronouns and reflexives was significantly impaired compared to the control participants. This comprehension failure was reflected in the aphasic participants' eye movements at sentence end, where fixations to the competitor increased. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that comprehension difficulties with binding constructions seen in agrammatic aphasic patients are not due to a deficit in automatic syntactic processing or delayed processing. Rather, they point to a possible deficit in lexical integration. PMID:20535243

Janet Choy, Jungwon; Thompson, Cynthia K

2010-05-01

221

Cognitive Aids for Guiding Graph Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to improve students' comprehension of scientific graphs by adapting scaffolding techniques used to aid text comprehension. In 3 experiments involving 121 female and 88 male college students, some students were shown cognitive aids prior to viewing 4 geography graphs whereas others were not; all students were then asked to write a…

Mautone, Patricia D.; Mayer, Richard E.

2007-01-01

222

Verbal and Nonverbal Assessment of Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unfortunately, the current popularity of questioning strategies has led to their widespread excessive and/or exclusive employment in evaluating reading comprehension. An approach in reading instruction which utilizes both verbal and nonverbal communication for assessing comprehension contains several unique features that provide for the…

Melnik, Amelia; Larson, Martha L.

223

Time as a Factor in Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of areas concerning the use of pictorial illustrations in the comprehension of instructional materials still need empirical investigation. One such area, the influence of time on the reading comprehension of science materials, was explored in a study involving 108 fourth graders. Selections covering topics with which the students were…

Thomas, James L.

224

Fingerprint Matching Based on Global Comprehensive Similarity  

E-print Network

Fingerprint Matching Based on Global Comprehensive Similarity Yuliang He, Jie Tian, Senior Member in the representation of a fingerprint. Finally, we model the relationship between transformation and the comprehensive similarity between two fingerprints in terms of histogram for initial parameter estimation. Through

Tian, Jie

225

A Janus Look at Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that researchers in the fields of cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and linguistics are taking a constructivist view of reading comprehension, this paper undertakes a comparison of that view with views concerning comprehension that have been expressed at the Claremont Reading Conferences over the past 50 years. The first…

McNeil, John D.

226

Financial planning on a comprehensive scale.  

PubMed

Hospitals and health systems that wish to explore the shift to comprehensive care management should: Assess the investments in infrastructure necessary to support comprehensive care management, Gauge the financial implications and set quality and financial goals, Monitor performance using metrics such as patient satisfaction, avoidable admissions, out-of-group referrals, and average length of stay. PMID:23596834

Mishra, Simita

2013-04-01

227

Optimizing Visually-Assisted Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fact that visual aids such as pictures or graphs can lead to greater comprehension by language learners has been well established. Nonetheless, the order of presenting visuals to listeners is left unattended. This study examined listening comprehension from a strategy of introducing visual information, either prior to or during an audio…

Kashani, Ahmad Sabouri; Sajjadi, Samad; Sohrabi, Mohammad Reza; Younespour, Shima

2011-01-01

228

Lexical Competition in Nonnative Speech Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electrophysiological studies consistently find N400 effects of semantic incongruity in nonnative (L2) language comprehension. These N400 effects are often delayed compared with native (L1) comprehension, suggesting that semantic integration in one's second language occurs later than in one's first language. In this study, we investigated whether…

FitzPatrick, Ian; Indefrey, Peter

2010-01-01

229

Leadership Lessons from Comprehensive School Reforms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume explores the role of leadership in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "The Development of Comprehensive School Reform" (Joseph Murphy and Amanda Datnow); (2) "Expeditionary Learning Schools: Tenacity, Leadership, and School Reform" (Greg Farrell); (3) "The Modern Red School House: Leadership in…

Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Datnow, Amanda, Ed.

230

Metaphor Comprehension in Alzheimer's Disease: Novelty Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehension of non-literal language was investigated in 20 probable Alzheimer's disease (pAD) patients by comparing their performance to that of 20 matched control subjects. pAD patients were unimpaired in the comprehension of conventional metaphors and idioms. However, their performance was significantly lower in the case of…

Amanzio, Martina; Geminiani, Giuliano; Leotta, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano

2008-01-01

231

Causal Inferences during Text Comprehension and Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As comprehension failure results whenever readers are unable to infer missing causal connections, recent comprehension research has focused both on assessing the inferential complexity of texts and on investigating students' developing ability to infer causal relationships. Studies have demonstrated that texts rely on four types of causal…

Kemper, Susan

232

Monitoring Local Comprehension Monitoring in Sentence Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

on ways to improve children's reading comprehension. However, processes and mechanisms underlying this skill are currently not well understood. This article describes one of the first attempts to study comprehension monitoring using eye-tracking methodology. Students in…

Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph; Mayer, Michael B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

233

Does Monitoring Event Changes Improve Comprehension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During narrative comprehension, reading times increase for changes in time, space, characters, goals, and causation. This study examined the extent to which instructional manipulations modify dimension monitoring during reading and whether this affects comprehension. Sixty-seven participants read three narratives (pretest). Half of the…

Bohn-Gettler, Catherine M.

2014-01-01

234

Readability and Its Effects on Reading Rate, Subjective Judgments of Comprehensibility and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prose passages read aloud or silently were rated for pronounceability and comprehensibility. The relationships of text-derived readability indices to reading rate, comprehensibility ratings and comprehension test scores were explored. Reading rate in syllables per minute was unrelated to readability. The high correlation between rate in words per…

Coke, Esther U.

235

LUNA: Nuclear Astrophysics Deep Underground  

E-print Network

Nuclear astrophysics strives for a comprehensive picture of the nuclear reactions responsible for synthesizing the chemical elements and for powering the stellar evolution engine. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory the cross sections of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The salient features of underground nuclear astrophysics are summarized here. The main results obtained by LUNA in the last twenty years are reviewed, and their influence on the comprehension of the properties of the neutrino, of the Sun and of the Universe itself are discussed. Future directions of underground nuclear astrophysics towards the study of helium and carbon burning and of stellar neutron sources in stars are pointed out.

Carlo Broggini; Daniel Bemmerer; Alessandra Guglielmetti; Roberto Menegazzo

2010-10-20

236

Nuclear material operations manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

Tyler, R.P.

1981-02-01

237

MB3a Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated a new infrasound sensor, the MB3a, manufactured by Seismo Wave. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by researchers at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the technology was recently licensed to Seismo Wave for production and sales. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, seismic sensitivity, and self- calibration ability. The MB3a infrasound sensors are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

Merchant, Bion J.; McDowell, Kyle D.

2014-11-01

238

Construction of a Shallow Underground Low-background Detector for a CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The International Monitoring System (IMS) is a verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and in addition to a series of radionuclide monitoring stations, contains sixteen radionuclide laboratories capable of verification of radionuclide station measurements. This paper presents an overview of a new commercially obtained low-background detector system for radionuclide aerosol measurements recently installed in a shallow (>30 meters water equivalent) underground clean-room facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Specifics such as low-background shielding materials, active shielding methods, and improvements in sensitivity to IMS isotopes will be covered.

Forrester, Joel B.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.

2013-05-01

239

Nuclear strategy, arms control, and the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balanced and comprehensive in approach, this text assembles classic statements on nuclear strategy and arms control made by Soviet and US policymakers, military thinkers, and opinion leaders during the last 40 years. Major Soviet statements, appearing in translation for the first time, reflect the disagreement over whether victory or parity is the goal of Soviet nuclear strategy and forces. Taken

P. E. Haley; D. M. Keithly; J. Merritt

1985-01-01

240

Nuclear maintenance: criteria for the '80s  

SciTech Connect

The broadening scope of maintenance problems being encountered at nuclear power plants is discussed. The capabilities of the nuclear maintenance and retrofit services industry to handle a broad, comprehensive range of total plant maintenance operations are discussed. This industry had proliferated to a multibillion dollar a year enterprise in which hundreds of firms of varying degrees of capability and expertise are now engaged.

Friedlander, G.D.

1984-05-01

241

Contamination of Alpine snow and ice at Colle Gnifetti, Swiss/Italian Alps, from nuclear weapons tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium is present in the environment as a consequence of atmospheric nuclear tests, nuclear weapons production and industrial releases over the past 50 years. To study temporal trends, a high resolution Pu record was obtained by analyzing 52 discrete samples of an alpine firn/ice core from Colle Gnifetti (Monte Rosa, 4450 m a.s.l.), dating from 1945 to 1990. The 239Pu signal was recorded directly, without decontamination or preconcentration steps, using an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Sector Field Mass Spectrometer (ICP-SFMS) equipped with an high efficiency sample introduction system, thus requiring much less sample preparation than previously reported methods. The 239Pu profile reflects the three main periods of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing: the earliest peak lasted from 1954/55 to 1958 and was caused by the first testing period reaching a maximum in 1958. Despite a temporary halt of testing in 1959/60, the Pu concentration decreased only by half with respect to the 1958 peak due to long atmospheric residence times. In 1961/62 Pu concentrations rapidly increased reaching a maximum in 1963, which was about 40% more intense than the 1958 peak. After the signing of the "Limited Test Ban Treaty" between USA and USSR in 1964, Pu deposition decreased very sharply reaching a minimum in 1967. The third period (1967-1975) is characterized by irregular Pu concentrations with smaller peaks (about 20-30% of the 1964 peak) which might be related to the deposition of Saharan dust contaminated by the French nuclear tests of the 1960s. The data presented are in very good agreement with Pu profiles previously obtained from the Col du Dome ice core (by multi-collector ICP-MS) and Belukha ice core (by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, AMS). Although a semi-quantitative method was employed here, the results are quantitatively comparable to previously published results.

Gabrieli, Jacopo; Cozzi, Giulio; Vallelonga, Paul; Schwikowski, Margit; Sigl, Michael; Eickenberg, Jost; Wacker, Lukas; Boutron, Claude; Gäggeler, Heinz; Cescon, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo

2011-01-01

242

Neural substrates of narrative comprehension and memory.  

PubMed

When reading a narrative, comprehension and retention of information benefit considerably from the use of situation models--coherent representations of the characters, locations, and activities described in the text. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the neural mechanisms supporting situation model processing. Participants read blocks of sentences that were either unrelated to one another or formed coherent narratives. A timecourse-based approach was used to identify regions that differentiated narrative-level comprehension from sentence-level comprehension. Most brain regions that showed modulation of activation during narrative-level comprehension were also modulated to a lesser extent during sentence-level comprehension, suggesting a shared reliance on general coherence-building mechanisms. However, tentative evidence was found for narrative-specific activation in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Additional analyses identified spatiotemporally distinct neural contributions to situation model processing, with posterior parietal regions supporting situation model construction and frontotemporal regions supporting situation model maintenance. Finally, a set of subsequent memory analyses demonstrated that the boost in comprehension and memory performance observed for coherent materials was attributable to the use of integrative situation models rather than lower-level differences in sentence-level or word-level encoding. These results clarify the functional contributions of distinct brain systems to situation model processing and their mapping onto existing psychological models of narrative comprehension. PMID:18499478

Yarkoni, Tal; Speer, Nicole K; Zacks, Jeffrey M

2008-07-15

243

A New Comprehensive Final Exam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instructors aspire for students to master all the material covered. The final exam should assess the breadth and depth of their learning and be a significant basis for the final grade. I insist on a comprehensive final because I want students to review early material in light of later topics. I believe that this helps students create connections, integrate understanding, and retain knowledge for the long term. For non-science majors, reviewing and retaining the large amount of astronomy material is daunting. I experimented with a final exam format that calmed their fears and encouraged thorough review. It is only practical for a class of about twenty students or less. I provided a number of challenging conceptual and problem solving questions (at least as many as there were students), crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. The order of the questions reflected the sequence in which the topics had been discussed. Students received these questions in ample time to prepare prior to the final. A student could bring up to 5 standard sheets of notes to the final. At the final, each student picked a number out of a hat. This was the question they had to answer in a 5-minute presentation. They were allowed 15 minutes for a final preparation during which they could use their 5 pages of notes. The presentations were given in order, 1- 20. Written comments on at least 10 other talks, explaining what was missed or correcting a mistake were required. They were graded both on their talk and on their comments. This format required students to be prepared for any question and encouraged interaction and communication while studying. Knowing the questions beforehand provided a guide to their studying as well as allayed their fears about what could be asked. The students also received guidance to what constituted a good answer, namely accuracy (correct scientific argument, appropriate facts, no irrelevant material), thoroughness (answered the complete questions, covered relevant material) and the quality of the presentation (polished, professional, use of demonstrations, graphs, pictures etc. and time appropriately to present a clear answer). I will describe this first attempt.

Bhavsar, Suketu P.

2015-01-01

244

Large mining blasts from the Kursk Mining Region, Russia  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at magnitude levels where industrial explosions (primarily, mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded, and may for some countries dominate the seismicity. Thus, data on blasting practice have both political significance for the negotiation of treaties involving seismic monitoring of nuclear tests, and operational applications in terms of establishing monitoring and inspection needs on a mine-by-mine basis. While it is generally accepted that mining explosions contribute to seismicity at lower seismic magnitudes (less than about magnitude 3.5), the rate of mining seismicity as a function of seismic magnitude is unknown for most countries outside the U.S. This results in a large uncertainty when estimating the task of discriminating nuclear explosions from chemical explosions and earthquakes, by seismic means, under a comprehensive nuclear test ban. This uncertainty directly affects estimates of seismic network enhancements required to achieve treaty verification requirements at magnitudes less than about 3.5. 24 refs., 64 figs., 11 tabs.

Leith, W. Adushkin, V.; Spivak, A.

1997-01-01

245

PMEL/Vents Ocean Acoustics Bob Dziak, Presenter  

E-print Network

shipping, possibly related to climate change)change) Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification (Dept of Energy)Nuclear in antiUsed in anti--submarine warfaresubmarine warfare PMEL Acoustics Project accessedPMEL Acoustics

246

Mycoinsecticides: comprehensive list and current status  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study aimed to assemble a comprehensive list of mycoinsecticides developed worldwide. A variety of sources, including scientific publications, personal communications, and websites from manufacturers and regulatory agencies, was accessed. During the last four decades, ca. 80 companies worldwide...

247

THE COMPREHENSIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA RESOURCE (CEDR)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) is a Department of Energy (DOE) public-use repository of data collected for DOE-sponsored epidemiologic, environmental, and related health studies....

248

75 FR 32169 - Comprehensive Centers Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal funds; and (b) The entities that are eligible for an award under the Comprehensive Centers program (i.e., research organizations, institutions, agencies, institutions of higher education, partnerships among such entities,...

2010-06-07

249

A History of Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A history of the development of rotorcraft comprehensive analyses is presented. Comprehensive analyses are digital computer programs that calculate the aeromechanical behavior of the rotor and aircraft, bringing together the most advanced models of the geometry, structure, dynamics, and aerodynamics available in rotary wing technology. The development of the major codes of the last five decades from industry, government, and universities is described. A number of common themes observed in this history are discussed.

Johnson, Wayne

2013-01-01

250

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2013-10-01

251

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2012-10-01

252

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2010-10-01

253

42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

2011-10-01

254

34 CFR 303.115 - Comprehensive child find system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Comprehensive child find system. 303.115 Section 303.115...System § 303.115 Comprehensive child find system. Each system must include a comprehensive child find system that meets the requirements...

2013-07-01

255

34 CFR 303.115 - Comprehensive child find system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Comprehensive child find system. 303.115 Section 303.115...System § 303.115 Comprehensive child find system. Each system must include a comprehensive child find system that meets the requirements...

2012-07-01

256

34 CFR 303.115 - Comprehensive child find system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Comprehensive child find system. 303.115 Section 303.115...System § 303.115 Comprehensive child find system. Each system must include a comprehensive child find system that meets the requirements...

2014-07-01

257

Working Memory and Reading Comprehension Guest Lecture by Cesare Cornoldi  

E-print Network

Working Memory and Reading Comprehension Guest Lecture by Cesare why Working Memory (WM) is critically involved in reading comprehension are involved in reading comprehension, with particular reference to the mechanisms

Rose, Michael R.

258

Using Automated Questions to Assess Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, and  

E-print Network

Using Automated Questions to Assess Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Effects of Tutorial, reading comprehension, vocabulary, multiple-choice cloze tests, embedded experiment, within on automatically generating questions to estimate children's reading comprehension and vocabulary for two purposes

Mostow, Jack

259

Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.  

PubMed

The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children. PMID:24647992

Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

2014-06-01

260

45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Comprehensive environmental evaluation...FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES...Comprehensive environmental evaluation...description of the methods and data used...the potential impacts of the...

2010-10-01

261

45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Comprehensive environmental evaluation...FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES...Comprehensive environmental evaluation...description of the methods and data used...the potential impacts of the...

2011-10-01

262

Nuclear Weapon  

MedlinePLUS

http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation What is a nuclear weapon? A nuclear weapon is a device that uses ... radioactive and can contaminate anything it lands on. NUCLEAR WEAPON What are the main dangers of a nuclear ...

263

Temporal dynamics of verbal object comprehension  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the stage composition and the temporal dynamics of human cognitive operations is critical for building theories of higher mental activity. This information has been difficult to acquire, even with different combinations of techniques such as refined behavioral testing, electrical recording/interference, and metabolic imaging studies. Verbal object comprehension was studied herein in a single individual, by using three tasks (object naming, auditory word comprehension, and visual word comprehension), two languages (English and Farsi), and four techniques (stimulus manipulation, direct cortical electrical interference, electrocorticography, and a variation of the technique of direct cortical electrical interference to produce time-delimited effects, called timeslicing), in a subject in whom indwelling subdural electrode arrays had been placed for clinical purposes. Electrical interference at a pair of electrodes on the left lateral occipitotemporal gyrus interfered with naming in both languages and with comprehension in the language tested (English). The naming and comprehension deficit resulted from interference with processing of verbal object meaning. Electrocorticography indices of cortical activation at this site during naming started 250–300 msec after visual stimulus presentation. By using the timeslicing technique, which varies the onset of electrical interference relative to the behavioral task, we found that completion of processing for verbal object meaning varied from 450 to 750 msec after current onset. This variability was found to be a function of the subject’s familiarity with the objects. PMID:9600995

Hart, John; Crone, Nathan E.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Sieracki, Jeffrey; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Hall, Charles; Sherman, David; Gordon, Barry

1998-01-01

264

Percutaneous comprehensive cryoablation for metastatic hepatocellular cancer.  

PubMed

Percutaneous ablation is the currently preferred locoregional therapy for non-resectable hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Cryoablation is an attractive option because it forms an ice ball viewable by many imaging methods. This study assessed the therapeutic effect of comprehensive cryoablation (of intra- and extrahepatic tumors) in patients with metastatic HCC. Forty-five patients met the inclusion criteria from January, 2004 to October, 2011. Treatment was performed on 33 patients; 12 patients received no treatment. Procedural safety and overall survival (OS) were assessed according to metastatic stage. The OS of patients who received comprehensive treatment was significantly longer than that of those who received no treatment (median: 26 vs. 3.5months, P<0.001). Large (?5cm long diameter) hepatic tumors were treated in advance with transarterial chemoembolization, but the OS of patients in the same metastatic stage was similar (P=0.0677). In the comprehensive cryoablation group, timely treatment (within 2months after diagnosis of metastatic HCC) was associated with a longer OS than when treatment was delayed for 3-7months (median: 38.5 vs. 21months, P=0.0167). Multiple treatments improved the survival of patients who received comprehensive treatment (P=0.0489). In terms of increasing the survival time of metastatic HCC patients, the effect of comprehensive cryosurgery was significant. Timely or multiple treatments had greater therapeutic effects than delayed or single treatment. PMID:23237910

Mu, Feng; Niu, Lizhi; Li, Haibo; Liao, Mengtian; Li, Li; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Jibing; Li, Jialiang; Zuo, Jiansheng; Xu, Kecheng

2013-02-01

265

Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties.  

PubMed

Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension difficulties in third grade. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children also received a 26-week Tier 2 language intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading was assessed at the end of second grade, and their performance in reading comprehension was measured as the end of third grade. Results showed that measures of language ability in kindergarten significantly added to the prediction of reading comprehension difficulties over and above kindergarten word reading predictors and direct measures of word reading in second grade. Response to language intervention also proved to be a unique predictor of reading comprehension outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the early identification of reading disabilities. PMID:25344060

Catts, Hugh W; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

2014-10-24

266

Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…

Ness, Molly

2011-01-01

267

Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first- through fifth-grade classrooms, a total of 751 minutes (or 25% of instructional time) was

Molly Ness

2011-01-01

268

Comparison of the Efficiency of Reading Comprehension Strategies on Iranian University Students' Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of the strategies used by English as a foreign language (EFL) or second language (ESL) readers can help instructors teach these techniques and thereby enhance their students' reading comprehension. The present study compared three categories of reading comprehension strategies (metacognitive, cognitive, and socio-affective) to determine…

Fotovatian, Sepideh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

2007-01-01

269

Improving Reading Comprehension by Predicting, Monitoring Comprehension, Remediation, and Personal Response Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving inconsistent reading comprehension. The targeted population consisted of first, third, and fifth grade classrooms in a diverse middle class community located in Illinois. The problems of low academic achievement were documented through teacher observation, reading comprehension test scores, and low…

Jacobucci, Leanne; Richert, Judy; Ronan, Susan; Tanis, Ariana

270

A language-specific comprehension strategy.  

PubMed

Infants acquire whatever language is spoken in the environment into which they are born. The mental capability of the newborn child is not biased in any way towards the acquisition of one human language rather than another. Because psychologists who attempt to model the process of language comprehension are interested in the structure of the human mind, rather than in the properties of individual languages, strategies which they incorporate in their models are presumed to be universal, not language-specific. In other words, strategies of comprehension are presumed to be characteristic of the human language processing system, rather than, say, the French, English, or Igbo language processing systems. We report here, however, on a comprehension strategy which appears to be used by native speakers of French but not by native speakers of English. PMID:6866110

Cutler, A; Mehler, J; Norris, D; Segui, J

271

Reading Comprehension and Understanding Idiomatic Expressions: A Developmental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a…

Chiara Levorato, Maria; Nesi, Barbara; Cacciari, Cristina

2004-01-01

272

Toward Measuring Program Comprehension with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

. This way, we hope to relate program comprehension to other cognitive processes (e.g., reading comprehensionToward Measuring Program Comprehension with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Janet Siegmund Program comprehension is an often evaluated, internal cog- nitive process. In neuroscience, functional

Kaestner, Christian

273

In Praise of Wiggle Room: Locating Comprehension in Unlikely Places  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension has often been conceptualized in ways that privilege either the "right" understanding of a text (comprehension-as-outcome), or getting to that "right" understanding (comprehension-as-procedure). This article makes a case that we should, instead, teach with an eye toward fostering comprehension-as-sense-making--a socially purposeful…

Aukerman, Maren

2008-01-01

274

ORIGINAL ARTICLE A comprehensive survey of soil  

E-print Network

variable across the soils examined, but correlated strongly with soil pH (R ¼ �0.80, Po0.001). Soil pH. Acidobacterial communities were more phylogenetically clustered as soil pH departed from neutrality, suggestingORIGINAL ARTICLE A comprehensive survey of soil acidobacterial diversity using pyrosequencing

Minnesota, University of

275

The Neural Substrates of Spoken Idiom Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the neural correlates of spoken idiom comprehension, we conducted an event-related functional MRI study with a "rapid sentence decision" task. The spoken sentences were equally familiar but varied in degrees of "idiom figurativeness". Our results show that "figurativeness" co-varied with neural activity in the left ventral dorsolateral…

Hillert, Dieter G.; Buracas, Giedrius T.

2009-01-01

276

Comprehensive Database on Concrete Creep and Shrinkage  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Database on Concrete Creep and Shrinkage Zdenek P. Bazant and Guang-Hua Li Structural Database on Concrete Creep and Shrinkage Zdenek P. Bazant1 and Guang-Hua Li2 Abstract: As a sequel to the first large database created at Northwestern University in 1978, the paper presents a further

277

Designing a Comprehensive School District Assessment Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a comprehensive assessment plan designed by the Kitsap (Washington) School District. This plan clarifies district assessment purposes and aligns student evaluation with the district's new performance-based content standards. The test provides a model for other districts seeking to integrate curriculum standards, instruction, and…

Elman, Linda; Chappuis, Stephen; Chappuis, Jan

1998-01-01

278

Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mobility is fundamental to active aging and is intimately linked to health status and quality of life. Although there is widespread acceptance regarding the importance of mobility in older adults, there have been few attempts to comprehensively portray mobility, and research has to a large extent been discipline specific. In this article, a new…

Webber, Sandra C.; Porter, Michelle M.; Menec, Verena H.

2010-01-01

279

A Comprehensive Model of the Supercomputer Workload  

E-print Network

1 A Comprehensive Model of the Supercomputer Workload Walfredo Cirne Universidade Federal da computer system, the performance of supercomputers depends upon the workloads that serve as their input. Unfortunately, however, there are many important aspects of the supercomputer workloads that have not been

Cirne, Walfredo

280

Drop Impact Reliability - A Comprehensive Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive summary of research activities focusing on the reliability of board level interconnections in drop impact, covering experimental work together with analytical and numerical modeling studies. These activities involve investigating (i) the dynamics of the PCB in product level and board level drop impact; (ii) the failure drivers: inertia force, differential flexing, and knocking; (iii) the

E. H. Wong; Y.-W. Mai; S. K. W. Seah; R. Rajoo; T. B. Lim; C. T. Lim; J. Field

2005-01-01

281

Higher Education in India: A Comprehensive Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a comprehensive bibliography of higher education in India. It constitutes a resource for scholars, policymakers, planners, and administrators concerned with higher education in India. The book contains 2,485 entries arranged under 50 themes. Each theme is classified into four types of material: books; articles; annotated…

Raza, Moonis; Malhotra, Nirmal

282

Comprehensive Family Services and Customer Satisfaction Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive Family Services (CFS) is a strengths-based and partnership-oriented approach to casework implemented through multiple initiatives. This study examines the relationship between the practice of CFS and satisfaction of clients, foster parents, and community partners. CFS indicators are paired with statewide customer satisfaction survey…

Huebner, Ruth A.; Jones, Blake L.; Miller, Viola P.; Custer, Melba; Critchfield, Becky

2006-01-01

283

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

2008-01-01

284

Evidence for Implicit Learning in Syntactic Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides evidence for implicit learning in syntactic comprehension. By reanalyzing data from a syntactic priming experiment (Thothathiri & Snedeker, 2008), we find that the error signal associated with a syntactic prime influences comprehenders' subsequent syntactic expectations. This follows directly from error-based implicit learning…

Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian

2013-01-01

285

ROTORCRAFT AEROMECHANICS APPLICATIONS OF A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II are presented, illustrating recent developments in the aerodynamics and dynamics models, and demonstrating the technology that is needed for an adequate calculation of rotorcraft behavior. Calculations of rotor performance, airloads, structural loads, and stability are presented, including comparisons with experimental data.

Wayne Johnson; Johnson Aeronautics

1998-01-01

286

Evaluation of a Comprehensive Juvenile Delinquency Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discribes a comprehensive juvenile delinquency diversion program serving a poverty community in a large urban center, and attempts to evaluate the problems and effects of the program. The target population was primarily minority-group truants, aged 10-15, who had been in trouble with the authorities. The program included recreational…

Young, Howard; And Others

287

Listening with Comprehension: A Systematic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paper reviewing the psychology and physiology of listening, the importance of attention to the listening skill in the foreign language curriculum, and strategies intended to engender in the learner the ability to listen with comprehension. Many sample exercises and a lengthy bibliography are included. (AMH)

Moore, Jean M.

1977-01-01

288

Career Education. The Comprehensive Curriculum. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and implementation of a comprehensive career education curriculum was the major purpose of a project conducted in the Cashmere and Peshastin-Dryden School Districts (Washington), K-12. The objectives of the project were divided into the following eight work areas: curriculum development; curriculum installation; advisor/advisee…

Peshastin-Dryden School District, WA.

289

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The Ohio State University Cancer Research Center was established in 1973 and received its NCI designation in April 1976 as a comprehensive cancer center (OSUCCC). The patient care arm of the OSUCCC is the Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute.

290

Morphology in Language Comprehension, Production and Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Special Issue on Morphological Processing is based on the sixth MOrphological PROcessing Conference (MOPROC), which was kept in June 2009 in Turku, Finland. The issue contains 13 articles by leading scholars in the field of morphological processing. These articles investigate the role morphemes play in language comprehension, production and…

Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka; Laine, Matti

2011-01-01

291

Comprehensive Planning in State Education Agencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume consists of papers by representatives from the six States comprising the Comprehensive Planning State Education Agencies Project (CPSEA). The first paper, by Bernarr S. Furse, outlines common elements appearing in one or more of the models developed by the project States. Everett W. Reimer then details the need for educational planning…

Furse, Bernarr S., Ed.; Wright, Lyle O., Ed.

292

Cultural Issues in Comprehensive School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the complex educational and social conditions facing African American males in public schools, highlighting the effectiveness of comprehensive school reform to overcome barriers to these students' learning (e.g, concentrated poverty, drug use, and violence). Discusses the importance of cultural relevance and teacher-student cultural…

Cooper, Robert; Jordan, Will J.

2003-01-01

293

Deep Read: a reading comprehension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper describes initial work on Deep Read , an automated reading comprehension system that accepts arbitrary text input (a story) and answers questions about it We have acquired a corpus of 60 development and 60 test stories of 3 to 6th grade material; each story is followed by short - answer questions (an answer key was also provided)

Lynette Hirschman; Marc Light; Eric Breck; John D. Burger

1999-01-01

294

Differential Word Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of vocabulary pre-instruction on reading comprehension. Two vocabulary training treatments, chosen on the basis of a theoretical framework for vocabulary instruction, and a control were used with 28 average fifth-grade readers. For two of three order groups, both training treatments produced significantly higher scores on passage tests, and, for all children, both training treatments produced

Steven Stahl

1983-01-01

295

Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because an adult's literacy is measured on different dimensions from a child's or youth's, several competency-based, standardized tests of literacy are commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy. Tests such as The Adult Basic Learning Examination (ABLE), Comprehension Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS), Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE), National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAALS),

Mike Hock; Daryl Mellard

2005-01-01

296

Coop-Dis-QA Reading Comprehension Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving students' reading comprehension is a pervading instructional challenge. Cooperative learning, discussion, and questioning strategies are several effective means to accomplish this. A new instructional technique, Cooperative Discussion and Questioning (Coop-Dis-Q) was developed by taking all three elements and incorporating them into one strategy. The premise is that the strength of each will augment the benefits of the other two,

2001-01-01

297

Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Product Innovation Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes factors that influence the quality of product innovation design, and proposes a method of combining the Analytical Hierarchy Process with Objective Tree method based on fuzzy mathematic theory. Then we put forward a delaminating multilevel fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method for the product innovative design. The square root method is applied to simplify the weight set of fuzzy

Chen Yao; Wang Yan-En

2010-01-01

298

Review of Comprehensive Sex Education Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation was undertaken by the Administration for Children and Families within the Department of Health and Human Services to inform federal policymakers of the content, medical accuracy, and effectiveness of comprehensive sex education (CSE) curricula currently in use. Nine curricula were chosen based on the frequency and strength of…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2007

2007-01-01

299

Towards a Framework for Characterising Concurrent Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes an evaluation framework for assessing students' comprehension of concurrent programs. The need for such a framework is illustrated by a review of various Computer Science Education forums. This review suggests that there is little pedagogical research in the area of concurrent software, particularly with respect to assessing…

Hughes, Connor; Buckley, Jim; Exton, Chris; O'Carroll, Des

2005-01-01

300

Object Orientation Affects Spatial Language Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process.…

Burigo, Michele; Sacchi, Simona

2013-01-01

301

Self and External Monitoring of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared the effectiveness of 2 approaches to remedy the inaccuracy of self-monitoring of reading comprehension. The first approach attempts to enhance self-monitoring by strengthening the cues utilized in monitoring. The second approach replaces self-monitoring with external regulation based on objective evaluative information.…

Shiu, Ling-po; Chen, Qishan

2013-01-01

302

A Comprehensive Analysis of Marketing Journal Rankings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive assessment of journal standings in Marketing from two perspectives. The discipline perspective of rankings is obtained from a collection of published journal ranking studies during the past 15 years. The studies in the published ranking stream are assessed for reliability by examining internal…

Steward, Michelle D.; Lewis, Bruce R.

2010-01-01

303

COMPREHENSIVE REFERENCE GUIDE (Last updated September 2007)  

E-print Network

, 1200­1214 (see p. 12). · Note that the journal Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics is abbreviated Annu- 1 - COMPREHENSIVE REFERENCE GUIDE (Last updated September 2007) The following are guidelines should catch any discrepancies. · Make sure that AMS reference titles are in AMS house style. · Do

304

Developing Comprehensive Musicianship with the Guitar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three teaching units are presented as models for integrating the guitar in a comprehensive musicianship program. Designed for high school or college level, each emphasizes composition and improvisation. The units deal with the use of tremolo, quartal harmonic structure, and variation technique. Selected readings, music, and recordings are listed.…

Zvengrowski, Steven T.

1980-01-01

305

A Language Teaching Strategy for Listening Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of listening comprehension skills in foreign language classes compared the level of retention achieved by students trained to listen and perform versus students trained to listen and observe. Physical movement during training was not shown to be a critical factor in achievement. However, the experiment revealed a significant difference in…

Maiztegui, Susana M.; Kestelman, Rosa

306

Metacognition and Reading Comprehension Skills. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposing that teachers can help children learn more effectively by promoting metacognition and the acquisition of problem solving strategies, this report describes research studying the effectiveness of the experimental curriculum, Informed Strategies for Learning (ISL), in increasing third and fifth grade students' reading comprehension skills.…

Paris, Scott G.

307

Self-Explanation Training Improves Proof Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we report 3 experiments demonstrating that a simple booklet containing self-explanation training, designed to focus students' attention on logical relationships within a mathematical proof, can significantly improve their proof comprehension. Experiment 1 demonstrated that students who received the training generated higher…

Hodds, Mark; Alcock, Lara; Inglis, Matthew

2014-01-01

308

INTRODUCTION Comprehension in Broca's Aphasia: Representational Considerations  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Comprehension in Broca's Aphasia: Representational Considerations Most Broca's aphasic-Line Analysis of Syntactic Processing in Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia E. ZURIF, * $ D. SWINNEY, # § P. PRATHER; $Aphasia Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine; ||Boston V. A. Medical Center; #University

309

On Linguistic Structure and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stella Center's belief in the basic importance of grammatical structure as a factor in reading comprehension substantiated the author's theory that the ability to comprehend syntactic structure is positively correlated with the ability to comprehend meaning. Original instruments devised to test this hypothesis included a test which utilized…

O'Donnell, Roy C.

310

Teaching Vocabulary To Improve Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the best available research, this publication describes the most effective methods of vocabulary instruction for the improvement of reading comprehension. Examples of useful approaches to vocabulary instruction aimed at students past the initial stages of reading are presented for use or adaptation by classroom teachers. The publication's…

Nagy, William E.

311

Comprehensive Plan 2020 La Grange, Texas  

E-print Network

. Goal 2: Preserve and promote the pleasant living conditions in the neighborhoods of La Grange. Objective 1: Officially identify the neighborhoods of La Grange. Objective 2: Promote and enforce minimum standards for property maintenance. Objective... Community Profile, La Grange Area Chamber of Commerce, January, 1997. Section 11 Historic Preservation City of La Grange 11-1 Comprehensive Plan 2020 HISTORIC PRESERVATION Introduction Historic preservation...

Pugh, David; Ellis, David; Ekroth, David; Slack, Janet; Battle, Lee; Kobal, Diane; Blom, Cindy; Dulyapraphant, Kongsak; Everidge, Rachel; Ford, Carl; Grady, Kevin; Lee, Yi-Jung; Mishima, Hirotaka; Robinson, Misti; Ordonez, Carlos; Paul, Keli; Towles, Virginia Sabia; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Williams, Sarah

1998-01-01

312

Contextualizing Laboratory Administered Aural Comprehension Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental test consisting of dialogue with intermittent pauses for responses and a white noise accompaniment was given to non-English speakers who were candidates for admission to the English Department at Bar Ilan University in order to evaluate aural comprehension. Development of the test and results are reported. (RM)

Seliger, Herbert W.; Whiteson, Valerie

1975-01-01

313

Validation and Comprehension: An Integrated Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I review and discuss the work presented in this special issue while focusing on a number of issues that warrant further investigation in validation research. These issues pertain to the nature of the validation processes, the processes and mechanisms that support validation during comprehension, the factors that influence…

Kendeou, Panayiota

2014-01-01

314

Lessons from a Comprehensive Performance Appraisal Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes lessons learned from a five-year comprehensive model evaluation program developed by school systems in Minnesota and Iowa. The learner's experience was planned through instructional and curriculum strategies. Performance criteria were established for teachers, and principals and students evaluated classrooms. Pre- and post-testing…

Manatt, Richard P.

1987-01-01

315

Cue-Dependent Interference in Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of interference as a primary determinant of forgetting in memory has long been accepted, however its role as a contributor to poor comprehension is just beginning to be understood. The current paper reports two studies, in which speed-accuracy tradeoff and eye-tracking methodologies were used with the same materials to provide converging…

Van Dyke, Julie A.; McElree, Brian

2011-01-01

316

Can Clone Detection Support Test Comprehension?  

E-print Network

Can Clone Detection Support Test Comprehension? Benedikt Hauptmann, Maximilian Junker, Sebastian¨unchen, Germany Rudolf Vaas Munich Re Group M¨unchen, Germany Abstract--Tests are central artifacts of software systems. Therefore, understanding tests is essential for activities such as maintenance, test automation

317

Kindergarten Activities Guide. Georgia Comprehensive Guidance Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is one of nine activity books designed to support a comprehensive developmental guidance program model developed to aid school planners and guidance personnel in the improvement of existing programs or the implementation of new programs. The model materials focus on program planning, staff development, guidance curriculum, and activity…

Monroe, Virginia; And Others

318

Information selection based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the modern information-based operational environment, the interface receives and processes more and more information, so organizing and selecting operational information in different combat missions are becoming more significant. Based on this background conditions, this paper sets up information selection evaluation index system, confirms the evaluation index weight by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and applies fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method

Feng Liying; Jiao Li; Xue Qing; Zhang Shi; Chen Jiayi; Xu Yiliu

2010-01-01

319

Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of district heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting the optimal type of district heating (DH) system is of great importance because different heating systems have different levels of efficiency, which will impact the system economics, environment and energy use. In this study, seven DH systems were analysed and evaluated by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The dimensionless number—goodness was introduced into the calculation, the economics, environment and

Bing Wei; Song-Ling Wang; Li Li

2010-01-01

320

Multilevel fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of power quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power quality (PQ) has assumed great importance in the past years in electrical system operation. Evaluation of PQ has become more and more crucial, especially when other PQ technologies have achieved great improvement. A multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation algorithm is proposed to evaluate PQ. The PQ standards of China are referenced and key factors that influence PQ are extracted. These

Yuan Xiaodong; Zhao Jianfeng; Tang Guoqing; Han Zhengzhong

2004-01-01

321

Pregnancy and addiction A comprehensive care model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of substance abuse in pregnancy is a major public health dilemma. Effective comprehensive care of drug addicted women has been shown to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. The Center for Addiction and Pregnancy (CAP) combines the disciplines of pediatrics, substance abuse treatment, obstetrics\\/gynecology, and family planning in an effort to reduce the barriers to care often presenting in

Lauren M. Jansson; Dace Svikis; Jana Lee; Patricia Paluzzi; Peter Rutigliano; Florence Hackerman

1996-01-01

322

Using Peer Tutors to Improve Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction" presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Applying techniques to…

LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

2010-01-01

323

Spirituality and Comprehensive School Counseling Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive school counseling programs (CSCPs) have evolved into well-articulated organizational frameworks that will successfully guide school counseling practice for years to come (American School Counselor Association [ASCA], 2003; Gysbers & Henderson, 2000, 2005). At their heart, CSCPs emphasize that as society and families continue to…

Sink, Christopher A.

2004-01-01

324

Web-Based CALL to Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated effectiveness of Web-based CALL on listening comprehension. Both students' academic performance and attitudes were examined. T-tests were used to analyze the results of students' academic performance. Descriptive statistics interpreted students' attitudes toward this learning. Students' participation was also recorded.…

Chen, Li-Mei; Zhang, Ruiming

2010-01-01

325

Comprehensive Achievements: All Our Geese Are Swans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools in England are radically changing their organization and governance, casting aside the founding principle of the 1944 Education Act that education is a public service and abandoning the ideal of education as nurturing a sense of community. This book presents a portrait of a successful comprehensive school, between the years 1980 and 2000.…

Imison, Tamsyn, Ed.; Heilbronn, Ruth, Ed.; Williams, Liz, Ed.

2013-01-01

326

Comprehensive Evaluation of Maritime Emergency Capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on detailed analysis of maritime emergency plans, maritime emergency evaluation index system is established. The index system is characterized by the complicated hierarchy structure and multiple index attributes, the improved fuzzy synthesize evaluation method is used to evaluate the maritime emergency plans comprehensively. Qualitative evaluation and quantitative evaluation are combined, and the reliability and accuracy of the evaluation results

Zhang Hao; Xiao Ying Jie; Yubin; Yang Xiao Jun

2010-01-01

327

Sex differences in second language comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have reported that females have higher average ability than males in second language learning in studies using children. We further investigated this issue by examining potential sex differences in second language ability in college students matched for the age of acquisition of the second language, the number of classes taken, working memory capacity, and English Reading Comprehension. The

Tabitha W. Payne; Richard Lynn

2011-01-01

328

Disfluencies, Language Comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disfluencies include editing terms such as "uh" and "um" as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and…

Ferreira, Fernanda; Lau, Ellen F.; Bailey, Karl G. D.

2004-01-01

329

The Dark Side of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), the focus of the January 2011 special issue of the "American Psychologist," is a $125 million resilience training initiative designed to reduce and prevent the adverse psychological consequences of combat for soldiers and veterans. These are worthy goals. Soldiers and veterans deserve the best care possible,…

Eidelson, Roy; Pilisuk, Marc; Soldz, Stephen

2011-01-01

330

Teaching Text Structure To Improve Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how to teach children with mild disabilities to identify the five different types of expository text structures: main idea, list, order, compare/contrast, and classification. It then explains a strategy for each text structure type that can be taught to children to improve comprehension in content area classes. (Contains…

Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Whedon, Craig K.

2002-01-01

331

Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

Connell, Louise

2007-01-01

332

Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies investigated the comprehension of sentences containing the focus particle "only" by children and adults. Contrary to previous findings, two of the studies found that young children made errors predominantly by failing to process contrast information rather than errors in which they failed to use syntactic information to restrict the…

Paterson, Kevin B.; Liversedge, Simon P.; Rowland, Caroline; Filik, Ruth

2003-01-01

333

Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

2007-01-01

334

A Comprehensive Enzyme Kinetic Exercise for Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme kinetics strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. Kinetic parameters are obtained for the stable…

Barton, Janice S.

2011-01-01

335

Using Image Analysis to Build Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content area reading remains a primary concern of history educators. In order to better prepare students for encounters with text, the authors propose the use of two image analysis strategies tied with a historical theme to heighten student interest in historical content and provide a basis for improved reading comprehension.

Brown, Sarah Drake; Swope, John

2010-01-01

336

Listening Skill Development through Massive Comprehensible Input.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreign language listening comprehension instruction too often relies on brief selections read aloud or sporadic teacher talk interspersed with native language (NL) utterances, which fail to provide sustained listening practice. NL is overused for grammar-related talk, reducing target language exposure, encouraging translation, and hindering…

Kalivoda, Theodore B.

337

Improving Early Reading Comprehension Using Embodied CAI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An embodied approach to reading comprehension suggests that emerging readers must learn to map words and phrases onto their remembered experiences, but this is made difficult by the necessity of focusing attention on decoding. Having children manipulate toys to correspond to what they are reading overcomes this problem, but introduces its own…

Glenberg, Arthur M.; Goldberg, Andrew B.; Zhu, Xiaojin

2011-01-01

338

Internet Inquiry: Fundamental Competencies for Online Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article showcases the online research and comprehension competencies students will need to successfully engage with Internet Inquiry. The Common Core State Standards, the research on new literacies skills, and the future of technology-based assessments require educators to fully take on the challenges of meaningfully embedding and supporting…

Kingsley, Tara; Tancock, Susan

2014-01-01

339

Nuclear sabotage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychology of attacks on nuclear facilities is considered. The following information is given in tabular form: attacks on nuclear installations and facilities; hoaxes and threats to nuclear installations or facilities; vandalism and sabotage at nuclear facilities; security breaches at nuclear installations and facilities; and U.S. companies fined for non-compliance with security regulations. (LK)

1976-01-01

340

Signatures of testing: On-site inspection technologies  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the phenomenology of nuclear explosions and technologies for their detection as relevant to On-Site Inspection (OSI) for a comprehensive test-ban (CTB). Our experience with the US nuclear test program which has been primarily carried out at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in the Pacific Ocean. The goals of OSI are to resolve ambiguous events, reduce uncertainty, deter attempts at evasion, and provide responsive and technically competent means of confirming the occurrence of a nuclear explosion should deterrence fail. These goals would include finding evidence of an evasive nuclear explosion or evidence that the event was non-nuclear, such as an earthquake or large chemical explosion.

Zucca, J.J.; Carrigan, C.; Goldstein, P.; Jarpe, S.P.; Sweeney, J.; Pickles, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wright, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-01-01

341

Fundamental deterrence and START III  

SciTech Connect

The public`s brief respite from the specter of nuclear holocaust abruptly ended in May 1998 when India, 24 years after its only successful nuclear weapon test, detonated five more just sixty miles from its border with Pakistan. Pakistan quickly declared itself a nuclear power and threatened tests of its own. Various capitals issued condemnations and an assortment of largely symbolic political and economic sanctions. India then proclaimed a moratorium on further testing and announced its willingness to accede to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty as a declared nuclear power. Inevitably, India`s tests will prompt Pakistan and China to accelerate their own nuclear programs, to the detriment of regional stability in South Asia.

Johnson, K.D.

1998-12-31

342

Special lecture in memory of Glenn Theodore Seaborg (19 April 1912 - 25 February 1999) Glenn T. Seaborg's multi-faceted career  

SciTech Connect

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-1999) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten US presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights his profound influence on nuclear science, both in the US and in the international community.

Hoffman, Darleane C.

2001-11-01

343

An assessment of antineutrino detection as a tool for monitoring nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The antineutrino is the only real-time nuclear signature from a fission explosion that propagates great distances through air, water, and ground. The size and sensitivity of antineutrino detectors has increased dramatically in the last decade, and will continue to do so in the next, thanks in part to the renewed interest in neutrino physics brought on by the recent discovery that neutrinos may have mass. The evolution of antineutrino detectors, and the evident interest of the signature as a means for monitoring nuclear tests motivates this review of the capabilities of existing and possible future detectors as test ban verification tools. The authors find that existing liquid scintillator ionization detectors, operating a few tens of meters below the Earth's surface and containing a few thousand tons of active material, could be used to monitor an area of a few square kilometers for nuclear explosions at the 1 kt level. Purified water Cerenkov detectors of sizes comparable to existing detectors (50,000 m{sup 3}) could be used to detect 1 kt explosions at distances of a few tens of kilometers. If neutron-absorbing dopants such as sodium chloride or gadolinium could be added to purified water, the resulting background reduction would allow extension of the range for sensitivity to a pulse of 10 antineutrino events from a 1 kt explosion out to approximately 1000 km. Beyond 1000 km, backgrounds from the world's nuclear reactors would become prohibitively large. The engineering hurdles for such detectors would be formidable. The size of a doped detector operating at the 100 km range, suitable for cooperative monitoring of existing nuclear test sites, is about 60 times that of the largest existing water detector, and would require a factor of several dozen more photomultiplier tubes than what is now used in large scale physics experiments. At a price per phototube of $1000, capital costs would amount to several billions of dollars, even for a detector at this modest range. This cost is perhaps the key obstacle to construction, along with excavation requirements and the requirement of high radiopurity for large volumes of water and dopant. Detectors sensitive to a 1 kt explosion at a few kilometer distance would still cost tens of millions of dollars, and are unlikely to be useful except in the context of confidence-building measures.

Adam Bernstein; Todd West; Vipin Gupta

1999-06-01

344

Nuclear Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection explores the state of the world's current nuclear arsenals, including those of the five acknowledged nuclear powers. India and Pakistan have not formally placed their nuclear arsenal on a delivery system.

Christopher Griffith

345

Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

Badawi, Ramsey D.

2001-01-01

346

Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation  

SciTech Connect

Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

Harada, Hideo [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2009-05-04

347

Investigating the causes of reading comprehension failure: The comprehension-age match design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reading-level (or reading-age) match design has become a widely-used tool for investigating the possible direction of the relation between particular skills and word reading ability: Cause or consequence. This paper outlines an analogous method for identifying can- didate causes of reading comprehension failure, the 'comprehension-age match design' and discusses the strengths and limitations of this design.

KATE CAIN; JANE OAKHILL; PETER BRYANT

2000-01-01

348

Digital Earth - Young generation's comprehension and ideas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors are experienced in working with children and students in the field of early warning and crises management and cartography. All these topics are closely connected to Digital Earth (DE) ideas. On the basis of a questionnaire, the young generation's comprehension of DE concept is clarified. Students from different age groups (from 19 to 36) from different countries and with different social, cultural, economical and political backgrounds are asked to provide definition of DE and describe their basic ideas about meaning, methodology and applications of the concept. The questions aim to discover the young generation's comprehension of DE ideas. They partially cover the newest trends of DE development like social, cultural and environmental issues as well as the styles of new communications (Google Earth, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.). In order to assure the future development of the DE science, it is important to take into account the young generation's expectations. Some aspects of DE development are considered in the Conclusions.

Bandrova, T.; Konecny, M.

2014-02-01

349

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

350

RNAdb - a comprehensive mammalian noncoding RNA database  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there have been increasing numbers of transcripts identified that do not encode proteins, many of which are developmentally regulated and appear to have regulatory functions. Here, we describe the construction of a comprehensive mam- malian noncoding RNA database (RNAdb) which containsover800uniqueexperimentallystudiednon- coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including many associated with diseases and\\/or developmental processes. The database is available at

Ken C. Pang; Stuart Stephen; Pär G. Engström; Khairina Tajul-arifin; Weisan Chen; Claes Wahlestedt; Boris Lenhard; Yoshihide Hayashizaki; John S. Mattick

2005-01-01

351

The comprehensiveness care of sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Millions of people across the world have sickle cell disease (SCD). Although the true prevalence of SCD in Europe is not certain, London (UK) alone had an estimated 9000 people with the disorder in 1997. People affected by SCD are best managed by a multidisciplinary team of professionals who deliver comprehensive care: a model of healthcare based on interaction of medical and non-medical services with the affected persons. The components of comprehensive care include patient/parent information, genetic counselling, social services, prevention of infections, dietary advice and supplementation, psychotherapy, renal and other specialist medical care, maternal and child health, orthopaedic and general surgery, pain control, physiotherapy, dental and eye care, drug dependency services and specialist sickle cell nursing. The traditional role of haematologists remains to co-ordinate overall management and liase with other specialities as necessary. Co-operation from the affected persons is indispensable to the delivery of comprehensive care. Working in partnership with the hospital or community health service administration and voluntary agencies enhances the success of the multidisciplinary team. Holistic care improves the quality of life of people affected by SCD, and reduces the number as well as length of hospital admissions. Disease-related morbidity is reduced by early detection and treatment of chronic complications. Comprehensive care promotes awareness of SCD among affected persons who are encouraged to take greater control of their own lives, and achieves better patient management than the solo efforts of any single group of professionals. This cost-effective model of care is an option for taking haemoglobinopathy services forward in the new millennium. PMID:12068796

Okpala, Iheanyi; Thomas, Veronica; Westerdale, Neil; Jegede, Tina; Raj, Kavita; Daley, Sadie; Costello-Binger, Hilda; Mullen, Jean; Rochester-Peart, Collis; Helps, Sarah; Tulloch, Emense; Akpala, Mary; Dick, Moira; Bewley, Susan; Davies, Mark; Abbs, Ian

2002-03-01

352

Pediatric cervical spine injuries: a comprehensive review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Cervical spine injuries can be life-altering issues in the pediatric population. The aim of the present paper was to review\\u000a this literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusions  A comprehensive knowledge of the special anatomy and biomechanics of the spine of children is essential in diagnosis and treating\\u000a issues related to spine injuries.

Martin Mortazavi; Pankaj A. Gore; Steve Chang; R. Shane Tubbs; Nicholas Theodore

2011-01-01

353

Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance, atmospheric effects, economic Mach number and noise trajectories at F.A.R. landing points.

Filippone, Antonio

2008-04-01

354

Characterizing Reading Comprehension of Mathematical Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares reading comprehension of three different texts: two mathematical texts and one historical text. The two\\u000a mathematical texts both present basic concepts of group theory, but one does it using mathematical symbols and the other only\\u000a uses natural language. A total of 95 upper secondary and university students read one of the mathematical texts and the historical\\u000a text.

Magnus Österholm

2006-01-01

355

Leveraging bilingualism to accelerate English reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine how fourth-grade Spanish–English speaking bilingual students in the USA participated differently in English-as-a-second-language (ESL) literature groups when they were invited to use all of their linguistic resources vs. when they were restricted to communicate in English only. The theoretical underpinning was that a student's learning burden is lessened when text comprehension is

Susan Hopewell

2011-01-01

356

A comprehensive human chromosome 21 database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a new, comprehensive, user-friendly chromosome 21 database driven by a built-in protein interaction prediction tool based on Markov random field (MRF) and GeneQuest, a novel easy-to-use user interface. The database contains a wide range of data including both in-house generated data (i.e., chromosome 21 orthologs) and data collected from other existing chromosome 21 databases (i.e., protein interactions,

Cao Nguyen; Supphachai Thaicharoen; Thomas Lacroix; Katheleen Gardiner; KRZYSZTOF J. CIOS

2007-01-01

357

Hand specific representations in language comprehension  

PubMed Central

Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand) is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested self-reported right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences—a dominant hand effect. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a) language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b) language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience. PMID:24917803

Moody-Triantis, Claire; Humphreys, Gina F.; Gennari, Silvia P.

2014-01-01

358

Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) convened a "Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer" workshop in Washington, D.C. This workshop brought together physicians, basic scientists and other members of the U.S. and international cancer communities to assist in outlining the most effective strategies for the development of a successful project. Information about this workshop is reported in the Executive Summary.

359

A comprehensive model of PMOS NBTI degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative bias temperature instability has become an important reliability concern for ultra-scaled Silicon IC technology with significant implications for both analog and digital circuit design. In this paper, we construct a comprehensive model for NBTI phenomena within the framework of the standard reaction-diffusion model. We demonstrate how to solve the reaction-diffusion equations in a way that emphasizes the physical aspects

M. A. Alam; S. Mahapatra

2005-01-01

360

Evaluation of a comprehensive pedestrian safety initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project implemented a comprehensive pedestrian safety program to reduce deaths and injuries among pedestrians in a large urban environment (Miami-Dade County, Florida). High-crash locations were targeted for countermeasure implementation and analysis. Using pedestrian crash data (1996–2001), four zones within the county were identified as having abnormally high pedestrian crash experiences. Based on crash characteristics and pedestrian factors (age, ethnicity),

M E Vegega; C V Zegeer

2010-01-01

361

A comprehensive datamodel for karyological databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project-independent data model for the entire range of karyological information provides a comprehensive picture of all data items presently used in karyological research and characterizes their logical inter-relation. It is presented in the form of a hierarchical decomposition of the subject matter down to attribute-level data items. The applied analytical methods are relevant for the structuring of information in

W. G. Berendsohn; J. Greilhuber; A. Anagnostopoulos; G. Bedini; J. Jakupovic; P. L. Nimis; B. Valdés

1997-01-01

362

Comprehensive Performance Tracking with Vampir 7  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Vampir 7 is a performance visualization tool that provides a comprehensive view on the runtime behavior of parallel programs.\\u000a It is a new member of the Vampir tool family. This new generation of performance visualizer combines state-of-the-art parallel\\u000a data processing techniques with an all-new graphical user interface experience. This includes fast local and remote event\\u000a data browsing, searching, filtering, clustering, and

Holger Brunst; Daniel Hackenberg; Guido Juckeland; Heide Rohling

2010-01-01

363

Nuclear Facilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to produce nuclear weapons, each country must have facilities to produce and refine the nuclear materials, conduct research on weapon design, and store the completed weapons. The interactives in this collection allow you to explore the nuclear facilities of the nuclear powers (both declared and undeclared).

Christopher Griffith

364

Nuclear Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to nuclear fission, its controlled release in power stations, problems of nuclear waste, and nuclear accidents. A linked web page discusses nuclear weapons, their effect, their ban, and "dirty bombs". This material supplements a previous section on fission in the Sun and the curve of binding energy in "From Stargazers to Starships". A French translation also exists.

Stern, David

2004-11-28

365

Comprehension by College Students of Time-compressed Lectures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study has assessed the comprehension by 200 Brooklyn College students of a one-hour lecture at 175 wpm as compared with their comprehension of an equated time-compressed lecture at 275 wpm. (Author)

Adelson, Loretta

1975-01-01

366

34 CFR 303.165 - Comprehensive child find system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Comprehensive child find system. 303.165 Section 303.165 Education Regulations...System-Application Requirements § 303.165 Comprehensive child find system. Each application must include— (a) The...

2011-07-01

367

34 CFR 303.165 - Comprehensive child find system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comprehensive child find system. 303.165 Section 303.165 Education Regulations...System-Application Requirements § 303.165 Comprehensive child find system. Each application must include— (a) The...

2010-07-01

368

Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling 9 cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts: Less than one percent of first- through third-grade students who scored as poor in reading comprehension were adequate in both decoding and vocabulary. Although poor reading comprehension certainly qualifies as a major problem rather than a myth, the term specific reading comprehension disability is a misnomer: Individuals with problems in reading comprehension that are not attributable to poor word recognition have comprehension problems that are general to language comprehension rather than specific to reading. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. PMID:25143666

Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

2013-01-01

369

Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling 9 cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts: Less than one percent of first- through third-grade students who scored as poor in reading comprehension were adequate in both decoding and vocabulary. Although poor reading comprehension certainly qualifies as a major problem rather than a myth, the term specific reading comprehension disability is a misnomer: Individuals with problems in reading comprehension that are not attributable to poor word recognition have comprehension problems that are general to language comprehension rather than specific to reading. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. PMID:25143666

Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K

2014-02-01

370

Tomato Functional Genomics Database: a comprehensive resource and analysis package  

E-print Network

Tomato Functional Genomics Database: a comprehensive resource and analysis package for tomato, 2010 ABSTRACT Tomato Functional Genomics Database (TFGD) provides a comprehensive resource to store, query, mine, analyze, visualize and integrate large-scale tomato functional genomics data sets

Klee, Harry J.

371

76 FR 61103 - Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative AGENCY: Centers for Medicare...notice announces a solicitation for health care payer organizations to participate in the Comprehensive Primary Care initiative (CPC), a multipayer...

2011-10-03

372

Treaty review: Deadlock damages nonproliferation  

SciTech Connect

To the chagrin of the vast majority of the 84 participating signatory governments, the 1990 Geneva conference to review the implementation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) ended without adopting a final declaration reaffirming the parties' common commitment to the accord. In the early hours of September 15, 1990, Mexico insisted that the declaration include wording on a comprehensive nuclear test ban that was unacceptable to the United States. To achieve the consensus needed to ratify the final document, many parties were prepared to accept compromise language pushed by the U.S. on the test ban issue, according to Western sources. Yet, no final consensus emerged and, in keeping with the practice at past review conferences, no vote was taken. All conference participants had also reached informal agreement on numerous declarations supporting the treaty and endorsing important new steps to strengthen nuclear export standards and to expand the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. The Western bloc, with the support of the Soviet Union and its former allies, pressed for consensus to insure that these elements would be formally adopted. Who won and who lost The United States and Mexico both gained, although far less than each had hoped. In the end, the international nonproliferation regime suffered the most serious losses. 6 refs.

Spector, L.S.; Smith, J.R. (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-12-01

373

Comprehensive Fuel Cycle - Community Perspective - 13093  

SciTech Connect

Should a five-county region surrounding the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site ('SRS') use its assets to help provide solutions to closing the nation's nuclear fuel cycle? That question has been the focus of a local ad hoc multi-disciplinary community task force (Tier I) that has been at work in recent months outlining issues and identifying unanswered questions to determine if assuming a leadership role in closing the nuclear fuel cycle is in the community's interest. If so, what are the terms and conditions under which we the community would agree to participate? Our starting point was the President's Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future ('Commission') which made a total of eight (8) recommendations in its final report. There are several recommendations that are directly relevant to the Tier I group and potential efforts of the Region. These are the 'consent-based approach', the creation of an independent nuclear waste management entity funded from the existing nuclear waste fee; the 'prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities', and 'continued U.S. innovation in nuclear energy technology and for workforce development'. (authors)

McLeod, Richard V. [Savannah River Community Reuse Organization, P.O. Box 696, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)] [Savannah River Community Reuse Organization, P.O. Box 696, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Frazier, Timothy A. [Dickstein Shapiro LLP, 1825 Eye Street NW, Washington, DC, 20006-5403 (United States)] [Dickstein Shapiro LLP, 1825 Eye Street NW, Washington, DC, 20006-5403 (United States)

2013-07-01

374

PHYSICS 237 SPRING 2006 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics  

E-print Network

PHYSICS 237 SPRING 2006 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics BOOKS ON RESERVE IN CRERAR LIBRARY to High Energy Physics QC793.2 .P47 2000 E. Segré Nuclei and Particles QC776.S40 A. Seiden Particle Physics: A Comprehensive Introduction QC793.2 .S42 2005 W. S. C. Williams Nuclear and Particle Physics QC

375

Politics of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

Colglazier, E.W. Jr. (eds.)

1982-01-01

376

Differences in Cognitive Style and Student Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study replicated a study done in 1986: both studies determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, and the relationship between hemispheric preference and reading comprehension or gender. A standardized reading test to measure reading comprehension and the Cognitive…

Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David

377

A Case for the Sentence in Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article addresses sentence comprehension as a requirement of reading comprehension within the framework of the narrow view of reading that was advocated in the prologue to this forum. The focus is on the comprehension requirements of complex sentences, which are characteristic of school texts. Method: Topics included in this…

Scott, Cheryl M.

2009-01-01

378

Margaret Miles: The Educational Journey of a Comprehensive School Campaigner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a former comprehensive school pupil herself, the author wanted to know more about the women who had pioneered comprehensive schools in England. Therefore, she chose the headmistress and comprehensive school campaigner Dame Margaret Miles (1911-1994) as the subject of a dissertation for her History of Education MA at the Institute of Education,…

Hoare, Lottie

2012-01-01

379

Reading Comprehension: What Every Teacher Needs to Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author proposes ten principles through which she examines the essentials of teaching reading comprehension. Topics explored include the nature of reading comprehension and the roles of good readers and influential teachers. Related issues include motivation, comprehension strategies, explicit instruction, and vocabulary.…

McLaughlin, Maureen

2012-01-01

380

Program Comprehension through Software Habitability Richard Wettel and Michele Lanza  

E-print Network

reading and writing code. This may take months or years, and since program comprehension is usuallyProgram Comprehension through Software Habitability Richard Wettel and Michele Lanza Faculty of Informatics - University of Lugano, Switzerland Abstract The comprehensive understanding of a large software

Lanza, Michele

381

Brain Activation during Sentence Comprehension among Good and Poor  

E-print Network

comprehension task among good and poor readers in the third (n 5 32) and fifth (n 5 35) grades. Reading ability struggling readers during a higher-level reading comprehension task (Seki et al. 2001 report a smallBrain Activation during Sentence Comprehension among Good and Poor Readers Ann Meyler1 , Timothy A

382

Modeling Biological Processes for Reading Comprehension Jonathan Berant  

E-print Network

Modeling Biological Processes for Reading Comprehension Jonathan Berant , Vivek Srikumar , Pei, reading a single document (micro-reading) to answer comprehension ques- tions that require deep reasoning reading comprehension questions that test understanding of the underlying structure. In par- ticular, we

383

Why Reading Comprehension Fails: Insights from Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental difficulties with reading comprehension are not uncommon. This article examines the nature of reading comprehension deficits in three groups of children: children identified as having relatively specific impairments in reading comprehension, children with autism spectrum disorder, and children with specific language impairment. The…

Nation, Kate; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

2005-01-01

384

The effects of participation in literature circles on reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research supports that comprehension is a vital component of reading and life-long literacy, and there are many instructional approaches for teaching reading comprehension. Literature circles are a popular approach which are widely used but have not yet been studied empirically. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of participation in literature circles on the reading comprehension of

Jodi Crum Marshall

2006-01-01

385

The Effects of Participation in Literature Circles on Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research supports that comprehension is a vital component of reading and life-long literacy, and there are many instructional approaches for teaching reading comprehension. Literature circles are a popular approach which are widely used but have not yet been studied empirically. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of participation in literature circles on the reading comprehension of

Jodi Crum Marshall

2006-01-01

386

Promoting Different Reading Comprehension Levels through Online Annotations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have evaluated reading comprehension as the general understanding of reading texts. However, this broad and generic assessment of reading comprehension overlooks the specific aspects and processes that students need to develop. This study adopted Kintsch's Construction-Integration model to tap into reading comprehension at…

Tseng, Sheng-Shiang; Yeh, Hui-Chin; Yang, Shih-hsien

2015-01-01

387

Second Language Sentence Processing in Reading for Comprehension and Translation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A self-paced reading and translation task was used with learners of English as a second language (L2) to explore what sorts of information L2 learners use during online comprehension compared to native speakers, and how task (reading for comprehension vs. translation) and proficiency affect L2 comprehension. Thirty-six Korean native speakers of…

Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

2013-01-01

388

An improved multilevel fuzzy comprehensive evaluation algorithm for security performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is of great importance to take various factors into account when evaluating the network security performance. Multilevel fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is a relatively valid method. However, the traditional multilevel fuzzy comprehensive evaluation algorithm relies on the expert's knowledge and experiences excessively, and the result of the evaluation is usually less accurate. In this article, an improved multilevel fuzzy comprehensive

Ling-juan LI; Ling-tong SHEN

2006-01-01

389

Nuclear physics aspects of double beta decay  

E-print Network

Comprehensive description of the phenomenology of the $\\beta\\beta$ decay is given, with emphasis on the nuclear physics aspects. After a brief review of the neutrino oscillation results and of motivation to test the lepton number conservation, the mechanism of the $0\

Petr Vogel

2008-07-15

390

NuclearHydrogen Oil and gas  

E-print Network

in Hydrogen Fuel Cell Research, which draws upon the strengths of the country's most comprehensive HydrogenPolicy NuclearHydrogen Transport Education Oil and gas Distribution Society Supply Ecology Demand Materials Bio-energyEnvironment Manufacturing Efficiency Research Industry Collaboration Optimisation Global

Birmingham, University of

391

Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program  

SciTech Connect

The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." This paper will describe some of the key elements of a comprehensive, sustainable nuclear security culture enhancement program and how implementation can mitigate the insider threat.

Crawford,C.; de Boer,G.; De Castro, K; Landers, Ph.D., J; Rogers, E

2009-10-19

392

Investigating the contributions of background knowledge and reading comprehension strategies to L2 reading comprehension: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a number of studies have investigated the influence of background knowledge and reading comprehension strategies on\\u000a comprehension, no L2 research exists examining and comparing the unique contributions of these two variables examined together.\\u000a Therefore, the purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the combined and individual contributions of background\\u000a knowledge and reading comprehension strategies to reading comprehension. Data

Levi McNeil

393

Effects of Print-Storybooks and E-Storybooks with Reading Comprehension Strategies on Fifth Graders’ Reading Comprehension Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The goal of the study was to develop the instruction module of the e-storybooks reading comprehension in the elementary school\\u000a and test the effect of the instruction module of the e-storybooks reading comprehension. This study was to compare the influences\\u000a of print-storybooks and the instruction module of the e-storybooks reading comprehension among the fifth graders’ reading\\u000a comprehension ability. The results

Hsiu-Shuang Huang; Shang-Liang Chen; Yea-Mei Leou; Ho-Chuan Huang; Ching-Yu Yeh; Yun-Yao Chen; Chun-Lien Chen; Ya-Ying Tseng

394

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

SciTech Connect

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

Huebner, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohletz, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, L N [SMD; Boice, D C [SWR; Chocron, S [SWRI; Ghosh, A [SWRI; Goldstein, R [SWRI; Mukerherjee, J [SWRI; Patrick, W [SWRI; Walker, J D [SWRI

2008-01-01

395

Fast, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

The absolute need to improve the separating power of liquid chromatography, especially for multi-constituent biological samples, is becoming increasingly evident. In response, over the past few years, there has been a great deal of interest in the development of two dimension liquid chromatography (2DLC). Just as 1DLC is preferred to 1DGC based on its compatibility with biological materials we believe that ultimately 2DLC will be preferred to the much more highly developed 2DGC for such samples. The huge advantage of 2D chromatographic techniques over 1D methods is inherent in the tremendous potential increase in peak capacity (resolving power). This is especially true of comprehensive 2D chromatography wherein it is possible, under ideal conditions, to obtain a total peak capacity equal to the product of the peak capacities of the first and second dimension separations. However, the very long timescale (typically several hours to tens of hours) of comprehensive 2DLC is clearly its chief drawback. Recent advances in the use of higher temperatures to speed up isocratic and gradient elution liquid chromatography have been used to decrease the time needed to do the second dimension LC separation of 2DLC to about 20 seconds for a full gradient elution run. Thus fast, high temperature LC is becoming a very promising technique. Peak capacities of over 2000 and rates of peak capacity production of nearly 1 peak/s have been achieved. In consequence, many real samples showing more than 200 peaks with signal to noise ratios of better than 10:1 have been run in total times of under 30 minutes. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive review of 2DLC, but is deliberately focused on the issues involved in doing fast 2DLC by means of elevating the column temperature; however, many issues of broader applicability will be discussed. PMID:17888443

Stoll, Dwight R.; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoli; Carr, Peter W.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rutan, Sarah C.

2011-01-01

396

Creating a comprehensive bicycle safety program.  

PubMed

Trauma centers must play a role in injury prevention. Pediatric trauma centers have the ability to create injury prevention programs targeting all children. After analyzing our trauma registry data, we determined that bicycle injuries are a significant mechanism of injury in children and developed strategies aimed at preventing such injuries. Along with support from Kohl's Cares, we are able to achieve our mission of keeping children in our community healthy and safe. Our comprehensive bicycle safety program is targeted to various ages and learning styles and aims to increase bicycle safety and helmet use among children in our region. PMID:25397340

Elwell, Sean; Kulp, Heather; McCue, Jennifer

2014-01-01

397

Tier-2 System Administration: A Comprehensive Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liverpool is consistently amongst the top Tier-2 sites in Europe in terms of efficiency and cluster utilisation. This paper will cover the work performed at Liverpool over the last six years to maximise and maintain efficiency and productivity at their Tier 2 site, with an overview of the tools used (including established, emerging, and locally developed solutions) for monitoring, testing, installation, configuration, ticketing, logging, and administration, along with the techniques for management, operations, and optimisation that tie them together into a comprehensive, scalable, and sustainable approach to Tier 2 administration.

Bland, J.; Fay, R. B.; Jones, S. H.; Norman, M. J.

2014-06-01

398

Reading Comprehension Items on the SAT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by David B. Howell of the University of Vermont, this correlation and regression example compares performance on reading comprehension questions to performance on the SAT. It also compares those who read the passage referred to by the questions to those who did not. The author provides a detailed examination of the topic and then follows it up with the actual data sets behind the problem. The exercise also presents questions and the subsequent answers are also provided. This is an interesting case study which allows students to explore the workings of applied statistical research.

Howell, David

2009-02-24

399

Towards a Framework for Characterising Concurrent Comprehension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an evaluation framework for assessing students' comprehension of concurrent programs. The need for such a framework is illustrated by a review of various Computer Science Education forums. This review suggests that there is little pedagogical research in the area of concurrent software, particularly with respect to assessing students' knowledge. In particular, the proposed framework attempts to categorize the types of information students seek and the types of information they obtain, as they learn about concurrent software. Thus the framework could be used to guide teaching methods in this area, to hone the representations used to portray concurrent software to students and subsequently, to assess students' performance.

Hughes, Connor; Buckley, Jim; Exton, Chris; O'Carroll, Des; SVCR Group

2005-03-01

400

Comprehensive imaging of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons.  

PubMed

A comprehensive system with a high speed is built for imaging the terahertz (THz) surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Both the amplitude and the phase information of the focusing THz-SPPs excited by a semicircular plasmonic lens are achieved by using this system. The amplitude images present the focusing profiles of the THz-SPPs with different frequencies and the phase images reveal the Gouy phase shift as the THz-SPPs evolving through the focus. The simulations are also performed and a good agreement between the experimental and simulated results has been found. PMID:25090508

Wang, Sen; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Xinke; Qu, Shiliang; Zhang, Yan

2014-07-14

401

BRENDA: The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BRENDA is a comprehensive database of enzymes maintained by the Institute of Biochemistry at the University of Cologne. Scientists collect and evaluate enzyme function data from primary literature sources. The site has recently been updated with new enzymes and an entirely new search engine. Various searches can be performed, including enzyme name, organism, or EC number. Links to literature citations, two dimensional images, and other databases are included for many of the enzymes. Academic and nonprofit use is free; commercial users must acquire a license.

2002-01-01

402

BRENDA: The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BRENDA is a comprehensive database of enzymes maintained by the Institute of Biochemistry at the University of Cologne. Scientists collect and evaluate enzyme function data from primary literature sources. The site has recently been updated with new enzymes and an entirely new search engine. Various searches can be performed, including enzyme name, organism, or EC number. Links to literature citations, two dimensional images, and other databases are included for many of the enzymes. Academic and nonprofit use is free; commercial users must acquire a license.

2007-07-20

403

Reading Comprehension of Scientific Text: A Domain-Specific Test of the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension

Cromley, Jennifer G.; Snyder-Hogan, Lindsey E.; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A.

2010-01-01

404

High and Low Reading Comprehension Achievers' Strategic Behaviors and Their Relation to Performance in a Reading Comprehension Situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at investigating the actual strategic behaviors of high and low achievers in reading comprehension and their relation with respective performance. The participants were 45 individually examined third graders, 20 high and 25 low reading comprehension achievers. Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of the participants' strategic behaviors during text comprehension was directly recorded by two observers by means

Irini Dermitzaki; Georgia Andreou; Violetta Paraskeva

2008-01-01

405

Reading Comprehension of Scientific Text: A Domain-Specific Test of the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007) with 737 students in an introductory biology course required

Jennifer G. Cromley; Lindsey E. Snyder-Hogan; Ulana A. Luciw-Dubas

2010-01-01

406

A Comprehensive Validation Methodology for Sparse Experimental Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive program of verification and validation has been undertaken to assess the applicability of models to space radiation shielding applications and to track progress as models are developed over time. The models are placed under configuration control, and automated validation tests are used so that comparisons can readily be made as models are improved. Though direct comparisons between theoretical results and experimental data are desired for validation purposes, such comparisons are not always possible due to lack of data. In this work, two uncertainty metrics are introduced that are suitable for validating theoretical models against sparse experimental databases. The nuclear physics models, NUCFRG2 and QMSFRG, are compared to an experimental database consisting of over 3600 experimental cross sections to demonstrate the applicability of the metrics. A cumulative uncertainty metric is applied to the question of overall model accuracy, while a metric based on the median uncertainty is used to analyze the models from the perspective of model development by analyzing subsets of the model parameter space.

Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

2010-01-01

407

A comprehensive metabolite profiling of Isatis tinctoria leaf extracts.  

PubMed

A broad-based characterisation of a pharmacologically active dichloromethane extract from Isatis tinctoria leaves was carried out. For a comprehensive picture we also included the polar constituents of I. tinctoria (MeOH extract) and for comparative purposes, the taxonomically closely related plant I. indigotica. Diode array detector, evaporative light scattering detector, atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry, and electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry detectors were used in parallel to ensure a wide coverage of secondary metabolites with highly diverging analytical properties. Off-line microprobe nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy after peak purification by semi-preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography served for structure elucidation of some minor constituents. More than 65 compounds belonging to various structural classes such as alkaloids, flavonoids, fatty acids, porphyrins, lignans, carotenoids, glucosinolates and cyclohexenones were unambiguously identified, and tentative structures were proposed for additional compounds. Numerous compounds were identified for the first time in the genus Isatis, and an indolic alkaloid was discovered. PMID:19467550

Mohn, Tobias; Plitzko, Inken; Hamburger, Matthias

2009-05-01

408

Comprehensive NMR Analysis of Compositional Changes of Black Garlic during Thermal Processing.  

PubMed

Black garlic is a processed food product obtained by subjecting whole raw garlic to thermal processing that causes chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which change the composition of the garlic. In this paper, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of raw garlic and black garlic extracts to determine the compositional changes resulting from thermal processing. (1)H NMR spectra with a detailed signal assignment showed that 38 components were altered by thermal processing of raw garlic. For example, the contents of 11 l-amino acids increased during the first step of thermal processing over 5 days and then decreased. Multivariate data analysis revealed changes in the contents of fructose, glucose, acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, cycloalliin, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF). Our results provide comprehensive information on changes in NMR-detectable components during thermal processing of whole garlic. PMID:25549134

Liang, Tingfu; Wei, Feifei; Lu, Yi; Kodani, Yoshinori; Nakada, Mitsuhiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

2015-01-21

409

NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

NONE

1998-02-01

410

A Comprehensive Review of Hypertension in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy. Hypertensive disorders are one of the major causes of pregnancy-related maternal deaths in the United States. We will present a comprehensive update of the literature pertinent to hypertension in pregnancy. The paper begins by defining and classifying hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The normal vascular and renal physiological changes which occur during pregnancy are detailed. We will summarize the intriguing aspects of pathophysiology of preeclampsia, emphasizing on recent advances in this field. The existing diagnostic tools and the tests which have been proposed for screening preeclampsia are comprehensively described. We also highlight the short- and long-term implications of preeclampsia. Finally, we review the current management guidelines, goals of treatment and describe the potential risks and benefits associated with various antihypertensive drug classes. Preeclampsia still remains an enigma, and the present management focuses on monitoring and treatment of its manifestations. We are hopeful that this in depth critique will stimulate the blossoming research in the field and assist practitioners to identify women at risk and more effectively treat affected individuals. PMID:22685661

Mustafa, Reem; Ahmed, Sana; Gupta, Anu; Venuto, Rocco C.

2012-01-01

411

A Comprehensive Review of Retinal Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Blindness, although not life threatening, is a debilitating disorder for which few, if any treatments exist. Ocular gene therapies have the potential to profoundly improve the quality of life in patients with inherited retinal disease. As such, tremendous focus has been given to develop such therapies. Several factors make the eye an ideal organ for gene-replacement therapy including its accessibility, immune privilege, small size, compartmentalization, and the existence of a contralateral control. This review will provide a comprehensive summary of (i) existing gene therapy clinical trials for several genetic forms of blindness and (ii) preclinical efficacy and safety studies in a variety of animal models of retinal disease which demonstrate strong potential for clinical application. To be as comprehensive as possible, we include additional proof of concept studies using gene replacement, neurotrophic/neuroprotective, optogenetic, antiangiogenic, or antioxidative stress strategies as well as a description of the current challenges and future directions in the ocular gene therapy field to this review as a supplement. PMID:23358189

Boye, Shannon E; Boye, Sanford L; Lewin, Alfred S; Hauswirth, William W

2013-01-01

412

Comprehensive environmental assessment and response program  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's (USDOE) Albuquerque Operations Office installations are being evaluated under its Comprehensive Environmental Assessment and Response program (CEARP). The installations consist of eight weapons development and production facilities, which are located across the United States. The evaluation covers the major environmental regulations, with emphasis on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The CEARP is intended to help fulfill USDOE obligations for federal facilities under the US Environmental Protection Agency (CERCLA Program and constitutes the same basic approach as contained in USEPA guidance to federal facilities. The Program is a phased program to identify, assess, and correct existing and potential environmental concerns relative to these regulations. The five phases are Phase I - Installation Assessment, Phase II - Confirmation, Phase III - Technological Assessment, Phase IV - Remedial Action, and Phase V - Compliance and Verification. Phase I activities and reports should be completed during 1986. The Phase II generic sampling plans, data management plans, health and safety plans, and quality assurance/quality control plans will be prepared during 1986. Significant characterization of CERCLA sites will be initiated during 1987.

Gunderson, T.C.; Vocke, R.W.; Stoker, A.K.

1986-01-01

413

A comprehensive proteome of Mycoplasma genitalium.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen associated with several sexually transmitted diseases. Proteomic technologies, along with other methods for global gene expression analysis, play a key role in understanding the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. The proteome of M. genitalium, model of a minimal cell, has been extended using a combination of different proteomic approaches and technologies. The total proteome of this microorganism has been analyzed using gel-based and gel-free approaches, achieving the identification of 85.3% of the predicted ORFs. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of membrane subproteome has been performed. For this purpose, the TX-114 soluble fraction has been analyzed as well as the surface proteins, using cell-surface protein labeling with CyDye. Finally, the serological response of M. genitalium-infected patients and healthy donors has been analyzed to identify proteins that trigger immunological response. Here, we present the most extensive M. genitalium proteome analysis (85.3% of predicted ORFs), a comprehensive M. genitalium membrane analysis, and a study of the human serological response to M. genitalium. PMID:22582988

Párraga-Niño, Noemí; Colomé-Calls, Nuria; Canals, Francesc; Querol, Enrique; Ferrer-Navarro, Mario

2012-06-01

414

Semantic Adaptation and Competition during Word Comprehension  

PubMed Central

Word comprehension engages the left ventrolateral prefrontal (lVLPFC) and posterior lateral-temporal cortices (PLTC). The contributions of these brain regions to comprehension remain controversial. We hypothesized that the PLTC activates meanings, whereas the lVLPFC resolves competition between representations. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the independent effects of adaptation and competition on neural activity. Participants judged the relatedness of word pairs. Some consecutive pairs contained a common ambiguous word. The same or different meanings of this word were primed (e.g., SUMMER-FAN, CEILING-FAN; ADMIRER-FAN, CEILING-FAN). Based on the logic of fMRI adaptation, trials with more semantic overlap should produce more adaptation (less activation) in regions that activate meaning. In contrast, trials with more semantic ambiguity should produce more activation in regions that resolve competition. We observed a double dissociation between activity in the PLTC and lVLPFC. LPLTC activity depended on the amount of semantic overlap, irrespective of the amount of semantic ambiguity. In contrast, lVLPFC activity depended on the amount of semantic ambiguity. Moreover, across participants the size of the competition effect as measured by errors was correlated with the size of the competition effect in the lVLPFC. We conclude that the lVLPFC is an executive mechanism within language processing. PMID:18308708

McGill, Megan; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

2008-01-01

415

Consistency, comprehensiveness, and compatibility of pathway databases  

PubMed Central

Background It is necessary to analyze microarray experiments together with biological information to make better biological inferences. We investigate the adequacy of current biological databases to address this need. Description Our results show a low level of consistency, comprehensiveness and compatibility among three popular pathway databases (KEGG, Ingenuity and Wikipathways). The level of consistency for genes in similar pathways across databases ranges from 0% to 88%. The corresponding level of consistency for interacting genes pairs is 0%-61%. These three original sources can be assumed to be reliable in the sense that the interacting gene pairs reported in them are correct because they are curated. However, the lack of concordance between these databases suggests each source has missed out many genes and interacting gene pairs. Conclusions Researchers will hence find it challenging to obtain consistent pathway information out of these diverse data sources. It is therefore critical to enable them to access these sources via a consistent, comprehensive and unified pathway API. We accumulated sufficient data to create such an aggregated resource with the convenience of an API to access its information. This unified resource can be accessed at http://www.pathwayapi.com. PMID:20819233

2010-01-01

416

Materials Science and Technology, Volume 10B, Nuclear Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second of two volumes in this series to deal with the information required for the use of materials in the nuclear power industry. The two volumes together contain the most comprehensive collection of information ever published in nuclear materials. Contents: Motta/Lemaignan: Zirconium Alloys. Dietz: Structural Materials. Ullmaier/Schilling: Physics of Radiation Damage in Solids. Smith/Mattas/Billone: First Wall and Blanket Materials. Boltax: Mixed Oxide Fuel Pin Performance. Oversby: Nuclear Wate Materials.

Frost, Brian R. T.

1996-12-01

417

Nuclear Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

1979-01-01

418

Nuclear Scans  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

419

Nuclear Winter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

Ehrlich, Anne

1984-01-01

420

Nuclear ventriculography  

MedlinePLUS

... imaging; Heart scan - nuclear; Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology ... in the coronary arteries ( coronary artery disease ) Heart valve disease Other cardiac disorders that weaken the heart ...

421

Comprehension of Written Sentences as a Core Component of Children's Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that sentence processing is an essential mediatory skill between word recognition and text comprehension in reading. In Experiment 1, a semantic similarity judgement task was used with children from Grade 2 to Grade 9. They had to say whether two written sentences had the same (or very similar)…

Ecalle, Jean; Bouchafa, Houria; Potocki, Anna; Magnan, Annie

2013-01-01

422

Quality Control in Software Documentation Based on Measurement of Text Comprehension and Text Comprehensibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods of textual documentation that can be used for software documentation. Highlights include measurement of text comprehensibility; methods for the measurement of documentation quality, including readability and the Cloze Procedure; tools for the measurement of text readability; and the development of the Reading Measurability…

Lehner, Franz

1993-01-01

423

Does Simile Comprehension Differ from Metaphor Comprehension? A Functional MRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Aristotle, people have believed that metaphors and similes express the same type of figurative meaning, despite the fact that they are expressed with different sentence patterns. In contrast, recent psycholinguistic models have suggested that metaphors and similes may promote different comprehension processes. In this study, we investigated…

Shibata, Midori; Toyomura, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroki; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Abe, Jun-ichi

2012-01-01

424

Evaluating the Predictive Validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task: Comprehension Predicts Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until recently, the challenges inherent in measuring comprehension have impeded our ability to predict the course of language acquisition. The present research reports on a longitudinal assessment of the convergent and predictive validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories: Words and Gestures (CDI: WG; Fenson et al.,…

Friend, Margaret; Schmitt, Sara A.; Simpson, Adrianne M.

2012-01-01

425

National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the course of the 2009 Federal Fiscal Year the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in partnership with the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DOE), is continuing existing programs and introducing new programs designed to maintain a highly qualified, enduring workforce capable of performing the technical nuclear forensics mission. These student and university programs are designed to recruit the best and brightest students, develop university faculty and research capabilities, and engage the national laboratories in fields of study with application in nuclear forensics. This comprehensive effort constitutes the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program.

Kentis, Samantha E.; Ulicny, William D.

2009-08-01

426

Nuclear mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author notes that the anti-nuclear movement is shifting its focus from bodily harm to concern for the impact on our souls from building and threatening the use of nuclear weapons. Two aspects of nuclear deterrence receiving the most public attention are the freeze effort to halt weapons modernization and the no-first-use effort to take down the nuclear umbrella. Opponents

Krauthammer

1983-01-01

427

Nuclear Receptors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering nuclear receptors and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the structure of nuclear hormone receptors and then proceeds to describe mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, modulation of nuclear receptor activity by phosphorylation, and the role of nuclear receptors in cancer.

Reshma Taneja (Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology REV)

2005-05-31

428

Mine locations: Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect

Upon accepting this internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory, I was excited but a bit nervous because I was placed into a field I knew nothing about and did not incorporate my mechanical engineering background. However, I stayed positive and realized that experience and education can come in many forms and that this would be a once in a lifetime opportunity. The EES-II Division (which stands for Earth and Environmental Sciences, Geophysics division) concentrates on several topics, including Nuclear Treaty Verification Seismology. The study of this is extremely important in order to monitor countries that have nuclear capability and make sure they follow the rules of the international comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. Seismology is only one aspect of this monitoring and EES-II works diligently with many other groups here at Los Alamos and across the world.

Perry, Bradley A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

429

NUCLEAR MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an introduction to the discussion of nuclear models, the Bohr atomic ; model is described. The nuclear model analogous to this atomic model is then ; discussed. Because of the very narrow nuclear levels found by Fermi, the ; compound nucleus model was then proposed. This model was limited in the region ; of very high and very low

Beck

1956-01-01

430

Nuclear Fuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

Nash, J. Thomas

1983-01-01

431

Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

Bing, G.F.

1991-08-20

432

Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

Reyes, Jose, Jr.

2011-10-01

433

[Towards a comprehensive policy for health workers].  

PubMed

Health workers are crucial to the performance of a health system. Their situation is critical and this has been recognized as a global problem. The main challenges are their number, distribution, skills and performance conditions. Addressing these issues must necessarily involve a multifactorial, intersectoral and international approach, where determinant factors are: educational policies, forms of recruitment, permanency and termination of contract, issues that arise throughout their working cycle. In Chile, the management of health workers does not follow a comprehensive outlook. The type, number and distribution of technicians and professionals do not respond to a nationwide planning strategy, and there is no coordination between health authorities and universities. The result is that the system is not responding to the health needs of the population, nor is fulfilling the promise of a public service career that encourages good performance, investing in its human resources. PMID:25489843

Becerra, Carlos; Herrera, Tania

2014-01-01

434

Early comprehension of the Spanish plural.  

PubMed

Understanding how linguistic cues map to the environment is crucial for early language comprehension and may provide a way for bootstrapping and learning words. Research has suggested that learning how plural syntax maps to the perceptual environment may show a trajectory in which children first learn surrounding cues (verbs, modifiers) before a full mastery of the noun morpheme alone. The Spanish plural system of simple codas, dominated by one allomorph -s, and with redundant agreement markers, may facilitate early understanding of how plural linguistic cues map to novel referents. Two-year-old Mexican children correctly identified multiple novel object referents when multiple verbal cues in a phrase indicated plurality as well as in instances when the noun morphology in novel nouns was the only indicator of plurality. These results demonstrate Spanish-speaking children's ability to use plural noun inflectional morphology to infer novel word referents which may have implications for their word learning. PMID:24560441

Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Cantrell, Lisa M; Smith, Linda B; Alva Canto, Elda A

2014-11-01

435

Comprehensive silicon solar cell computer modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an efficient, comprehensive Si solar cell modeling program that has the capability of simulation accuracy of 5 percent or less is examined. A general investigation of computerized simulation is provided. Computer simulation programs are subdivided into a number of major tasks: (1) analytical method used to represent the physical system; (2) phenomena submodels that comprise the simulation of the system; (3) coding of the analysis and the phenomena submodels; (4) coding scheme that results in efficient use of the CPU so that CPU costs are low; and (5) modularized simulation program with respect to structures that may be analyzed, addition and/or modification of phenomena submodels as new experimental data become available, and the addition of other photovoltaic materials.

Lamorte, M. F.

1984-01-01

436

Comprehensibility of material safety data sheets.  

PubMed

The Hazard Communications Standard, commonly known as the Worker Right to Know law, requires that a chemical information sheet, known as a material safety data sheet (MSDS), be produced for all hazardous chemicals. This study examines the comprehensibility of a sample of MSDSs to a group of about 100 unionized workers in manufacturing industries located in the state of Maryland. Workers were given several MSDSs and performed the equivalent of an open-book test answering questions regarding health and safety information that was provided on the MSDS. On average, the information on the MSDSs was found to be about one-third incomprehensible. This result raises concerns regarding policies and practices for hazard communication. There is a clear indication that MSDSs need to be improved if workers must rely on them for health and safety information. PMID:8422043

Kolp, P; Sattler, B; Blayney, M; Sherwood, T

1993-01-01

437

Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis on Privacy Leak Behavior  

PubMed Central

Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

2013-01-01

438

The Comprehensive Microbial Resource (CMR) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) has launched the searchable Comprehensive Microbial Resource (CMR), offering access to data from all (TIGR) genome sequences completed to date. From the Aeropyrum pernix K1 genome through Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961, all genomes or subsets of each may be queried. The CMR includes the Omniome database containing sequences, annotations, and associated information "such as taxon and gram stain pattern, the structure and composition of their DNA molecules . . . and many attributes of the protein sequences predicted from the DNA sequence (such as pI and molecular weight)." Genome researchers will find this new CMR tool useful, as it allows users to mine completed genomes in ways not previously possible.

439

Comprehensive quantitative analysis on privacy leak behavior.  

PubMed

Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

2013-01-01

440

Visual Attention during Spatial Language Comprehension  

PubMed Central

Spatial terms such as “above”, “in front of”, and “on the left of” are all essential for describing the location of one object relative to another object in everyday communication. Apprehending such spatial relations involves relating linguistic to object representations by means of attention. This requires at least one attentional shift, and models such as the Attentional Vector Sum (AVS) predict the direction of that attention shift, from the sausage to the box for spatial utterances such as “The box is above the sausage”. To the extent that this prediction generalizes to overt gaze shifts, a listener’s visual attention should shift from the sausage to the box. However, listeners tend to rapidly look at referents in their order of mention and even anticipate them based on linguistic cues, a behavior that predicts a converse attentional shift from the box to the sausage. Four eye-tracking experiments assessed the role of overt attention in spatial language comprehension by examining to which extent visual attention is guided by words in the utterance and to which extent it also shifts “against the grain” of the unfolding sentence. The outcome suggests that comprehenders’ visual attention is predominantly guided by their interpretation of the spatial description. Visual shifts against the grain occurred only when comprehenders had some extra time, and their absence did not affect comprehension accuracy. However, the timing of this reverse gaze shift on a trial correlated with that trial’s verification time. Thus, while the timing of these gaze shifts is subtly related to the verification time, their presence is not necessary for successful verification of spatial relations. PMID:25607540

Burigo, Michele; Knoeferle, Pia

2015-01-01

441

Visual Attention during Spatial Language Comprehension.  

PubMed

Spatial terms such as "above", "in front of", and "on the left of" are all essential for describing the location of one object relative to another object in everyday communication. Apprehending such spatial relations involves relating linguistic to object representations by means of attention. This requires at least one attentional shift, and models such as the Attentional Vector Sum (AVS) predict the direction of that attention shift, from the sausage to the box for spatial utterances such as "The box is above the sausage". To the extent that this prediction generalizes to overt gaze shifts, a listener's visual attention should shift from the sausage to the box. However, listeners tend to rapidly look at referents in their order of mention and even anticipate them based on linguistic cues, a behavior that predicts a converse attentional shift from the box to the sausage. Four eye-tracking experiments assessed the role of overt attention in spatial language comprehension by examining to which extent visual attention is guided by words in the utterance and to which extent it also shifts "against the grain" of the unfolding sentence. The outcome suggests that comprehenders' visual attention is predominantly guided by their interpretation of the spatial description. Visual shifts against the grain occurred only when comprehenders had some extra time, and their absence did not affect comprehension accuracy. However, the timing of this reverse gaze shift on a trial correlated with that trial's verification time. Thus, while the timing of these gaze shifts is subtly related to the verification time, their presence is not necessary for successful verification of spatial relations. PMID:25607540

Burigo, Michele; Knoeferle, Pia

2015-01-01

442

The Comprehensive Process Model of Engagement  

PubMed Central

Background Engagement refers to the act of being occupied or involved with an external stimulus. In dementia, engagement is the antithesis of apathy. Objective The Comprehensive Process Model of Engagement was examined, in which environmental, person, and stimulus characteristics impact the level of engagement of persons with dementia. Methods Participants were 193 residents of 7 Maryland nursing homes. All participants had a diagnosis of dementia. Stimulus engagement was assessed via the Observational Measure of Engagement. Engagement was measured by duration, attention, and attitude to the stimulus. 25 stimuli were presented, which were categorized as live human social stimuli, simulated social stimuli, inanimate social stimuli, a reading stimulus, manipulative stimuli, a music stimulus, task and work-related stimuli, and two different self-identity stimuli. Results All stimuli elicited significantly greater engagement in comparison to the control stimulus. In the multivariate model, music significantly increased engagement duration, while all other stimuli significantly increased duration, attention, and attitude. Significant environmental variables in the multivariate model that increased engagement were: use of the long introduction with modeling (relative to minimal introduction), any level of sound (most especially moderate sound), and the presence of between 2 to 24 people in the room. Significant personal attributes included MMSE scores, ADL performance and clarity of speech, which were positively associated with higher engagement scores. Conclusions Results are consistent with the Comprehensive Process Model of Engagement. Person attributes, environmental factors, and stimulus characteristics all contribute to the level and nature of engagement, with a secondary finding being that exposure to any stimulus elicits engagement in persons with dementia. PMID:21946802

Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S.; Freedman, Laurence S.; Murad, Havi; Regier, Natalie G.; Thein, Khin; Dakheel-Ali, Maha

2010-01-01

443

Comprehensive Decision Tree Models in Bioinformatics  

PubMed Central

Purpose Classification is an important and widely used machine learning technique in bioinformatics. Researchers and other end-users of machine learning software often prefer to work with comprehensible models where knowledge extraction and explanation of reasoning behind the classification model are possible. Methods This paper presents an extension to an existing machine learning environment and a study on visual tuning of decision tree classifiers. The motivation for this research comes from the need to build effective and easily interpretable decision tree models by so called one-button data mining approach where no parameter tuning is needed. To avoid bias in classification, no classification performance measure is used during the tuning of the model that is constrained exclusively by the dimensions of the produced decision tree. Results The proposed visual tuning of decision trees was evaluated on 40 datasets containing classical machine learning problems and 31 datasets from the field of bioinformatics. Although we did not expected significant differences in classification performance, the results demonstrate a significant increase of accuracy in less complex visually tuned decision trees. In contrast to classical machine learning benchmarking datasets, we observe higher accuracy gains in bioinformatics datasets. Additionally, a user study was carried out to confirm the assumption that the tree tuning times are significantly lower for the proposed method in comparison to manual tuning of the decision tree. Conclusions The empirical results demonstrate that by building simple models constrained by predefined visual boundaries, one not only achieves good comprehensibility, but also very good classification performance that does not differ from usually more complex models built using default settings of the classical decision tree algorithm. In addition, our study demonstrates the suitability of visually tuned decision trees for datasets with binary class attributes and a high number of possibly redundant attributes that are very common in bioinformatics. PMID:22479449

Stiglic, Gregor; Kocbek, Simon; Pernek, Igor; Kokol, Peter

2012-01-01

444

Nuclear power and nuclear bombs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic assumption that nuclear power is necessary to meet world energy demand is challenged on the grounds that, except for the centrally planned economies, nuclear power is no longer considered to be commercially viable and that it is best to take advantage of the collapse to pursue an alternative program consistent with nonproliferation. Arguments in support of nuclear power

A. B. Lovins; L. H. Lovins; L. Ross

2009-01-01

445

Training in metacognition and comprehension of physics texts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reading comprehension of physics texts is a neglected area in physics curricula. This paper describes the development, application, and evaluation of a metacognitive technique for improving student reading comprehension of physics texts. The metacognitive technique requires students to self-assess their reading comprehension and then to rank their abilities and disabilities hierarchically. The technique is evaluated by comparing performance on a reading-comprehension test of an experimental group with the performance of a control group before and after the experimental manipulation. Both groups underwent reading-comprehension exercises, using the Koch-Eckstein technique (Koch & Eckstein, 1995), with the metacognitive tasks added only to the experimental group. Results showed the posttest scores of the experimental group to be significantly higher than those of the control group. Based on these results, it is strongly recommended that the metacognitive technique be developed and applied in teaching reading comprehension of physics texts as an effective self-monitoring device.

Koch, Adina

2001-11-01

446

Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

2012-01-01

447

Validation of comprehensive space radiation transport code  

SciTech Connect

The HZETRN code has been developed over the past decade to evaluate the local radiation fields within sensitive materials on spacecraft in the space environment. Most of the more important nuclear and atomic processes are now modeled and evaluation within a complex spacecraft geometry with differing material components, including transition effects across boundaries of dissimilar materials, are included. The atomic/nuclear database and transport procedures have received limited validation in laboratory testing with high energy ion beams. The codes have been applied in design of the SAGE-III instrument resulting in material changes to control injurious neutron production, in the study of the Space Shuttle single event upsets, and in validation with space measurements (particle telescopes, tissue equivalent proportional counters, CR-39) on Shuttle and Mir. The present paper reviews the code development and presents recent results in laboratory and space flight validation.

Shinn, J.L.; Simonsen, L.C. [NASA, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center] [NASA, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Cucinotta, F.A. [NASA, Houston, TX (United States). Johnson Space Center] [and others] [NASA, Houston, TX (United States). Johnson Space Center; and others

1998-12-01

448

Operating experience with the nuclear propulsion plant on the icebreaker “LENIN”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Long-term operation of a nuclear-fueled steam-generating plant on board the icebreaker has provided a basis for a comprehensive assessment of the plant performance under a variety of sailing and weather conditions.

I. I. Afrikantov; N. M. Mordvinov; P. D. Novikov; B. G. Pologikh; A. K. Sledzyuk; N. S. Khlopkin; N. M. Tsarev

1964-01-01

449

Sources of Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the common and distinct contributions of context-free and context reading skill to reading comprehension and the contributions of context-free reading skill and reading comprehension to context fluency. The 113 4th-grade participants were measured in reading comprehension, read aloud a folktale, and read aloud the folktale's words in a random list. Fluency was scaled as speed (words read

Joseph R. Jenkins; Lynn S. Fuchs; Paul van den Broek; Christine Espin; Stanley L. Deno

2003-01-01

450

Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding\\u000a and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension\\u000a were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word\\u000a recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary,

Nicole Harlaar; Laurie Cutting; Kirby Deater-Deckard; Laura S. DeThorne; Laura M. Justice; Chris Schatschneider; Lee A. Thompson; Stephen A. Petrill

2010-01-01

451

Metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension in elementary-school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore comprehension monitoring and perceived use of reading strategies as factors of reading\\u000a comprehension. Participants were elementary school students from the fifth to the eighth grade. Error correction and text\\u000a sensitivity tasks from the Metacomprehension test (Pazzaglia, De Beni, & Cristante, 1994). and the cloze-task were used as\\u000a measures of comprehension monitoring during

Svjetlana Koli?-Vehovec; Igor Bajšanski

2006-01-01

452

Effects of Fluency Training on Second Graders' Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years researchers have posited a strong relationship between developing students' reading fluency and concurrent improvements in reading comprehension. Although moderate-to-strong correlations between developing reading fluency and improved reading comprehension have recently been reported, no study has shown that direct training of students' reading fluency would result in improved reading comprehension ability. This study assessed the effects of developing second-grade

D. Ray Reutzel; Paul M. Hollingsworth

1993-01-01

453

Getting to Zero Yield: The Evolution of the U.S. Position on the CTBT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1994 the United States favored a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which permitted tiny "hydronuclear" experiments with a nuclear energy release of four pounds or less. Other nuclear powers supported yield limits as high as large fractions of a kiloton, while most non-nuclear nations participating in the discussions at the United Nations Conference on Disarmament wanted to prohibit all nuclear explosions -- some even favoring an end to computer simulations. On the other hand, China wished an exception to permit high yield "peaceful" nuclear explosions. For the United States to adopt a new position favoring a "true zero" several pieces had to fall into place: 1) The President had to be assured that the U.S. could preserve the safety and reliability of the enduring stockpile without yield testing; 2) the U.S. needed to be sure that the marginal utility of zero-yield experiments was at least as great for this country as for any other; 3) that tests with any nuclear yield might have more marginal utility for nuclear proliferators than for the United States, thus marginally eroding this country's position; 4) the United States required a treaty which would permit maintenance of the capacity to return to testing should a national emergency requiring a nuclear test arise; and 5) all of the five nuclear weapons states had to realize that only a true-zero CTBT would have the desired political effects. This paper will outline the physics near zero yield and show why President Clinton was persuaded by arguments from many viewpoints to endorse a true test ban in August, 1996 and to sign the CTBT in September, 1997.

Zimmerman, Peter D.

1998-03-01

454

45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA § 641.18 Comprehensive environmental...

2014-10-01

455

Nuclear Halos  

SciTech Connect

We show that extreme nuclear halos are caused only by pairs of s-wave neutrons (or single s-wave neutrons) and that such states occur much more frequently in the periodic table than previously believed. Besides lingering long near zero neutron separation energy such extreme halos have very remarkable properties: they can contribute significantly to the nuclear density at more than twice the normal nuclear radius and their spreading width can be very narrow. The properties of these states are primarily determined by the ''thickness'' of the nuclear surface in the mean-free nuclear potential and thus their importance increases greatly as we approach the neutron drip line. We discuss what such extreme halos are, where they occur, what their properties are and some of their impact on nuclear observations.

Vogt, Erich [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2010-07-27

456

Innovative Process for Comprehensive Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12551  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of research activities aimed at creation of a principally new LRW distilling treatment method. The new process is based on the instantaneous evaporation method widely used in distillation units. The main difference of the proposed process is that the vapor condensation is conducted without using heat exchangers in practically ideal mode by way of direct contacting in a vapor-liquid system. This process is conducted in a specially designed ejector unit in supersonic mode. Further recuperation of excess heat of vaporization is carried out in a standard heat exchanger. Such an arrangement of the process, together with use of the barometric height principle, allows to carry out LRW evaporation under low temperatures, which enables to use excess heat from NPS for heating initial LRW. Thermal calculations and model experiments have revealed that, in this case, the expenditure of energy for LRW treatment by distilling will not exceed 3 kilowatt-hour/m{sup 3}, which is comparable with the reverse-osmosis desalination method. Besides, the proposed devices are 4 to 5 times less metal-intensive than standard evaporation units. These devices are also characterized by versatility. Experiments have revealed that the new method can be used for evaporation of practically any types of LRW, including those containing a considerable amount of oil products. Owing to arrangement of the evaporation process at low temperatures, the new devices are not sensitive to 'scale formation'. This is why, they can be used for concentrating brines of up to 500-600 g/l. New types of such evaporating devices can be required both for LRW treatment processes at nuclear-power plants under design and for treating 'non-standard' LRW with complex physicochemical and radionuclide composition resulting from the disaster at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant.) As a result of accidents at nuclear energy objects, as it has recently happened at NPP 'Fukushima-1', personnel faces the necessity to take emergency measures and to use marine water for cooling of reactor zone in contravention of the technological regulations. In these cases significant amount of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition is being generated, the purification of which by traditional methods is close to impossible. According to the practice of elimination of the accident after-effects at NPP 'Fukushima' there are still no technical means for the efficient purification of liquid radioactive wastes of complex composition like marine water from radionuclides. Therefore development of state-of-the-art highly efficient facilities capable of fast and safe purification of big amounts of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition from radionuclides turns to be utterly topical problem. Cesium radionuclides, being extremely dangerous for the environment, present over 90% of total radioactivity contained in liquid radioactive wastes left as a result of accidents at nuclear power objects. For the purpose of radiation accidents aftereffects liquidation VNIIHT proposes to create a plant for LRW reprocessing, consisting of 4 major technological modules: Module of LRW pretreatment to remove mechanical and organic impurities including oil products; Module of sorption purification of LWR by means of selective inorganic sorbents; Module of reverse osmotic purification and desalination; Module of deep evaporation of LRW concentrates. The first free modules are based on completed technological and designing concepts implemented by VNIIHT in the framework of LLRW Project in the period of 2000-2001 in Russia for comprehensive treatment of LWR of atomic fleet. These industrial plants proved to be highly efficient and secure during their long operation life. Module of deep evaporation is a new technological development. It will ensure conduction of evaporation and purification of LRW of different physicochemical composition, including those containing hardness salts, resulted in generation of LRW concentrate 300-600 g/l. The method is based o

Penzin, R.A.; Sarychev, G.A. [All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Technology (VNIIKHT), Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

457

Comprehensive histologic analysis of ALK-rearranged lung carcinomas.  

PubMed

A subset (1% to 5%) of non-small-cell lung carcinomas harbors the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Data from previous studies on the histomorphology of ALK-rearranged lung cancer are inconsistent, and the specific histologic parameters that characterize this subset and how accurately such parameters predict underlying ALK abnormality remain uncertain. To answer these questions, we performed a comprehensive histologic analysis of 54 surgically resected, extensively sampled ALK-rearranged lung carcinomas and compared them with 100 consecutive resections of ALK-wild-type lung cancers. All 54 cases showed at least a focal adenocarcinoma component, and 3 and 2 cases had additional squamous and sarcomatoid differentiation, respectively. Solid or acinar growth pattern, cribriform structure, presence of mucous cells (signet-ring cells or goblet cells), abundant extracellular mucus, lack of lepidic growth, and lack of significant nuclear pleomorphism were more common in ALK-positive cancers. Two recognizable constellations of findings, a solid signet-ring cell pattern and a mucinous cribriform pattern, were present at least focally in the majority (78%) of ALK-positive tumors, but were rare (1%) in ALK-negative tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that a combination of these 2 patterns was the most powerful histologic indicator of ALK rearrangement. Characteristic histologies were present both in primary sites and in metastases. Thus, histologic findings may help to identify cases for ALK testing. However, none of the histologic parameters were completely sensitive or specific to ALK rearrangement, and histomorphology should not replace confirmatory molecular or immunohistochemical studies. ALK-positive cancers commonly showed coexpression of thyroid transcription factor-1 and p63, and its significance is currently unclear. PMID:21753699

Yoshida, Akihiko; Tsuta, Koji; Nakamura, Harumi; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Asamura, Hisao; Sekine, Ikuo; Fukayama, Masashi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Furuta, Koh; Tsuda, Hitoshi

2011-08-01

458

Bihemispheric foundations for human speech comprehension  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology suggests that human speech comprehension engages two types of neurocognitive processes: a distributed bilateral system underpinning general perceptual and cognitive processing, viewed as neurobiologically primary, and a more specialized left hemisphere system supporting key grammatical language functions, likely to be specific to humans. To test these hypotheses directly we covaried increases in the nonlinguistic complexity of spoken words [presence or absence of an embedded stem, e.g., claim (clay)] with variations in their linguistic complexity (presence of inflectional affixes, e.g., play+ed). Nonlinguistic complexity, generated by the on-line competition between the full word and its onset-embedded stem, was found to activate both right and left fronto-temporal brain regions, including bilateral BA45 and -47. Linguistic complexity activated left-lateralized inferior frontal areas only, primarily in BA45. This contrast reflects a differentiation between the functional roles of a bilateral system, which supports the basic mapping from sound to lexical meaning, and a language-specific left-lateralized system that supports core decompositional and combinatorial processes invoked by linguistically complex inputs. These differences can be related to the neurobiological foundations of human language and underline the importance of bihemispheric systems in supporting the dynamic processing and interpretation of spoken inputs. PMID:20855587

Bozic, Mirjana; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Ives, David T.; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

2010-01-01

459

Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted.

Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.

2013-01-01

460

Perceptual learning: Toward a comprehensive theory  

PubMed Central

Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is long-term performance increase resulting from visual perceptual experience. Task-relevant VPL of a feature results from training of a task on the feature relevant to the task. Task-irrelevant VPL arises as a result of exposure to the feature irrelevant to the trained task. There are at least two serious problems. First, which stage of information processing is changed in association with task-relevant VPL is controversial. Second, no model has ever explained both task-relevant and task-irrelevant VPL. Here we propose a dual plasticity model, in which there are feature-based plasticity that is a change in a representation of the learned feature and task-based plasticity that is a change in processing of the trained task. While the two types of plasticity underlie task-relevant VPL, only feature-based plasticity lies under task-irrelevant VPL. This model provides a new comprehensive framework in which apparently contradictory results could be explained. PMID:25251494

Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

2014-01-01

461

AUGO II: A Comprehensive Subauroral Zone Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athabasca University Geophysical Observatory II (AUGO II) is a comprehensive subauroral zone observatory designed for routine automated optical and magnetic observation of the aurora. Becoming operational in February 2012, AUGO II has six temperature/humidity controlled observation rooms, each equipped with a 1.5 meter diameter acrylic dome custom fabricated for wide spectral transparency. AUGO II is located approximately 25 km southwest of the town of Athabasca, in Alberta, Canada, on the southern edge of the auroral zone (Geodetic coordinates: latitude 54 36' 10", longitude 113 38' 40" west. CGM coordinates: latitude 61.7, longitude 306.8, L-value 4.5). AUGO II is sufficiently isolated from urban development that skies are dark enough during winter months to allow optical studies of faint phenomena, such as H-beta studies of proton precipitation aurora, currently underway. The observatory's modest residence can accommodate six persons, allowing groups to live and work with their instruments for the duration of their research campaign without leaving the site. AUGO II's inaugural guest research campaign was reported successful, and resulted in a permanent VLF/LF radio experiment being deployed at the observatory's expansive site. We are hopeful more research groups will take advantage of this unique facility and help realize its full potential.

Schofield, I. S.; Connors, M. G.

2012-12-01

462

Tracking Passive Sentence Comprehension in Agrammatic Aphasia.  

PubMed

People with agrammatic aphasia often experience greater difficulty comprehending passive compared to active sentences. The Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH; Grodzinsky, 2000) proposes that aphasic individuals cannot generate accurate syntactic representations of passive sentences and, hence, use an agent-first processing strategy which leads to at-chance performance. We tested this claim using the eyetracking-while-listening paradigm in order to reveal online processing routines. Ten agrammatic aphasic participants and 10 age-matched controls listened to passive and active sentences and performed a sentence-picture matching task (i.e., selecting between two pictures with reversed thematic roles), while their eye movements were monitored. Control participants' performance was at ceiling, whereas accuracy for the aphasic participants was above chance for active sentences and at chance for passive sentences. Further, for the control participants, the eye movement data showed an initial agent-first processing bias, followed by fixation on the correct picture in the vicinity of the verb in both active and passive sentences. However, the aphasic participants showed no evidence of agent-first processing, counter the predictions of the TDH. In addition, in active sentences, they reliably fixated the correct picture only at sentence offset, reflecting slowed processing. During passive sentence processing, fixations were at chance throughout the sentence, but different patterns were noted for correct and incorrect trials. These results are consistent with the proposal that agrammatic sentence comprehension failure involves lexical processing and/or lexical integration deficits. PMID:22043134

Meyer, Aaron M; Mack, Jennifer E; Thompson, Cynthia K

2012-01-01

463

Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma.  

PubMed

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. So far, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for treatment of the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signalling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in microRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far, indicating the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

2014-03-20

464

A comprehensive study on urban true orthorectification  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To provide some advanced technical bases (algorithms and procedures) and experience needed for national large-scale digital orthophoto generation and revision of the Standards for National Large-Scale City Digital Orthophoto in the National Digital Orthophoto Program (NDOP), this paper presents a comprehensive study on theories, algorithms, and methods of large-scale urban orthoimage generation. The procedures of orthorectification for digital terrain model (DTM)-based and digital building model (DBM)-based orthoimage generation and their mergence for true orthoimage generation are discussed in detail. A method of compensating for building occlusions using photogrammetric geometry is developed. The data structure needed to model urban buildings for accurately generating urban orthoimages is presented. Shadow detection and removal, the optimization of seamline for automatic mosaic, and the radiometric balance of neighbor images are discussed. Street visibility analysis, including the relationship between flight height, building height, street width, and relative location of the street to the imaging center, is analyzed for complete true orthoimage generation. The experimental results demonstrated that our method can effectively and correctly orthorectify the displacements caused by terrain and buildings in urban large-scale aerial images. ?? 2005 IEEE.

Zhou, G.; Chen, W.; Kelmelis, J.A.; Zhang, D.

2005-01-01

465

Do people use language production to make predictions during comprehension?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the case that language comprehension involves making simultaneous predictions at different linguistic levels and that these predictions are generated by the language production system. Recent research suggests that ease of comprehending predictable elements is due to prediction rather than facilitated integration, and that comprehension is accompanied by covert imitation. We argue that comprehenders use prediction and imitation to

Martin J. Pickering; Simon Garrod

2007-01-01

466

Using E-Readers and Internet Resources to Support Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advancements of technology have led to the use of electronic reading systems for digital text. Research indicates similarities and differences in reading performance and comprehension in digital formats compared to paper formats. This study compared vocabulary understanding and reading comprehension scores from two reading sources (electronic…

Wright, Sandra; Fugett, April; Caputa, Francine

2013-01-01

467

Affect comprehension in children with pervasive developmental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affect comprehension was studied in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and normal children matched for mental age. Three matching tasks were used: matching objects (a nonsocial control task), matching faces, and matching affects. The three tasks were developed to be of equal difficulty for normal children. Children were also tested for comprehension and expression of affect terms. The PDD

Mark Braverman; Deborah Fein; Dorothy Lucci; Lynn Waterhouse

1989-01-01

468

Pragmatic Comprehension in Learner-Native Speaker Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of language learners' comprehension of speech acts and discourse functions, referred to as pragmatic comprehension. Analyzes two types of learners' pragmatic misunderstandings: their failure to distinguish between phatic talk and referential talk, and their failure to identify the intended illocutionary force of indirect speech…

Kasper, Gabriele

1984-01-01

469

A Comprehensive Map of Insulator Elements for the Drosophila Genome  

E-print Network

A Comprehensive Map of Insulator Elements for the Drosophila Genome Nicolas Ne`gre1. , Christopher(Hw), Mod(mdg4), and GAF--to obtain the first comprehensive map of insulator elements in Drosophila embryos and evolution of Drosophila. Citation: Ne`gre N, Brown CD, Shah PK, Kheradpour P, Morrison CA, et al. (2010

Kellis, Manolis

470

Representational Complexity and Memory Retrieval in Language Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental representations formed from words or phrases may vary considerably in their feature-based complexity. Modern theories of retrieval in sentence comprehension do not indicate how this variation and the role of encoding processes should influence memory performance. Here, memory retrieval in language comprehension is shown to be influenced by…

Hofmeister, Philip

2011-01-01

471

Young Children's Idiom Comprehension: Trying to Get the Picture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of young children's comprehension of common idioms revealed a significant linear trend for children to make more literal responses with increasing age. Children did not find the story contexts helpful in interpreting the idioms. A range of comprehension scores was found among the individual idioms, but semantic transparency was not…

Abkarian, G. G.; And Others

1992-01-01

472

Improving Reading Comprehension through Higher-Order Thinking Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project report documents the action research project that was conducted to improve reading comprehension with second grade and third grade students. The teacher researchers intended to improve reading comprehension by using higher-order thinking skills such as predicting, making connections, visualizing, inferring,…

McKown, Brigitte A.; Barnett, Cynthia L.

2007-01-01

473

Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling nine cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts:…

Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

2014-01-01

474

Can Bold Typeface Improve Readers' Comprehension and Metacomprehension of Negation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research on negation has demonstrated that while readers are aware that this text construction is difficult, they seem to be able to do little to improve their comprehension. The present research evaluated whether a change in typeface could improve comprehension and metacomprehension of negation. Results indicated that while readers were…

Margolin, Sara J.

2013-01-01

475

Accessibility of Segmented Reading Comprehension Passages for Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores factors that affect the accessibility of reading comprehension assessments for students with disabilities in grade 8 public school classrooms. The study consisted of assessing students using reading comprehension passages that were broken down into shorter "segments" or "chunks" in order to assess the validity and effectiveness…

Abedi, Jamal; Kao, Jenny C.; Leon, Seth; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Sullivan, Lisa; Herman, Joan; Pope, Rita

2010-01-01

476

The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University  

Cancer.gov

The Wake Forest University (WFU) School of Medicine was founded in 1902 and has grown into a large academic medical center with 900 faculty and over 100 buildings. The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University (CCCWFU) became an NCI-designated cancer center in 1974 and a comprehensive center in 1990.

477

Comprehensive Behavior Management: Individualized, Classroom, and Schoolwide Approaches. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Comprehensive Behavior Management: Schoolwide, Classroom, and Individualized Approaches" supports teachers in preventing management problems and responding to unwanted behavior when it occurs in classrooms. The text offers a comprehensive presentation of three levels of behavior management strategies: individual, classroom, and schoolwide, all…

Martella, Ronald C.; Nelson, J. Ron; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; O'Reilly, Mark

2011-01-01

478

Grief and Joy: Emotion Word Comprehension in the Dementias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Word comprehension deficits in neurodegenerative conditions are most striking in the syndrome of semantic dementia. Tests of word comprehension typically examine concrete and abstract nonemotion words. Whether or not understanding of words describing emotion concepts (e.g., insulted, fascinated) is also impaired in the dementias has not been systematically investigated. Method: Patients with semantic dementia (SD; n = 8), behavioral-variant

Sharpley Hsieh; David Foxe; Felicity Leslie; Sharon Savage; Olivier Piguet; John R. Hodges

2012-01-01

479

Bridging the Comprehension Gap with Pictures. Technical Report No. 399.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects of using topic-related pictures to build and activate readers' schemata as a means of increasing background knowledge and, consequently, reading comprehension. Subjects, two special education middle school students with low scores on standardized reading comprehension and vocabulary tests, were taught to interpret…

Croll, Valerie J.; And Others

480

Contribution of Morphological Awareness to Second-Language Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the contribution of second-language (L2) morphological awareness to foreign language reading comprehension. Tenth graders (n = 188) at a South Korean high school were assessed on 6 reading- and language-related variables: phonological decoding, listening comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, passage-level reading…

Jeon, Eun Hee

2011-01-01

481

34 CFR 303.302 - Comprehensive child find system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Comprehensive child find system. 303.302 Section 303.302...INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized...Procedures-Public Awareness Program and Child Find System § 303.302 Comprehensive...

2013-07-01

482

34 CFR 303.302 - Comprehensive child find system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Comprehensive child find system. 303.302 Section 303.302...INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized...Procedures-Public Awareness Program and Child Find System § 303.302 Comprehensive...

2012-07-01

483

A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

2014-01-01

484

Text Format, Text Comprehension, and Related Reader Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation explored relationships between format of text (electronic or print-based) and reading comprehension of adolescent readers. Also in question were potential influences on comprehension from related measures including academic placement of participants, gender, prior knowledge of the content, and overall reading ability. Influences…

Nichols, Jodi L.

2009-01-01

485

The Association between Mathematical Word Problems and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the interplay between mathematical word problem skills and reading comprehension. The participants were 225 children aged 9-10 (Grade 4). The children's text comprehension and mathematical word problem-solving performance was tested. Technical reading skills were investigated in order to categorise participants as…

Vilenius-Tuohimaa, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2008-01-01

486

The Impact of Analogy on L3 Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has been conducted to investigate the effect of analogy on third language (L3, hereafter) reading comprehension though some experts believe that it has facilitating and debilitating effects on L1 and L2 respectively. This article explores the effect of analogies on reading comprehension of expository texts by students of English as…

Karami, Hossein; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

2014-01-01

487

Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

Nergis, Aysegul

2013-01-01

488

Correlates of Early Reading Comprehension Skills: A Componential Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listening comprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills,…

Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona

2014-01-01

489

Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…

Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.

2013-01-01

490

Reading comprehension and syntactic responses in good and poor readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined sentence comprehension and the use of syntactic cues during silent reading. A disabled group, an old normal group, and a young normal group (n = 12 each) were given a meaningful sentence selection task. Disabled readers were inferior to both normal control groups (p < .01) in comprehension of materials for which they possessed adequate sight vocabulary. Young normals

John T. Guthrie

1973-01-01

491

The Effect of Text Types on Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim of this study is to determine the effect of narrative and informative text types on Reading Comprehension levels of Primary Education 4th and 5th grade students. Application was fulfilled in 2011-2012 academic year with 134 students in a primary education school in Province Kirsehir. Reading comprehension tests prepared according to text types…

Sahin, Ayfer

2013-01-01

492

EFFECTS OF MAPPING STRATEGIES ON READING COMPREHENSION AND WRITING PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to examine the extent to which mapping strategies used in conjunction with basal reader stories enhanced the comprehension and writing performance of fifth-grade students. In Experiment 1, significant differences on a reading comprehension measure were found in favor of a group receiving key concept mapping strategies when compared to a control group, but no differences were

Doris L. Prater; C. Ann Terry

1988-01-01

493

The Contribution of Executive Skills to Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although word recognition deficits (WRD) are a known cause of reading comprehension deficits (RCD), other contributions to RCD, including executive function (EF), have not been fully explored. We examined the contribution of EF (working memory and planning), along with attention, decoding, fluency, and vocabulary to reading comprehension in 60 children (including 16 WRD and 10 RCD), ages 9–15 years. After

Heather Whitney Sesma; E. Mark Mahone; Terry Levine; Sarah H. Eason; Laurie E. Cutting

2009-01-01

494

The Effects of Word Guessing Strategy Instruction on Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently many learning theorists have advocated teaching students to use a variety of reading strategies or skills in order to read better. The success of recent studies involving the explicit training of children in the comprehension strategies in L1 reading suggests the feasibility of improving L2 students' reading comprehension. This study aims to explore the effects of word guessing strategy

Hideo KOJIMA; Hiroyuki NARITA

2004-01-01

495

Comprehensive Analysis of Chemical Bonding in Boron Clusters  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Analysis of Chemical Bonding in Boron Clusters DMITRY YU. ZUBAREV, ALEXANDER I a comprehensive analysis of chemical bonding in pure boron clusters. It is now established in joint experimental and theoretical studies that pure boron clusters are planar or quasi-planar at least up to twenty atoms

Simons, Jack

496

Dr. David Gandara of the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Dr. David Gandara of the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later and JavaScript enabled to view this video. You can view the movie here Dr. David Gandara of the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center talking about

497

Syntactic Comprehension in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Recent neuropsychological studies of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have demonstrated that some patients have aphasic symptoms, including impaired syntactic comprehension. However, it is not known if syntactic comprehension disorder is related to executive and visuospatial dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated syntactic comprehension using the Syntax Test for Aphasia (STA) auditory comprehension task, frontal executive function using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), visuospatial function using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), and dementia using the Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised (HDS-R) in 25 patients with ALS. Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) had syntactic comprehension disorder (STA score < IV), nine (36%) had frontal executive dysfunction (FAB score < 14), six (24%) had visuospatial dysfunction (RCPM score < 24), and none had dementia (HDS-R score < 20). Nine of the 18 patients with syntactic comprehension disorder (50%) passed the FAB and RCPM. Although sample size was small, these patients had a low STA score but normal FAB and RCPM score. All patients with bulbar onset ALS had syntactic comprehension disorder. These results indicate that it might be necessary to assess syntactic comprehension in patients with bulbar onset ALS. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the pathological continuum of ALS. PMID:25161339

Yoshizawa, Kentarou; Yasuda, Nao; Fukuda, Michinari; Yukimoto, Yumi; Ogino, Mieko; Hata, Wakana; Ishizaka, Ikuyo; Higashikawa, Mari

2014-01-01

498

Accountable Talk in Reading Comprehension Instruction. CSE Technical Report 670  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between the quality of classroom talk and academic rigor in reading comprehension lessons. In addition, the study aimed to characterize effective questions to support rigorous reading comprehension lessons. The data were collected as a part of the Instructional Quality Assessment (IQA) pilot. The IQA is a…

Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Crosson, Amy C.; Resnick, Lauren B.

2006-01-01

499

Processing Demands of Reading Comprehension Tests in Young Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study we examined the processing demands of three reading comprehension tests, namely the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension (WJPC), a Curriculum-Based Measure test (CBM-Maze), and a Recall test, in the early elementary years. Our investigation was theoretically motivated by Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory and examined the…

Kendeou, Panayiota; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Spanoudis, George

2012-01-01

500

Lexical Quality and Reading Comprehension in Primary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between the quality of lexical representations and text comprehension skill in German primary school children (Grades 1-4). We measured the efficiency and accuracy of orthographical, phonological, and meaning representations by means of computerized tests. Text comprehension skill was…

Richter, Tobias; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Naumann, Johannes; Neeb, Yvonne

2013-01-01