Science.gov

Sample records for comprehensive nuclear test-ban

  1. Capability to Monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    In September 1996, the United States was the first country to sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), an international agreement to ban all nuclear test explosions, now signed by 177 nations. The treaty is intended to impede the development of nuclear weapons as part of the international nonproliferation regime. The treaty is not yet in effect because it has not been ratified by enough countries-including the United States. As a result, many of its verification provisions have not yet been fully implemented. When implemented, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the Seismological Society of America (SSA) are confident that the combined worldwide monitoring resources will meet the verification goals of the CTBT.

  2. Comprehensive test ban negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grab, G. Allen; Heckrotte, Warren

    1983-10-01

    Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United States concerned about the problem of possible Soviet cheating and the USSR concerned about the protection of its national sovereignty. In addition, internal bureaucratic politics have played a major role in preventing the successful conclusion of an agreement. Despite these problems, the superpowers have concluded several significant partial meausres: a brief (1958-1961) total moratorium on nuclear weapons tests; the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, banning tests in the air, water and outer space; the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (150 KT limit on underground explosions); and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976 (150 KT limit on individal PNEs). Today, the main U.S. objections to a CTBT center is the nuclear weapons laboratories, the Department of Energy, and the Pentagon, who all stress the issues of stockpile reliability and verification. Those who remain committed to a CTBT emphasize and the potential political leverage it offers in checking both horizontal and vertical proliferation.

  3. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently completed a detailed study of the technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. While political factors were excluded, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk will elaborate on the study. The primary conclusion, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons."

  4. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2003-04-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently published a detailed study of technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. Excluding political factors, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk and ensuing discussion will elaborate on the study. The principal conclusion of the report, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons.

  5. Xenon monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, Theodore Ted W.

    2014-05-01

    How do you monitor (verify) a CTBT? It is a difficult challenge to monitor the entire world for nuclear tests, regardless of size. Nuclear tests "normally" occur underground, above ground or underwater. Setting aside very small tests (let's limit our thinking to 1 kiloton or more), nuclear tests shake the ground, emit large amounts of radioactivity, and make loud noises if in the atmosphere (or hydroacoustic waves if underwater).

  6. Xenon monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, Theodore W.

    2014-05-09

    How do you monitor (verify) a CTBT? It is a difficult challenge to monitor the entire world for nuclear tests, regardless of size. Nuclear tests 'normally' occur underground, above ground or underwater. Setting aside very small tests (let's limit our thinking to 1 kiloton or more), nuclear tests shake the ground, emit large amounts of radioactivity, and make loud noises if in the atmosphere (or hydroacoustic waves if underwater)

  7. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Chiappetta, F.; Heuze, F.; Walter, W.; Hopler, R.; Hsu, V.; Martin, B.; Pearson, C.; Stump, B.; Zipf, K.

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1,000 squared kilometers. In active mining districts this area could include several different mining operations. So, an OSI could be disruptive both to the mining community and to the US Government which must host the foreign inspection team. Accordingly, it is in the best interest of all US parties to try and eliminate the possible occurrence of false alarms. This can be achieved primarily by reducing the ambiguity of mine-induced seismic signals, so that even if these remain visible to the IMS they are clearly consistent with recognizable mining patterns.

  8. Verifying the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty by Radioxenon Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ringbom, Anders

    2005-05-24

    The current status of the ongoing establishment of a verification system for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty using radioxenon detection is discussed. As an example of equipment used in this application the newly developed fully automatic noble gas sampling and detection system SAUNA is described, and data collected with this system are discussed. It is concluded that the most important remaining scientific challenges in the field concern event categorization and meteorological backtracking.

  9. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Thomas, Jr.

    2014-05-01

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  10. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Thomas Jr.

    2014-05-09

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  11. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  12. Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, N. Jill

    1999-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  13. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul G.

    2014-05-09

    A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

  14. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; Orrell, John L.; Seifert, Allen; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-10-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,?)37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

  15. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    E-print Network

    C. E. Aalseth; A. R. Day; D. A. Haas; E. W. Hoppe; B. J. Hyronimus; M. E. Keillor; E. K. Mace; J. L. Orrell; A. Seifert; V. T. Woods

    2010-08-04

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

  16. Nuclear weapons test detection: Ensuring a verifiable treaty. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development program 1995 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has an active program to provide technologies for monitoring and verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). DOE technologies will significantly increase the nation`s capability to identify potential nuclear explosions with high confidence and with minimal false alarms. This report presents the highlights of the first year of this program. The primary objectives of the CTBT monitoring system are to deter nuclear explosions in all environments (underground, underwater, or in the atmosphere) and, if such an explosion does occur, to detect, locate, and identify its source. The system is designed to provide credible evidence to national authorities to aid in resolving ambiguities and to serve as the basis for appropriate action. To collect this evidence, one must develop technologies that can detect and identify the signals from a nuclear test against a background of hundreds of thousands of benign events. The monitoring system must have high sensitivity to detect the events of interest and, to minimize false alarms, it must identify those events with a high level of confidence.

  17. Radioxenons: Their role in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.W.; Casey, L.A.

    1996-06-01

    Monitoring for xenon radionuclides which are produced in a nuclear detonation can provide a strong deterrent to the violation of a Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). There are 18 known radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear fission with half-lives ranging from less than one second to 11.9 days. However, only four of these remain in significant amounts more than a day after a detonation. In order for radioxenon monitoring to be practical, it was necessary to develop an automated measurement system which could operate unattended for periods of months, measure the entire spectrum of radioxenons, and provide hundreds of times better sensitivities than current laboratory procedures. This capability was developed at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory based on rapid separation of atmospheric xenon coupled with a unique high sensitivity measurement device for the radioxenons. A fieldable prototype analyzer is scheduled for testing in August 1996 with commercial availability planned by 1998.

  18. Sakharov and the nuclear test ban

    SciTech Connect

    York, H.F.

    1981-11-01

    US-Soviet test ban policies evolved in an atmosphere of secrecy so that the ideas of people like Sakharov were not available for general consideration by the West. Because two sets of concerns were debated on the world stage, that mankind was threatened by a nuclear arms race and by radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests, this led to both anti-war and anti-test activities. A review of the literature quotes Sakharov's position on nuclear arms control measures and points out the basic problems of negotiation between an open democracy and a centrally-controlled state, noting failures on both sides. In view of the restraints, success should be granted to what progress has already been accomplished, however inadequate. The author feels that efforts by the early leaders to contain the arms race should be examined honestly and whatever actions are needed should be made courageously. 12 references. (DCK)

  19. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, James W., LTC

    2000-09-15

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. 78 FR 25298 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological...information is required by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and will, upon request...9-4040-A. Title: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Type of Request: Extension...

  1. 78 FR 57653 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological...information is required by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and will, upon request...9-4040-A. Title: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Type of Request: Extension...

  2. 75 FR 43198 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological...requirements for the USGS Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This collection consists...9-4040-A. Title: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Type of Request: Extension...

  3. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  4. Technical Challenges for a Comprehensive Test Ban: A historical perspective to frame the future (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 1958 scientists from the Soviet block and the US allies met in Geneva to discuss what it would take to monitor a forerunner to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty at the 'Conference of Experts to Study the Possibility of Detecting Violations of a Possible Agreement on Suspension of Nuclear Tests'. Although armed with a limited resume of observations, the conference recommended a multi-phenomenology approach (air sampling, acoustics, seismic and electromagnetic) deployed it a network of 170 sites scattered across the Northern Hemisphere, and hypothesized a detection threshold of 1kt for atmospheric tests and 5kt for underground explosions. The conference recommendations spurred vigorous debate, with strong disagreement with the stated detection hypothesis. Nevertheless, the technical challenges posed lead to a very focused effort to improve facilities, methodologies and, most importantly, research and development on event detection, location and identification. In the ensuing 50 years the various challenges arose and were eventually 'solved'; these included quantifying yield determination to enter a Limited Threshold Test Ban, monitoring broad areas of emerging nuclear nations, and after the mid-1990s lowering the global detection threshold to sub-kiloton levels for underground tests. Today there is both an international monitoring regime (ie, the International Monitoring System, or IMS) and a group of countries that have their own national technical means (NTM). The challenges for the international regime are evolving; the IMS has established itself as a very credible monitoring system, but the demand of a CTBT to detect and identify a 'nuclear test' of diminished size (zero yield) poses new technical hurdles. These include signal processing and understanding limits of resolution, location accuracy, integration of heterogeneous data, and accurately characterizing anomalous events. It is possible to extrapolate past technical advances to predict what should be available by 2020; detection of coupled explosions to 100s of tons for all continental areas, as well as a probabilistic assessment of event identification.

  5. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  6. National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Landauer, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive. (LCL)

  7. Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, S; Vaidya, S

    2009-07-30

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

  8. A systems perspective of Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring and verification

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.S.

    1996-11-01

    On September 24, 1996, after decades of discussion and more than two years of intensive international negotiations, President Clinton, followed by representatives of (to date) more than 125 other countries, including the other four declared nuclear weapons states, signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Each signatory now faces a complex set of technical and political considerations regarding the advisability of joining the treaty. Those considerations vary from country to country, but for many countries one of the key issues is the extent to which the treaty can be verified. In the case of the US, it is anticipated that treaty verifiability will be an important issue in the US Senate Advice and Consent Hearings. This paper will address treaty verifiability, with an emphasis on the interplay between the various elements of the International monitoring regime, as prescribed in the CTBT Treaty Text and its associated Protocol. These elements, coupled with the National regimes, will serve as an integrated set of overlapping, interlocking measures to support treaty verification. Taken as a whole, they present a formidable challenge to potential testers who wish not to be caught.

  9. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development FY95-96 program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the United States Government`s (USG) research and development (R&D) functions for monitoring nuclear explosions in the context of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This responsibility includes the November 1993 transfer of the Department of Defense`s (DoD) CTBT R&D responsibility to DOE. The DOE research program builds on the broad base of USG expertise developed historically and includes R&D for detecting, locating, identifying, and characterizing nuclear explosions in all environments. The Office of Research and Development (NN-20), within the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, formulates and executes the efforts necessary to meet the Department`s responsibilities. The following DOE laboratories as a team will support NN-20 in implementing the program plan: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. DOE has committed to a cooperative program that draws upon the core competencies of the national laboratories and upon the strengths of other government agencies and the private sector (academia and industry). The integration of resources under a common direction will allow the program to be flexible and responsive to changing technical and policy requirements while maximizing the effectiveness of funding appropriations. DOE will develop and demonstrate appropriate technologies, algorithms, procedures, and integrated systems in a cost-effective and timely manner. The program comprises seismic, radionuclide, hydroacoustic, and infrasound monitoring; on-site inspection; space-based monitoring; and automated data processing elements.

  10. Data fusion as an example of a powerful constraint on the reconstruction of atmospheric sources of radionuclides for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysta, Monika; Becker, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    One of the scientific issues falling within the horizon of interest of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is the reconstruction of accidental sources of radionuclides. The issue arises if a scenario of measurements is detected in the International Monitoring System (IMS) network. Source reconstruction problem for a dispersion of radionuclides faces both physical and mathematical limitations. Due to the presence of turbulent processes in the atmosphere, detections convey a limited amount of information on the location of such a source. From a numerical point of view, source reconstruction is performed up to a grid-box of the mesh covering a computational domain and, consequently, the number of grid-boxes determines the dimension of the source. Given its considerable size and, at the same time, a limited number of observations constituting a measurement scenario, the problem of source reconstruction is severely under-constrained. Nevertheless, it is both physics and mathematics which help to circumvent some of the difficulties. In the context of verification of the CTBT, atmospheric transport modelling (ATM) is supported by detections made within complementary monitoring networks, namely seismic, infrasound and hydroacoustic. The resulting events are listed in the form of bulletins and their spatio-temporal location is specified therein. The accuracy of their locations can be taken advantage of and employ in order to lower the demand on the radionuclide source reconstruction via fusion of relevant information with possible source regions determined by ATM. In the first step, possible source regions can be overlapped with the waveform events in order to differentiate between those which could have and could not have been at origin of the measurement scenario. Secondly, the waveform events can then be used to restrict possible source regions so that source reconstruction could be limited to those grid-boxes which overlap with the waveform events. Further constraints can be provided by mathematical techniques of regularization of an inverse problem which allow including additional information consistent with a point release. In this presentation we propose to report on the recent advancement at the CTBTO on the way towards taking full advantage of the opportunity offered by data fusion. To this end the scenario of the most recent National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise 2009 shall be discussed.

  11. A Discussion of Procedures and Equipment for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection Environmental Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, Ned A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Onishi, Yasuo; Hayes, James C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper is intended to serve as a scientific basis to start discussions of the available environmental sampling techniques and equipment that have been used in the past that could be considered for use within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspections (OSI). This work contains information on the techniques, equipment, costs, and some operational procedures associated with environmental sampling that have actually been used in the past by the United States for the detection of nuclear explosions. This paper also includes a discussion of issues, recommendations, and questions needing further study within the context of the sampling and analysis of aquatic materials, atmospheric gases, atmospheric particulates, vegetation, sediments and soils, fauna, and drill-back materials.

  12. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  13. From Alamogordo to the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, Michael

    2008-04-01

    After W.W.II., the U.S. continued its program for the development of nuclear weapons. Winds carried radioactive debris far beyond the Nevada test site, and these fission products were deposited by rain, to enter the human food chain. The isotopes of greatest concern were Sr90 and I131, that, after ingestion, become concentrated in bone and thyroid respectively. There was a growing public anxiety about possible heath hazards posed by radiation from this fallout. In March 1958, the Greater St. Louis Citizens' Committee for Nuclear Information (C.N.I.) was formed. Among the leaders of C.N.I. were E. U. Condon and Barry Commoner. The aim of C.N.I. was ``to collect and distribute in the widest possible manner information which the public requires to understand the present and future problems which arise from potential large-scale use of nuclear weapons in war; testing of nuclear weapons; and nonmilitary uses of nuclear energy.'' In accordance with its objectives, members of C.N.I. gave many nontechnical talks, where we described the various forms of radiation and what was then known about the biological effects of radiation. Some of our members testified at Congressional committee hearings. We published a newsletter, initially titled Nuclear Information, and later Scientist and Citizen. In this presentation, I will describe some of the activities of this idealistic organization.

  14. Slimhole drilling and directional drilling for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban: An initial assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F. E.

    1995-07-01

    On Site-Inspection (OSI), under the Comprehensive Test Ban being negotiated in the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, may include drilling at the site of a suspected clandestine underground nuclear explosion to recover radioactive samples. It is in the interest of the drilling party to operate as light and compact a system as possible because it is likely that the drilling equipment will first be airlifted to the country being inspected, and then will be carried by air or surface to the inspection site. It will be necessary for the inspection party to have the capability for more than vertical drilling since there may not be a drilling site available vertically above the suspected nuclear cavity location. This means having, the ability to perform directional drilling and to obtain accurate positioning of the drilling tool. Consequently, several directions may be explored from a single surface drilling pad. If the target depth is expected to be at or less than 600 m (2000 ft), slant drilling may be required to a length well in excess of 600 m. Clearly, the operation must be designed with health and safety features to prevent radioactive exposure if the drilling encounters a nuclear source region. The DOE/LLNL community has developed a strong expertise in this regard. In this initial assessment we focus on the portability and directionality of drilling systems.

  15. PREPARATORY COMMISSION FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR-TEST-BAN TREATY

    E-print Network

    Gerstoft, Peter

    of Findings: 1. Signals from WK30 and particularly WK31 have loud electrical noise. Sig- nals at VIB have, average noise and SNR 44 F SNR limit for GA 46 FIGURES 47 #12;Technical Report IDC-1999/10 February 13 hydrophones. The signals from these have, however, a high level of 60-Hz electrical noise that is not removed

  16. Barometric gas transport along faults and its application to nuclear test-ban monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C. R.; Heinle, R. A.; Hudson, G. B.; Nitao, J. J.; Zucca, J. J.

    1997-06-01

    Underground nuclear explosions produce a unique but evanescent set of radionuclide gases that potentially can be used in the context of an on-site, test-ban monitoring program to differentiate them from other detected events such as earthquakes or mining activity. In Part I of this report we describe an experiment to evaluate the upward transport of gases from an underground explosion using two gas tracers with very different diffusivities that were released in a 400- m-deep, chemical explosive detonation. The less diffusive (more massive) tracer was detected on a nearby geologic fault 50 days following the detonation while the more diffusive tracer was-- detected 375 days after release. Computer simulations indicate that the arrival time and the chromatographic behavior of transport are characteristic of barometrically induced flow in a fractured, porous matrix regime. For a hypothetical 1-kiloton fission explosion subject to the same weather and gas transport conditions of the chemical explosion, simulations predict the delectability of argon-37 after 80 days in spite of depletion by radioactive decay. Largely because of the earlier arrival of xenon-133, owing to its lower binary gas diffusivity, the exceedingly short lived isotope should also be detectable-arriving about 30 days earlier than argon. in Part II we consider that our prediction of the delectability of argon and xenon is based upon the small volume (0.00001 M3) sampling technique of the NPE tracer-gas sampling study while actual sampling for radionuclides would involve drawing much larger volume (possibly 0.1- 1 M3) gas samples from the near-surface.

  17. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  18. Doctors and the test ban: 25 years on.

    PubMed

    Haines, A; Hartog, M

    1988-08-01

    Events leading up to the signing of the partial test ban treaty in 1963 are traced from the first public concern about nuclear testing in 1954 when a hydrogen bomb was detonated in the Pacific, through Albert Schweitzer's 1957 appeal for a ban on nuclear tests; agreements between the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom to start formal negotiations; growth in medical and scientific concern in the early 1960s; to the impetus provided by the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962. Arguments for and against a comprehensive test ban treaty are discussed. Current activity by doctors and health professionals grows out of the successful campaign waged by doctors and scientists against atmospheric testing and is held to constitute a uniquely important exercise in primary prevention. PMID:3408986

  19. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

  20. Monitoring a Test Ban Treaty presents scientific challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Brian W.; Rivière-Barbier, Florence; Chernoby, Igor; Koch, Karl

    The Clinton administration has expressed an interest in a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), but few people realize that such a treaty may require detecting, locating, and identifying seismic events as small as mD = 2.5 [Wallace et al., 1992]. The lowest magntiude level to which monitoring must be accomplished depends on quantification of evasion scenarios such as decoupling [Murphy et al., 1991].To monitor a CTBT, small events—including those resulting from human activities such as construction and mining—must be discriminated from nuclear explosions. The number of man-made events greater than 50 tons in the United States is 10,000 per day [Richards et al., 1992] with one shot over 200 tons.

  1. Preliminary report on the implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Goldstein, P.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of an ongoing experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain local and regional seismic data together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

  2. Deterrence through a ballistic missile flight-test ban

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.

    1987-12-01

    The author does not wish to denigrate all routes to deterrence except the flight-test ban. Midgetman, for example, has a highly synergistic relationship with a flight-test ban. The two combined would yield more deterrence than either separately. Midgetman would gain protection from depressed trajectories and homing MaRVs, while the flight-test ban would gain a second ICBM survivability mode. Similarly, silo hardening and site defense are transformed from futile or marginal exercises into sound strategy if Soviet missiles are barred from improving their accuracy or testing new penetration aids. Strategically, the ideal ICBM survivability solution would be four-pronged: flight test ban, hardening, site defense, and Midgetmen combined. But economically, this would take us far too deep into the land of diminishing returns. Possibly a two-pronged or even three-pronged solution would make the most strategic and budgetary sense. But by either yardstick, the flight-test ban is the cheapest and most productive deterrent tool available. If we can afford a multi-pronged solution to ICBM vulnerability, the flight-test ban must be one of the prongs. If we cannot, both strategic and budgetary considerations require that the single prong be the ballistic missile flight-test ban. 1 reference.

  3. Aftershocks and on-site inspections under a test ban: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.; Schultz, C.; Zucca, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    An ambiguous seismic event detected remotely under a comprehensive test ban (CTB) may require an on-site inspection to determine the nature of the event. Provided they are present, aftershocks and microseismic events could play a key role in narrowing the inspection area and focusing the efforts of the inspectors. Of particular interest are the low-frequency, emergent aftershocks that have been observed after underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. If these events can be shown to have unique characteristics, their detection could greatly increase the chances for a successful inspection. The authors have been characterizing aftershock swarms from underground explosive events and from other events that may be encountered during an inspection. This report summarizes an analysis of aftershocks following an underground explosion and microseismic events associated with routine operations at the block-caving Henderson Mine in Colorado. They used as their example of a smaller, single-point explosion the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a one-kiloton, chemical, overburied, single-point explosion whose aftershock sequence is similar to an underground nuclear explosion. They were interested in studying the Henderson mine because the caving operation is an apparent analog to the chimney formation following an nuclear event and could give rise to similar microseismic events. Mine operations at Henderson result in both low-frequency emergent events and high-frequency impulsive events. The emergent events (hundreds per day) are apparently associated with rockfalls into the crater produced by the caving operations and have many similar characteristics to the low-frequency events from the NPE; however, the low-frequency NPE aftershocks are relatively much more impulsive than those of the Henderson Mine. Unlike the NPE or nuclear events, location of Henderson low-frequency events is extremely difficult using arrival-time methods because of their very gradual onset.

  4. Visualization tools for comprehensive test ban treaty research

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.L.; Harris, J.M.; Simons, R.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on tools used in Data Visualization efforts at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy CTBT R&D program. These tools provide interactive techniques for the examination and interpretation of scientific data, and can be used for many types of CTBT research and development projects. We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the tools to display and analyze CTBT scientific data. While the tools may be used for everyday applications, our discussion will focus on the use of these tools for visualization of data used in research and verification of new theories. Our examples focus on uses with seismic data, but the tools may also be used for other types of data sets. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Authentication of data for monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, R.L.; Draelos, T.J.

    1996-05-01

    The important issue of data integrity in the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS) is discussed and a brief tutorial on data authentication techniques is offered. The utilization of data authentication as a solution to the data integrity problem is evaluated. Public key data authentication is recommended for multilateral monitoring regimes such as the CTBT. The ramifications and system considerations of applying data authentication at various locations in the IMS, or not at all, are reviewed in a data surety context. The paper concludes with a recommendation of authenticating data at all critical monitoring stations.

  6. Statistical algorithms for a comprehensive test ban treaty discrimination framework

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, N.D.; Anderson, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.; Hagedorn, D.N.

    1996-10-01

    Seismic discrimination is the process of identifying a candidate seismic event as an earthquake or explosion using information from seismic waveform features (seismic discriminants). In the CTBT setting, low energy seismic activity must be detected and identified. A defensible CTBT discrimination decision requires an understanding of false-negative (declaring an event to be an earthquake given it is an explosion) and false-position (declaring an event to be an explosion given it is an earthquake) rates. These rates are derived from a statistical discrimination framework. A discrimination framework can be as simple as a single statistical algorithm or it can be a mathematical construct that integrates many different types of statistical algorithms and CTBT technologies. In either case, the result is the identification of an event and the numerical assessment of the accuracy of an identification, that is, false-negative and false-positive rates. In Anderson et al., eight statistical discrimination algorithms are evaluated relative to their ability to give results that effectively contribute to a decision process and to be interpretable with physical (seismic) theory. These algorithms can be discrimination frameworks individually or components of a larger framework. The eight algorithms are linear discrimination (LDA), quadratic discrimination (QDA), variably regularized discrimination (VRDA), flexible discrimination (FDA), logistic discrimination, K-th nearest neighbor (KNN), kernel discrimination, and classification and regression trees (CART). In this report, the performance of these eight algorithms, as applied to regional seismic data, is documented. Based on the findings in Anderson et al. and this analysis: CART is an appropriate algorithm for an automated CTBT setting.

  7. Data visualization for comprehensive test ban treaty monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, R.W.; Young, C.J.; Edwards, T.L.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the Data Visualization Project at Sandia Labs is to prototype and evaluate new approaches to the presentation of data for CTBT monitoring applications. The great amount of data expected to be available, and the complex interrelationships in that data, make this a promising area for scientific data visualization techniques. We are developing a powerful and flexible prototyping environment with which to explore these possibilities. A user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) should be an integral part of any data visualization tools developed. The GUI is necessary to select which data to visualize, and to modify and explore the displays that are the result of data visualization. Using our prototyping environment, we have produced data visualization displays of various kinds of data and have also experimented with different GUIs for controlling the visualization process. We present here an overview of that work, including promising results, lessons learned, and work in progress. To better understand what is needed, we have identified several data processing/analysis scenarios which we think will be important in CTBT monitoring. These scenarios help us identify what types of information we should display (together or in sequence), and help us focus on isolating the underlying goals. Each display we have produced is put in the context of one or more processing scenarios to help explain why and how it could be useful.

  8. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M.; Allen, Todd R.; Stoller, Roger E; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  9. Comprehensive Glossary of Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlands, Tracy; Stone, Craig; Meyer, Richard

    2001-10-01

    We have developed a comprehensive glossary of terms covering the broad fields of nuclear and related areas of science. The glossary has been constructed with two sections. A primary section consists of over 6,000 terms covering the fields of nuclear and high energy physics, nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, health physics, astrophysics, materials science, analytical science, environmental science, nuclear medicine, nuclear engineering, nuclear instrumentation, nuclear weapons, and nuclear safeguards. Approximately 1,500 terms of specific focus on military and nuclear weapons testing define the second section. The glossary is currently larger than many published glossaries and dictionaries covering the entire field of physics. Glossary terms have been defined using an extensive collection of current and historical publications. Historical texts extend back into the 1800's, the early days of atomic physics. The glossary has been developed both as a software application and as a hard copy document.

  10. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, Marvin D

    1994-01-01

    To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

  11. Gamma-Ray Bursts Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Thomas

    ) MEC S and LECS (medium and low energy x-ray sensors, 1 arc min positions) (2-30 keV; 20x20 degree FOV.b, radiation is sometimes defined by its energy measure in electron volts. 0.3 to 30 keV approximately is x-rays really needed was source identifications. #12;BeppoSax (1996-2002) (Italian-Dutch X-ray astronomy mission

  12. Politics of motherhood: the case of Women Strike for Peace and the test ban treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Swerdlow, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative history and organizational study of the formative years of Women Strike for Peace (1961-1963) and its campaign for a nuclear test ban treaty. WSP, a grass roots, participatory movement of American Women, was born on November 1, 1961 when an estimated 50,000 women in 60 communities across the nation walked out of their kitchens and off their jobs in a one day protest against Russian and American nuclear policies. In the process of transforming this one day strike into a national woman's movement, WSP developed a feminine political style characterized by an anti-heirarchical, anti-organizational format, simple, womanly rhetoric, and spontaneous, innovative national and international direct action. At a time when foreign policy dissenters were dismissed by the press and the public either as commies or kooks, the image that WSP projected to respectable middle-class, middle-aged peace mothers wearing white gloves and flowered hats while picketing the White House to save their children from nuclear holocaust caught the favorable attention of large sections of the media, the public, and even the President. Through an investigation of the program, internal debates, rhetoric, organizational structure, and tactics of WSP, along with the backgrounds of its leaders and members, this study uncovers the political and gender consciousness of the women who joined the movement.

  13. 75 FR 43198 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    .... Request for Comments On November 9, 2009, we published a Federal Register notice (74 FR 57698) announcing... response. This includes the time for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing... available at any time. While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your personal...

  14. 78 FR 57653 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... information is useful; (b) the accuracy of the agency's estimate of the burden time to the proposed collection... comment, including your personal identifying information, may be made publicly available at any...

  15. 78 FR 25298 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...We (the USGS) will ask the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve the information collection request (ICR) described below. This collection consists of 1 form. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, and as part of our continuing efforts to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, we invite the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to......

  16. Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

    2013-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  17. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.; Al-Ayat, R.; Walter, W. R.

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  18. Preventing nuclear explosive testing. Submitted to the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    H.J. Resolution 3 banning the testing of nuclear weapons over 150 kilotons seeks to slow the arms race by urging Congress to ratify the 1974 Threshold Test Ban Treaty and the 1976 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty and urging the President to resume negotiations with the Soviet Union. The House Foreign Affairs Committee report supports the concept after a series of hearings with verification experts and the weapons and intelligence establishments. Verification and weapons reliability were the key issues of concern, but the committee concluded that politics rather than technology prevented a comprehensive test ban. The report also includes the reminder in the minority view that talks were suspended after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and that scientists need further testing to make weapons safer and less vulnerable to terrorist action.

  19. Rapid Deployment Drilling System for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban Preliminary Engineering Design

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W.C.; Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Cohen, J.H.; Heuze, F.E.; Butler, M.W.

    1996-09-01

    While not a new drilling technology, coiled-tubing (CT) drilling continues to undergo rapid development and expansion, with new equipment, tools and procedures developed almost daily. This project was undertaken to: analyze available technological options for a Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) CT drilling system: recommend specific technologies that best match the requirements for the RDDS; and highlight any areas where adequate technological solutions are not currently available. Postshot drilling is a well established technique at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Drilling provides essential data on the results of underground tests including obtaining samples for the shot zone, information on cavity size, chimney dimensions, effects of the event on surrounding material, and distribution of radioactivity.

  20. Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bouland, O; Hale, G M; Lynn, J E; Talou, P; Bernard, D; Litaize, O; Noguere, G; De Saint Jean, C; Serot, O

    2010-01-01

    The essence of this paper is to enlighten the consistency achieved nowadays in nuclear data and uncertainties assessments in terms of compound nucleus reaction theory from neutron separation energy to continuum. Making the continuity of theories used in resolved (R-matrix theory), unresolved resonance (average R-matrix theory) and continuum (optical model) rangcs by the generalization of the so-called SPRT method, consistent average parameters are extracted from observed measurements and associated covariances are therefore calculated over the whole energy range. This paper recalls, in particular, recent advances on fission cross section calculations and is willing to suggest some hints for future developments.

  1. Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Tuttle, John D.; Hazel, Michael J.; Schlegel, Steven C.; Miller, Daniel R.

    2009-03-30

    Abstract. With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, NNSA management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by the U.S. DOE MPC&A Regulatory Development Project RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and schedule the development of documents; 5) Identify and develop processes to measure effectiveness of regulations. Utilizing this process is resulting in an effective regulatory process that is understood and is being adopted by the four RF organizations. It is anticipated that the current regulatory development process will continue after U.S. support ends. Utilization of the systematic methodology will ensure regulatory development is based on required MPC&A structural elements and will support the continued maintenance and development of an effective regulatory base.

  2. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  3. Transparency in nuclear arms: Toward a nuclear weapons register

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1994-10-01

    In his press conference to present a {open_quotes}10-point non-proliferation initiative{close_quotes} last December, German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel included a proposal calling for an international register for nuclear weapons, analogous to the UN Conventional Arms Register. When German diplomats explained the initiative to their allies in London, Paris and Washington, they were sharply rebuffed. Apparently the three nuclear-weapon states were strongly opposed to the idea and therefore discouraged Germany from pursuing it further in the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva, where the ad hoc group on transparency in armaments would be an appropriate forum for further discussion. Faced with these cold responses, German diplomats shelved the idea for the time being and concentrated on initiatives that promised better chances for agreement, such as the comprehensive test ban (CTB) treaty currently under discussion, a fissile material cutoff agreement and an international plutonium management regime.

  4. Impact of contributions of Glenn T. Seaborg on nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2000-12-26

    Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-199) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten U.S. presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights the profound impact of his contributions on nuclear science, both in the U.S. and in the international community.

  5. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  6. Comprehensive Nuclear Model Code, Nucleons, Ions, Induced Cross-Sections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-09-27

    EMPIRE-II is a flexible code for calculation of nuclear reactions in the frame of combined op0tical, Multistep Direct (TUL), Multistep Compound (NVWY) and statistical (Hauser-Feshbach) models. Incident particle can be a nucleon or any nucleus (Heavy Ion). Isomer ratios, residue production cross sections and emission spectra for neutrons, protons, alpha- particles, gamma-rays, and one type of Light Ion can be calculated. The energy range starts just above the resonance region for neutron induced reactions andmore »extends up to several hundreds of MeV for the Heavy Ion induced reactions.« less

  7. Developing a Comprehensive and Articulated Nuclear Training Curriculum--The Westinghouse Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, William C.

    After conducting a comprehensive evaluation of its curriculum, staff at the Westinghouse Nuclear Training Center in Zion, Illinois, undertook a research and development project aimed at upgrading the center's curriculum to the competency-based format. Included among the main activities of the curriculum development process were the following:…

  8. The continuing risk of nuclear war.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Climate change and nuclear war are currently the most dangerous challenges to human civilisation and survival. The effects of climate change are now sufficient to persuade many governments to take effective measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Today there are about 27,000 nuclear warheads, many at least ten times more powerful than the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs, and a meaningful medical response to a nuclear attack is impossible. Nevertheless, the threat of nuclear war does not raise public concern, and indeed the nuclear-weapon states are upgrading their capability. The only effective preventive measure is the abolition of nuclear weapons. Steps towards this include: a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, for the nuclear weapon states to observe their obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty to enter into force. The ultimate need is for a Nuclear Weapons Convention; International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War have launched an International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear weapons (ICAN) to promote a NWC. PMID:17987978

  9. Discrimination of nuclear explosions against civilian sources based on atmospheric xenon isotopic activity ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinowski, Martin B.; Axelssson, A.; Bean, Marc; Blanchard, X.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Brachet, G.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Peters, Jana; Pistner, Christoph; Raith, Maria; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, P. R.; Schlosser, C.; Stocki, Trevor J.; Taffary, T.; Ungar, R. Kurt

    2010-05-01

    A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will be used to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of nuclear explosions, empirical data for both test and reactor releases as well as observations by measurement stations of the International Noble Gas Experiment (INGE) are used to provide a proof of concept for the isotopic ratio based method for source discrimination.

  10. Szilard Prize Lecture: Seismic Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Paul

    2006-04-01

    Seismic monitoring of the more than 2000 nuclear test explosions since 1945 has been vigorously pursued, both to track the weapons development of potential adversaries, and to support initiatives in nuclear arms control, including various test ban treaties. Major funding from the US Department of Defense built up new global seismographic networks and over several decades established practical capability in monitoring nuclear explosions ``teleseismically'' (i.e. from distances more than about 1500 km), for tests that the testing nation did not attempt to conceal. What then is the capability to monitor compliance with, for example, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) of 1996, particularly if evasion scenarios are considered? Note that the CTBT, though not ratified by some countries (including the US), is now being monitored by networks that include seismographic stations at ``regional'' distances (< 1500 km) from candidate explosion locations. Years of R and D have shown that regional signals can be used to monitor down to yields significantly lower than can be detected and identified teleseismically. A US National Academy of Sciences study in 2002 concluded that ``an underground nuclear explosion cannot be confidently hidden if its yield is larger than 1 or 2 kt.'' About 1000 earthquakes and chemical explosions are now detected per day, and documented via seismic data, providing plenty of challenges for nuclear explosion monitoring organizations. Explosion monitoring capability will improve in many parts of the world, due to the growth of networks that monitor even small earthquakes to study seismic hazard. But political problems can impede improved international explosion monitoring, due to national restrictions on data access.

  11. Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, Theodoros; Lelieveld, Jos

    2013-04-01

    We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO).

  12. A comprehensive characterization of the nuclear microRNA repertoire of post-mitotic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Khudayberdiev, Sharof A.; Zampa, Federico; Rajman, Marek; Schratt, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with important functions in the development and plasticity of post-mitotic neurons. In addition to the well-described cytoplasmic function of miRNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation, recent studies suggested that miRNAs could also be involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory processes in the nuclei of proliferating cells. However, whether miRNAs localize to and function within the nucleus of post-mitotic neurons is unknown. Using a combination of microarray hybridization and small RNA deep sequencing, we identified a specific subset of miRNAs which are enriched in the nuclei of neurons. Nuclear enrichment of specific candidate miRNAs (miR-25 and miR-92a) could be independently validated by Northern blot, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). By cross-comparison to published reports, we found that nuclear accumulation of miRNAs might be linked to a down-regulation of miRNA expression during in vitro development of cortical neurons. Importantly, by generating a comprehensive isomiR profile of the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, we found a significant overrepresentation of guanine nucleotides (nt) at the 3?-terminus of nuclear-enriched isomiRs, suggesting the presence of neuron-specific mechanisms involved in miRNA nuclear localization. In conclusion, our results provide a starting point for future studies addressing the nuclear function of specific miRNAs and the detailed mechanisms underlying subcellular localization of miRNAs in neurons and possibly other polarized cell types. PMID:24324399

  13. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Comprehensive Health Risk Management—Global Radiocontamination and Information Disaster

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the “Fukushima Health Management Survey Project” for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management. PMID:25425958

  14. Energy coupling of nuclear bursts in and above the ocean surface: source region calculations and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.B.; Harben, P.E.; Rock, D.W.; White, J.W.; Piacsek, A.

    1997-07-01

    In support of the Comprehensive Test Ban, research is under way on the long range propagation of signals from nuclear explosions in deep underwater sound (SOFAR) channel. Initially our work at LLNL on signals in the source region considered explosions in or above deep ocean. We studied the variation of wave properties and source region energy coupling as a function of height or depth of burst. Initial calculations on the CALE hydrodynamics code were linked at a few hundred milliseconds to a version of NRL`s weak code, NPE, which solves the nonlinear progressive wave equation. The simulation of the wave propagation was carried down to 5000 m depth and out to 10,000 m range. We have completed ten such simulations at a variety of heights and depths below the ocean surface.

  15. Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

  16. ELSEVIER Journal of Nuclear Materials 220-222 (1995)244-248 Comprehensive model for disruption erosion

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    ELSEVIER Journal of Nuclear Materials 220-222 (1995)244-248 eI Comprehensive model for disruption-material interaction has been developed. The model integrates with sufficient detail and in a self-consistent way of plasma-facing materials (PFMs) during a major disruption is critical for successful and reliable

  17. Comprehensive Evaluation of Nuclear Factor-?? Expression Patterns in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giopanou, Ioanna; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Marazioti, Antonia; Spella, Magda; Vreka, Malamati

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-?B signalling is required for lung adenocarcinoma development in mice, and both of its subunits RelA and RelB were independently reported to be highly expressed in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To comprehensively examine NF-?B expression in NSCLC, we analyzed serial sections of primary tumor samples from 77 well-documented patients (36 adenocarcinomas, 40 squamous cell carcinomas and 3 large cell carcinomas) for immunoreactivity of RelA, RelB, P50, and P52/P100. Tumor and intratumoral stroma areas were discriminated based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoreactivity and inflammatory infiltration was assessed in intratumoral stroma areas. NF-?B immunoreactivity was quantified by intensity, extent, and nuclear localization and was cross-examined with tumor cell proliferation, inflammatory infiltration, and clinical-pathologic data. We found that the expression of the different NF-?B subunits was not concordant, warranting our integral approach. Overall, RelA, RelB, and P50 were expressed at higher levels compared with P52/P100. However, RelA and P50 were predominantly expressed in intratumoral stroma, but RelB in tumor cells. Importantly, tumor area RelA expression was correlated with the intensity of inflammatory infiltration, whereas RelB expression was identified in proliferating tumor cells. Using multiple logistic regression, we identified that tumor RelB expression was an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis, and tumor P50 was an independent predictor of TNM6 stage IIB or higher, whereas tumor RelA was an independent predictor of inflammatory infiltration. We conclude that pathologic studies of NF-?B expression in cancer should include multiple pathway components. Utilizing such an approach, we identified intriguing associations between distinct NF-?B subunits and clinical and pathologic features of NSCLC. PMID:26147201

  18. Application of laser induced plasma spectroscopy for nuclear material analysis and detection: a comprehensive review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lixuan; Ma, Caihong; Gao, Zhi-Xing; Tang, Xiuzhang

    2015-02-01

    Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) made a great progress as a potential technology for nuclear analysis and detection. In this article, the instrumentation of LIPS for In-situ and stand-off application was introduced. The application of LIPS in nuclear industry was reviewed, such as international nuclear safeguard, nuclear materials analysis, hazard material detection and monitoring process, etc.

  19. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Norbo Underground Nuclear Test in U8c, Nevada Nuclear Security Site, and the Impact on Stability of the Ground Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-06-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Norbo underground nuclear test in U8c to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This request is similar to one made for the Salut site in U8c (Pawloski, 2012b). Review of the Norbo site is complicated because the test first exhibited subsurface collapse, which was not unusual, but it then collapsed to the surface over one year later, which was unusual. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Norbo detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeology due to the nuclear detonation. Aviva Sussman from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has also proposed work at this site. Both proposals require physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and focus on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow and deep geophysical surveys.

  20. DTRA's Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J.; Dainty, A.; Phillips, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has a Program in Basic Research and Development for Nuclear Explosion Technology within the Nuclear Treaties Branch of the Arms Control Technology Division. While the funding justification is Arms Control Treaties (i.e., Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, CTBT), the results are made available for any user. Funding for the Program has averaged around \\10m per year recently. By Congressional mandate, the program has disbursed money through competitive, peer-reviewed, Program Research and Development Announcements (PRDAs); there is usually (but not always) a PRDA each year. Typical awards have been for about three years at ~\\100,000 per year, currently there are over 60 contracts in place. In addition to the "typical" awards, there was an initiative 2000 to fund seismic location calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT; there are three three-year contracts of ~\\$1,000,000 per year to perform such calibration for Eurasia, and North Africa and the Middle East. Scientifically, four technological areas have been funded, corresponding to the four technologies in the IMS: seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide, with the lion's share of the funding going to the seismic area. The scientific focus of the Program for all four technologies is detection of signals, locating their origin, and trying to determine of they are unambiguously natural in origin ("event screening"). Location has been a particular and continuing focus within the Program.

  1. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  4. Proceedings of the 23rd Seismic Research Symposium: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, N. Jill; Chavez, Francesca C.

    2001-10-02

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 23rd Seismic Research Review: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions, held 2-5 October, 2001 in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  5. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar-chang, Julio; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Revelle, Douglas; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  6. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  7. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar - Chang, Julio; Anderson, Dale; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  8. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

  9. COMPREHENSIVE PROGRESS REPORT FOR FOURIER TRANSFORM NMR (NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE) OF METALS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions of the metals cadmium and selenium with various biologically important substrates were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cadmium-113 NMR was used for a critical examination of three metalloproteins: concanavalin A, bovine superoxide dismutase ...

  10. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Salut Underground Nuclear Test in U20ak, Nevada National Security Site, and the Impact of Stability of the Ground Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-04-25

    At the request of Jerry Sweeney, the LLNL Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Salut underground nuclear test in U20ak to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Review of the Salut site is complicated because the test experienced a subsurface, rather than surface, collapse. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Salut detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeologogy due to the nuclear detonation. Sweeney's proposal requires physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Test Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site), and focuses on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow, and deep geophysical surveys.

  11. Nuclear Testing Moratorium Act, S. 2064 and other nuclear testing issues. Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, July 23, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The hearing by the Committee on Foreign Relations assessed a number of test ban issues in connection with the consideration of Senate bill 2064, providing for a moratorium on testing nuclear weapons. Prepared statements by government and industry officials are included along with questions and answers during the session.

  12. Gas Transport and Detection Following Underground Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.; Wagoner, J. L.; Zucca, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Some extremely rare radioactive noble gases are by-products of underground nuclear explosions, and the detection of significant levels of these gases (e.g., Xe-133 and Ar-37) at the surface is a very strong indicator of the occurrence of an underground nuclear event. Because of their uniqueness, such noble gas signatures can be confirmatory of the nuclear nature of an event while signatures from other important detection methods, such as anomalous seismicity, are generally not. As a result, noble gas detection at a suspected underground nuclear test site is considered to be the most important technique available to inspectors operating under the On-Site-Inspection protocol of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. A one-kiloton chemical underground explosion, the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), was carried out at the Nevada Test Site in 1993 and represented the first On-Site-Inspection oriented test of subsurface gas transport with subsequent detection at the surface using soil gas sampling methods. A major conclusion of the experiment was that noble gases from underground nuclear tests have a good possibility of being detected even if the test is well contained. From this experiment and from computer simulations, we have also learned significant lessons about the modes of gas transport to the surface and the importance of careful subsurface sampling to optimize the detected noble gas signature. Understanding transport and sampling processes for a very wide range of geologic and testing scenarios presents significant challenges that we are currently addressing using sensitivity studies, which we attempt to verify using experiments such as the NPE and a new subsurface gas migration experiment that is now being undertaken at the National Center for Nuclear Security. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, Steven R.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Keillor, Martin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morin, Marc P.

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of 131I reached levels of 3.0 * 10*2 Bqm*3 in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas 133Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm*3. While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  14. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Eslinger, P W; Friese, J A; Greenwood, L R; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Keillor, M; Miley, H S; Moring, M

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of (131)I reached levels of 3.0×10(-2) Bqm(-3) in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas (133)Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm(-3). While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. PMID:22137556

  15. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    SciTech Connect

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-29

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear understanding of various requirements of public, regulators, investors, financial institutions, international community, operator and other important stakeholders. Ambiguities and uncertainties, especially with regards to certain conditions and requirements should be minimised by emulating good practices of experienced nuclear regulators. The imposition of various financial requirements such as funds for decommissioning, radioactive waste management, financial security, nuclear liabilities and licensing fees are necessary, but at the same time the quantum needs to be clearly defined. Concerns on absolute liability of the operators need to be addressed through a creation of necessary and proper nuclear insurance legislations to mitigate operator S nuclear liability obligations and other financial risks. Another major risk to investors is the possibility of public resistance which will not only can hinder the construction but can also stop operation of the nuclear power plant which will contribute to huge losses to investors and countries. This may require a provision in the legislation that provide proper compensation for these situations and at the same time to allow operators to engage in nuclear promotional activities, such as community benefit and public consultation as voluntary initiatives. Through proper planning, research, consultation and execution, the proposed nuclear law shall be able to promote good regulatory practices for public and investors’ confidence and benefit. Early involvement of various stakeholders is essential as a platform for regular communications between regulators and interested parties. Stakeholders’ participation in the NPP programme and law developments will also promote transparency of the projects while upholding the independency of the regulators.

  16. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national & international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders' interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear understanding of various requirements of public, regulators, investors, financial institutions, international community, operator and other important stakeholders. Ambiguities and uncertainties, especially with regards to certain conditions and requirements should be minimised by emulating good practices of experienced nuclear regulators. The imposition of various financial requirements such as funds for decommissioning, radioactive waste management, financial security, nuclear liabilities and licensing fees are necessary, but at the same time the quantum needs to be clearly defined. Concerns on absolute liability of the operators need to be addressed through a creation of necessary and proper nuclear insurance legislations to mitigate operator S nuclear liability obligations and other financial risks. Another major risk to investors is the possibility of public resistance which will not only can hinder the construction but can also stop operation of the nuclear power plant which will contribute to huge losses to investors and countries. This may require a provision in the legislation that provide proper compensation for these situations and at the same time to allow operators to engage in nuclear promotional activities, such as community benefit and public consultation as voluntary initiatives. Through proper planning, research, consultation and execution, the proposed nuclear law shall be able to promote good regulatory practices for public and investors' confidence and benefit. Early involvement of various stakeholders is essential as a platform for regular communications between regulators and interested parties. Stakeholders' participation in the NPP programme and law developments will also promote transparency of the projects while upholding the independency of the regulators.

  17. Subsurface mass transport affects the radioxenon signatures that are used to identify clandestine nuclear tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deinert, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Underground nuclear tests produce anthropogenic isotopes that provide the only definitive means by which to determine whether a nuclear explosion has taken place. Verification of a suspected test under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty often relies on ratios of radioxenon isotopes. Gas samples are gathered either on-site or off-site with certain ranges of xenon isotope ratios considered to be a signature of a weapons test. It is well established that below ground transport can affect the rate at which Noble gasses will reach the surface. However, the relative abundance of anthropogenic isotopes is has long been assumed to rely solely on fission yield and decay rate. By including in subsurface transport models the effects of mass dependent diffusion, and a time dependent source term for the decay of radioiodine precursors, we show here that this assumption is not true. In fact, certain combinations of geology and atmospheric conditions can alter xenon isotope ratios sufficiently for a weapons test going unconfirmed under the current standards.

  18. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, M.; Hunter, D.; Riley, T.

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5 day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.

  19. Managing Terrorism or Accidental Nuclear Errors, Preparing for Iodine-131 Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Loeffke, Bernard; Baker, Robert; Kreuk, Florian; Yang, Samantha Peiling; Hurley, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world’s leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15–30 mg or 1–2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations. PMID:24739768

  20. Managing terrorism or accidental nuclear errors, preparing for iodine-131 emergencies: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Loeffke, Bernard; Baker, Robert; Kreuk, Florian; Yang, Samantha Peiling; Hurley, James R

    2014-04-01

    Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world's leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15-30 mg or 1-2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations. PMID:24739768

  1. Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Deal with Canada's Nuclear Legacy Liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter; Metcalfe, Douglas; Blanchette, Marcia; Dolinar, George; Halpenny, Steven; Purdy, Chris; Smith, David; Kupferschmidt, William

    2008-01-15

    The Government of Canada nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development (R and D) carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are largely located at AECL research sites, and consist of shutdown research buildings (including several prototype and research reactors), a wide variety of buried and stored wastes, and contaminated lands. The shutdown buildings and contaminated lands need to be safely decommissioned to meet federal regulatory requirements, and long-term solutions need to be developed and implemented for management of the wastes. More than half of the liabilities are the result of Cold War activities during the 1940's, 50's and early 60's. The remaining liabilities stem from R and D for medical isotopes and nuclear reactor technology, as well as national science programs. About 70 percent of the liabilities are located at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in Ontario, and a further 20 percent are located at AECL's shutdown Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba. The remaining 10 percent relate largely to three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec, which were key to the developmental stage of Canada's CANDU reactor technology. The inventory of legacy waste includes spent fuel, high-level, intermediate-level and low-level solid and liquid radioactive waste, and wastes (largely contaminated soils) from site clean-up work across Canada. Most of the wastes are in raw, unconditioned form, and limited characterization information is available for the wastes generated in past decades. In many cases unique and potentially costly solutions will be required to recover, handle and process the wastes. In conclusion: the Government of Canada has initiated a program to deal with nuclear legacy liabilities dating back to the Cold War and the birth of nuclear technologies and medicine in Canada. The 5-year start-up phase will address immediate health, safety and environmental priorities, as well as provide the facilities, studies and plans required for subsequent phases. Over the next few years, the long-term strategy will be further developed and refined, and public consultations are planned to inform this work and decisions on the next phase of the strategy.

  2. Categorization of Used Nuclear Fuel Inventory in Support of a Comprehensive National Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy - 13575

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Mueller, Don E.; Gehin, Jess C.; Worrall, Andrew; Taiwo, Temitope; Nutt, Mark; Williamson, Mark A.; Todosow, Mike; Wigeland, Roald; Halsey, William G.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Swift, Peter N.; Carter, Joe

    2013-07-01

    A technical assessment of the current inventory [?70,150 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) as of 2011] of U.S.-discharged used nuclear fuel (UNF) has been performed to support decisions regarding fuel cycle strategies and research, development and demonstration (RD and D) needs. The assessment considered discharged UNF from commercial nuclear electricity generation and defense and research programs and determined that the current UNF inventory can be divided into the following three categories: 1. Disposal - excess material that is not needed for other purposes; 2. Research - material needed for RD and D purposes to support waste management (e.g., UNF storage, transportation, and disposal) and development of alternative fuel cycles (e.g., separations and advanced fuels/reactors); and 3. Recycle/Recovery - material with inherent and/or strategic value. A set of key assumptions and attributes relative to the various disposition options were used to categorize the current UNF inventory. Based on consideration of RD and D needs, time frames and material needs for deployment of alternative fuel cycles, characteristics of the current UNF inventory, and possible uses to support national security interests, it was determined that the vast majority of the current UNF inventory should be placed in the Disposal category, without the need to make fuel retrievable from disposal for reuse or research purposes. Access to the material in the Research and Recycle/Recovery categories should be retained to support RD and D needs and national security interests. This assessment does not assume any decision about future fuel cycle options or preclude any potential options, including those with potential recycling of commercial UNF. (authors)

  3. Tenth Warren K. Sinclair keynote address-the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2014-02-01

    Just two years have passed since the Tokyo Electric Power Company-Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, a multidimensional disaster that combined to destroy the local infrastructure on which the safety system depended and gave a serious impact to the world. Countermeasures including evacuation, sheltering, and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese government. However, there is a clear need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection and also in the management of the radiation health risk during and even after the accident. To date there have been no acute radiation injuries. The radiation-related physical health consequences to the general public, including evacuees, are likely to be much lower than those arising from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, because the radiation fallout and the subsequent environmental contamination were much more limited. However, the social, psychological, and economic impacts of the Fukushima NPP accident are expected to be considerable. Currently, continued monitoring and characterization of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are vital for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the areas already radiocontaminated and returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is permitted; it is also important to perform a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. We are currently implementing the official plans of the Fukushima Health Management Survey, which includes a basic survey for the estimation of the external doses that were received during the first 4 mo after the accident and four more detailed surveys (thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and life-style survey, and survey of pregnant women and nursing mothers), with the aim to take care of the health of all of the residents of the Fukushima Prefecture for a long time. Introduction of the Sinclair Lecture (Video 2:01, http://links.lww.com/HP/A24). PMID:24378490

  4. Geologic constraints on clandestine nuclear testing in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dan M.; Sykes, Lynn R.

    1999-01-01

    Cavity decoupling in salt is the most plausible means by which a nation could conduct clandestine testing of militarily significant nuclear weapons. The conditions under which solution-mined salt can be used for this purpose are quite restrictive. The salt must be thick and reasonably pure. Containment of explosions sets a shallow limit on depth, and cavity stability sets a deep limit. These constraints are met in considerably <1% of the total land area of India and Pakistan. Most of that area is too dry for cavity construction by solution mining; disposal of brine in rivers can be detected easily. Salt domes, the most favorable structures for constructing large cavities, are not present in India and Pakistan. Confidence that they are adhering to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is enhanced by their geological conditions, which are quite favorable to verification, not evasion. Thus, their participation in the CTBT is constrained overwhelmingly by political, not scientific, issues. Confidence in the verification of the CTBT could be enhanced if India and Pakistan permitted stations of the various monitoring technologies that are now widely deployed elsewhere to be operated on their territories. PMID:10500134

  5. Estimation of Ground-Level Radioisotope Distributions for Underground Nuclear Test Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, James H.; Fast, James E.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2009-06-19

    On-site inspections (OSI) will be an important process to deter and help verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An important tool in narrowing the possible locations to collect evidence of a nuclear test during an on-site inspection may be over-flights of the general area using aerial gamma spectroscopy which can measure the energy and intensity of gamma radiation and help identify areas that may warrant further investigation of areas of high concentrations of radioactivity. This paper will investigate the capabilities of gamma ray detectors that are typically used in aerial searches. Modeling and simulation results of the detector response for radionuclide species for an OSI will be presented for a variety of assumed releases, depositions on the ground, and times after a suspected Treaty violation for typical over flight heights and speeds. This data will provide information on the possible applicability for airborne spectroscopy and the challenges and limitations of this tool for OSI. Of particular interest will be analysis of the data for gross count, regions of interest, and isotope identification types of algorithms and the characteristics of each.

  6. Pulse and Fourier transform surface nuclear magnetic resonance: comprehensive modelling and inversion incorporating complex data and static dephasing dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Trevor P.; Li, Yaoguo

    2014-12-01

    We present in this paper an alternative approach to modelling and inversion of surface nuclear magnetic resonance (sNMR) data that has numerous attractive characteristics. By considering the forward and inverse problem in the frequency-domain (FD) it is possible to heavily truncate the band-limited data set with no appreciable loss of information. Furthermore, it introduces a natural method of signal demodulating and sidesteps the rotating frame transformation, which can be difficult to apply to large volumes. By instead remaining in the laboratory frame, phase shifts due to off-resonance transmission and static variation in the Larmor frequencies become simpler to account for. For these reasons, we present the first practical scheme for comprehensively inverting the complex sNMR data set. The use of complex data allows for improved depth and decay constant resolution. However, it requires the knowledge of subsurface electrical conductivity, and by corollary the ability to accurately model those effects in the sNMR record. Finally, the complex FD signal is sensitive to dephasing of the sNMR record due to static magnetic field inhomogeneity. We illustrate the ability to detect dephasing in synthetic and field data and demonstrate an effective inversion which is able to solve for static dephasing effects. This results in better estimation of meaningful decay constants as well as reduced error in extrapolated initial signal amplitude. Both of these parameters are critical for using sNMR in applications requiring estimation of hydraulic parameters.

  7. S. J. RES. 287: Joint Resolution requesting the President of the United States to negotiate agreements to achieve early prohibition of nuclear explosions. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, April 5, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Senate Joint Resolution requesting the President of the United States to negotiate agreements to achieve early prohibition of nuclear explosions refers to the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 and the Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968. Proposed discussions with the Soviet Union on these issues are indicated.

  8. Dr. Benjamin R. Phillips Benjamin Phillips is a Program Director in Geophysics at the National Science

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Science Foundation, managing the review and support of projects spanning geodynamics, seismology, geodesy of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test- Ban Treaty and conducting geopotential field modeling of the Arctic Ocean basin

  9. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Nuclear disarmament after the cold war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2008-04-01

    Now that the cold war is long over, our thinking of nuclear weapons and the role that they play in international security has undergone serious changes. The emphasis has shifted from superpower confrontation to nuclear proliferation, spread of weapon materials, and to the dangers of countries developing nuclear weapon capability under a cover of a civilian program. At the same time, the old cold-war dangers, while receded, have not disappeared completely. The United States and Russia keep maintaining thousands of nuclear weapons in their arsenals, some of them in very high degree of readiness. This situation presents a serious challenge that the international community has to deal with. Although Russia and the United States are taking some steps to reduce their nuclear arsenals, the traditional arms control process has stalled -- the last treaty that was signed in 2002 does not place serious limits on strategic forces of either side. The START Treaty, which provides a framework for verification and transparency in reduction of nuclear arsenals, will expire at the end of 2009. Little effort has been undertaken to extend the treaty or renegotiate it. Moreover, in recent years Russia has stepped up the efforts to modernize its strategic nuclear forces. The United States has resisted joining the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and has been working on controversial new nuclear weapon development programs. The U.S. missile defense program makes the dialogue between Russia and the United States even more difficult. The reluctance of Russia and the United States to engage in a discussion about drastic reductions of their nuclear forces undermines the case of nuclear nonproliferation and seriously complicated their effort to contain the spread of nuclear weapon technologies and expertise. One of the reasons for the current lack of progress in nuclear disarmament is the contradiction between the diminished role that nuclear weapons play in security of nuclear weapon states and the inertia of cold-war institutions that are involved in their development and support. Dealing with this contradiction would require development of new mechanisms of cooperation between nuclear weapons states and their strong commitment to the cause of nuclear nonproliferation. One important area of cooperation is development of a framework that would prevent the spread of nuclear materials and technology at the time when increasing number of countries is turning toward expanded use of nuclear power to cover their energy needs.

  10. Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, T.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-09-01

    We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Stohl et al. (2012) and Chino et al. (2011); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO). We calculated that about 80% of the radioactivity from Fukushima which was released to the atmosphere deposited into the Pacific Ocean. In Japan a land area of 34 000 km2 around the reactors, inhabited by nearly 10 million people, was contaminated by more than 40 kBq m-2. We also estimated the inhalation and 50-yr dose by 137Cs and 131I to which the people in Japan have been exposed.

  11. Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, T.; Lelieveld, J.

    2013-02-01

    We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO). We calculated that about 80% of the radioactivity from Fukushima which was released to the atmosphere deposited into the Pacific Ocean. In Japan a large inhabited land area was contaminated by more than 40 kBq m-2. We also estimated the inhalation and 50-year dose by 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I to which the people in Japan are exposed.

  12. Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions -- OSI research final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J. J.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s.

  13. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  14. Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Joseph C; Stevens, Patrice A; Branstetter, Linda; Hoover, Edward; O' Brien, Kevin; Slavin, Adam; Caswell, David

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear weapons? Many competing objectives have been stated across the spectrum of political, social, and military thought. These objectives include goals of ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, recommitment to further downsizing of the nuclear arsenal, embracing a long-term goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons, limitations on both the production complex and upgrades to nuclear weapons and delivery systems, and controls and constraints to limit proliferation of nuclear materials and weapons, particularly to rogue states and terrorist groups.

  15. Spalax™ new generation: A sensitive and selective noble gas system for nuclear explosion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Le Petit, G; Cagniant, A; Gross, P; Douysset, G; Topin, S; Fontaine, J P; Taffary, T; Moulin, C

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the verification regime of the Comprehensive nuclear Test ban Treaty (CTBT), CEA is developing a new generation (NG) of SPALAX™ system for atmospheric radioxenon monitoring. These systems are able to extract more than 6cm(3) of pure xenon from air samples each 12h and to measure the four relevant xenon radioactive isotopes using a high resolution detection system operating in electron-photon coincidence mode. This paper presents the performances of the SPALAX™ NG prototype in operation at Bruyères-le-Châtel CEA centre, integrating the most recent CEA developments. It especially focuses on an innovative detection system made up of a gas cell equipped with two face-to-face silicon detectors associated to one or two germanium detectors. Minimum Detectable activity Concentrations (MDCs) of environmental samples were calculated to be approximately 0.1 mBq/m(3) for the isotopes (131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and 0.4 mBq/m(3) for (135)Xe (single germanium configuration). The detection system might be used to simultaneously measure particulate and noble gas samples from the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS). That possibility could lead to new capacities for particulate measurements by allowing electron-photon coincidence detection of certain fission products. PMID:26073269

  16. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  17. Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 1, Discussion and glass durability data

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. Data collected throughout the world are included in the data base; current emphasis is on waste glasses and their properties. The goal is to provide a data base of properties and compositions and an analysis of dominant property trends as a function of composition. This data base is a resource that nuclear waste producers, disposers, and regulators can use to compare properties of a particular high-level nuclear waste glass product with the properties of other glasses of similar compositions. Researchers may use the data base to guide experimental tests to fill gaps in the available knowledge or to refine empirical models. The data are incorporated into a computerized data base that will allow the data to be extracted based on, for example, glass composition or test duration. 3 figs.

  18. Stemming the spread of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.M.

    1987-08-01

    The author discusses what is being done to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. He says that two mechanisms need to be strengthened: international safeguards to ensure that civilian nuclear materials and technology are not diverted to military purposes, and controls on the export of such materials and technology. While 135 nations signed the 1970 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), it is not enough. Detecting diversion of nuclear materials to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or explosives is not easy. It is also difficult to enforce safeguard systems when countries are exporting nuclear technology and materials. The author says nuclear-weapon states need to agree to a complete test ban to convince other nations to give up trying to acquire nuclear weapons.

  19. Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Troy L.; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Schlegel, Steven C.

    2010-08-11

    With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by DOE’s MPC&A Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and schedule the development of documents; 5) Identify and develop processes to measure effectiveness of regulations. Utilizing this process is resulting in an effective regulatory process that is understood and is being adopted by the four RF organizations. It is anticipated that the current regulatory development process will continue after U.S. support ends. Utilization of the systematic methodology will ensure regulatory development is based on required MPC&A structural elements and will support the continued maintenance and development of an effective regulatory base.

  20. Numerical modeling for underground nuclear test monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Steven R.; Kamm, James R.

    The symposium for Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring was held March 23-25 in Durango, Colo. Funded by the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (OACN) and hosted by the Source Region Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the meetings's purpose was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test-ban monitoring. In particular, we wished to focus on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems.The concept for the meeting arose through discussions with Marv Denny, who was on assignment at Department of Energy Headquarters from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In these conversations, the following question was discussed: how are numerical modeling techniques being used to understand the effects of explosion- source phenomenology on test-ban treaty monitoring? Numerical studies are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of capabilities for proliferation monitoring; this trend has accelerated with the curtailment of the nuclear testing program. During these discussions, the issue of the uniqueness and limitations of numerical models arose. It was decided to address these questions by convening a group of experts to present and discuss the problems associated with modeling of close-in data from explosions.

  1. Guidelines on the scope, content, and use of comprehensive risk assessment in the management of high-level nuclear waste transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Golding, D.; White, A.

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses the scope of risk assessment strategies in the management of the transport of high-level radioactive wastes. In spite of the shortcomings of probabilistic risk assessment(PRA), the Transportation Needs Assessment recommended this as the preferred methodology to assess the risks of high level nuclear waste (HLNW) transportation. A PRA also will need to heed the lessons learned from the development and application of PRA elsewhere, such as in the nuclear power industry. A set of guidelines will aid this endeavor by outlining the appropriate scope, content, and use of a risk assessment which is more responsive to the uncertainties, human-technical interactions, social forces, and iterative relationship with risk management strategies, than traditional PRAS. This more expansive definition, which encompasses but is not totally reliant on rigorous data requirements and quantitative probability estimates, we term Comprehensive Risk Assessment (CRA) Guidelines will be developed in three areas: the limitations of existing methodologies and suggested modifications; CRA as part of a flexible, effective, adaptive risk management system for HLNW transportation; and, the use of CRA in risk communication.

  2. Discrimination of DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 Earthquake as Nuclear Test Using Analysis of Magnitude, Rupture Duration and Ratio of Seismic Energy and Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomo Sianipar, Dimas; Subakti, Hendri; Pribadi, Sugeng

    2015-04-01

    On February 12th, 2013 morning at 02:57 UTC, there had been an earthquake with its epicenter in the region of North Korea precisely around Sungjibaegam Mountains. Monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and some other seismic network detected this shallow seismic event. Analyzing seismograms recorded after this event can discriminate between a natural earthquake or an explosion. Zhao et. al. (2014) have been successfully discriminate this seismic event of North Korea nuclear test 2013 from ordinary earthquakes based on network P/S spectral ratios using broadband regional seismic data recorded in China, South Korea and Japan. The P/S-type spectral ratios were powerful discriminants to separate explosions from earthquake (Zhao et. al., 2014). Pribadi et. al. (2014) have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis (tsunamigenic earthquake or tsunami earthquake) from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia using W-phase inversion analysis, the ratio between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Some of this method was also used by us to characterize the nuclear test earthquake. We discriminate this DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 earthquake from a natural earthquake using analysis magnitude mb, ms and mw, ratio of seismic energy and moment and rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the seismicity on the scope region in radius 5 degrees from the DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 epicenter 41.29, 129.07 (Zhang and Wen, 2013) from 2006 to 2014 with magnitude M ? 4.0. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminate from a natural or tectonic earthquake. Keywords: North Korean nuclear test, magnitude mb, ms, mw, ratio between seismic energy and moment, ruptures duration

  3. Towards a Comprehensive Seismic Velocity Model for the Broader Africa-Eurasia Collision Region, to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    der Lee, S v; Flanagan, M P; Rodgers, A J; Pasyanos, M E; Marone, F; Romanowicz, B

    2005-07-13

    We report on progress towards a new, comprehensive three-dimensional model of seismic velocity in a broad region encompassing the Middle East, northern Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, the Turkish-Iranian Plateau, Indus Valley, and the Hindu Kush. Our model will be based on regional waveform fits, surface wave group velocity measurements, teleseismic arrival times of S and P waves, receiver functions, and published results from active source experiments. We are in the process of assembling each of these data sets and testing the joint inversion for subsets of the data. Seismograms come from a variety of permanent and temporary seismic stations in the region. Some of the data is easily accessible through, for example, IRIS, while collection of other data is more involved. This work builds on ongoing work by Schmid et al. (GJI, 2004, and manuscript in preparation). In these proceedings we highlight our data sets and their inferences, demonstrate the proposed new data-inversion modeling methodology, discuss results from preliminary inversions of subsets of the data, and demonstrate the prediction of arrival times with three-dimensional velocity models. We compare our preliminary inversion results to the results of Schmid et al., and the predicted arrival times to ground-truth data from the NNSA Knowledge Base. Our data sets are simultaneously redundant and highly complementary. The combined data coverage will ensure that our three-dimensional model comprises the crust, the upper mantle, including the transition zone, and the top of the lower mantle, with spatially varying, but useful resolution. The region of interest is one of the most structurally heterogeneous in the world. Continental collision, rifting and sea-floor spreading, back-arc spreading, oceanic subduction, rotating micro plates, continental shelf, and stable platforms, are just some of the region's characteristics. Seismicity and the distribution of seismic stations are also geographically heterogeneous. The crustal thickness ranges from near 20 to near 45 km under dry places in the Mediterranean region alone, which contains at least seven of the fourteen types of crust defined globally by Mooney et al. (1998). The S-velocity varies laterally by an entire 1 km/s over 1000 km within the uppermost mantle. On average the S-velocity is 50 to 150 m/s slower, between a depth of 150 km and the Moho, than global model iasp91. These lowered S velocities reflect the high amount of tectonic activity in the study region. In the transition zone the S-velocity is roughly 150 m/s higher than iasp91. These heightened S velocities likely reflect the numerous fragments of oceanic lithosphere that subducted in the study region during geologically relatively recent times.

  4. LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

    2000-07-14

    Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the first arriving P-phase travel-time residuals for all distances ({Delta} = 300-2300 km). A grid search approach was used in the minimization. The most significant features of this model are the negative lid-gradient and a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle between the depths of 100-200 km; precise location of the LVZ is poorly constrained by the travel time data. We will extend our investigation to additional PNE lines to further investigate the amplitude and travel-time variations in eastern and central Eurasia. Finally, the dense station spacing of the PNE profiles allows us to model the spatial correlation of travel times and amplitude ratios through variogram modeling. The statistical analysis suggests that the correlation lengths of the travel-time and amplitude measurements are 12{sup o} and 10{sup o}, respectively.

  5. The May 18, 1998 Indian Nuclear Test Seismograms at station NIL

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J; Bowers, D; Selby, N

    2005-04-11

    The last underground nuclear tests were conducted by India and Pakistan in May 1998. Although the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty has not entered force, an International Monitoring System (IMS), established by the treaty is nearing completion. This system includes 170 seismic stations, a number of them originally established by IRIS. The station IRIS station NIL (Nilore, Pakistan) is close to a planned IMS primary station and recorded some very interesting seismograms from the May 18, 1998 Indian test. We carefully calibrated the path to NIL using a prior Mw 4.4 that occurred on April 4, 1995 about 110 km north of the Indian test site. We used joint epicentral location techniques along with teleseismic P waves and regional surface waves to fix the epicenter, depth, mechanism and moment of this event. From these we obtained a velocity model for the path to NIL and created explosion synthetic seismograms to compare with the data. Interestingly the observed Rayleigh waves are reversed, consistent with an implosion rather than an explosion source. The preferred explanation is that the explosion released tectonic stress near the source region, which can be modeled as a thrust earthquake of approximate Mw 4.0 plus a pure explosion. This tectonic release is sufficient to completely dominate the Rayleigh waves and produce the observed signal (Walter et al. 2005). We also examined the explosion at high frequencies of 6 6-8 Hz where many studies have shown that relative P/S amplitudes can discriminate explosions from a background of earthquakes (Rodgers and Walter, 2002). Comparing with the April 4 1995 earthquake we see the classic difference of relatively large P/S values for the explosion compared to the earthquakes despite the complication of the large tectonic release during the explosion.

  6. Discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Graesser, A C; Millis, K K; Zwaan, R A

    1997-01-01

    The field of discourse processing has dissected many of the levels of representation that are constructed when individuals read or listen to connected discourse. These levels include the surface code, the propositional textbase, the referential situation model, the communication context, and the discourse genre. Discourse psychologists have developed models that specify how these levels are mentally represented and how they are dynamically built during comprehension. This chapter focuses on the meaning representations that are constructed when adults read written text, such as literary stories, technical expository text, and experimenter-generated "textoids." Recent psychological models have attempted to account for the identification of referents of referring expressions (e.g. which person in the text does she refer to), the connection of explicit text segments, the establishment of local and global coherence, and the encoding of knowledge-based inferences. PMID:15012477

  7. Xenon diffusion studies with prompt gamma activation analysis Carlos A. Rios Perez Justin D. Lowrey

    E-print Network

    Deinert, Mark

    2011 Abstract Developing a better understanding of xenon transport through porous systems is critical monitoring is a vital part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring to predicting how this gas will enter the atmosphere after a below ground nuclear weapons test. Radioxenon

  8. Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2012-12-12

    This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

  9. An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

    2009-12-01

    Bogazici University and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is acting as the Turkish National Data Center (NDC) and responsible for the operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) Primary Seismic Station (PS-43) under Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center for the verification of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) since February 2000. The NDC is responsible for operating two arrays which are part of the IMS, as well as for transmitting data from these stations to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. The Belbasi array was established in 1951, as a four-element (Benioff 1051) seismic array as part of the United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS). Turkish General Staff (TGS) and U.S. Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) under the Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement (DECA) jointly operated this short period array. The station was upgraded and several seismometers were added to array during 1951 and 1994 and the station code was changed from BSRS (Belbasi Seismic Research Station) to BRTR-PS43 later on. PS-43 is composed of two sub-arrays (Ankara and Keskin): the medium-period array with a ~40 km radius located in Ankara and the short-period array with a ~3 km radius located in Keskin. Each array has a broadband element located at the middle of the circular geometry. Short period instruments are installed at depth 30 meters from the surface while medium and broadband instruments are installed at depth 60 meters from surface. On 25 May 2009, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) claimed that it had conducted a nuclear test. Corresponding seismic event was recorded by IMS and IDC released first automatic estimation of time (00:54:43 GMT), location (41.2896°N and 129.0480°E) and the magnitude (4.52 mb) of the event in less than two hours time (USGS: 00:54:43 GMT; 41.306°N, 129.029°E; 4.7 mb) During our preliminary analysis of the 25th May 2009 DPRK event, we saw a very clear P arrival at 01:05:47 (GMT) at BRTR SP array. The result of the f-k analysis performed in Geotool software, installed at NDC facilities in 2008 and is in full use currently, was also indicating that the arrival belongs to the DPRK event. When comparing our f-k results (calculated at 1-2 Hz) with IDC-REB, however, we have noticed that our calculation and therefore corresponding residuals (calculated with reference to REB residuals) are much better in comparison to REB. The reasons of this ambiguity have been explored and for the first time a comprehensive seismological analysis of a Nuclear Test has been conducted in Turkey. CTBT has an important role for the implementation of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and it is a key element for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. In this study, we would like to reflect the technical and scientific aspects of the 25 May 2009 DPRK event analysis, together with our involvement in CTBT(O) affairs, which we believe it brings new dimensions to Turkey especially in the area of Geophysics.

  10. A comprehensive approach to selecting the water chemistry of the secondary coolant circuit in the projects of nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1200 reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkov, V. F.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents the results obtained from studies on selecting the water chemistry of the secondary coolant circuit carried out for the project of a nuclear power station equipped with a new-generation VVER-1200 reactor on the basis of case calculations and an analysis of field experience gained at operating nuclear power stations.

  11. Comprehensive Ocean Drilling

    E-print Network

    Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

  12. Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Paul R.

    Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition Bldg.Pedestrian Link from Ardmore Tower to Comprehensive Nutrition Education Wing Hanes Bldg. Gray Bldg. Library Creative Communications University Dental Associates

  13. WOSMIP II- Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Murray; Achim, Pascal; Auer, M.; Bell, Randy; Bowyer, Ted W.; Braekers, Damien; Bradley, Ed; Briyatmoko, Budi; Berglund, Helena; Camps, Johan; Carranza, Eduardo C.; Carty, Fitz; DeCaire, Richard; Deconninck, Benoit; DeGeer, Lars E.; Druce, Michael; Friese, Judah I.; Hague, Robert; Hoffman, Ian; Khrustalev, Kirill; Lucas, John C.; Mattassi, G.; Mattila, Aleski; Nava, Elisabetta; Nikkinin, Mika; Papastefanou, Constantin; Piefer, Gregory R.; Quintana, Eduardo; Ross, Ole; Rotty, Michel; Sabzian, Mohammad; Saey, Paul R.; Sameh, A. A.; Safari, M.; Schoppner, Michael; Siebert, Petra; Unger, Klaus K.; Vargas, Albert

    2011-11-01

    Medical and industrial fadioisotopes are fundamental tools used in science, medicine and industry with an ever expanding usage in medical practice where their availability is vital. Very sensitive environmental radionuclide monitoring networks have been developed for nuclear-security-related monitoring [particularly Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) compliance verification] and are now operational.

  14. Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-25

    The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors to consider in repository design and optimization were then discussed. Japan is considering various alternatives and options for the geologic disposal facility and the framework for future analysis of repository concepts was discussed. Regarding the advanced waste and storage form development, waste form technologies developed in both countries were surveyed and compared. Potential collaboration areas and activities were next identified. Disposal system optimization processes and techniques were reviewed, and factors to consider in future repository design optimization activities were also discussed. Then the potential collaboration areas and activities related to the optimization problem were extracted.

  15. Categorisation of nuclear explosions from legitimate radioxenon sources with atmospheric transport modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeppner, M.; Postelt, F.; Kalinowski, M.; Plastino, W.

    2012-04-01

    Radioxenon is produced during nuclear explosions and due to its high fission ratio during the reaction and its noble gas character the isotopes can be detected remote from the location of the explosion. Therefore it is used by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization (CTBTO) as an indicator for the nuclear character of an explosion and is monitored with the International Monitoring System (IMS). The concentration of radioxenon in the air is continuously measured by multiple stations worldwide and is in need of an automatic categorization scheme in order to highlight signals of interest and to sort out signals that can be explained by legitimate sources. The dispersion and transport of radioxenon emissions through the atmosphere can be simulated with atmospheric transport modelling. Many legitimate sources of radioxenon exist: Nuclear power plants and isotope production facilities are mainly responsible for the worldwide background. The characterisation of this background is an important prerequisite to discriminate nuclear explosion signals against the background. It has been discovered that the few existing isotope production facilities are the major contributors to the background, each with emission strengths in the order of magnitude or more than all nuclear power plants together. Therefore, especially the characterization of these few, but strong, emitters can improve the quality of the signal prediction. Since the location of such an emitter is usually known the source-receptor sensitivity matrices can be utilized together with measured radioxenon concentrations from IMS stations in order to deduct information about the time dependent emissions from the strong emitter. An automatic method to determine an approximated, time dependent source term of an emitter with known location has been developed and is presented. This is a potentially valid tool for the categorization of radioxenon samples, because it can be used to assess whether the measured concentration can be explained with emissions from known sources or additional, unknown sources have to be considered. Furthermore, previously made estimations of the worldwide radioxenon emission inventory can be used together with backward atmospheric transport modelling to simulate the time dependent signal at IMS detector stations. These simulated signals are then compared and validated with the measurements that are usually taken in 12h or 24h rhythm. Also, hypothetical nuclear explosions at various locations and times are used to alter the signal and different flagging methods are compared in their ability to distinguish these from the background. The different flagging methods are using various absolute and relative thresholds to categorize the daily radioxenon samples. Then it is examined, whether the flagging method can successfully detect the nuclear test signal within the background. Also false-positive and especially false-negative rates are important validation criteria. Also the dispersion and transport of reported emissions of historical nuclear underground tests at the Nevada test site are simulated. The calculated concentrations at today's IMS noble gas stations are used to deduce xenon ratios which are then used to categorise the events.

  16. Comprehension of Connected Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosberg, Ludwig; Shima, Fred

    A rationale was developed for researching reading comprehension based on information gain. Previous definitions of comprehension which were reviewed included operational vs. nonoperational and skills vs. processes. Comprehension was viewed as an informational processing event which includes a constellation of cognitive and learning processes. Two…

  17. Comprehensive data on ionising radiation from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the town of Miharu, Fukushima Prefecture: The Misho Project.

    PubMed

    Koike, T; Suzuki, Y; Genyu, S; Kobayashi, I; Komori, H; Otsu, H; Sakuma, H; Sakuma, K; Sarausad, E M; Shimada, K; Shinozuka, T; Tamura, H; Tsukada, K; Ukai, M; Yamamoto, T O

    2014-09-01

    Data related to radioactivity released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 15 March 2011 gathered by residents of Miharu, Fukushima Prefecture, and by Tohoku University are presented. These data sets consist of (1) the earliest radiation monitoring by a Geiger counter in the town, (2) ratios of radioactivity between (132)Te and (137)Cs for a wide area between Fukushima and Tokyo, (3) radiation measurement of soil samples collected from 18 school grounds, and (4) external radiation exposure of 1400 students using OSL badges. By combining and analysing these various data sets, a curve for the cumulative total external exposure as a function of time, with 16?:?00 h on 15 March 2011 being time zero, is obtained. The average cumulative external dosage is estimated to be 10 mSv (? = 4.2 mSv) over 10 years. In addition, the initiative that the residents of Miharu took in response to the FDNPP accident, which became known as The Misho Project (MP), is documented; in particular, the time at which the municipality instructed the immediate ingestion of iodine tablets by those under the age of 40, 13?:?00 h on 15 March 2011, is assessed. PMID:25125455

  18. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey, in situ measurements with high-purity germanium (HPGe) and hand-held LaBr3 systems, soil sampling with a variety of tools, and laboratory gamma spectrometric analysis of those samples. A further benefit of the measurement campaign was to gain familiarity with the many logistical aspects of performing radiological field work at NNSS ahead of the PRex. Many practical lessons concerning the proper methodologies and logistics of using the surveying and sampling equipment were noted. These Lessons Learned are compiled together in Appendix A. The vehicle-based survey was successful in that it found a previously unknown hotspot (determined to be 232Th) while it demonstrated that a better method for keeping a serpentine track without staking was needed. Some of the soil sampling equipment was found to be impractical for the application, though core sampling would not be the correct way to take soil samples for a fresh vent deposit (as opposed to an old site like DILUTED WATERS). Due to the site’s age, 137Cs was the only fission radioisotope identified, though others were searched for. While not enough samples were taken and analyzed to definitively link the 137Cs to DILUTED WATERS as opposed to other NNSS activities, results were consistent with the historical DILUTED WATERS plume. MDAs were compared for soil sampling and in situ measurements.

  19. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

  20. Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    Founded in 1980, the Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Iowa received its NCI designation in 2000 and Comprehensive designation in 2001. The Center is dedicated to bringing the finest cancer care and research to Iowa and beyond. Holden ensures that all the cancer research, clinical service, and education at Iowa are interdependent.

  1. Hemispheric Asymmetry & Joke Comprehension

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    brain/Right brain Speech Word-finding Grammar Discourse Metaphors Jokes #12;When I asked the bartender"), but that the scenario differs from what we had assumed #12;Joke Comprehension Test A teenager is being interviewed differs in the two hemispheres #12;Event-Related Brain Potentials · Sensitive to language comprehension

  2. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

  3. UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    Established in 1971, the University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center (UAB), received its NCI designation in the same year. The Center has grown to include a membership of more than 330 physicians and researchers and remains the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in Alabama.

  4. Teaching Language Through Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winitz, Harris; And Others

    In the comprehension approach to second language instruction, the major procedure is to provide students with comprehensible input, which it is the students' responsibility to understand. The aim is to encourage nucleation of the target language, that is the crystallization of the rule system. Teaching procedures focus on strategies for implicit…

  5. Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Paul R.

    Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition Bldg.Pedestrian Link from Ardmore Tower to Comprehensive Tower Reynolds Tower Financial Couns. Meads Hall Nutrition Education Wing Hanes Bldg. Gray Bldg. Urology Discharge Waiting Church & Comm. Relations West Elevators to Hanes Bldg., Gray Bldg., Nutrition

  6. COMMUNICATION A comprehensive

    E-print Network

    COMMUNICATION A comprehensive communication degree from the Elliott School of Communication relations, or applied communication. Our program is interdisciplinary in nature, reflecting the contemporary belief that all communication media are engaged in essentially the same functions--gathering information

  7. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules Online CME Learning on Demand Sign In My Profile Publications Donate My Cart About AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ...

  8. OTEC - A comprehensive energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, T. C. G.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive energy analysis is presented for a proposed Gulf-Stream-based Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system designed to supply upon demand 148 billion kWh to New England by 1990. Basically, the system consists of one hundred and six 400-MW power plants, with factors of 0.93, generating hydrogen on-board which is transported by underwater pipe to deep-water storage or to terminals onshore for reconversion to electricity. The results of a net energy-input-output analysis show that the OTEC system compares favorably with other energy conversion systems: e.g. for the same net electric energy output it uses from 36 to 53 percent less fossil fuel than the two nuclear power plant systems used for comparison. A dynamic energy analysis indicates energy payoff times from 4.7 to 6.2 years and on-line times of 17 to 35 years.

  9. Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test ban monitoring. We focused on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems. The second goal of the symposium was to establish a dialogue between seismologists and explosion-source code calculators. The meeting was divided into five main sessions: explosion source phenomenology, material response modeling, numerical simulations, the seismic source, and phenomenology from near source to far field. We feel the symposium reached many of its goals. Individual papers submitted at the conference are indexed separately on the data base.

  10. Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

  11. Case Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    The Case Comprehensive Cancer Center (Case CCC) at Case Western Reserve University was both founded and became an NCI-designated cancer center in 1987. It was recognized as an NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center 11 years later. In 2004, the institutional and membership base from the founding partnership between Case Western Reserve and Ireland Cancer Center of University Hospitals (UH) expanded to include the Cleveland Clinic. Cancer research and care at these three institutions are now unified under the leadership of the Case CCC.

  12. Support for comprehensive reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Reuse of products, processes, and other knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demands. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows comprehensive reuse of all kinds of software-related experience could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. A comprehensive framework of models, model-based characterization schemes, and support mechanisms for better understanding, evaluating, planning, and supporting all aspects of reuse are introduced.

  13. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  14. Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    In the late 1960s, a group of scientists and volunteers at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) came together to develop a cancer center they hoped would become renowned for excellence in research, education and patient care. In 1976, the group was awarded NCI designation and became UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC).

  15. Recruitment: A Comprehensive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Laughlin, Jim

    2001-01-01

    School leaders at every level must be committed to a comprehensive teacher and administrator recruitment plan that increases the pool of applicants. Strategies for contacting candidates, selling the district, facilitating the application process, screening candidates, and employing and inducting those selected are outlined. (MLH)

  16. The Comprehensive Health Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport.

    This report contains information from a fall 1991 health occupations assessment of 1,021 health-related employers in Eastern Iowa and the Illinois Quad Cities area. Twelve chapters present comprehensive results of all surveys; results of 10 labor market survey instruments developed for chiropractic offices, dentists' offices, emergency medical…

  17. Comprehensive Trail Making Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is designed to be used in neuropsychological assessment for the purposes of detecting effects of brain defects and deficits and in tracking progress in rehabilitation. More specific purposes include the detection of frontal lobe deficits, problems with psychomotor speed, visual search and sequencing,…

  18. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    MedlinePLUS

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... McPherson RA, Pincus MR. Disease/organ panels. McPherson RA, ... . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:appendix 7.

  19. Math Sense: Comprehensive Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Cathy Fillmore

    This book features a comprehensive review of the Math Sense series and is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers;…

  20. MCPS Comprehensive Planning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Several working papers and a guidebook to the Comprehensive Planning Process of Maryland's Montgomery County Public Schools have been collected to form this document. The process itself was developed in 1979 and will be pilot-tested during the 1981 fiscal year. These materials, therefore, constitute an interim report on a process yet to be cast in…

  1. COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIKITAS, CHRISTUS M.; AND OTHERS

    TO MEET THE STATE'S HIGHER EDUCATION NEEDS, THE NEW HAMPSHIRE JUNIOR COLLEGE COMMISSION DEVELOPED A PLAN OF (1) GRADUAL AND SELECTIVE CONVERSION OF THE STATE'S TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS TO COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES, (2) SELECTIVE ADDITION OF 2-YEAR PROGRAMS AT THE STATE COLLEGES AND INSTITUTES, AND (3) ESTABLISHMENT OF A STATE…

  2. Motivation for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anmarkrud, Oistein; Braten, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 104 Norwegian ninth-grade students, we examined whether perceived reading efficacy and reading task value uniquely predicted the comprehension of a social studies text after variance associated with gender, achievement in the domain, topic knowledge, deeper strategies, and surface strategies had been removed through forced-order…

  3. Comprehension Monitoring and Reading Comprehension in Bilingual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana; Bajsanski, Igor

    2007-01-01

    This study explored comprehension monitoring, use of reading strategies and reading comprehension of bilingual students at different levels of perceived proficiency in Italian. The participants were bilingual fifth to eighth-grade elementary school students from four Italian schools in Rijeka, Croatia. Students' reading comprehension was assessed.…

  4. CPMs: A Kinesthetic Comprehension Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a study to determine whether primary grade students can learn comprehension processes via hand motions to portray these mental processes. Comprehension Process Motions (CPMs) were designed to provide students with a way to make abstract comprehension processes more consciously accessible and also to give teachers a way to…

  5. Comprehensive multiplatform collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kundan; Wu, Xiaotao; Lennox, Jonathan; Schulzrinne, Henning G.

    2003-12-01

    We describe the architecture and implementation of our comprehensive multi-platform collaboration framework known as Columbia InterNet Extensible Multimedia Architecture (CINEMA). It provides a distributed architecture for collaboration using synchronous communications like multimedia conferencing, instant messaging, shared web-browsing, and asynchronous communications like discussion forums, shared files, voice and video mails. It allows seamless integration with various communication means like telephones, IP phones, web and electronic mail. In addition, it provides value-added services such as call handling based on location information and presence status. The paper discusses the media services needed for collaborative environment, the components provided by CINEMA and the interaction among those components.

  6. Web Application Design Using Server-Side JavaScript

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, J.; Simons, R.

    1999-02-01

    This document describes the application design philosophy for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Research & Development Web Site. This design incorporates object-oriented techniques to produce a flexible and maintainable system of applications that support the web site. These techniques will be discussed at length along with the issues they address. The overall structure of the applications and their relationships with one another will also be described. The current problems and future design changes will be discussed as well.

  7. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  8. Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) as a public-use data base with the goal of broadening independent access to data collected during studies of the health effects of exposure to radiation and other physical or chemical agents associated with the production of nuclear materials. This catalog is intended for use by any individual interested in obtaining information about, or access to, CEDR data. This catalog provides information that will help users identify and request data file sets of interest.

  9. An Important Issue: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Doc

    2001-03-01

    Historic Facts and Philosophy: In August, 1947, I participated in a secret meeting concerning the validity and use of a hydrogen bomb. I vigorously supported a ``Super Manhattan Project" to build an ``H" bomb. My philosophy at the time was `bigger and better,' to ensure that no nation attacked the U.S. Our retaliation with ``H" bombs vs. ``A" bombs would be too overwhelming for any nation to risk attacking us should they obtain their own ``A" bombs. Thus, all nations would be forced to use diplomacy. I am older and wiser, and am now convinced that World Test Ban Treaties, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and space free of any military weapons is the best policy for all nations and humanity. With current nuclear testing at nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada, Vandenberg AF/Missile site, Cal Tech, etc., I therefore propose that our new APS California Division form a three-person committee to tabulate all pertinent data and submit it to a qualified expert for review and further action. Comments and suggestions are invited.

  10. Comprehensive Water-Efficiency Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2015-07-15

    Energy performance contracts can be an effective way to integrate comprehensive water-efficient technologies and solutions into energy efficiency projects. Current practices often miss key opportunities to incorporate a full suite of water measures primarily because a comprehensive approach is not taken in the assessment. This article provides information on how to develop a comprehensive water project that leads to innovative solutions and potential for large water reduction.

  11. Calculation of Minimum-Detectable-Concentration Levels of Radioxenon Isotopes Using the PNNL ARSA System

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Reeder, Paul L.

    2006-03-11

    Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The automated Radio-xenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA), built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, can detect 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe via a beta-gamma counting system. Due to the variable background and sources of these four radio-xenon isotopes, it is important to have as sensitive a detection system as possible and to quantify the Minimum-Detectable-Concentrations (MDC) that such a system will be able to detect to preclude false negative and false positive results. From data obtained from IAR in Germany MDC values for 133Xe were well below the 1 mBq/SCMA as required by the PTS for the Comprehensive Test BAn Treaty [WGB TL-11,1999].

  12. Comprehensive piezoceramic actuator review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Chris J.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2002-07-01

    Piezoceramic actuation has become an area of increased interest in the past ten years. Having been used for many years as sensors in such applications as pressure transducers and smoke detectors, piezoceramics are now being used as prime movers in fuel injectors and valve lifters. In an effort to aid the engineering community, this paper will conduct a comprehensive review of several piezoceramic actuators. Classical design parameters will be derived for each actuator such as blocked force and free stroke. In addition, more esoteric entities such as mechanical efficiency and energy density will also be derived. The result will be design metrics of popular piezoceramic actuators containing vital design equations, validated with empirical data. Of the many different configurations of piezoceramic actuators, this paper will investigate the bimorph and unimorph bender. These actuator types are finding increased use in semi-active structural damping, energy harvesting and vibration control. The work in this paper will show experimental verification of various actuator types as well as theoretical derivations. In addition to unimorphs, bimorphs and stack actuators a novel type of unimorph bender, the THUNDER actuator (developed and licensed by NASA) will be included in the review.

  13. Comprehensive facilities plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Facilities Plan (CFP) document provides analysis and policy guidance for the effective use and orderly future development of land and capital assets at the Berkeley Lab site. The CFP directly supports Berkeley Lab`s role as a multiprogram national laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The CFP is revised annually on Berkeley Lab`s Facilities Planning Website. Major revisions are consistent with DOE policy and review guidance. Facilities planing is motivated by the need to develop facilities for DOE programmatic needs; to maintain, replace and rehabilitate existing obsolete facilities; to identify sites for anticipated programmatic growth; and to establish a planning framework in recognition of site amenities and the surrounding community. The CFP presents a concise expression of the policy for the future physical development of the Laboratory, based upon anticipated operational needs of research programs and the environmental setting. It is a product of the ongoing planning processes and is a dynamic information source.

  14. Comprehensive Planning and Educational Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, David J.

    1977-01-01

    Educational leadership requires proactive, comprehensive planning from school executives. Proactive behavior adopts rational methods of planning that link organizational activity more directly with educational goals. The six steps usually considered as essential ingredients of comprehensive planning are: goals, objectives, assessment, program…

  15. Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

    The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

  16. A COMPREHENSIVE ALCOHOL ACTION PLAN

    E-print Network

    Nanyes, Ollie

    A COMPREHENSIVE ALCOHOL ACTION PLAN April 2008 #12;PREFACE In February 2008, in response to the increasing recognition of the problem of alcohol use and abuse on college campuses, Bradley President Joanne Glasser established a Special Committee to Develop a Comprehensive Alcohol Action Plan. The Committee

  17. Comprehensive Guidance Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gysbers, Norman C.; And Others

    This monograph describes how the comprehensive guidance model is transforming elementary-secondary school guidance and counseling programs in schools across the country. It incorporates the ideas and experiences of 12 guidance program developers in the actual use of the comprehensive guidance model in diverse school and cultural settings. The book…

  18. Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    The Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center (HICCC) at Columbia University Medical Center was founded in 1911 as the Institute for Cancer Research. In 1972, it became an NCI-designated cancer center, and it was awarded comprehensive status in 1979. The HICCC is the University’s organizational component for the conduct of basic, clinical, and population-based cancer research and patient care.

  19. Comprehensive Plan 2020 Silsbee, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Pugh, David; Ellis, David; Kindrick, Stephen; Adams, Gregory; Shannon, Van Zandt; Butorac, Marc; Estes, Brett; Patterson, J. Christopher; Phoopraset, Jaruret; Rogers, Scott; Schrank, David; Spooner-Mueller, Nancy; Stephenson, Amy; Ekroth, David; Pike, Amy; Pustejovsky, Kenneth; Ramos, Adam; Sung Rim, Chong; Smith, Ronald; Thompson, Blakeley; Waldrop, Sam; Wiethorn, Ronny; Willeke, Whitney; Zavala, Blanca; Ziolkowski, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Acquired data and analyzed in preparation for the comprehensive plan. Formulation of plan objectives was developed with a citizen survey, polling residents about their needs and desires for city growth and development. The ...

  20. Language comprehension and working memory language comprehension and working memory deficits in

    E-print Network

    Language comprehension and working memory language comprehension and working memory deficits examined the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia have deficits in language comprehension compared). In addition, we hypothesized that language comprehension deficits would be associated with the severity

  1. Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    The University of California, Irvine (UCI) Cancer Center was established in 1989 as a university-based cancer center. In 1994, it became an NCI-designated cancer center, and it achieved comprehensive cancer center status in 1997. Soon after, it was renamed in honor of the Chao family as the Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center (CFCCC), operating fully integrated research, prevention, diagnostic, treatment, and rehabilitation programs.

  2. UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    The Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill received NCI-designation in 1975, becoming a comprehensive cancer center in 1990. With research that spans from the laboratory to the bedside to the community, UNC Lineberger works to understand the causes of cancer at both the genetic and environmental level, to conduct groundbreaking research and to translate that research into innovative treatment and prevention measures.

  3. Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    In 1971, the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center (Georgetown Lombardi) was established at Georgetown University, becoming an NCI-designated cancer center in 1974. The Center achieved NCI comprehensive status in 1990. Georgetown Lombardi is part of Georgetown University Medical Center and Georgetown University Hospital. The mission of the Center is to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer through innovative basic science, clinical research, patient care, community outreach, and the training of cancer specialists of the future.

  4. UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    The University of California Comprehensive Davis Cancer Center (UCDCCC) was founded in 1991 and received its NCI designation in 2002. In 2012, it attained comprehensive status. The Center is part of the UC Davis Health System. Center members include scientists and physicians drawn from UC Davis School of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, College of Biological Sciences, College of Engineering, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  5. Machine Comprehension with Discourse Relations Karthik Narasimhan

    E-print Network

    Machine Comprehension with Discourse Relations Karthik Narasimhan CSAIL, MIT karthikn for incorporating discourse information into machine comprehension applications. Traditionally, such information demonstrate that the discourse aware model outperforms state-of-the-art machine comprehension systems.1 1

  6. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-11-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  7. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-01-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  8. Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, J.G.; Burson, Z.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided consist of the following: (1) large format aerial photography; (2) video from aerial platforms; (3) multispectral scanning; and (4) airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in the summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis. 2 figures.

  9. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829–839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension—the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance—long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory. PMID:23319178

  10. A model of poetic comprehension

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, K.

    1996-12-31

    This article introduces an account of aesthetic comprehension and experience together with an implemented miniature which generates analogical interpretations from a semi-automatic parse of Wordsworth`s {open_quotes}Lines Written in Early Spring{close_quotes}. In our account, a poem serves as an analogy teaching machine by using formal structure to cue the formation of novel analogies. This account builds on an analogical model of comprehension previously applied to large corpora of newspaper summaries. In the miniature, an automatic grammatical and semantic analysis of the text is augmented with information about rhyme and rhythm. These formal cues allow the system to determine analogies which it would not otherwise consider. The article describes the comprehension framework, the annotated piece, and the matcher`s performance on the piece. It closes with a discussion of possible objections to aspects of the thesis or experiment and suggested directions for future work.

  11. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

  12. The Comprehensive Dropout Prevention Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broward County School Board, Fort Lauderdale, FL.

    The Comprehensive Dropout Prevention Plan utilizes the resources of Broward County public schools and the community for dropout prevention. A matrix of dropout prevention options has been assembled from both existing programs and from new program designs. General components of the plan include the following: (1) dropout retrieval activities; (2)…

  13. District Comprehensive Dropout Prevention Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This report describes the Dade County, Florida, comprehensive K-12 program for decreasing the dropout rates of all students, with emphasis on minorities. The program involves a number of different components which provide students the opportunity and support for participation in academic and vocation-oriented courses and training programs. The…

  14. Reading Comprehension and the Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Nancy W.

    A practicum study was conducted to raise the reading comprehension level of students at least one grade level by using Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI), and to determine the kind of student who would most benefit by the use of CAI. A control group of 35 students and three experimental groups of 19 computer students, all in fourth or fifth…

  15. USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    Founded in 1971, the University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center (USC Norris) received its NCI designation in 1973. The Center is committed to investigating the complex origins and progression of cancer, developing treatment and prevention strategies, and searching for cures.

  16. @Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major.

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    @Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major. From the basic laws of physics to the resulting emergent behavior, physics studies what the universe is made of and how it works. As a Physics major that surrounds us, to the structure and evolution of the entire universe. We offer three degrees in Physics

  17. Comprehensive Schools and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that comprehensive reorganisation was not a one-off policy reform but a complex, bottom-up campaign for equity and fairness in education, with varied consequences and outcomes. Recent battles over student fees, free schools and academies show that the quest for democratic education does not lead to a permanent achievement but…

  18. A comprehensive Prunus pathogen array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive pathogen array was developed for the detection of pathogens of many major crops in the Prunus genus. The APS disease lists for peach, plum, apricot and cherry were combined into a single Prunus pathogen list, containing 102 pathogens (75 fungi, 18 viruses, 6 bacteria and 3 phytoplasm...

  19. Casey Comprehensive Care Center for

    E-print Network

    of Commerce July 2015 To obtain Baldrige Program products and services, contact Baldrige Performance2015 Casey Comprehensive Care Center for Veterans Feedback Report #12;Baldrige Performance Center for Veterans Case Study against the 2015­2016 Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence

  20. Problem Solving & Comprehension. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whimbey, Arthur; Lochhead, Jack

    This book shows how to increase one's power to analyze and comprehend problems. First, it outlines and illustrates the methods that good problem solvers use in attacking complex ideas. Then it gives some practice in applying these methods to a variety of questions in comprehension and reasoning. Chapters include: (1) "Test Your Mind--See How It…

  1. A systematic library for comprehensive

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    A systematic library for comprehensive overexpression screens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Grace of systematic libraries. Here we describe the construction of a systematic collection of the Saccharomyces are required, but systematic overexpression screens have been limited by the availability of suitable libraries

  2. Developing a Comprehensive Homework Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, Ellen Kelly; Clark, Margery; Barry, Joan

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe the results of surveys conducted by a small school district in Massachusetts to determine homework practices and beliefs, including time spent on homework, parent assistance, homework format, and balancing of homework and other activities. The result was the establishment of a comprehensive homework policy, including…

  3. Comprehensive Spine Center Home Stretches

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    neck. · Decreased tension in the shoulders. · Decreased tension in the neck. · Increased mobilityComprehensive Spine Center Home Stretches Neck and Upper Back New England Musculoskeletal Institute-535-6232 Web site: http://nemsi.uchc.edu Neck For the Right Side: · Place your right arm behind your back

  4. Scaffolding Students' Comprehension of Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kathleen F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the concept of instructional scaffolding as it applies to facilitating students' reading comprehension. They argue that scaffolding is a highly flexible and adaptable model of instruction that supports students as they acquire both basic skills and higher order thinking processes, allows for explicit…

  5. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  6. Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    Founded in 1973, the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University received its NCI designation that same year. The mission of the Kimmel Cancer Center is to go beyond the cutting edge in science and medicine to perform the most advanced research and offer patients the very best therapies for their disease.

  7. Anti-nuclear liberals and the bomb: A comparative history of Kampf dem Atomtod and the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, 1957-1963

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, B.

    1992-01-01

    The premises of Kampf dem Atomtod (KdA) and Citizens for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) were based on nineteenth century traditions of liberal peace advocacy. Both groups gained substantial public support for their goals to prevent the nuclear armament of the Bundeswehr and to stop nuclear testing. Both organizations won well-educated middle-class and mostly white supporter. The dissertation examines the role of women: whether housewife or doctor, women stressed their special concerns as mothers. Both KdA and SANE had troubled relations with the labor movement. Their leaders hoped to gain government leaders' respect by winning a respectable, non-Communist constituency and claiming their goals were reasonable ones. Government officials attacked KdA and SANE as dupes of Moscow. Many supporters left the organizations because of their strict anti-Communism. Local groups accused their leaders of lacking initative. KdA and SANE's leaders wasted time and energy rehashing issues and postponing decisions. After a period of providing initiatives and ideas local committees disintegrated. Both organizations considered education their paramount goal but their arguments primarily reached the converted, who often preferred more political action. KdA and SANE's leaders instead chose to support respectable projects based on humanitarian ideals. Since these projects offered little in the way of concrete action agendas, supporters defected to more active organizations or slipped into apathy. Neither organization achieved its national goals. Both governments generally denied them access to the policymaking process, ignored them as irrelavant, or attacked them as Communist sympathizers. While SANE and KdA were heard by those concerned by nuclear policy, and while members of SANE's National Board did help muster support for the Partial Test Ban Treaty, both organizations failed to make liberal peace values productive in the nuclear decisionmaking process.

  8. Nuclear Science References Database

    E-print Network

    B. Pritychenko; E. B?ták; B. Singh; J. Totans

    2014-07-08

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

  9. Comprehensible Presentation of Topological Information

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Beketayev, Kenes; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Hamann, Bernd; Haranczyk, Maciej; Hlawitschka, Mario; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-03-05

    Topological information has proven very valuable in the analysis of scientific data. An important challenge that remains is presenting this highly abstract information in a way that it is comprehensible even if one does not have an in-depth background in topology. Furthermore, it is often desirable to combine the structural insight gained by topological analysis with complementary information, such as geometric information. We present an overview over methods that use metaphors to make topological information more accessible to non-expert users, and we demonstrate their applicability to a range of scientific data sets. With the increasingly complex output of exascale simulations, the importance of having effective means of providing a comprehensible, abstract overview over data will grow. The techniques that we present will serve as an important foundation for this purpose.

  10. 33 CFR 238.5 - Comprehensive planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AUTHORITIES: FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION MEASURES IN URBAN AREAS § 238.5 Comprehensive planning. Coordinated comprehensive planning at the regional or river basin level, or for an urban or metropolitan area, can help to...

  11. 33 CFR 238.5 - Comprehensive planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AUTHORITIES: FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION MEASURES IN URBAN AREAS § 238.5 Comprehensive planning. Coordinated comprehensive planning at the regional or river basin level, or for an urban or metropolitan area, can help to...

  12. On the importance of listening comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Alonzo, Crystle

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills: poor comprehenders. Finally it discusses key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities. PMID:24833426

  13. 18 CFR 801.5 - Comprehensive plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comprehensive plan. 801.5 Section 801.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.5 Comprehensive plan. (a) The Compact requires that the Commission formulate and adopt a comprehensive plan for the immediate...

  14. University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center (UMCCC) was founded in 1986. UMCCC received its NCI designation as a cancer center in 1988 and its comprehensive designation in 1991. The Center is also a founding member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, a consortium of 25 of the nation's premier centers, which develops national guidelines for the delivery of effective, quality care.

  15. UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    In 1948, the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) established the Cancer Research Institute, a precursor to consolidation of its cancer activities in more recent decades. NCI designation as a comprehensive cancer center came in 1999 and the Center was renamed the UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2007. The Center is a member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  16. Pipeline Implementation of Real Time Event Cross Correlation for Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junek, W. N.; Wehlen, J. A., III

    2014-12-01

    The United States National Data Center (US NDC) is responsible for monitoring international compliance to nuclear test ban treaties. This mission is performed through real time acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data acquired by a global network of seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasonic sensors. Automatic and human reviewed event solutions are stored in a data warehouse which contains over 15 years of alphanumeric information and waveform data. A significant effort is underway to employ the data warehouse in real time processing to improve the quality of automatic event solutions, reduce analyst burden, and supply decision makers with information regarding relevant historic events. To this end, the US NDC processing pipeline has been modified to automatically recognize events built in the past. Event similarity information and the most relevant historic solution are passed to the human analyst to assist their evaluation of automatically formed events. This is achieved through real time cross correlation of selected seismograms from automatically formed events against those stored in the data warehouse. Historic events used in correlation analysis are selected based on a set of user defined parameters, which are tuned to maintain pipeline timeliness requirements. Software architecture and database infrastructure were modified using a multithreaded design for increased processing speed, database connection pools for parallel queries, and Oracle spatial indexing to enhance query efficiency. This functionality allows the human analyst to spend more time studying anomalous events and less time rebuilding routine events.

  17. Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere.

  18. Nuclear Science, A High School Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of General and Academic Education.

    This comprehensive guide to the teaching of nuclear science at the secondary level includes recommendations on teaching methods, course and laboratory objectives, textbooks, audiovisual aids, laboratory equipment and experiments, and safety precautions. (MH)

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of future site alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Shain, D.I.; Jones, M.E.; Ryan, K.

    1994-04-01

    Due to rapid changes occurring within the Nuclear Weapons complex, the need for integrated planning designed to combine multiple program needs into one strategic plan has become a necessity. This is more apparent as diverse DOE programs compete for dwindling resources. These programs range from traditional production operations, environmental and waste management, to facility transition, economic development, decontamination and decommissioning, and environmental restoration activities. Each program can influence another, thus increasing the difficulty of distinguishing program elements. The method in developing comprehensive plans becomes even more complicated when environmental compliance issues, regulatory agreements and stakeholder values are considered. AT the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), all of these program conditions exist. This paper addresses a set of tools which are being developed at RFP that provides key planning elements and alternatives assessment for the DOE`s Office of Planning and Integration (OPI) and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Officer at RFP. This set of tools is referred to as the Systems Engineering Analysis (SEA).

  20. Listening Comprehension in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this summary is to examine changes in listening comprehension across the adult lifespan and to identify factors associated with individual differences in listening comprehension. Method In this article, the author reports on both cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in listening comprehension. Conclusions Despite significant declines in both sensory and cognitive abilities, listening comprehension remains relatively unchanged in middle-aged listeners (between the ages of 40 and 60 years) compared with young listeners. These results are discussed with respect to possible compensatory factors that maintain listening comprehension despite impaired hearing and reduced cognitive capacities. PMID:25768392

  1. Nuclear illusion and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Lord Zuckerman describes how we can extricate ourselves from nuclear dread. Reviewing the history, technology, the strategies and threats of nuclear weaponry, he argues that the inability to unlearn how to split the atom does not mean there is either sanity or safety in further stockpiling or refining of nuclear weapons. He challenges our beliefs that the use of tactical nuclear weapons in Europe cannot be kept from excalating, our fear of sudden superweapons and defenses, and the premise that scientists, technologists, and arms makers should keep the race going rather than the military because of their vested interests. Given the political will, he contends, a comprehensive ban should not be a difficult treaty to agree to, although efforts to slow down the nuclear arms race have been admittedly disappointing. 92 references.

  2. Analysis of Nuclear Reconstitution, Nuclear

    E-print Network

    Forbes, Douglass

    CHAPTER Analysis of Nuclear Reconstitution, Nuclear Envelope Assembly, and Nuclear Pore Assembly ....................................................................... 180 8.5 Assaying Assembly and Integrity of the Nuclear Envelope................................... 182 8.6 A Nuclear Pore Complex Assembly Assay Using pore-free Nuclear Intermediates

  3. Radioxenon spiked air.

    PubMed

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R

    2015-12-01

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities. PMID:26318775

  4. Retrieval interference in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Julie A.; McElree, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The role of interference effects in sentence processing has recently begun to receive attention, however whether these effects arise during encoding or retrieval remains unclear. This paper draws on basic memory research to help distinguish these explanations and reports data from an experiment that manipulates the possibility for retrieval interference while holding encoding conditions constant. We found clear support for the principle of cue-overload, wherein cues available at retrieval cannot uniquely distinguish among competitors, thus giving rise to interference effects. We discuss the data in relation to a cue-based parsing framework (Van Dyke & Lewis, 2003) and other interference effects observed in sentence processing (e.g., Gordon, Hendrick, & Johnson, 2001, 2004). We conclude from the available data that the memory system that subserves language comprehension operates according to similar principles as memory in other domains. PMID:18209744

  5. The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Andrew G.; Waglechner, Nicholas; Nizam, Fazmin; Yan, Austin; Azad, Marisa A.; Baylay, Alison J.; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Canova, Marc J.; De Pascale, Gianfranco; Ejim, Linda; Kalan, Lindsay; King, Andrew M.; Koteva, Kalinka; Morar, Mariya; Mulvey, Michael R.; O'Brien, Jonathan S.; Pawlowski, Andrew C.; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Spanogiannopoulos, Peter; Sutherland, Arlene D.; Tang, Irene; Taylor, Patricia L.; Thaker, Maulik; Wang, Wenliang; Yan, Marie; Yu, Tennison

    2013-01-01

    The field of antibiotic drug discovery and the monitoring of new antibiotic resistance elements have yet to fully exploit the power of the genome revolution. Despite the fact that the first genomes sequenced of free living organisms were those of bacteria, there have been few specialized bioinformatic tools developed to mine the growing amount of genomic data associated with pathogens. In particular, there are few tools to study the genetics and genomics of antibiotic resistance and how it impacts bacterial populations, ecology, and the clinic. We have initiated development of such tools in the form of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca). The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences. This unique platform provides an informatic tool that bridges antibiotic resistance concerns in health care, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:23650175

  6. An Analysis of a Commercial Furniture Refinisher: A Comprehensive Introductory NMR Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markow, Peter G.; Cramer, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment designed to introduce undergraduate organic chemistry students to measurement/interpretation of NMR parameters. Students investigate chemical shift analysis, spin-spin coupling, peak integrations, effect of deuterium oxide extraction, and comparisons with literature spectra;…

  7. LUNA: Nuclear Astrophysics Deep Underground

    E-print Network

    Carlo Broggini; Daniel Bemmerer; Alessandra Guglielmetti; Roberto Menegazzo

    2010-10-20

    Nuclear astrophysics strives for a comprehensive picture of the nuclear reactions responsible for synthesizing the chemical elements and for powering the stellar evolution engine. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory the cross sections of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The salient features of underground nuclear astrophysics are summarized here. The main results obtained by LUNA in the last twenty years are reviewed, and their influence on the comprehension of the properties of the neutrino, of the Sun and of the Universe itself are discussed. Future directions of underground nuclear astrophysics towards the study of helium and carbon burning and of stellar neutron sources in stars are pointed out.

  8. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  9. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  10. MB3a Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.; McDowell, Kyle D.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated a new infrasound sensor, the MB3a, manufactured by Seismo Wave. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by researchers at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the technology was recently licensed to Seismo Wave for production and sales. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, seismic sensitivity, and self- calibration ability. The MB3a infrasound sensors are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  11. Hyperion 5113/A Infrasound Sensor Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion John

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated an infrasound sensor, the 5113/A manufactured by Hyperion. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by the University of Mississippi. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, and dynamic range. The 5113/A infrasound sensor is a new revision of the 5000 series intended to meet the infrasound application requirements for use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  12. Construction of a Shallow Underground Low-background Detector for a CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Joel B.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.

    2013-05-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is a verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and in addition to a series of radionuclide monitoring stations, contains sixteen radionuclide laboratories capable of verification of radionuclide station measurements. This paper presents an overview of a new commercially obtained low-background detector system for radionuclide aerosol measurements recently installed in a shallow (>30 meters water equivalent) underground clean-room facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Specifics such as low-background shielding materials, active shielding methods, and improvements in sensitivity to IMS isotopes will be covered.

  13. Role of Seismic Calibration as a Confidence-Building Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, L A; Zucca, J JW S; Phillips, W S

    2000-07-20

    Confidence-Building Measures (CBMs) under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) address the political goal of alleviating compliance concerns raised by chemical explosions and the technical goal of calibrating the International Monitoring System (IMS; ref. Article IV, E, and Part 111 of the Protocol to the treaty). The term ''calibration'' only appears in the treaty associated with CBMs and On-Site Inspection and has different meanings in each case. This difference can be illustrated through the use of a simple, conceptual equation:

  14. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  15. Comprehensive Analysis of Neptune's Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkoschka, Erich

    2007-07-01

    Hubble took an amazing data set of Neptune in nine GO programs between 1994 and 2006, consisting of 408 WFPC2 exposures with several filters present in each program. The PIs of these programs, Hammel, Sromovsky, and Rages, published a variety of results about Neptune's atmosphere based on each program. However, the typical size of the grants for each program did not allow all scientific questions of these rich data sets to be addressed.I propose to analyze these 400 images to create a consistent data set spanning 12 years, and I will make even the intermediate results available, such as 400 consistently calibrated images. The combined data set will then be able to address more far reaching questions than could be done by single data sets. Whereas previous studies focused on only a few center-to-limb measurements for a limited selection of latitudes and wavelengths, I will investigate the whole data set and analyze 16,000 center-to-limb curves. I will use the principal component analysis and various statistical tests to find the hidden variations on Neptune. I created software for a similar project on Hubble's Saturn images. I am ready to adapt and apply it to Hubble's Neptune images.The huge number of variable features on Neptune contain an ideal probe about atmospheric dynamics. Previous investigations have only scratched pieces of the surface of this treasure. It is time for a comprehensive study of the whole data to discover fundamenatal insights about atmospheric dynamics.

  16. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  17. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erika F.; Monaco, Sara E.; Khalbuss, Walid; Austin, R. Marshall; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis), lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors) or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma). Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities. PMID:23858317

  18. Characteristics of acoustic wave from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2015-04-01

    Availability of the acoustic wave on the record of microbarograph is one of discriminate signs of atmospheric (surface layer of atmosphere) and contact explosions. Nowadays there is large number of air wave records from chemical explosions recorded by the IMS infrasound stations installed during recent decade. But there is small number of air wave records from nuclear explosions as air and contact nuclear explosions had been conducted since 1945 to 1962, before the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963 (the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water) by the Great Britain, USSR and USA. That time there was small number of installed microbarographs. First infrasound stations in the USSR appeared in 1954, and by the moment of the USSR collapse the network consisted of 25 infrasound stations, 3 of which were located on Kazakhstan territory - in Kurchatov (East Kazakhstan), in Borovoye Observatory (North Kazakhstan) and Talgar Observatory (Northern Tien Shan). The microbarograph of Talgar Observatory was installed in 1962 and recorded large number of air nuclear explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site and Novaya Zemlya Test Site. The epicentral distance to the STS was ~700 km, and to Novaya Zemlya Test Site ~3500 km. The historical analog records of the microbarograph were analyzed on the availability of the acoustic wave. The selected records were digitized, the database of acoustic signals from nuclear explosions was created. In addition, acoustic signals from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites were recorded by analogue broadband seismic stations at wide range of epicentral distances, 300-3600 km. These signals coincide well by its form and spectral content with records of microbarographs and can be used for monitoring tasks and discrimination in places where infrasound observations are absent. Nuclear explosions which records contained acoustic wave were from 0.03 to 30 kt yield for the STS, and from 8.3 to 25 Mt yield for Novaya Zemlya Test Site region. The peculiarities of the wave pattern and spectral content of the acoustic wave records, and relation regularities of acoustic wave amplitude and periods with explosion yield and distance were investigated. The created database can be applied in different monitoring tasks, such as infrasound stations calibration, discrimination of nuclear explosions, precision of nuclear explosions parameters, determination of the explosion yield etc.

  19. Financial planning on a comprehensive scale.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Simita

    2013-04-01

    Hospitals and health systems that wish to explore the shift to comprehensive care management should: Assess the investments in infrastructure necessary to support comprehensive care management, Gauge the financial implications and set quality and financial goals, Monitor performance using metrics such as patient satisfaction, avoidable admissions, out-of-group referrals, and average length of stay. PMID:23596834

  20. Binding in agrammatic aphasia: Processing to comprehension.

    PubMed

    Janet Choy, Jungwon; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2010-05-01

    BACKGROUND: Theories of comprehension deficits in Broca's aphasia have largely been based on the pattern of deficit found with movement constructions. However, some studies have found comprehension deficits with binding constructions, which do not involve movement. AIMS: This study investigates online processing and offline comprehension of binding constructions, such as reflexive (e.g., himself) and pronoun (e.g., him) constructions in unimpaired and aphasic individuals in an attempt to evaluate theories of agrammatic comprehension. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Participants were eight individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia and eight age-matched unimpaired individuals. We used eyetracking to examine online processing of binding constructions while participants listened to stories. Offline comprehension was also tested. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: The eye movement data showed that individuals with Broca's aphasia were able to automatically process the correct antecedent of reflexives and pronouns. In addition, their syntactic processing of binding was not delayed compared to normal controls. Nevertheless, offline comprehension of both pronouns and reflexives was significantly impaired compared to the control participants. This comprehension failure was reflected in the aphasic participants' eye movements at sentence end, where fixations to the competitor increased. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that comprehension difficulties with binding constructions seen in agrammatic aphasic patients are not due to a deficit in automatic syntactic processing or delayed processing. Rather, they point to a possible deficit in lexical integration. PMID:20535243

  1. Leadership Lessons from Comprehensive School Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Datnow, Amanda, Ed.

    This volume explores the role of leadership in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "The Development of Comprehensive School Reform" (Joseph Murphy and Amanda Datnow); (2) "Expeditionary Learning Schools: Tenacity, Leadership, and School Reform" (Greg Farrell); (3) "The Modern Red School House: Leadership in…

  2. The Comprehensive High School in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Daniel

    1982-01-01

    Defends comprehensive high schools against critics, past and present, who advocate specialized high schools or dual or tripartite systems separating college-bound from noncollege-bound students. Argues that comprehensive high schools promote social class integration and democratic values, and notes James B. Conant's role in supporting…

  3. Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    First established at Northwestern University in 1974, the cancer center was dedicated to Robert H. Lurie in 1991. In 1997, the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University received its “comprehensive” designation from the NCI. The Lurie Cancer Center is committed to being an international leader in the battle to overcome cancer.

  4. Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgon, J. R.

    A New Zealand pilot study examined Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) scores compared to PAT: Reading Comprehension scores and compared with teacher ratings. TORCH is a reading test package published in 1987 by the Australian Council for Educational Research. It consists of 14 untimed passages intended to assess the extent to which readers in…

  5. America's Interest in Comprehensive School Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes findings from a 1994 report, "Values and Opinions of Comprehensive School Health Education in U.S. Public Schools: Adolescents, Parents, and School District Administrators." Commissioned by the American Cancer Society, the national survey examined adolescent, parent, and administrator opinions regarding comprehensive school health…

  6. Does Monitoring Event Changes Improve Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn-Gettler, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    During narrative comprehension, reading times increase for changes in time, space, characters, goals, and causation. This study examined the extent to which instructional manipulations modify dimension monitoring during reading and whether this affects comprehension. Sixty-seven participants read three narratives (pretest). Half of the…

  7. Comprehensive Education Portfolio with a Career Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Evonne J.; Holtzman, Diane M.; Dagavarian, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of student portfolios used within academia: the prior learning portfolio, credentialing portfolio, developmental portfolio, capstone portfolio, individual course portfolio, and the comprehensive education portfolio. The comprehensive education portfolio (CEP), as used by the authors, is a student portfolio, developed over…

  8. Fission for Program Comprehension Jeremy Gibbons

    E-print Network

    Gibbons, Jeremy

    Fission for Program Comprehension Jeremy Gibbons Oxford University Computing Laboratory Wolfson at the cost of clarity. Fission is the same transformation, in reverse: creating structure, ex nihilo. We explore the use of fission for program comprehension, that is, for reconstructing the design of a program

  9. A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, G. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)

  10. A Dynamic Developmental Link between Verbal Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) and Reading Comprehension: Verbal Comprehension-Knowledge Drives Positive Change in Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Turek, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence and general academic achievement have a well-established relation, but the interrelated development of the two constructs over time is less well-known. In this study, the dynamic developmental relation between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension was examined by applying bivariate dual change score models…

  11. Optimizing Visually-Assisted Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashani, Ahmad Sabouri; Sajjadi, Samad; Sohrabi, Mohammad Reza; Younespour, Shima

    2011-01-01

    The fact that visual aids such as pictures or graphs can lead to greater comprehension by language learners has been well established. Nonetheless, the order of presenting visuals to listeners is left unattended. This study examined listening comprehension from a strategy of introducing visual information, either prior to or during an audio…

  12. Relationship between Graphical Device Comprehension and Overall Text Comprehension for Third-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Norman, Rebecca R.; Cocco, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    This study examined relationships between reading comprehension, known predictors of reading comprehension (i.e., cognitive flexibility, fluency, reading motivation and attitude, vocabulary), and graphical device comprehension. One-hundred fifty-six third graders completed assessments of known predictor variables and an assessment tapping…

  13. Measures of Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Analysis of the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, David J.; Snow, Catherine E.; August, Diane; Carlson, Coleen D.; Miller, Jon; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2006-01-01

    This study compares 2 measures of reading comprehension: (a) the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension test, a standard in reading research, and (b) the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension (DARC), an innovative measure. Data from 192 Grade 3 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) were used to fit a series of latent variable…

  14. Listen, Listen, Listen and Listen: Building a Comprehension Corpus and Making It Comprehensible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordaunt, Owen G.; Olson, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Listening comprehension input is necessary for language learning and acculturation. One approach to developing listening comprehension skills is through exposure to massive amounts of naturally occurring spoken language input. But exposure to this input is not enough; learners also need to make the comprehension corpus meaningful to their learning…

  15. The Effect of Explicit Teaching of Comprehension Strategies on Reading Comprehension in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, James Grant

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of explicit teaching of comprehension strategies on the comprehension performance of elementary school students. Two schools with similar demographics, including a significant proportion of students at risk for reading failure, participated in the study. One school utilized an explicit comprehension strategy…

  16. Readability and Its Effects on Reading Rate, Subjective Judgments of Comprehensibility and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    Prose passages read aloud or silently were rated for pronounceability and comprehensibility. The relationships of text-derived readability indices to reading rate, comprehensibility ratings and comprehension test scores were explored. Reading rate in syllables per minute was unrelated to readability. The high correlation between rate in words per…

  17. ADVANCED WAVEFORM SIMULATION FOR SEISMIC MONITORING EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Helmberger, Donald V.; Tromp, Jeroen; Rodgers, Arthur J.

    2007-06-30

    Comprehensive test ban monitoring in terms of location and discrimination has progressed significantly in recent years. However, the characterization of sources and the estimation of low yields remains a particular challenge.

  18. Large mining blasts from the Kursk Mining Region, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, W. Adushkin, V.; Spivak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at magnitude levels where industrial explosions (primarily, mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded, and may for some countries dominate the seismicity. Thus, data on blasting practice have both political significance for the negotiation of treaties involving seismic monitoring of nuclear tests, and operational applications in terms of establishing monitoring and inspection needs on a mine-by-mine basis. While it is generally accepted that mining explosions contribute to seismicity at lower seismic magnitudes (less than about magnitude 3.5), the rate of mining seismicity as a function of seismic magnitude is unknown for most countries outside the U.S. This results in a large uncertainty when estimating the task of discriminating nuclear explosions from chemical explosions and earthquakes, by seismic means, under a comprehensive nuclear test ban. This uncertainty directly affects estimates of seismic network enhancements required to achieve treaty verification requirements at magnitudes less than about 3.5. 24 refs., 64 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. 75 FR 5485 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Memorandum for the Secretary of Energy Expanding our Nation's capacity to generate clean nuclear energy is... nuclear energy. These efforts are critical to accomplishing many of my Administration's most significant goals. An important part of a sound, comprehensive, and long- term domestic nuclear energy strategy is...

  20. A New Comprehensive Final Exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavsar, Suketu P.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors aspire for students to master all the material covered. The final exam should assess the breadth and depth of their learning and be a significant basis for the final grade. I insist on a comprehensive final because I want students to review early material in light of later topics. I believe that this helps students create connections, integrate understanding, and retain knowledge for the long term. For non-science majors, reviewing and retaining the large amount of astronomy material is daunting. I experimented with a final exam format that calmed their fears and encouraged thorough review. It is only practical for a class of about twenty students or less. I provided a number of challenging conceptual and problem solving questions (at least as many as there were students), crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. The order of the questions reflected the sequence in which the topics had been discussed. Students received these questions in ample time to prepare prior to the final. A student could bring up to 5 standard sheets of notes to the final. At the final, each student picked a number out of a hat. This was the question they had to answer in a 5-minute presentation. They were allowed 15 minutes for a final preparation during which they could use their 5 pages of notes. The presentations were given in order, 1- 20. Written comments on at least 10 other talks, explaining what was missed or correcting a mistake were required. They were graded both on their talk and on their comments. This format required students to be prepared for any question and encouraged interaction and communication while studying. Knowing the questions beforehand provided a guide to their studying as well as allayed their fears about what could be asked. The students also received guidance to what constituted a good answer, namely accuracy (correct scientific argument, appropriate facts, no irrelevant material), thoroughness (answered the complete questions, covered relevant material) and the quality of the presentation (polished, professional, use of demonstrations, graphs, pictures etc. and time appropriately to present a clear answer). I will describe this first attempt.

  1. Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of…

  2. How Reading Comprehension Is Embodied and Why That Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension, much like comprehension of situations and comprehension of oral language, is embodied. In all cases, comprehension is the ability to take effective action on the basis of affordances related to the body, the physical world, and personal goals and cultural norms. In language contexts, action-based comprehension arises from…

  3. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Cancer.gov

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  4. Does implicit causality influence children's sentence comprehension 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Studies investigating adults’ sentence comprehension have found that certain verbs convey implicit information about the causality of the sentence. The present study tested children aged 8; 10 – 11;7 years (M = 10;3) to ...

  5. 77 FR 3242 - Comprehensive Centers Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RIN 1810-AB14 Comprehensive Centers Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of proposed priorities, requirements, and selection criteria....

  6. Mycoinsecticides: comprehensive list and current status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to assemble a comprehensive list of mycoinsecticides developed worldwide. A variety of sources, including scientific publications, personal communications, and websites from manufacturers and regulatory agencies, was accessed. During the last four decades, ca. 80 companies worldwide...

  7. Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes

    E-print Network

    Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl F.

    2005-11-01

    comprehension strategies most important to adults' success on adult literacy outcome measures and aligning them with previously researched interventions. According to an analysis of key adult literacy outcome measures (i.e., competency-based, standardized tests...

  8. A History of Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    A history of the development of rotorcraft comprehensive analyses is presented. Comprehensive analyses are digital computer programs that calculate the aeromechanical behavior of the rotor and aircraft, bringing together the most advanced models of the geometry, structure, dynamics, and aerodynamics available in rotary wing technology. The development of the major codes of the last five decades from industry, government, and universities is described. A number of common themes observed in this history are discussed.

  9. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

  10. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

  11. Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study’s hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of the 2nd grade, children (n = 206; on average, 7 years, 6 months) were assessed on general language comprehension, working memory, nonlinguistic reasoning, processing speed (a control variable), and foundational skill (arithmetic for WPs; word reading for text comprehension). In spring, they were assessed on WP-specific language comprehension, WPs, and text comprehension. Path analytic mediation analysis indicated that effects of general language comprehension on text comprehension were entirely direct, whereas effects of general language comprehension on WPs were partially mediated by WP-specific language. By contrast, effects of working memory and reasoning operated in parallel ways for both outcomes. PMID:25866461

  12. Upland Farmers' Comprehension of Pictorial Messages on Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravoso, R. S.; Stuart, T. H.

    2000-01-01

    A study to explore Filipino farmers' comprehension of pictorial messages on environmental protection found that educational attainment, visual exposure, and knowledge of environmental protection positively influenced visual comprehension. Color did not necessarily improve comprehension. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)

  13. Beyond the Story Map: Inferential Comprehension via Character Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin; Douglass, April; Wright, Katherine L.; Hodges, Tracey S.; Franks, Amanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Inferential comprehension requires both emotional intelligence and cognitive skills, however instructional comprehension strategies typically underemphasize the emotional contribution. This article documents an intervention used by diverse third grade students which centers on teaching story comprehension through character perspective-taking…

  14. Computational analyses of multilevel discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Graesser, Arthur C; McNamara, Danielle S

    2011-04-01

    The proposed multilevel framework of discourse comprehension includes the surface code, the textbase, the situation model, the genre and rhetorical structure, and the pragmatic communication level. We describe these five levels when comprehension succeeds and also when there are communication misalignments and comprehension breakdowns. A computer tool has been developed, called Coh-Metrix, that scales discourse (oral or print) on dozens of measures associated with the first four discourse levels. The measurement of these levels with an automated tool helps researchers track and better understand multilevel discourse comprehension. Two sets of analyses illustrate the utility of Coh-Metrix in discourse theory and educational practice. First, Coh-Metrix was used to measure the cohesion of the text base and situation model, as well as potential extraneous variables, in a sample of published studies that manipulated text cohesion. This analysis helped us better understand what was precisely manipulated in these studies and the implications for discourse comprehension mechanisms. Second, Coh-Metrix analyses are reported for samples of narrative and science texts in order to advance the argument that traditional text difficulty measures are limited because they fail to accommodate most of the levels of the multilevel discourse comprehension framework. PMID:25164300

  15. An equal-opportunity NPT. [NPT (Non-Proliferation Treaty)

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, K.

    1993-06-01

    The international community must decide how to fit the three de facto nuclear states--Israel, India, and Pakistan, whose perceived need for a nuclear deterrent could be greater than that of the Western powers--into the framework of the Non-Proliferation Treaty's framework when it comes up for extension in 1995. This article describes a way of developing a universal non-discriminatory nuclear restraint regime without altering the present NPT. In essence, a supplementary treaty could be adopted that would bring all nuclear installations (in both nuclear-weapon and non-weapon states) under a universal verification regime similar to that of the chemical weapons treaty. The treaty could prohibit all future manufacture of nuclear weapons, impose a comprehensive test ban, and institute an intrusive, non-discriminatory verification regime on all countries. The United Nations would be assigned mandatory retaliatory measures in case of a breach.

  16. 50 CFR 86.123 - Comprehensive National Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Completing the Comprehensive National Assessment § 86.123 Comprehensive National Assessment schedule....

  17. 50 CFR 86.123 - Comprehensive National Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Completing the Comprehensive National Assessment § 86.123 Comprehensive National Assessment schedule....

  18. Comprehensive low-cost reliability centered maintenance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rotton, S.J.; Dozier, I.J.; Thow, R.

    1995-09-01

    Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a maintenance optimization approach that all electric utilities can apply to power plant systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and PECO Energy Company jointly sponsored this Comprehensive Low-Cost Reliability Centered Maintenance project to demonstrate that the standard RCM methodology could be streamlined to reduce the cost of analysis while maintaining a high quality product. EPRI`s previous investigation of streamlined RCM methods being pioneered in the nuclear industry indicated that PECO Energy could expect to optimize its maintenance program at reduced cost by carefully controlling the scope without sacrificing documentation or technical quality. Using the insights obtained from these previous studies, three methods were defined in this project and were demonstrated in a large scale application to 60 systems at both the Limerick Generating Station and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station.

  19. Nuclear weapons databook. Volume V: British, French, and Chinese nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.; Burrows, A.S.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    How insecurity and the search military independence drove post World War II nuclear proliferation beyond the United States and the Soviet Union is the subject of the latest and most voluminous title in the Natural Resources Defense Council`s highly acclaimed Nuclear Weapons Databook series. Volume 5 explains how atomic and thermonuclear weapons spread to Britain, France, and China despite the political turmoil and economic hardship that beset these countries. The history of the British nuclear weapons program includes the most comprehensive collection of photos and specifications of British warheads and nuclear tests ever assembled in one publication. The role of the United States in the French nuclear weapons program is discussed. This is a comprehensive source for the mechanics and politics of nuclear weapons proliferation.

  20. Developing a comprehensive training curriculum for integrated predictive maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurzbach, Richard N.

    2002-03-01

    On-line equipment condition monitoring is a critical component of the world-class production and safety histories of many successful nuclear plant operators. From addressing availability and operability concerns of nuclear safety-related equipment to increasing profitability through support system reliability and reduced maintenance costs, Predictive Maintenance programs have increasingly become a vital contribution to the maintenance and operation decisions of nuclear facilities. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the quality and portability of many of the instruments being used, and software improvements have been made as well. However, the single most influential component of the success of these programs is the impact of a trained and experienced team of personnel putting this technology to work. Changes in the nature of the power generation industry brought on by competition, mergers, and acquisitions, has taken the historically stable personnel environment of power generation and created a very dynamic situation. As a result, many facilities have seen a significant turnover in personnel in key positions, including predictive maintenance personnel. It has become the challenge for many nuclear operators to maintain the consistent contribution of quality data and information from predictive maintenance that has become important in the overall equipment decision process. These challenges can be met through the implementation of quality training to predictive maintenance personnel and regular updating and re-certification of key technology holders. The use of data management tools and services aid in the sharing of information across sites within an operating company, and with experts who can contribute value-added data management and analysis. The overall effectiveness of predictive maintenance programs can be improved through the incorporation of newly developed comprehensive technology training courses. These courses address the use of key technologies such as vibration analysis, infrared thermography, and oil analysis not as singular entities, but as a toolbox resource from which to address overall equipment and plant reliability in a structured program and decision environment.

  1. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  2. Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…

  3. E-Reading Comprehension versus Conventional Reading Comprehension of Junior High Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Technology is an increasing part in the lives of junior high students, but little is known about how this technology affects their reading. Reading comprehension from e-books is compared to reading comprehension from conventional print books with junior high students. The problem is that students may be reading from a medium that is less than the…

  4. Deconstructing Comprehensibility: Identifying the Linguistic Influences on Listeners' L2 Comprehensibility Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Talia; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensibility, a major concept in second language (L2) pronunciation research that denotes listeners' perceptions of how easily they understand L2 speech, is central to interlocutors' communicative success in real-world contexts. Although comprehensibility has been modeled in several L2 oral proficiency scales--for example, the Test of English…

  5. Effects of Psychological Attention on Pronoun Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jennifer E.; Lao, Shin-Yi C.

    2015-01-01

    Pronoun comprehension is facilitated for referents that are focused in the discourse context. Discourse focus has been described as a function of attention, especially shared attention, but few studies have explicitly tested this idea. Two experiments used an exogenous capture cue paradigm to demonstrate that listeners’ visual attention at the onset of a story influences their preferences during pronoun resolution later in the story. In both experiments trial-initial attention modulated listeners’ transitory biases while considering referents for the pronoun, whether it was in response to the capture cue or not. These biases even had a small influence on listeners’ final interpretation of the pronoun. These results provide independently-motivated evidence that the listener’s attention influences the on-line processes of pronoun comprehension. Trial-initial attentional shifts were made on the basis of non-shared, private information, demonstrating that attentional effects on pronoun comprehension are not restricted to shared attention among interlocutors. PMID:26191533

  6. Calibration of Comprehension and Performance in L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarac, Seda; Tarhan, Betul

    2009-01-01

    Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university…

  7. Reading Comprehension and Understanding Idiomatic Expressions: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiara Levorato, Maria; Nesi, Barbara; Cacciari, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a…

  8. Signatures of testing: On-site inspection technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J.J.; Carrigan, C.; Goldstein, P.; Jarpe, S.P.; Sweeney, J.; Pickles, W.L.; Wright, B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the phenomenology of nuclear explosions and technologies for their detection as relevant to On-Site Inspection (OSI) for a comprehensive test-ban (CTB). Our experience with the US nuclear test program which has been primarily carried out at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in the Pacific Ocean. The goals of OSI are to resolve ambiguous events, reduce uncertainty, deter attempts at evasion, and provide responsive and technically competent means of confirming the occurrence of a nuclear explosion should deterrence fail. These goals would include finding evidence of an evasive nuclear explosion or evidence that the event was non-nuclear, such as an earthquake or large chemical explosion.

  9. Special lecture in memory of Glenn Theodore Seaborg (19 April 1912 - 25 February 1999) Glenn T. Seaborg's multi-faceted career

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2001-11-01

    Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-1999) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten US presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights his profound influence on nuclear science, both in the US and in the international community.

  10. A Comprehensive Plan for Global Energy Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blees, T.

    2009-05-01

    There is no dearth of information regarding the grave crises faced by humanity in the 21st century. There is also growing consensus that the wholesale burning of fossil fuels must come to an end, either because of climate change or other still-salient reasons such as air pollution or major conflicts over dwindling reserves of cheaply recoverable oil and gas resources. At the same time, global demographics predict with disquieting certainty a world with up to 9 or 10 billion souls by mid-century. The vast expansion of energy consumption that this population represents, along with further increases in already-unacceptable levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, demands that we quickly develop almost limitless sources of clean, economical power. What is sorely lacking in the public debate are realistic solutions. Expanding wind and solar generating capacity is an important near-term goal, but neither of these technologies represents a viable solution for generating base load power at the vast scales that will be required. Energy efficiency measures are likewise well-directed, but the combination of rising population along with increasingly energy-intensive economic activity by the large fraction of Earth's current population residing in developing nations suggests that absolute energy demand will continue to rise even with radically improved energy efficiency. Fortunately we have the technologies available to provide virtually unlimited clean energy, and to utilize and recycle our resources so that everyone can improve their standard of living. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), developed at the Argonne National Laboratory in the 80's and 90's and currently championed by General Electric, is a technology that fills the bill on every count, and then some. IFRs are safe, environmentally clean, economical, and free of conflict over fuel supply. IFRs can safely consume as fuel the nuclear waste from the current installed base of light-water reactors, as well as utilize the world's prodigious stockpiles of depleted uranium to supply all of humanity's energy needs for hundreds of years. Not only will IFR operations produce no greenhouse gas emissions, but even their construction will create several times less emissions per megawatt than wind and solar projects. Commercial development of zero-emission energy carriers for vehicle transport (such as hydrogen or boron) can assure that we efficiently translate IFR- generated power to our transportation infrastructure while eliminating the choking pollution of the world's ever- expanding vehicle fleet. If we make the decisions that must be made to deploy these new technologies, we stand at the threshhold of a post-scarcity era even as the starkness of our population dilemma would seem to indicate the opposite. Here is the blueprint for that new era, a comprehensive plan to provide limitless clean energy that can be implemented at less expense than taking a business-as-usual approach.

  11. An assessment of antineutrino detection as a tool for monitoring nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Bernstein; Todd West; Vipin Gupta

    1999-06-01

    The antineutrino is the only real-time nuclear signature from a fission explosion that propagates great distances through air, water, and ground. The size and sensitivity of antineutrino detectors has increased dramatically in the last decade, and will continue to do so in the next, thanks in part to the renewed interest in neutrino physics brought on by the recent discovery that neutrinos may have mass. The evolution of antineutrino detectors, and the evident interest of the signature as a means for monitoring nuclear tests motivates this review of the capabilities of existing and possible future detectors as test ban verification tools. The authors find that existing liquid scintillator ionization detectors, operating a few tens of meters below the Earth's surface and containing a few thousand tons of active material, could be used to monitor an area of a few square kilometers for nuclear explosions at the 1 kt level. Purified water Cerenkov detectors of sizes comparable to existing detectors (50,000 m{sup 3}) could be used to detect 1 kt explosions at distances of a few tens of kilometers. If neutron-absorbing dopants such as sodium chloride or gadolinium could be added to purified water, the resulting background reduction would allow extension of the range for sensitivity to a pulse of 10 antineutrino events from a 1 kt explosion out to approximately 1000 km. Beyond 1000 km, backgrounds from the world's nuclear reactors would become prohibitively large. The engineering hurdles for such detectors would be formidable. The size of a doped detector operating at the 100 km range, suitable for cooperative monitoring of existing nuclear test sites, is about 60 times that of the largest existing water detector, and would require a factor of several dozen more photomultiplier tubes than what is now used in large scale physics experiments. At a price per phototube of $1000, capital costs would amount to several billions of dollars, even for a detector at this modest range. This cost is perhaps the key obstacle to construction, along with excavation requirements and the requirement of high radiopurity for large volumes of water and dopant. Detectors sensitive to a 1 kt explosion at a few kilometer distance would still cost tens of millions of dollars, and are unlikely to be useful except in the context of confidence-building measures.

  12. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  13. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  14. Effects of Instructional Method on Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewalt, Mark; And Others

    The relationship between type of reading instruction (whole language or basal) and reading comprehension as measured by the California Achievement Test (CAT) was investigated. Nineteen third- and fourth-grade teachers from school 5 districts in North Carolina took part in the project with 215 students in the basal group and 200 students in the…

  15. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  16. Comprehensive Database on Concrete Creep and Shrinkage

    E-print Network

    Comprehensive Database on Concrete Creep and Shrinkage Zdenek P. Bazant and Guang-Hua Li Structural Database on Concrete Creep and Shrinkage Zdenek P. Bazant1 and Guang-Hua Li2 Abstract: As a sequel to the first large database created at Northwestern University in 1978, the paper presents a further

  17. Comprehensive Molecular Structure of the Eukaryotic Ribosome

    E-print Network

    Sali, Andrej

    Structure Article Comprehensive Molecular Structure of the Eukaryotic Ribosome Derek J. Taylor,1- some over the past decade, an accurate atomic model of the eukaryotic 80S ribosome is still not available. Eukaryotic ribosomes possess more ribo- somal proteins and ribosomal RNA than do bacterial

  18. Winning Basketball: A Comprehensive Sports Counseling Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eileen S.

    This report describes the comprehensive sports counseling program, based on Glasser's reality theory, which was designed and used with the men's basketball team at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia. The program described took a multisensory approach in order to use visual, auditory, and kinesthetic modalities; and employed…

  19. Bilingualism Influences Inhibitory Control in Auditory Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals at suppressing task-irrelevant information. The present study aimed to identify how processing linguistic ambiguity during auditory comprehension may be associated with inhibitory control. Monolinguals and bilinguals listened to words in their native language (English) and identified them among…

  20. Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empey, Donald W.

    This document describes the Glendale Unified School District's (California) comprehensive drug, alcohol, and tobacco education program. The program is based on three components: (1) a sequential outcome-based curriculum that provides students with knowledge about substance abuse and peer-resistant skills; (2) a strong message that the possession,…

  1. Spirituality and Comprehensive School Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    Comprehensive school counseling programs (CSCPs) have evolved into well-articulated organizational frameworks that will successfully guide school counseling practice for years to come (American School Counselor Association [ASCA], 2003; Gysbers & Henderson, 2000, 2005). At their heart, CSCPs emphasize that as society and families continue to…

  2. City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    Founded in 1913, City of Hope began focusing on cancer research and treatment in the late 1940s. Receiving its NCI designation in 1981 and its designation as a comprehensive cancer center in 1998, City of Hope is today a biomedical research, treatment, and education center.

  3. The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    The Ohio State University Cancer Research Center was established in 1973 and received National Cancer Institute designation in April 1976 as a comprehensive cancer center (OSUCCC). The patient care arm of the OSUCCC is the Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute.

  4. Effectiveness of Four Supplemental Reading Comprehension Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Burdumy, Susanne; Deke, John; Gersten, Russell; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Dimino, Joseph; Haymond, Kelly; Liu, Albert Yung-Hsu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents evidence from a large-scale randomized controlled trial of the effects of four supplemental reading comprehension curricula (Project CRISS, ReadAbout, Read for Real, and Reading for Knowledge) on students' understanding of informational text. Across 2 school years, the study included 10 school districts, more than 200…

  5. A Board's Guide to Comprehensive Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Jake B., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This guide examines the scope and structure of college and university comprehensive fund-raising campaigns. It focuses on the responsibilities of boards and trustees in planning, overseeing, and actively participating in such campaigns, which are defined as institutional fund-raising initiatives which take place over a predetermined time period,…

  6. Comprehensive Building Systems: Threat or Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Comprehensive building systems are the result of industry's search for markets, clients' desire for shorter hours and lower costs, and the growing complexity of building technology which requires the architect to depend on industry for research and development. Certain questions are raised by this trend. Will industry dominate architecture? Can…

  7. Self-Explanation Training Improves Proof Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodds, Mark; Alcock, Lara; Inglis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In this article we report 3 experiments demonstrating that a simple booklet containing self-explanation training, designed to focus students' attention on logical relationships within a mathematical proof, can significantly improve their proof comprehension. Experiment 1 demonstrated that students who received the training generated higher…

  8. Comprehensive Achievements: All Our Geese Are Swans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imison, Tamsyn, Ed.; Heilbronn, Ruth, Ed.; Williams, Liz, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schools in England are radically changing their organization and governance, casting aside the founding principle of the 1944 Education Act that education is a public service and abandoning the ideal of education as nurturing a sense of community. This book presents a portrait of a successful comprehensive school, between the years 1980 and 2000.…

  9. Comprehensive Annual Performance Report, FY96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This document is a comprehensive report of Ohio activities related to the expenditures of federal funds under the Carl Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990. Section I describes the progress Ohio has made in achieving the objectives outlined in the State Plan for the Administration of Vocational Education in Ohio. It…

  10. Testing Listening Comprehension: A New Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, Jo

    1991-01-01

    Some of the issues involved in validating two English second-language listening comprehension tests are examined. The tests were two different levels of a listening summary-cloze measure developed for use in a battery of language proficiency tests in the second and fourth years of university-level study in China. In them, students listen to a talk…

  11. Reading Comprehension Skills through Workplace Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This document contains a competency-based workplace literacy curriculum that is intended to develop workers' reading comprehension skills by building on their prior knowledge and integrating job-related reading materials actually used by workers on the job with other academic reading materials and textbooks. Designed to be used in conjunction with…

  12. Comprehensive Family Services and Customer Satisfaction Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Ruth A.; Jones, Blake L.; Miller, Viola P.; Custer, Melba; Critchfield, Becky

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive Family Services (CFS) is a strengths-based and partnership-oriented approach to casework implemented through multiple initiatives. This study examines the relationship between the practice of CFS and satisfaction of clients, foster parents, and community partners. CFS indicators are paired with statewide customer satisfaction survey…

  13. Reading Comprehension: From Research to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orasanu, Judith, Ed.

    In response to recommendations by a National Institute of Education (NIE) planning group to the effect that NIE should support efforts to understand the cognitive processes involved in acquiring basic reading skills and in comprehending linguistic messages, this book summarizes what has been learned about reading comprehension in the decade since…

  14. Listening Skill Development through Massive Comprehensible Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalivoda, Theodore B.

    Foreign language listening comprehension instruction too often relies on brief selections read aloud or sporadic teacher talk interspersed with native language (NL) utterances, which fail to provide sustained listening practice. NL is overused for grammar-related talk, reducing target language exposure, encouraging translation, and hindering…

  15. Governmental Accounting: Comprehensive Annual Financial Report Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncada, Susan M.

    This paper provides student materials for a course project in which students read, analyze, and interpret the information in an actual comprehensive annual financial report (CAFR) of a government entity (a city with a population greater than 40,000), and is based on the actual reviewer's checklist used by the Government Finance Officers…

  16. Unknown Vocabulary Density and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)

  17. INFERENCE GENERATION DURING AUDITORY LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION

    E-print Network

    Osterhout, Lee

    INFERENCE GENERATION DURING AUDITORY LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION David A. Swinney Lee Osterhout I. Introduction It has become nearly axiomatic (and even likely true) to hold that inference generation during the literature rife with observations that while there is little evi- dence of "automatic" generation of certain

  18. Object Orientation Affects Spatial Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burigo, Michele; Sacchi, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process.…

  19. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  20. Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

  1. A Comprehensive Enzyme Kinetic Exercise for Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Janice S.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme kinetics strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. Kinetic parameters are obtained for the stable…

  2. Comprehensive Assessment Report, Pearl River School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl River Union Free School District, NY.

    The 1986 Comprehensive Assessment Report on the Pearl River (New York) Public School District describes the district's 1,807-student population (grades K through 12), the community, and its schools. Tables provide data on: (1) students' performance on standardized tests, including the California Achievement/Aptitude Tests; New York State Pupil…

  3. Internet Inquiry: Fundamental Competencies for Online Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara; Tancock, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article showcases the online research and comprehension competencies students will need to successfully engage with Internet Inquiry. The Common Core State Standards, the research on new literacies skills, and the future of technology-based assessments require educators to fully take on the challenges of meaningfully embedding and supporting…

  4. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  5. Cue-Dependent Interference in Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Julie A.; McElree, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The role of interference as a primary determinant of forgetting in memory has long been accepted, however its role as a contributor to poor comprehension is just beginning to be understood. The current paper reports two studies, in which speed-accuracy tradeoff and eye-tracking methodologies were used with the same materials to provide converging…

  6. [The Comprehensive School Mathematics Program: Related Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

    In this collection of position papers and descriptive materials, staff members and consultants of the Comprehensive School Mathematics Program (CSMP) outline the philosophy and goals of this curriculum development project. Rejecting the notion that mathematics should be taught as a collection of facts to be mastered, these writers claim the goal…

  7. Disfluencies, Language Comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Fernanda; Lau, Ellen F.; Bailey, Karl G. D.

    2004-01-01

    Disfluencies include editing terms such as "uh" and "um" as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and…

  8. Business Process Management: A Comprehensive Survey

    E-print Network

    van der Aalst, Wil

    Business Process Management: A Comprehensive Survey Wil M.P. van der Aalst Department. Business Process Management (BPM) research resulted in a plethora of methods, techniques, and tools to support the design, enactment, management, and analysis of operational business processes. This survey

  9. A Comprehensive Process for Display Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcox, William A.

    A comprehensive development process for display design, focusing on computer-generated cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is presented. A framework is created for breaking the display into its component parts, used to guide the design process. The objective is to design or select the most cost effective graphics solution (hardware and software) to…

  10. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in the Office

    PubMed Central

    Pereles, Laurie R.M.; Boyle, Neil G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Because of their increased incidence of illness and disability, geriatric patients require extra time and diligence to assess and track medical problems. This article describes a comprehensive geriatirc assessment, organized on a one-page, easily updated checklist, that can be used to generate a medical and functional problem list and a risk assessment. Imagesp2190-a PMID:21229091

  11. The Neural Substrates of Spoken Idiom Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillert, Dieter G.; Buracas, Giedrius T.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neural correlates of spoken idiom comprehension, we conducted an event-related functional MRI study with a "rapid sentence decision" task. The spoken sentences were equally familiar but varied in degrees of "idiom figurativeness". Our results show that "figurativeness" co-varied with neural activity in the left ventral dorsolateral…

  12. Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

  13. Linguistic and Cultural Factors in Text Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poissant, Helene

    A study examined the effects of the level of knowledge of a second language (linguistic factor) and of the level of familiarity of texts based on cultural scripts (cultural factor) on comprehension. Subjects, 111 young adults whose average age was 23 years, were divided into 3 groups according to their different levels of linguistic knowledge. Two…

  14. A Comprehensive Analysis of Marketing Journal Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Michelle D.; Lewis, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive assessment of journal standings in Marketing from two perspectives. The discipline perspective of rankings is obtained from a collection of published journal ranking studies during the past 15 years. The studies in the published ranking stream are assessed for reliability by examining internal…

  15. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  16. Using Image Analysis to Build Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah Drake; Swope, John

    2010-01-01

    Content area reading remains a primary concern of history educators. In order to better prepare students for encounters with text, the authors propose the use of two image analysis strategies tied with a historical theme to heighten student interest in historical content and provide a basis for improved reading comprehension.

  17. Validation and Comprehension: An Integrated Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendeou, Panayiota

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I review and discuss the work presented in this special issue while focusing on a number of issues that warrant further investigation in validation research. These issues pertain to the nature of the validation processes, the processes and mechanisms that support validation during comprehension, the factors that influence…

  18. The Development of Comprehensive Search Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Henry M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    One experiment examined two and one-half, three and one-half and four and one-half year olds' ability to conduct nonredundant comprehensive searches of small lidded trash cans. A second experiment examined three , four, and five year olds' ability to find Easter eggs hidden on a large playground. Results were discussed in relation to developmental…

  19. Comprehension of Warnings and Resulting Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowska-White, Elzbieta; Parsons, Amy L.

    2001-01-01

    A study of 61 adults with at least a bachelor's degree and 44 high school dropouts showed that the latter perceived products with simply worded warnings as safer than those with difficult vocabulary. College-educated adults had more negative attitudes toward warnings with difficult words despite equal comprehension of both. (Contains 39…

  20. Instructional Approaches that Significantly Increase Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Reed, Kelly L.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.; Cleveland, Maggie D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the most widely used literacy instructional approaches on the reading comprehension of Grade 2-6 students. Participants (N = 660) were enrolled in 4 districts in the United States; 53% were male (n = 348) and 47% were female (n = 312); 51% were Caucasian (n = 338), 23% were African American…

  1. Promoting Student Comprehension with Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernsten, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    One study, covering the last 25 years, reports that undergraduates in college complete about 30 percent of assigned work. Would it be surprising--in these days of DVRs, Internet, texting, email, and video games--if high school and middle school students' homework completion rates were even less? What are teachers to do? Comprehension strategies,…

  2. The Dark Side of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidelson, Roy; Pilisuk, Marc; Soldz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), the focus of the January 2011 special issue of the "American Psychologist," is a $125 million resilience training initiative designed to reduce and prevent the adverse psychological consequences of combat for soldiers and veterans. These are worthy goals. Soldiers and veterans deserve the best care possible,…

  3. Enabling a Comprehensive Teaching Strategy: Video Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, H. David; Ogilby, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically tests the feasibility and effectiveness of video lectures as a form of video instruction that enables a comprehensive teaching strategy used throughout a traditional classroom course. It examines student use patterns and the videos' effects on student learning, using qualitative and nonparametric statistical analyses of…

  4. Measuring Reading Comprehension with the Lexile Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenner, A. Jackson

    This paper shows how the concept of general objectivity can be used to improve behavioral science measurement, particularly as it applies to the Lexile Framework, a tool for objectively measuring reading comprehension. It begins with a dialogue between a physicist and a psychometrician that details some of the differences between physical science…

  5. ASSURANCE SECTION REPORT OF A COMPREHENSIVE

    E-print Network

    ASSURANCE SECTION REPORT OF A COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION VISIT TO University of Kansas Lawrence Association of Colleges and Schools #12;Assurance Section University of Kansas (1302) 2 EVALUATION TEAM at Urbana-Champaign, IL #12;Assurance Section University of Kansas (1302) Table of Contents I. Context

  6. Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

  7. Comprehensive Planning in State Education Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furse, Bernarr S., Ed.; Wright, Lyle O., Ed.

    This volume consists of papers by representatives from the six States comprising the Comprehensive Planning State Education Agencies Project (CPSEA). The first paper, by Bernarr S. Furse, outlines common elements appearing in one or more of the models developed by the project States. Everett W. Reimer then details the need for educational planning…

  8. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Juvenile Delinquency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Howard; And Others

    This paper discribes a comprehensive juvenile delinquency diversion program serving a poverty community in a large urban center, and attempts to evaluate the problems and effects of the program. The target population was primarily minority-group truants, aged 10-15, who had been in trouble with the authorities. The program included recreational…

  9. Developing Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Mazón, Nancy; Littleton, Karen; Vélez, Maricela

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the development and promotion of reading comprehension in primary school students, in the context of the implementation of an educational programme called "Learning Together" (LT). The programme, which centred on collaborative learning activities, was designed to promote oral and written communication in…

  10. On Linguistic Structure and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    Stella Center's belief in the basic importance of grammatical structure as a factor in reading comprehension substantiated the author's theory that the ability to comprehend syntactic structure is positively correlated with the ability to comprehend meaning. Original instruments devised to test this hypothesis included a test which utilized…

  11. Review of Comprehensive Sex Education Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This evaluation was undertaken by the Administration for Children and Families within the Department of Health and Human Services to inform federal policymakers of the content, medical accuracy, and effectiveness of comprehensive sex education (CSE) curricula currently in use. Nine curricula were chosen based on the frequency and strength of…

  12. Cues, quantification, and agreement in language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Darren; Bulkes, Nyssa Z

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors that affect the comprehension of subject-verb agreement in English, using quantification as a window into the relationship between morphosyntactic processes in language production and comprehension. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read sentences with grammatical and ungrammatical verbs, in which the plurality of the subject noun phrase was either doubly marked (via overt plural quantification and morphological marking on the noun) or singly marked (via only plural morphology on the noun). Both acceptability judgments and the ERP data showed heightened sensitivity to agreement violations when quantification provided an additional cue to the grammatical number of the subject noun phrase, over and above plural morphology. This is consistent with models of grammatical comprehension that emphasize feature prediction in tandem with cue-based memory retrieval. Our results additionally contrast with those of prior studies that showed no effects of plural quantification on agreement in language production. These findings therefore highlight some nontrivial divergences in the cues and mechanisms supporting morphosyntactic processing in language production and comprehension. PMID:25987192

  13. Improving Early Reading Comprehension Using Embodied CAI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.; Goldberg, Andrew B.; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    An embodied approach to reading comprehension suggests that emerging readers must learn to map words and phrases onto their remembered experiences, but this is made difficult by the necessity of focusing attention on decoding. Having children manipulate toys to correspond to what they are reading overcomes this problem, but introduces its own…

  14. Producing a Comprehensive Academic Advising Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jerry; Ford, Sheila Stoma

    A comprehensive academic advising handbook that is attractive, useful, versatile, and inexpensive is the cornerstone of a well-developed and implemented academic advising program. Seven steps have proven effective in handbook development: (1) making the commitment--appropriate campus administrators must commit the human and financial resources to…

  15. Contextualizing Laboratory Administered Aural Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W.; Whiteson, Valerie

    1975-01-01

    An experimental test consisting of dialogue with intermittent pauses for responses and a white noise accompaniment was given to non-English speakers who were candidates for admission to the English Department at Bar Ilan University in order to evaluate aural comprehension. Development of the test and results are reported. (RM)

  16. Fundamental Reform of Payment for Adult Primary Care: Comprehensive Payment for Comprehensive Care

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Robert A.; Schoenbaum, Stephen C.; Gardner, Laurence B.

    2007-01-01

    Primary care is essential to the effective and efficient functioning of health care delivery systems, yet there is an impending crisis in the field due in part to a dysfunctional payment system. We present a fundamentally new model of payment for primary care, replacing encounter-based imbursement with comprehensive payment for comprehensive care. Unlike former iterations of primary care capitation (which simply bundled inadequate fee-for-service payments), our comprehensive payment model represents new investment in adult primary care, with substantial increases in payment over current levels. The comprehensive payment is directed to practices to include support for the modern systems and teams essential to the delivery of comprehensive, coordinated care. Income to primary physicians is increased commensurate with the high level of responsibility expected. To ensure optimal allocation of resources and the rewarding of desired outcomes, the comprehensive payment is needs/risk-adjusted and performance-based. Our model establishes a new social contract with the primary care community, substantially increasing payment in return for achieving important societal health system goals, including improved accessibility, quality, safety, and efficiency. Attainment of these goals should help offset and justify the costs of the investment. Field tests of this and other new models of payment for primary care are urgently needed. PMID:17356977

  17. Rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.

    1995-09-01

    The article discusses recent actions by nuclear states following actions by 175 states to agree to make the obligations of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) permanent. China tested a weapon on May 15, and a month later France announced plans for a series of eight underground tests in the Pacific, prior to its intent to sign the comprehensive test ban treaty in 1996. Other action by nuclear powers includes apparent ongoing discussion of testing thresholds, which is casting the Conference on Disarmament in a grim mood. The general consensus of the article is that the nuclear powers are posturing themselves to take advantage of any and all loop holes in proposed treaties prior to formally acting on the treaties.

  18. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  19. The NJOY nuclear data processing system: Volume 1, User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Muir, D.W.; Boicourt, R.M.

    1982-05-01

    The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a comprehensive computer code package for producing cross sections for neutron and photon transport calculations from ENDF/B-IV and -V evaluated nuclear data. This user's manual provides a concise description of the code, input instructions, sample problems, and installation instructions. 22 refs.

  20. Digital Earth - Young generation's comprehension and ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrova, T.; Konecny, M.

    2014-02-01

    The authors are experienced in working with children and students in the field of early warning and crises management and cartography. All these topics are closely connected to Digital Earth (DE) ideas. On the basis of a questionnaire, the young generation's comprehension of DE concept is clarified. Students from different age groups (from 19 to 36) from different countries and with different social, cultural, economical and political backgrounds are asked to provide definition of DE and describe their basic ideas about meaning, methodology and applications of the concept. The questions aim to discover the young generation's comprehension of DE ideas. They partially cover the newest trends of DE development like social, cultural and environmental issues as well as the styles of new communications (Google Earth, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.). In order to assure the future development of the DE science, it is important to take into account the young generation's expectations. Some aspects of DE development are considered in the Conclusions.

  1. Simulating Motion in Figurative Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    In this visual world eye tracking study we explored simulation of fictive motion during language comprehension in figurative sentences in Hindi. Eye movement measures suggest that language comprehenders gaze longer at visual scenes on hearing fictive motion sentences compared to their literal counterparts. The results support previous findings in English and provide cross linguistic evidence for the simulation and embodied views of language processing. We discuss the findings in the light of neuroimaging models and language vision interaction. PMID:21379399

  2. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance, atmospheric effects, economic Mach number and noise trajectories at F.A.R. landing points.

  3. Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) convened a "Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer" workshop in Washington, D.C. This workshop brought together physicians, basic scientists and other members of the U.S. and international cancer communities to assist in outlining the most effective strategies for the development of a successful project. Information about this workshop is reported in the Executive Summary.

  4. Comprehensive wound malodor management: Win the RACE.

    PubMed

    Samala, Renato V; Davis, Mellar P

    2015-08-01

    Complex wounds that give off a foul odor are common in various patient care settings. Wound malodor has grave effects, both physical and psychological, and its management presents a serious challenge for caregivers. Multiple factors and processes involved in malodor production need to be considered in designing a comprehensive treatment plan described by the acronym RACE: removal of necrotic tissue, antibacterials, odor concealers, and education and support. Improving quality of life is the outcome of winning the RACE against malodor. PMID:26270433

  5. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford,C.; de Boer,G.; De Castro, K; Landers, Ph.D., J; Rogers, E

    2009-10-19

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." This paper will describe some of the key elements of a comprehensive, sustainable nuclear security culture enhancement program and how implementation can mitigate the insider threat.

  6. Nuclear physics aspects of double beta decay

    E-print Network

    Petr Vogel

    2008-07-15

    Comprehensive description of the phenomenology of the $\\beta\\beta$ decay is given, with emphasis on the nuclear physics aspects. After a brief review of the neutrino oscillation results and of motivation to test the lepton number conservation, the mechanism of the $0\

  7. Comprehensive Fuel Cycle - Community Perspective - 13093

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, Richard V.; Frazier, Timothy A.

    2013-07-01

    Should a five-county region surrounding the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site ('SRS') use its assets to help provide solutions to closing the nation's nuclear fuel cycle? That question has been the focus of a local ad hoc multi-disciplinary community task force (Tier I) that has been at work in recent months outlining issues and identifying unanswered questions to determine if assuming a leadership role in closing the nuclear fuel cycle is in the community's interest. If so, what are the terms and conditions under which we the community would agree to participate? Our starting point was the President's Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future ('Commission') which made a total of eight (8) recommendations in its final report. There are several recommendations that are directly relevant to the Tier I group and potential efforts of the Region. These are the 'consent-based approach', the creation of an independent nuclear waste management entity funded from the existing nuclear waste fee; the 'prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities', and 'continued U.S. innovation in nuclear energy technology and for workforce development'. (authors)

  8. 50 CFR 86.123 - Comprehensive National Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Completing the Comprehensive National Assessment § 86.123 Comprehensive National Assessment schedule....

  9. 50 CFR 86.123 - Comprehensive National Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Completing the Comprehensive National Assessment § 86.123 Comprehensive National Assessment schedule....

  10. 50 CFR 86.123 - Comprehensive National Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Completing the Comprehensive National Assessment § 86.123 Comprehensive National Assessment schedule....

  11. Information technologies for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    E-print Network

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    Review Information technologies for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography Stephen E December 2003 Available online 8 March 2004 Abstract Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC Â-dimensional gas chromatography; GCÂGC; Information technology; Image processing; Visualization; Computer

  12. 76 FR 61103 - Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care... announces a solicitation for health care payer organizations to participate in the Comprehensive Primary Care initiative (CPC), a multipayer model designed to improve primary care. DATES: Letter of...

  13. NJOY nuclear data processing system. Volume IV. The ERRORR and COVR modules

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.W.; MacFarlane, R.E.

    1985-12-01

    The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a comprehensive computer code package for producing cross sections and related nuclear parameters from ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data. This volume provides detailed descriptions of the NJOY modules ERRORR and COVR, which are concerned with the covariances (uncertainties and correlations) of multigroup cross sections and fission neutron yield (anti nu) values. 17 refs.

  14. Early Prediction of Reading Comprehension within the Simple View Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Herrera, Sarah; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading proposes that reading comprehension is the product of word reading and language comprehension. In this study, we used the simple view framework to examine the early prediction of reading comprehension abilities. Using multiple measures for all constructs, we assessed word reading precursors (i.e., letter knowledge,…

  15. Reading Comprehension: What Every Teacher Needs to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes ten principles through which she examines the essentials of teaching reading comprehension. Topics explored include the nature of reading comprehension and the roles of good readers and influential teachers. Related issues include motivation, comprehension strategies, explicit instruction, and vocabulary.…

  16. Promoting Different Reading Comprehension Levels through Online Annotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Sheng-Shiang; Yeh, Hui-Chin; Yang, Shih-hsien

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated reading comprehension as the general understanding of reading texts. However, this broad and generic assessment of reading comprehension overlooks the specific aspects and processes that students need to develop. This study adopted Kintsch's Construction-Integration model to tap into reading comprehension at…

  17. Margaret Miles: The Educational Journey of a Comprehensive School Campaigner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, Lottie

    2012-01-01

    As a former comprehensive school pupil herself, the author wanted to know more about the women who had pioneered comprehensive schools in England. Therefore, she chose the headmistress and comprehensive school campaigner Dame Margaret Miles (1911-1994) as the subject of a dissertation for her History of Education MA at the Institute of Education,…

  18. Word Knowledge in a Theory of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles; Stafura, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    We reintroduce a wide-angle view of reading comprehension, the Reading Systems Framework, which places word knowledge in the center of the picture, taking into account the progress made in comprehension research and theory. Within this framework, word-to-text integration processes can serve as a model for the study of local comprehension

  19. Guided Comprehension in Action: Lessons for Grades 3-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Maureen; Allen, Mary Beth

    This book contains a collection of lessons that will help teachers expand their strategies for teaching reading comprehension with the Guided Comprehension Model. According to the book, the Guided Comprehension Model is a step-by-step teaching framework that encourages students to become active, strategic readers by providing direct and guided…

  20. 34 CFR 303.115 - Comprehensive child find system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Comprehensive child find system. 303.115 Section 303.115... Components of A Statewide System § 303.115 Comprehensive child find system. Each system must include a comprehensive child find system that meets the requirements in §§ 303.302 and 303.303. (Approved by Office...

  1. 34 CFR 303.115 - Comprehensive child find system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Comprehensive child find system. 303.115 Section 303... Components of A Statewide System § 303.115 Comprehensive child find system. Each system must include a comprehensive child find system that meets the requirements in §§ 303.302 and 303.303. (Approved by Office...

  2. 34 CFR 303.115 - Comprehensive child find system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Comprehensive child find system. 303.115 Section 303... Components of A Statewide System § 303.115 Comprehensive child find system. Each system must include a comprehensive child find system that meets the requirements in §§ 303.302 and 303.303. (Approved by Office...

  3. 48 CFR 1602.170-3 - Comprehensive medical plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comprehensive medical plan. 1602.170-3 Section 1602.170-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-3 Comprehensive medical plan. Comprehensive Medical Plan means a plan...

  4. 48 CFR 1602.170-3 - Comprehensive medical plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comprehensive medical plan. 1602.170-3 Section 1602.170-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-3 Comprehensive medical plan. Comprehensive Medical Plan means a plan...

  5. 48 CFR 1602.170-3 - Comprehensive medical plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Comprehensive medical plan. 1602.170-3 Section 1602.170-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-3 Comprehensive medical plan. Comprehensive Medical Plan means a plan...

  6. 48 CFR 1602.170-3 - Comprehensive medical plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comprehensive medical plan. 1602.170-3 Section 1602.170-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-3 Comprehensive medical plan. Comprehensive Medical Plan means a plan...

  7. Second Language Sentence Processing in Reading for Comprehension and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    A self-paced reading and translation task was used with learners of English as a second language (L2) to explore what sorts of information L2 learners use during online comprehension compared to native speakers, and how task (reading for comprehension vs. translation) and proficiency affect L2 comprehension. Thirty-six Korean native speakers of…

  8. Monitoring Reading Comprehension by Thinking Aloud. Instructional Resource No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; And Others

    A think-aloud instructional program was developed to help students acquire the ability to monitor their reading comprehension and to employ various strategies to deal with comprehension breakdowns. Several research studies indicate that comprehension monitoring abilities discriminate successful readers from less successful ones and that…

  9. A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, Walter; Giguere, P T; Bradley, P; Guzik, J A; Plesko, C; Wohletz, K; Johnson, L N; Boice, D C; Chocron, S; Ghosh, A; Goldstein, R; Mukerherjee, J; Patrick, W; Walker, J D

    2008-01-01

    At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

  10. Fast, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Dwight R.; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoli; Carr, Peter W.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rutan, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute need to improve the separating power of liquid chromatography, especially for multi-constituent biological samples, is becoming increasingly evident. In response, over the past few years, there has been a great deal of interest in the development of two dimension liquid chromatography (2DLC). Just as 1DLC is preferred to 1DGC based on its compatibility with biological materials we believe that ultimately 2DLC will be preferred to the much more highly developed 2DGC for such samples. The huge advantage of 2D chromatographic techniques over 1D methods is inherent in the tremendous potential increase in peak capacity (resolving power). This is especially true of comprehensive 2D chromatography wherein it is possible, under ideal conditions, to obtain a total peak capacity equal to the product of the peak capacities of the first and second dimension separations. However, the very long timescale (typically several hours to tens of hours) of comprehensive 2DLC is clearly its chief drawback. Recent advances in the use of higher temperatures to speed up isocratic and gradient elution liquid chromatography have been used to decrease the time needed to do the second dimension LC separation of 2DLC to about 20 seconds for a full gradient elution run. Thus fast, high temperature LC is becoming a very promising technique. Peak capacities of over 2000 and rates of peak capacity production of nearly 1 peak/s have been achieved. In consequence, many real samples showing more than 200 peaks with signal to noise ratios of better than 10:1 have been run in total times of under 30 minutes. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive review of 2DLC, but is deliberately focused on the issues involved in doing fast 2DLC by means of elevating the column temperature; however, many issues of broader applicability will be discussed. PMID:17888443

  11. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePLUS

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  12. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  13. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  14. A Comprehensive Validation Methodology for Sparse Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive program of verification and validation has been undertaken to assess the applicability of models to space radiation shielding applications and to track progress as models are developed over time. The models are placed under configuration control, and automated validation tests are used so that comparisons can readily be made as models are improved. Though direct comparisons between theoretical results and experimental data are desired for validation purposes, such comparisons are not always possible due to lack of data. In this work, two uncertainty metrics are introduced that are suitable for validating theoretical models against sparse experimental databases. The nuclear physics models, NUCFRG2 and QMSFRG, are compared to an experimental database consisting of over 3600 experimental cross sections to demonstrate the applicability of the metrics. A cumulative uncertainty metric is applied to the question of overall model accuracy, while a metric based on the median uncertainty is used to analyze the models from the perspective of model development by analyzing subsets of the model parameter space.

  15. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  16. Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) Program Plan [FY2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    In August 1995, the United States took a significant step to reduce the nuclear danger. The decision to pursue a zero- yield Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty will allow greater control over the proliferation of nuclear weapons and will halt the growth of new nuclear systems. This step is only possible because of the Stockpile Stewardship Program, which provides an alternative means of ensuring the safety, performance, and reliability of the United States' enduring stockpile. At the heart of the Stockpile Stewardship Program is ASCI, which will create the high-confidence simulation capabilities needed to integrate fundamental science, experiments, and archival data into the stewardship of the actual weapons in the stockpile. ASCI will also serve to drive the development of simulation as a national resource by working closely with the computer industry and with universities.

  17. Mine locations: Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Bradley A

    2008-01-01

    Upon accepting this internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory, I was excited but a bit nervous because I was placed into a field I knew nothing about and did not incorporate my mechanical engineering background. However, I stayed positive and realized that experience and education can come in many forms and that this would be a once in a lifetime opportunity. The EES-II Division (which stands for Earth and Environmental Sciences, Geophysics division) concentrates on several topics, including Nuclear Treaty Verification Seismology. The study of this is extremely important in order to monitor countries that have nuclear capability and make sure they follow the rules of the international comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. Seismology is only one aspect of this monitoring and EES-II works diligently with many other groups here at Los Alamos and across the world.

  18. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  19. 76 FR 13143 - Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Grant Program; Office of Elementary and Secondary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...Readers Comprehensive Literacy Grant Program...Education; Overview Information; Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Grant Program...comprehensive.literacy@ed.gov. If...VIII. Other Information Accessible...

  20. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  1. Comprehensive system models: Strategies for evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, Christopher; Kutzbach, John E.; Ramanathan, V.; Maccracken, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models is vast involving validations of every model component at every scale of organization, as well as tests of all the individual linkages. Even the most detailed evaluation of each of the component processes and the individual links among them should not, however, engender confidence in the performance of the whole. The integrated earth system is so rich with complex feedback loops, often involving components of the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, and cryosphere, that it is certain to exhibit emergent properties very difficult to predict from the perspective of a narrow focus on any individual component of the system. Therefore, a substantial share of the task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models must reside at the level of whole system evaluations. Since complete, integrated atmosphere/ ocean/ biosphere/ hydrology models are not yet operational, questions of evaluation must be addressed at the level of the kinds of earth system processes that the models should be competent to simulate, rather than at the level of specific performance criteria. Here, we have tried to identify examples of earth system processes that are difficult to simulate with existing models and that involve a rich enough suite of feedbacks that they are unlikely to be satisfactorily described by highly simplified or toy models. Our purpose is not to specify a checklist of evaluation criteria but to introduce characteristics of the earth system that may present useful opportunities for model testing and, of course, improvement.

  2. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

  3. Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Jose, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

  4. Comprehensive Health Education Standards (Including Physical Activity Standards). Comprehensive Health Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    Arizona's comprehensive health education standards begins with a health rationale for each standard, then details the seven standards: (1) students comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention; (2) students demonstrate the ability to access accurate health information; (3) students demonstrate the ability to practice…

  5. Comprehensive Service Fee The Comprehensive Service Fee provides registered students access to Health, Technology and

    E-print Network

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    , and personal concerns Provides sexual health consultations, programs and services Presents at Summer Planning to Health, Technology and Transportation services that promote the highest quality learning environment and academic life. Health Component Background The Health component of the Comprehensive Service Fee

  6. Improving Reading Comprehension for High School Students with Disabilities: Effects for Comprehension and School Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Vaughn, Michael G.; Wexler, Jade

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine the results for students with disabilities from a 2-year randomized controlled trial with students identified in ninth grade and followed through 10th grade in their allotted condition group. Prior to ninth grade, students with disabilities who met criteria for low reading comprehension (i.e., through failure on the state…

  7. Overlapping genetic and child-specific nonshared environmental influences on listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Victoria J; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. PMID:26321677

  8. A comprehensive evaluation of cattle introgression into US federal bison herds.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Natalie D; Derr, James N

    2007-01-01

    Genetic introgression, especially from interspecies hybridization, is a significant threat to species conservation worldwide. In this study, 11 US federal bison populations were comprehensively examined for evidence of both mitochondrial and nuclear domestic cattle (Bos taurus) introgression. Mitochondrial introgression was examined using established polymerase chain reaction methods and confirmed through analysis of D-loop sequences. Nuclear introgression was assessed in 14 chromosomal regions through examination of microsatellite electromorph and sequence differences between bison and domestic cattle. Only one population was identified with domestic cattle mitochondrial DNA introgression. In contrast, evidence of nuclear introgression was found in 7 (63.6%) of the examined populations. Historic accounts of bison transfers among populations were corroborated with evidence of introgressed DNA transmission. While neither nuclear nor mitochondrial domestic cattle introgression was detected in bison from Grand Teton National Park, Sully's Hill National Game Preserve, Wind Cave National Park, or Yellowstone National Park, adequate sample sizes were available only from the last 2 populations to allow for statistical confidence (>90%) in nuclear introgression detection limits. The identification of genetically unique and undisturbed populations is critical to species conservation efforts, and this study serves as a model for the genetic evaluation of interspecies introgression. PMID:17172633

  9. Comprehensive silicon solar cell computer modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamorte, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an efficient, comprehensive Si solar cell modeling program that has the capability of simulation accuracy of 5 percent or less is examined. A general investigation of computerized simulation is provided. Computer simulation programs are subdivided into a number of major tasks: (1) analytical method used to represent the physical system; (2) phenomena submodels that comprise the simulation of the system; (3) coding of the analysis and the phenomena submodels; (4) coding scheme that results in efficient use of the CPU so that CPU costs are low; and (5) modularized simulation program with respect to structures that may be analyzed, addition and/or modification of phenomena submodels as new experimental data become available, and the addition of other photovoltaic materials.

  10. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: a comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Ali; Hajj-Ali, Rula A

    2014-09-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by recurrent thunderclap headache, with or without neurologic symptoms, and reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries. RCVS affects patients in various racial and ethnic groups and in all age groups, although most commonly in the fourth decade of life. Many conditions and exposures have been linked to RCVS, including vasoactive drugs and the peripartum period. Disturbance of the cerebral vascular tone is thought to contribute to the disease's pathophysiology. RCVS generally follows a monophasic course. Associated strokes and cerebral hemorrhages are not uncommon. In this review we will attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of RCVS, with emphasis on the controversies in the field and the newest findings in the reported literature. PMID:25138149

  11. A Comprehensive Review of Swarm Optimization Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many swarm optimization algorithms have been introduced since the early 60’s, Evolutionary Programming to the most recent, Grey Wolf Optimization. All of these algorithms have demonstrated their potential to solve many optimization problems. This paper provides an in-depth survey of well-known optimization algorithms. Selected algorithms are briefly explained and compared with each other comprehensively through experiments conducted using thirty well-known benchmark functions. Their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. A number of statistical tests are then carried out to determine the significant performances. The results indicate the overall advantage of Differential Evolution (DE) and is closely followed by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), compared with other considered approaches. PMID:25992655

  12. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis on Privacy Leak Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

  13. Testing a comprehensive acid deposition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatram, A.; Karamchandani, P. K.; Misra, P. K.

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a comprehensive acid deposition model referred to as ADOM (Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model). The first part of the paper describes the general approach to the formulation of the model. The second part presents the evaluation of the model against observations collected during the OSCAR (April 1981) field study. Although the model performs well in explaining the magnitudes and variations of the observations, the discrepancies between model predictions and observations are not small. Because of the uncertainties in the data used to run and evaluate the model, these discrepancies do not necessarily suggest the need for modifications in the model. Therefore, we have supplemented the direct comparison of model predictions with observations with indirect methods that establish the correspondence between the model and reality. This paper describes one such technique that relies on the washout ratio, which is sometimes used to characterize scavenging of pollutants.

  14. Swabs to genomes: a comprehensive workflow

    PubMed Central

    Jospin, Guillaume; Darling, Aaron E.; Coil, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The sequencing, assembly, and basic analysis of microbial genomes, once a painstaking and expensive undertaking, has become much easier for research labs with access to standard molecular biology and computational tools. However, there are a confusing variety of options available for DNA library preparation and sequencing, and inexperience with bioinformatics can pose a significant barrier to entry for many who may be interested in microbial genomics. The objective of the present study was to design, test, troubleshoot, and publish a simple, comprehensive workflow from the collection of an environmental sample (a swab) to a published microbial genome; empowering even a lab or classroom with limited resources and bioinformatics experience to perform it. PMID:26020012

  15. Music therapy in a comprehensive cancer center.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael M; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana E; Frenkel, Moshe A

    2008-01-01

    The use of music as a therapeutic tool in health and medicine dates back to ancient times. In modern Western medicine, music therapy has been available since the 1950s and is now often incorporated into conventional medicine care. Music therapy is a common modality that is used in hospital settings as part of complementary and integrative medicine programs. It is also a key therapeutic tool used within most integrative medicine programs at large cancer centers in the United States. When used in conjunction with conventional cancer treatments, music therapy has been found to help patients promote a better quality of life; better communicate their fear, sadness, or other feelings; and better manage stress, while alleviating physical pain and discomfort. In this article, we review the literature on the value of integrating music therapy in cancer care and describe the experience of music therapy at a large comprehensive cancer center and the benefits that patients with cancer obtain from this service. PMID:18544287

  16. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fleeter, Sanford

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  17. Exhaled breath condensate: a comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzai, Hasib; Huang, Shuying; Hettiarachchi, Ravin; Lin, Jiun-Lih; Thomas, Paul S; Zhang, Qi

    2013-07-01

    Since the late 1990s, a surge in interest in the analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) resulted in the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) organising a Task Force in 2001 to develop guidelines on EBC collection and measurement of biomarkers. This Task Force published their guidelines in 2005 based on literature and expert opinions at that time, and multiple shortcomings and knowledge deficits were also identified. The clinical application of EBC collection and its biomarkers are currently still limited by several of these knowledge gaps, hence further guidelines for standardisation are required to ensure external validity. Using related articles produced since the publication of the ATS/ERS Task Force report, this paper attempts to provide a comprehensive update to the original guideline and review the methodological shortcomings identified. This review can hopefully serve as a yardstick for future studies involving this emerging clinical tool. PMID:23420285

  18. Army Reserve Comprehensive Water Efficiency Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Kearney, Jaime

    2015-04-14

    The Army Reserve has partnered with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop comprehensive water assessments for numerous Army Reserve Centers in all five regions including the Pacific islands and Puerto Rico, and at Fort Buchanan and Fort Hunter Liggett. The objective of these assessments is to quantify water use at the site, and identify innovative water efficiency projects that can be implemented to help reduce water demand and increase efficiency. Several of these assessments have focused on a strategic plan for achieving net zero water to help meet the Army’s Net Zero Directive . The Army Reserve has also leveraged this approach as part of the energy conservation investment program (ECIP), energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs), and utility energy service contracts (UESCs). This article documents the process involved.

  19. Early comprehension of the Spanish plural*

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Cantrell, Lisa M.; Smith, Linda B.; Alva Canto, Elda A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how linguistic cues map to the environment is crucial for early language comprehension and may provide a way for bootstrapping and learning words. Research has suggested that learning how plural syntax maps to the perceptual environment may show a trajectory in which children first learn surrounding cues (verbs, modifiers) before a full mastery of the noun morpheme alone. The Spanish plural system of simple codas, dominated by one allomorph -s, and with redundant agreement markers, may facilitate early understanding of how plural linguistic cues map to novel referents. Two-year-old Mexican children correctly identified multiple novel object referents when multiple verbal cues in a phrase indicated plurality as well as in instances when the noun morphology in novel nouns was the ONLY indicator of plurality. These results demonstrate Spanish-speaking children’s ability to use plural noun inflectional morphology to infer novel word referents which may have implications for their word learning. PMID:24560441

  20. A comprehensive plan for helicopter drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Montana, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Current helicopters have parasite drag levels 6 to 10 times as great as fixed wing aircraft. The commensurate poor cruise efficiency results in a substantial degradation of potential mission capability. The paper traces the origins of helicopter drag and shows that the problem (primarily due to bluff body flow separation) can be solved by the adoption of a comprehensive research and development plan. This plan, known as the Fuselage Design Methodology, comprises both nonaerodynamic and aerodynamic aspects. The aerodynamics are discussed in detail and experimental and analytical programs are described which will lead to a solution of the bluff body problem. Some recent results of work conducted at the Naval Ship Research and Development Center (NSRDC) are presented to illustrate these programs. It is concluded that a 75-per cent reduction of helicopter drag is possible by the full implementation of the Fuselage Design Methodology.

  1. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  2. Visual Attention during Spatial Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Burigo, Michele; Knoeferle, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Spatial terms such as “above”, “in front of”, and “on the left of” are all essential for describing the location of one object relative to another object in everyday communication. Apprehending such spatial relations involves relating linguistic to object representations by means of attention. This requires at least one attentional shift, and models such as the Attentional Vector Sum (AVS) predict the direction of that attention shift, from the sausage to the box for spatial utterances such as “The box is above the sausage”. To the extent that this prediction generalizes to overt gaze shifts, a listener’s visual attention should shift from the sausage to the box. However, listeners tend to rapidly look at referents in their order of mention and even anticipate them based on linguistic cues, a behavior that predicts a converse attentional shift from the box to the sausage. Four eye-tracking experiments assessed the role of overt attention in spatial language comprehension by examining to which extent visual attention is guided by words in the utterance and to which extent it also shifts “against the grain” of the unfolding sentence. The outcome suggests that comprehenders’ visual attention is predominantly guided by their interpretation of the spatial description. Visual shifts against the grain occurred only when comprehenders had some extra time, and their absence did not affect comprehension accuracy. However, the timing of this reverse gaze shift on a trial correlated with that trial’s verification time. Thus, while the timing of these gaze shifts is subtly related to the verification time, their presence is not necessary for successful verification of spatial relations. PMID:25607540

  3. Validation of comprehensive space radiation transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.L.; Simonsen, L.C.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1998-12-01

    The HZETRN code has been developed over the past decade to evaluate the local radiation fields within sensitive materials on spacecraft in the space environment. Most of the more important nuclear and atomic processes are now modeled and evaluation within a complex spacecraft geometry with differing material components, including transition effects across boundaries of dissimilar materials, are included. The atomic/nuclear database and transport procedures have received limited validation in laboratory testing with high energy ion beams. The codes have been applied in design of the SAGE-III instrument resulting in material changes to control injurious neutron production, in the study of the Space Shuttle single event upsets, and in validation with space measurements (particle telescopes, tissue equivalent proportional counters, CR-39) on Shuttle and Mir. The present paper reviews the code development and presents recent results in laboratory and space flight validation.

  4. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  5. Nuclear Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Erich

    2010-07-27

    We show that extreme nuclear halos are caused only by pairs of s-wave neutrons (or single s-wave neutrons) and that such states occur much more frequently in the periodic table than previously believed. Besides lingering long near zero neutron separation energy such extreme halos have very remarkable properties: they can contribute significantly to the nuclear density at more than twice the normal nuclear radius and their spreading width can be very narrow. The properties of these states are primarily determined by the ''thickness'' of the nuclear surface in the mean-free nuclear potential and thus their importance increases greatly as we approach the neutron drip line. We discuss what such extreme halos are, where they occur, what their properties are and some of their impact on nuclear observations.

  6. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  7. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  8. Nuclear APC

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    Mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli) is thought to be an initiating step in the progression of the vast majority of colorectal cancers. Attempts to understand APC function have revealed more than a dozen binding partners as well as several subcellular localizations including at cell-cell junctions, associated with microtubules at the leading edge of migrating cells, at the apical membrane, in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. The present chapter focuses on APC localization and functions in the nucleus. APC contains two classical nuclear localization signals, with a third domain that can enhance nuclear import. Along with two sets of nuclear export signals, the nuclear localization signals enable the large APC protein to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Nuclear APC can oppose ?-catenin-mediated transcription. This down-regulation of nuclear ?-catenin activity by APC most likely involves nuclear sequestration of ?-catenin from the transcription complex as well as interaction of APC with transcription corepressor CtBP. Additional nuclear binding partners for APC include transcription factor activator protein AP-2?, nuclear export factor Crm1, protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-BL and perhaps DNA itself. Interaction of APC with polymerase ? and PCNA, suggests a role for APC in DNA repair. The observation that increases in the cytoplasmic distribution of APC correlate with colon cancer progression suggests that disruption of these nuclear functions of APC plays an important role in cancer progression. APC prevalence in the cytoplasm of quiescent cells points to a potential function for nuclear APC in control of cell proliferation. Clear definition of APC's nuclear function(s) will expand the possibilities for early colorectal cancer diagnostics and therapeutics targeted to APC. PMID:19928349

  9. Recovery of single word comprehension: CT-scan correlates.

    PubMed

    Selnes, O A; Niccum, N; Knopman, D S; Rubens, A B

    1984-01-01

    9tory comprehension for single words, as measured by the BDAE Word Discrimination subtest, was studied longitudinally in a group of 37 aphasic patients. The majority of the patients had impaired performance at 1 month postonset, but recovery by Month 6 postonset was quite striking. Damage to Wernicke's area did not preclude recovery of single word comprehension to within the normal range. Only patients with very extensive left hemisphere lesions had incomplete recovery of single word comprehension. PMID:6199078

  10. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 32.22 Section 32.22 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.22 Comprehensive...

  11. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 32.22 Section 32.22 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.22 Comprehensive...

  12. 32 CFR 516.64 - Comprehensive remedies plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption § 516.64 Comprehensive... investigation involving fraud or corruption that relates to Army procurement activities. When possible,...

  13. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage. (MOW)

  14. Innovative Process for Comprehensive Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12551

    SciTech Connect

    Penzin, R.A.; Sarychev, G.A.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research activities aimed at creation of a principally new LRW distilling treatment method. The new process is based on the instantaneous evaporation method widely used in distillation units. The main difference of the proposed process is that the vapor condensation is conducted without using heat exchangers in practically ideal mode by way of direct contacting in a vapor-liquid system. This process is conducted in a specially designed ejector unit in supersonic mode. Further recuperation of excess heat of vaporization is carried out in a standard heat exchanger. Such an arrangement of the process, together with use of the barometric height principle, allows to carry out LRW evaporation under low temperatures, which enables to use excess heat from NPS for heating initial LRW. Thermal calculations and model experiments have revealed that, in this case, the expenditure of energy for LRW treatment by distilling will not exceed 3 kilowatt-hour/m{sup 3}, which is comparable with the reverse-osmosis desalination method. Besides, the proposed devices are 4 to 5 times less metal-intensive than standard evaporation units. These devices are also characterized by versatility. Experiments have revealed that the new method can be used for evaporation of practically any types of LRW, including those containing a considerable amount of oil products. Owing to arrangement of the evaporation process at low temperatures, the new devices are not sensitive to 'scale formation'. This is why, they can be used for concentrating brines of up to 500-600 g/l. New types of such evaporating devices can be required both for LRW treatment processes at nuclear-power plants under design and for treating 'non-standard' LRW with complex physicochemical and radionuclide composition resulting from the disaster at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant.) As a result of accidents at nuclear energy objects, as it has recently happened at NPP 'Fukushima-1', personnel faces the necessity to take emergency measures and to use marine water for cooling of reactor zone in contravention of the technological regulations. In these cases significant amount of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition is being generated, the purification of which by traditional methods is close to impossible. According to the practice of elimination of the accident after-effects at NPP 'Fukushima' there are still no technical means for the efficient purification of liquid radioactive wastes of complex composition like marine water from radionuclides. Therefore development of state-of-the-art highly efficient facilities capable of fast and safe purification of big amounts of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition from radionuclides turns to be utterly topical problem. Cesium radionuclides, being extremely dangerous for the environment, present over 90% of total radioactivity contained in liquid radioactive wastes left as a result of accidents at nuclear power objects. For the purpose of radiation accidents aftereffects liquidation VNIIHT proposes to create a plant for LRW reprocessing, consisting of 4 major technological modules: Module of LRW pretreatment to remove mechanical and organic impurities including oil products; Module of sorption purification of LWR by means of selective inorganic sorbents; Module of reverse osmotic purification and desalination; Module of deep evaporation of LRW concentrates. The first free modules are based on completed technological and designing concepts implemented by VNIIHT in the framework of LLRW Project in the period of 2000-2001 in Russia for comprehensive treatment of LWR of atomic fleet. These industrial plants proved to be highly efficient and secure during their long operation life. Module of deep evaporation is a new technological development. It will ensure conduction of evaporation and purification of LRW of different physicochemical composition, including those containing hardness salts, resulted in generation of LRW concentrate 300-600 g/l. The method is based o

  15. Comprehensive soil surface characterisation by RADAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel; Gronz, Oliver; Beiske, Joshua

    2015-04-01

    The characteristics of the soil's surface have been revealed to be extremely relevant for soil surface processes. Texture, aggregates and roughness are interdependent across scales and have a strong influence on infiltration, runoff generation, water flow velocity as well as on particle detachment and transport. They also have shown to be relevant for splash detachment and initialisation of concentrated flow. But these soil surface characteristics are also highly variable during erosive events, and thus, their impact on the processes mentioned above may change. Therefore it is necessary to develop methods for a comprehensive and quantitative characterisation of the soils' surface across scales. Here, we present a first approach using a frequency modulated polarimetric radar to characterise different surfaces (from flat to rough in a scale of cm to dm size of the roughness elements) and of different materials (steel plates as strong reflector, sand [0.5-1 mm], fine [2-4 mm] and coarse [15-30 mm] rock fragments. The radar is a prototype built by IMST GmbH (Kamp-Lintfort, Germany), emitting on the 24 GHz band, allowing for a frequency modulation between 500 and 2500 MHz with variable ramp times. The emission is on a circular clockwise polarisation, whilst it is able to receive both, clockwise and counter-clockwise polarisations. We tested also the dependency of the reflected signals on imaging position and angle, as well as on the different emission parameters, such as amplitude modulation and ramp time. The results show that the angle of acquisition influences clearly the received signal intensity (in both polarisation directions). This implies the need to develop topographical corrections for further applications. In addition we could observe a significant influence of the device position on the results, which implies, on one hand, a high sensitivity relating to the soil's surface, but on the other hand it leads to a high level of uncertainty. The reflection characteristics of the different targets, as expressed by the median and the standard deviation of the intensity of both received polarisations, allow the differentiation of different roughness levels. In addition, the radar signals allow also the differentiation of the different mineral substrates. Thus, the radar system shows a capability to characterise soil surface characteristics at different scale levels between mm and dm size of the elements. But until now, the signal composition and their evaluation did not make it possible to develop a clear index for the different surface properties. This makes the development of further evaluation routines mandatory, but also the development of comprehensive indexes for characterising soil surface roughness.

  16. Applied antineutrino physics workshop.

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, James C.

    2008-01-01

    This workshop is the fourth one of a series that includes the Neutrino Geophysics Conference at Honolulu, Hawaii, which I attended in 2005. This workshop was organized by the Astro-Particle and Cosmology laboratory in the recently opened Condoret building of the University of Paris. More information, including copies of the presentations, on the workshop is available on the website: www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/AAP2007/. The workshop aims at opening neutrino physics to various fields such that it can be applied in geosciences, nuclear industry (reactor and spent fuel monitoring) and non-proliferation. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from Europe, USA, Asia and Brazil. The meeting was also attended by representatives of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The workshop also included a workshop dinner on board of a river boat sailing the Seine river.

  17. New Automatic NDC Software development And the use Wind Noise Reducing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejri, Chourouk

    2015-04-01

    Tunisian Infrasound Station (IS48) deployed at Kesra-Tunisia by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty to monitor any Nuclear incident with the other IMS stations. Upgrading works are currently ongoing at NDC-TN, aiming to enhance the station performance in terms of automatic signal detection and characterization in the routine processing using PMCC algorithm. The work aims two topics : First :The stages that can be identified in Tunisian NDC data processing, automated processing at the level of the global network and interactive review by analysts which leads us to develop our own Automatic Detection Software. Second :The monitoring station performance by interpretation of the Wind Noise Reducing System which carried us to solve many problems encountered.

  18. Direct and mediated effects of language and cognitive skills on comprehension of oral narrative texts (listening comprehension) for children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2016-01-01

    We investigated component language and cognitive skills of oral language comprehension of narrative texts (i.e., listening comprehension). Using the construction-integration model of text comprehension as an overarching theoretical framework, we examined direct and mediated relations of foundational cognitive skills (working memory and attention), foundational language skills (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge), and higher-order cognitive skills (inference, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring) to listening comprehension. A total of 201 first grade children in South Korea participated in the study. Structural equation modeling results showed that listening comprehension is directly predicted by working memory, grammatical knowledge, inference, and theory of mind and is indirectly predicted by attention, vocabulary, and comprehension monitoring. The total effects were .46 for working memory, .07 for attention, .30 for vocabulary, .49 for grammatical knowledge, .31 for inference, .52 for theory of mind, and .18 for comprehension monitoring. These results suggest that multiple language and cognitive skills make contributions to listening comprehension, and their contributions are both direct and indirect. PMID:26342474

  19. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  20. Tracking Passive Sentence Comprehension in Agrammatic Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Aaron M; Mack, Jennifer E; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2012-01-01

    People with agrammatic aphasia often experience greater difficulty comprehending passive compared to active sentences. The Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH; Grodzinsky, 2000) proposes that aphasic individuals cannot generate accurate syntactic representations of passive sentences and, hence, use an agent-first processing strategy which leads to at-chance performance. We tested this claim using the eyetracking-while-listening paradigm in order to reveal online processing routines. Ten agrammatic aphasic participants and 10 age-matched controls listened to passive and active sentences and performed a sentence-picture matching task (i.e., selecting between two pictures with reversed thematic roles), while their eye movements were monitored. Control participants' performance was at ceiling, whereas accuracy for the aphasic participants was above chance for active sentences and at chance for passive sentences. Further, for the control participants, the eye movement data showed an initial agent-first processing bias, followed by fixation on the correct picture in the vicinity of the verb in both active and passive sentences. However, the aphasic participants showed no evidence of agent-first processing, counter the predictions of the TDH. In addition, in active sentences, they reliably fixated the correct picture only at sentence offset, reflecting slowed processing. During passive sentence processing, fixations were at chance throughout the sentence, but different patterns were noted for correct and incorrect trials. These results are consistent with the proposal that agrammatic sentence comprehension failure involves lexical processing and/or lexical integration deficits. PMID:22043134

  1. Skull Base Inverted Papilloma: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Wassef, Shafik N.; Batra, Pete S.; Barnett, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Skull base inverted papilloma (IP) is an unusual entity for many neurosurgeons. IP is renowned for its high rate of recurrence, its ability to cause local destruction, and its association with malignancy. This paper is a comprehensive review of the reports, studies, and reviews published in the current biomedical literature from 1947 to September 2010 and synthesize this information to focus on its potential invasion to the base of the skull and possible intradural extension. The objective is to familiarize the clinician with the different aspects of this unusual disease. The role of modern diagnostic tools in medical imaging in order to assess clearly the limits of the tumors and to enhance the efficiency and the safety in the choice of a surgical approach is pointed out. The treatment guidelines for IP have undergone a complex evolution that continues today. Radical excision of the tumour is technically difficult and often incomplete. Successful management of IP requires resection of the affected mucosa which could be achieved with open surgery, endoscopic, or combined approach. Radio and chemotherapy were used for certain indications. More optimally research would be a multicenter randomized trials with large size cohorts. PMID:23346418

  2. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    PubMed

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source. PMID:15923465

  3. Optimization Issues with Complex Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Young, Katherine C.; Tarzanin, Frank J.; Hirsh, Joel E.; Young, Darrell K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the general purpose automatic differentiation (AD) tool called Automatic Differentiation of FORTRAN (ADIFOR) as a means of generating sensitivity derivatives for use in Boeing Helicopter's proprietary comprehensive rotor analysis code (VII). ADIFOR transforms an existing computer program into a new program that performs a sensitivity analysis in addition to the original analysis. In this study both the pros (exact derivatives, no step-size problems) and cons (more CPU, more memory) of ADIFOR are discussed. The size (based on the number of lines) of the VII code after ADIFOR processing increased by 70 percent and resulted in substantial computer memory requirements at execution. The ADIFOR derivatives took about 75 percent longer to compute than the finite-difference derivatives. However, the ADIFOR derivatives are exact and are not functions of step-size. The VII sensitivity derivatives generated by ADIFOR are compared with finite-difference derivatives. The ADIFOR and finite-difference derivatives are used in three optimization schemes to solve a low vibration rotor design problem.

  4. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Adam J.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Miller, Michael; Bernard, Brady; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Curtis, Christina; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Weinhold, Nils; Kelsen, David P.; Bowlby, Reanne; Chu, Andy; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Cherniack, Andrew; Getz, Gad; Liu, Yingchun; Noble, Michael S.; Pedamallu, Chandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Akbani, Rehan; Lee, Ju-Seog; Liu, Wenbin; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Da; Zhang, Wei; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Gulley, Margaret; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Schneider, Barbara G.; Kim, Jihun; Boussioutas, Alex; Sheth, Margi; Demchok, John A.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Willis, Joseph E.; Ng, Sam; Garman, Katherine; Beer, David G.; Pennathur, Arjun; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Odze, Robert; Kim, Hark K.; Bowen, Jay; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Weaver, Stephanie; McLellan, Michael; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sakai, Ryo; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lichtenstein, Lee; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Ding, Li; Niu, Beifang; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chu, Andy; Chu, Justin; Chuah, Eric; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Clarke, Amanda; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan A.; Lim, Emilia; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Nip, Ka Ming; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Carter, Scott L.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cho, Juok; Cibulskis, Kristian; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Heiman, David I.; Jung, Joonil; Kim, Jaegil; Lander, Eric S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Meyerson, Matthew; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Schumacher, Steven E.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stojanov, Petar; Tabak, Barbara; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Voet, Doug; Rosenberg, Mara; Zack, Travis I.; Zhang, Hailei; Zou, Lihua; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Parfenov, Michael; Lee, Semin; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Xi, Ruibin; Bristow, Christopher A.; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Hinoue, Toshinori; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Shen, Hui; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda; Liu, Yingchun; Murray, Bradley A.; Noble, Michael S.; Askoy, B. Arman; Ciriello, Giovanni; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Sinha, Rileen; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Weinhold, Nils; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Bernard, Brady; Iype, Lisa; Kramer, Roger W.; Kreisberg, Richard; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rovira, Hector; Tasman, Natalie; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ng, Santa Cruz Sam; Haussler, David; Stuart, Josh M.; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Verhaak, Roeland G.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Leiserson, Mark D. M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Taylor, Barry S.; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Carney, Julie Ann; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Helsel, Carmen; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; McAllister, Cynthia; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Tabler, Teresa R.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Penny, Robert; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Curely, Erin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Benz, Christopher; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Fedosenko, Konstantin; Manikhas, Georgy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Belyaev, Smitry; Dolzhansky, Oleg; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brzezinski, Jakub; Ibbs, Matthew; Korski, Konstanty; Kycler, Witold; ?aŸniak, Radoslaw; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Murawa, Dawid; Murawa, Pawel; Spycha?a, Arkadiusz; Suchorska, Wiktoria M.; Tatka, Honorata; Teresiak, Marek; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Abdel-Misih, Raafat; Bennett, Joseph; Brown, Jennifer; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Kwon, Sun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein–Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  5. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy

    PubMed Central

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J; Benowitz, N; Connolly, G; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M; Boyle, P

    2005-01-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source. PMID:15923465

  6. Heterogeneous Participant Recruitment for Comprehensive Vehicle Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yazhi; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Widely distributed mobile vehicles wherein various sensing devices and wireless communication interfaces are installed bring vehicular participatory sensing into practice. However, the heterogeneity of vehicles in terms of sensing capability and mobility, and the participants’ expectations on the incentives blackmake the collection of comprehensive sensing data a challenging task. A sensing data quality-oriented optimal heterogeneous participant recruitment strategy is proposed in this paper for vehicular participatory sensing. In the proposed strategy, the differences between the sensing data requirements and the collected sensing data are modeled. An optimization formula is established to model the optimal participant recruitment problem, and a participant utility analysis scheme is built based on the sensing and mobility features of vehicles. Besides, a greedy algorithm is then designed according to the utility of vehicles to recruit the most efficient vehicles with a limited total incentive budget. Real trace-driven simulations show that the proposed strategy can collect 85.4% of available sensing data with 34% incentive budget. PMID:26407102

  7. A comprehensive study on urban true orthorectification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, G.; Chen, W.; Kelmelis, J.A.; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2005-01-01

    To provide some advanced technical bases (algorithms and procedures) and experience needed for national large-scale digital orthophoto generation and revision of the Standards for National Large-Scale City Digital Orthophoto in the National Digital Orthophoto Program (NDOP), this paper presents a comprehensive study on theories, algorithms, and methods of large-scale urban orthoimage generation. The procedures of orthorectification for digital terrain model (DTM)-based and digital building model (DBM)-based orthoimage generation and their mergence for true orthoimage generation are discussed in detail. A method of compensating for building occlusions using photogrammetric geometry is developed. The data structure needed to model urban buildings for accurately generating urban orthoimages is presented. Shadow detection and removal, the optimization of seamline for automatic mosaic, and the radiometric balance of neighbor images are discussed. Street visibility analysis, including the relationship between flight height, building height, street width, and relative location of the street to the imaging center, is analyzed for complete true orthoimage generation. The experimental results demonstrated that our method can effectively and correctly orthorectify the displacements caused by terrain and buildings in urban large-scale aerial images. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  8. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signaling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in miRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any common cancer studied to date, suggesting the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  9. Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-03-20

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. So far, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for treatment of the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signalling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in microRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far, indicating the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  10. Epithelialization in Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Pastar, Irena; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Yin, Natalie C.; Ramirez, Horacio; Nusbaum, Aron G.; Sawaya, Andrew; Patel, Shailee B.; Khalid, Laiqua; Isseroff, Rivkah R.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Keratinocytes, a major cellular component of the epidermis, are responsible for restoring the epidermis after injury through a process termed epithelialization. This review will focus on the pivotal role of keratinocytes in epithelialization, including cellular processes and mechanisms of their regulation during re-epithelialization, and their cross talk with other cell types participating in wound healing. Recent Advances: Discoveries in epidermal stem cells, keratinocyte immune function, and the role of the epidermis as an independent neuroendocrine organ will be reviewed. Novel mechanisms of gene expression regulation important for re-epithelialization, including microRNAs and histone modifications, will also be discussed. Critical Issues: Epithelialization is an essential component of wound healing used as a defining parameter of a successful wound closure. A wound cannot be considered healed in the absence of re-epithelialization. The epithelialization process is impaired in all types of chronic wounds. Future Directions: A comprehensive understanding of the epithelialization process will ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to promote wound closure. PMID:25032064

  11. Bilingualism influences inhibitory control in auditory comprehension.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Marian, Viorica

    2011-02-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals at suppressing task-irrelevant information. The present study aimed to identify how processing linguistic ambiguity during auditory comprehension may be associated with inhibitory control. Monolinguals and bilinguals listened to words in their native language (English) and identified them among four pictures while their eye-movements were tracked. Each target picture (e.g., hamper) appeared together with a similar-sounding within-language competitor picture (e.g., hammer) and two neutral pictures. Following each eye-tracking trial, priming probe trials indexed residual activation of target words, and residual inhibition of competitor words. Eye-tracking showed similar within-language competition across groups; priming showed stronger competitor inhibition in monolinguals than in bilinguals, suggesting differences in how inhibitory control was used to resolve within-language competition. Notably, correlation analyses revealed that inhibition performance on a nonlinguistic Stroop task was related to linguistic competition resolution in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. Together, monolingual-bilingual comparisons suggest that cognitive control mechanisms can be shaped by linguistic experience. PMID:21159332

  12. A comprehensive classification of collapse calderas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, A.; Marti, J.; Acocella, V.; Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Cas, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Collapse calderas are volcanic depressions that result from the disruption of the magma chamber roof during an eruption or lateral intrusion of magma. Their formation implies a perturbation of the structure and dynamics of the associated magma chambers. Collapse calderas are present in any geodynamic environment and may be associated with a wide range of magma compositions. Caldera morphology and structure yield information on subsidence mechanisms, evolutionary stage of collapse and the associated magma chamber, while any eruptive product provides the clues on magma composition and eruption dynamics. The term "caldera" has been commonly used to define certain sizes of collapses in volcanic areas, rather than a specific process. Moreover, several different classifications of collapse caldera have been proposed considering separately various aspects such as morphology, structure, composition, style of subsidence, size, eruption dynamics, or tectonic controls. However, the causative relationships between the resulting caldera types are not always well defined, thus causing confusion on the causes and results of each caldera process. This study has two main goals. 1) First, we provide a timely definition for calderas: we propose to restrict the term collapse caldera to those cases in which there is a direct interaction of the structures controlling collapse with an underlying magma chamber, independently of its size. 2) We present a comprehensive classification of collapse calderas based on an event tree structure that considers a hierarchy of criteria that we analyse in a logical sequence. This classification allows identifying any collapse caldera as a function of its dynamic, geometric, evolutionary and compositional conditions.

  13. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-09-11

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein-Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also known as PD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  14. Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted. PMID:26403771

  15. AUGO II: A Comprehensive Subauroral Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I. S.; Connors, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Athabasca University Geophysical Observatory II (AUGO II) is a comprehensive subauroral zone observatory designed for routine automated optical and magnetic observation of the aurora. Becoming operational in February 2012, AUGO II has six temperature/humidity controlled observation rooms, each equipped with a 1.5 meter diameter acrylic dome custom fabricated for wide spectral transparency. AUGO II is located approximately 25 km southwest of the town of Athabasca, in Alberta, Canada, on the southern edge of the auroral zone (Geodetic coordinates: latitude 54 36' 10", longitude 113 38' 40" west. CGM coordinates: latitude 61.7, longitude 306.8, L-value 4.5). AUGO II is sufficiently isolated from urban development that skies are dark enough during winter months to allow optical studies of faint phenomena, such as H-beta studies of proton precipitation aurora, currently underway. The observatory's modest residence can accommodate six persons, allowing groups to live and work with their instruments for the duration of their research campaign without leaving the site. AUGO II's inaugural guest research campaign was reported successful, and resulted in a permanent VLF/LF radio experiment being deployed at the observatory's expansive site. We are hopeful more research groups will take advantage of this unique facility and help realize its full potential.

  16. Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric D.; Tubau, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on “transparent” Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point. PMID:26283976

  17. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the human spliceosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhaolan; Licklider, Lawrence J.; Gygi, Steven P.; Reed, Robin

    2002-09-01

    The precise excision of introns from pre-messenger RNA is performed by the spliceosome, a macromolecular machine containing five small nuclear RNAs and numerous proteins. Much has been learned about the protein components of the spliceosome from analysis of individual purified small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and salt-stable spliceosome `core' particles. However, the complete set of proteins that constitutes intact functional spliceosomes has yet to be identified. Here we use maltose-binding protein affinity chromatography to isolate spliceosomes in highly purified and functional form. Using nanoscale microcapillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we identify ~145 distinct spliceosomal proteins, making the spliceosome the most complex cellular machine so far characterized. Our spliceosomes comprise all previously known splicing factors and 58 newly identified components. The spliceosome contains at least 30 proteins with known or putative roles in gene expression steps other than splicing. This complexity may be required not only for splicing multi-intronic metazoan pre-messenger RNAs, but also for mediating the extensive coupling between splicing and other steps in gene expression.

  18. Accessibility of Segmented Reading Comprehension Passages for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Kao, Jenny C.; Leon, Seth; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Sullivan, Lisa; Herman, Joan; Pope, Rita

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors that affect the accessibility of reading comprehension assessments for students with disabilities in grade 8 public school classrooms. The study consisted of assessing students using reading comprehension passages that were broken down into shorter "segments" or "chunks" in order to assess the validity and effectiveness…

  19. Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling nine cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts:…

  20. Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…

  1. Processing Demands of Reading Comprehension Tests in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Spanoudis, George

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we examined the processing demands of three reading comprehension tests, namely the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension (WJPC), a Curriculum-Based Measure test (CBM-Maze), and a Recall test, in the early elementary years. Our investigation was theoretically motivated by Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory and examined the…

  2. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  3. A Comparison of Deaf and Hearing Children's Reading Comprehension Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although deaf children typically exhibit severe delays in reading achievement, there is a paucity of research looking at their text-level comprehension skills. We present a comparison of deaf and normally hearing readers' profiles on a commonly used reading comprehension assessment: the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability II. Methods:…

  4. Correlates of Early Reading Comprehension Skills: A Componential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona

    2014-01-01

    This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listening comprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills,…

  5. A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

  6. 33 CFR 385.32 - Comprehensive Plan Modification Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Comprehensive Plan Modification Report. 385.32 Section 385.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN Incorporating New Information Into the Plan...

  7. An Assessment Model for Proof Comprehension in Undergraduate Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Fuller, Evan; Weber, Keith; Rhoads, Kathryn; Samkoff, Aron

    2012-01-01

    Although proof comprehension is fundamental in advanced undergraduate mathematics courses, there has been limited research on what it means to understand a mathematical proof at this level and how such understanding can be assessed. In this paper, we address these issues by presenting a multidimensional model for assessing proof comprehension in…

  8. Comprehension and Learning from Refutation and Expository Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.; Mouskounti, Thalia; Ioannides, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The study compared the effects of a refutation text on comprehension and learning outcomes to those of a standard expository text. Undergraduate students with varying amounts of accurate and inaccurate prior knowledge read and recalled a refutation or an expository text about energy. Comprehension measures included the amount of text information…

  9. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  10. Pragmatic Comprehension in Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    This study developed an original instrument that measures pragmatic comprehension in Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). It examined the ability to comprehend implied meaning encoded in conventional and nonconventional features and the effect of proficiency on comprehension. There were 63 college students of Japanese at 2 proficiency levels who…

  11. Assessing the Reading Comprehension of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…

  12. Contribution of Morphological Awareness to Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the contribution of second-language (L2) morphological awareness to foreign language reading comprehension. Tenth graders (n = 188) at a South Korean high school were assessed on 6 reading- and language-related variables: phonological decoding, listening comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, passage-level reading…

  13. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section 441.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for...

  14. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section 441.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for...

  15. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section 441.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for...

  16. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section 441.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for...

  17. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section 441.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for...

  18. How Graphic Novels Support Reading Comprehension Strategy Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenna, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the relationship between comprehension strategies and graphic novels in one Grade 4 classroom, utilising children as informants. The primary research questions related to children's applications of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies as well as the potential for graphic novels to support the…

  19. Using E-Readers and Internet Resources to Support Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sandra; Fugett, April; Caputa, Francine

    2013-01-01

    The advancements of technology have led to the use of electronic reading systems for digital text. Research indicates similarities and differences in reading performance and comprehension in digital formats compared to paper formats. This study compared vocabulary understanding and reading comprehension scores from two reading sources (electronic…

  20. Can Production Precede Comprehension in L2 Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasseva-Kurktchieva, Mila

    2015-01-01

    So far, the comprehension and production language modes have typically been studied separately in generative second language acquisition research, with the focus shifting from one to the other. This article revisits the asymmetric relationship between comprehension and production by examining the second language (L2) acquisition of the noun phrase…

  1. 75 FR 9488 - Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... on December 7, 2007 (72 FR 69288). In an effort to refine the Basel II Capital Accord, the Basel... Office of Thrift Supervision Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study AGENCY: Office of Thrift... collection. Title of Proposal: Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW....

  2. Text Format, Text Comprehension, and Related Reader Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Jodi L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation explored relationships between format of text (electronic or print-based) and reading comprehension of adolescent readers. Also in question were potential influences on comprehension from related measures including academic placement of participants, gender, prior knowledge of the content, and overall reading ability. Influences…

  3. Comprehensive Behavior Management: Individualized, Classroom, and Schoolwide Approaches. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martella, Ronald C.; Nelson, J. Ron; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; O'Reilly, Mark

    2011-01-01

    "Comprehensive Behavior Management: Schoolwide, Classroom, and Individualized Approaches" supports teachers in preventing management problems and responding to unwanted behavior when it occurs in classrooms. The text offers a comprehensive presentation of three levels of behavior management strategies: individual, classroom, and schoolwide, all…

  4. Reading Comprehension Strategies: An International Comparison of Teacher Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott; Hiller, Florian

    2013-01-01

    In response to international concern over poor reading skills among adolescent learners, teachers of these students are encouraged to integrate reading comprehension instruction into their classrooms. To increase the likelihood that reading comprehension strategies are effectively used in schools, teachers in all content areas need extensive…

  5. 18 CFR 2.19 - State and Federal comprehensive plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... comprehensive plans. 2.19 Section 2.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General...) In determining whether the proposed hydroelectric project is best adapted to a comprehensive...

  6. 18 CFR 2.19 - State and Federal comprehensive plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... comprehensive plans. 2.19 Section 2.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General...) In determining whether the proposed hydroelectric project is best adapted to a comprehensive...

  7. Representational Complexity and Memory Retrieval in Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Mental representations formed from words or phrases may vary considerably in their feature-based complexity. Modern theories of retrieval in sentence comprehension do not indicate how this variation and the role of encoding processes should influence memory performance. Here, memory retrieval in language comprehension is shown to be influenced by…

  8. Predicting Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap…

  9. A New Jersey Comprehensive Career Development Program Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Russell; And Others

    This manual is a guide to developing a comprehensive career development program in a local school district. It is based on the experience of program development in Neptune Township, New Jersey, following the National Career Development Guidelines of the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee and the subsequent Comprehensive

  10. Mining Student Behavior Patterns in Reading Comprehension Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Terry; McCalla, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Reading comprehension is critical in life-long learning as well as in the workplace. In this paper, we describe how multidimensional k-means clustering combined with Bloom's Taxonomy can be used to determine positive and negative cognitive skill sets with respect to reading comprehension tasks. This information could be used to inform environments…

  11. 13 CFR 108.320 - Contents of comprehensive business plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contents of comprehensive business plan. 108.320 Section 108.320 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Application and Approval Process for NMVC Company Designation § 108.320 Contents of comprehensive business...

  12. 33 CFR 385.32 - Comprehensive Plan Modification Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Comprehensive Plan Modification Report 385.32 Section 385.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN Incorporating New Information Into the Plan §...

  13. Tell Us More: Reading Comprehension, Engagement, and Conceptual Press Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhone, Dot

    2012-01-01

    This study examines interactions between teachers and students during reading comprehension instruction to determine how certain patterns of teacher-student talk support student comprehension achievement and reading engagement. The central focus of the study is "conceptual press discourse," a pattern of teacher response that includes requests for…

  14. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive...

  15. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive...

  16. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive...

  17. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive...

  18. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive...

  19. 34 CFR 303.360 - Comprehensive system of personnel development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... development required under part B of the Act (34 CFR 300.380 through 300.387); (2) Provide for preservice and... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Comprehensive system of personnel development. 303.360... Intervention Services Personnel Training and Standards § 303.360 Comprehensive system of personnel...

  20. 34 CFR 303.360 - Comprehensive system of personnel development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... development required under part B of the Act (34 CFR 300.380 through 300.387); (2) Provide for preservice and... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comprehensive system of personnel development. 303.360... Intervention Services Personnel Training and Standards § 303.360 Comprehensive system of personnel...