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Sample records for comprehensive structural studies

  1. Comprehensive study of dynamic curing effect on tablet coating structure.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Claire; Genty, Muriel; da Silva, Julio César; Tfayli, Ali; Boiret, Mathieu; Lecoq, Olivier; Baron, Michel; Chaminade, Pierre; Péan, Jean Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The dissolution method is still widely used to determine curing end-points to ensure long-term stability of film coatings. Nevertheless, the process of curing has not yet been fully investigated. For the first time, joint techniques were used to elucidate the mechanisms of dynamic curing over time from ethylcellulose (Aquacoat)-based coated tablets. X-ray micro-computed tomography (XμCT), Near Infrared (NIR), and Raman spectroscopies as well as X-ray microdiffraction were employed as non-destructive techniques to perform direct measurements on tablets. All techniques indicated that after a dynamic curing period of 4h, reproducible drug release can be achieved and no changes in the microstructure of the coating were any longer detected. XμCT analysis highlighted the reduced internal porosity, while both NIR and Raman measurements showed that spectral information remained unaltered after further curing. X-ray microdiffraction revealed densification of the coating layer with a decrease in the overall coating thickness of about 10 μm as a result of curing. In addition, coating heterogeneity attributed to cetyl alcohol was observed from microscopic images and Raman analysis. This observation was confirmed by X-ray microdiffraction that showed that crystalline cetyl alcohol melted and spread over the coating surface with curing. Prior to curing, X-ray microdiffraction also revealed the existence of two coating zones differing in crystalline cetyl alcohol and sodium lauryl sulfate concentrations which could be explained by migration of these constituents within the coating layer. Therefore, the use of non-destructive techniques allowed new insights into tablet coating structures and provided precise determination of the curing end-point compared to traditional dissolution testing. This thorough study may open up new possibilities for process and formulation control. PMID:22561957

  2. A comprehensive NMR structural study of Titan aerosol analogs: Implications for Titan's atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-11-01

    Titan has a thick atmosphere composed primarily of nitrogen and methane. Complex organic chemistry induced by solar ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles, takes place in Titan's upper atmosphere, producing an optically thick reddish brown carbon based haze encircling this moon. The chemistry in Titan's atmosphere and its resulting chemical structures are still not fully understood in spite of a great many efforts being made. In our previous work, we have investigated the structure of the 13C and 15N labeled, simulated Titan haze aerosols (tholin) by NMR and identified several dominant small molecules in the tholin. Here we report our expanded structural investigation of the bulk of the tholin by more comprehensive NMR study. The NMR results show that the tholin materials are dominated by heavily nitrogenated compounds, in which the macromolecular structures are highly branched polymeric or oligomeric compounds terminated in methyl, amine, and nitrile groups. The structural characteristic suggest that the tholin materials are formed via different copolymerization or incorporation mechanisms of small precursors, such as HCN, CH2dbnd NH, NH3 and C2H2. This study helps to understand the formation process of nitrogenated organic aerosols in Titan's atmosphere and their prebiotic implications.

  3. Priming Ditransitive Structures in Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Manabu; van Gompel, Roger P. G.; Scheepers, Cristoph

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown evidence for syntactic priming during language production (e.g., Bock, 1986). It is often assumed that comprehension and production share similar mechanisms and that priming also occurs during comprehension (e.g., Pickering & Garrod, 2004). Research investigating priming during comprehension (e.g., Branigan et al., 2005 and…

  4. Structural, morphological, magnetic and hydrogen absorption properties of LaNi5 alloy: A comprehensive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhaddi, Reza; Arabi, Hadi; Pourarian, Faiz

    2014-04-01

    A comprehensive study of structural, morphological, magnetic and hydrogen absorption properties of LaNi5-H system was investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that as-synthesized LaNi5 alloy is single phase with CaCu5-type structure while some weak peaks of elemental nickel also appeared after several hydrogenation/dehydrogenation (H/D) cycling. The presence of pure Ni was also followed using the room temperature magnetic measurements. After H/D cycling, the particle size decreases and particle size distribution was found nearly uniform compared to noncycled alloy. The pressure-composition isotherms (PCIs) of the hydrogen absorption reaction were determined in the temperature range 20-80°C using a homemade Sievert's type experimental apparatus, and then the enthalpy and entropy of hydride formation were calculated. The hydriding kinetic mechanism of LaNi5 was evaluated using the different fitting models: Jander diffusion model (JDM), Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) and Chou models. All employed models confirm an increase in the hydriding reaction rate with temperature. However, the calculated results using JMA model show a better agreement with the experimental data and hence we believe that diffusion along with nucleation and growth is the rate-controlling step for the hydriding reaction. The values of activation energy for hydriding reaction were also obtained by JD and JMA models.

  5. Comprehensive stormwater management study

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, T. ); Alter, M. ); Wassum, R.H. )

    1994-02-01

    This article examines Tucson, Arizona's approach to stormwater management. The topics of the article include the quantity and quality of stormwater, developing the stormwater master plan, meeting environmental and regulatory constraints. Tucson's comprehensive, watershed by watershed approach to public works planning and stormwater program development is described.

  6. A Comprehensive study of Cavities on the Sun: Structure, Formation, and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Nishu; Zhang, Jie; Pesnell, William D.

    2016-05-01

    Coronal cavities are large-scale structures in the Sun's corona that are closely related with the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the photosphere as well as associated with the energetic solar activity such as prominence eruptions and coronal mass ejections. They are observed as circular or elliptical-shaped relatively low-density dark regions above the solar limb in EUV, X-ray, and white-light coronal images. We used SDO/AIA limb synoptic maps, constructed from annuli above the solar limb, to systematically identify cavities. We observed 429 coronal prominence cavities between May 20, 2010 and Feb 1, 2015. We examined correlations between height, width, and length of the cavities. Based on the fitting of the shape of the cross section, we classified cavities in three types: prolate (38%), oblate (27%) and circular (35%). We found that the cavities of all shapes are common in shorter length while circular and oblate cavities are more common in the longer length. In general, we found that the overall 3-D topology of long stable cavities can be characterized as a long tube with an elliptical cross-section. Next, we investigated the pattern of cavity location and found that cavity systematically drifts towards the pole. We found that cavities form a belt by making a plot using SDO/HMI surface magnetogram similar to classical buttery diagram of sunspots, we call that the cavity belt. Our analysis showed that the cavity belts migrated towards higher latitude with time and the cavity belts disappeared after the polar magnetic field reversal. This result shows that cavity evolution provides new insight into the solar cycle. Moreover, we studied the underlying magnetic field of a circumpolar crown cavity (Mar 21, 2013- Oct 25, 2013) that was observed for several Carrington Rotations. Our results showed that the underlying polarity inversion line of cavities is formed between the trailing part of decayed active regions and the unipolar magnetic field in the

  7. Comprehensive X-Ray Structural Studies of the Quinolinate Phosphoribosyl Transferase (BNA6) From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    di Luccio, E.; Wilson, D.K.

    2009-05-14

    Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QAPRTase, EC 2.4.2.19) is a 32 kDa enzyme encoded by the BNA6 gene in yeast and catalyzes the formation of nicotinate mononucleotide from quinolinate and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). QAPRTase plays a key role in the tryptophan degradation pathway via kynurenine, leading to the de novo biosynthesis of NAD{sup +} and clearing the neurotoxin quinolinate. To improve our understanding of the specificity of the eukaryotic enzyme and the course of events associated with catalysis, we have determined the crystal structures of the apo and singly bound forms with the substrates quinolinate and PRPP. This reveals that the enzyme folds in a manner similar to that of various prokaryotic forms which are {approx}30% identical in sequence. In addition, the structure of the Michaelis complex is approximated by PRPP and the quinolinate analogue phthalate bound to the active site. These results allow insight into the kinetic mechanism of QAPRTase and provide an understanding of structural diversity in the active site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme when compared to prokaryotic homologues.

  8. Comprehensive DFT study on molecular structures of Lewisites in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeidian, Hamid; Sahandi, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    The structure of all of Lewisite's stereoisomers has been examined by B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) calculations. The geometry analysis for trans Lewisite L1-1 shows that the calculated bond angles, bond distances and dipole moment have a satisfactory relation compared with experimental values. HOMO-LUMO analysis of Lewisites reveals that L1-2 and L3-7 have the maximum and minimum electrophilicity index, respectively. The calculated chemical shifts were compared with experimental data, showing a very good agreement both for 1H and 13C. The vibrational and Raman frequencies of Lewisites have been precisely assigned and theoretical data were compared with the experimental vibrations. The bonding trends and Mulliken and atomic polar tensor charge distribution in Lewisites can be explained by the Bent's rule and the donor-acceptor interaction, respectively.

  9. Comprehensive analysis and identification of the human STIM1 domains for structural and functional studies.

    PubMed

    How, Jonathan; Zhang, Ai; Phillips, Margaret; Reynaud, Aline; Lu, Si Yan; Pan, Lucy Xin; Ho, Hai Ting; Yau, Yin Hoe; Guskov, Albert; Pervushin, Konstantin; Shochat, Susana Geifman; Eshaghi, Said

    2013-01-01

    STIM1 is a Ca(2+) sensor within the ER membrane known to activate the plasma membrane store-operated Ca(2+) channel upon depletion of its target ion in the ER lumen. This activation is a crucial step to initiate the Ca(2+) signaling cascades within various cell types. Human STIM1 is a 77.4 kDa protein consisting of various domains that are involved in Ca(2+) sensing, oligomerization, and channel activation and deactivation. In this study, we identify the domains and boundaries in which functional and stable recombinant human STIM1 can be produced in large quantities. To achieve this goal, we cloned nearly 200 constructs that vary in their initial and terminal residues, length and presence of the transmembrane domain, and we conducted expression and purification analyses using these constructs. The results revealed that nearly half of the constructs could be expressed and purified with high quality, out of which 25% contained the integral membrane domain. Further analyses using surface plasmon resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance and a thermostability assay verified the functionality and integrity of these constructs. Thus, we have been able to identify the most stable and well-behaved domains of the hSTIM1 protein, which can be used for future in vitro biochemical and biophysical studies. PMID:23320111

  10. A comprehensive study of cavities on the Sun: Structures and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, N.; Pesnell, W. D.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Coronal cavities are often observed as circular or elliptical-shaped, darkned regions above the solar limb in EUV coronal images. They are believed to be regions of lower density relative to the surrounding corona. The cavity surrounds the prominence: prior to the eruption and as an aspect of CMEs. We used SDO/AIA limb synoptic maps, constructed from annuli above the solar limb; best show cavities in the 211Å, 193Å and 171Å passbands. The prominence associated with each cavity is best seen in the 304Å synoptic maps. We observed 429 cavities between May 2010 - Feb 2015. We examined correlations between each cavity's height, width and length. Our findings showed that around 38% of cavities were prolate, 27% oblate and 35% circular in shape. The lengths of the cavities ranged from 0.06-2.9 R¤. When a cavity is longer than 1.5 R¤ it has a narrower height range (0.1-0.3 R¤), whereas when the cavity was shorter than 1.5 R¤, it had a wider height range (0.07-0.5 R¤). We find that the overall 3-D topology of the long stable cavities can be characterized as a long tube with an elliptical cross section. We also noticed that the circular and oblate cavities are longer in length than prolate cavities. We also studied the physical mechanisms behind the cavity drift towards the pole and found it to be tied to the meridional flow. Finally, by observing the evolution cavity regions using SDO/HMI surface magnetic field observations, we found cavity belt formed near the polar coronal hole boundary. Results showed that the cavity belt migrated towards higher latitude with time and the cavity belt disappeared after the polar magnetic field reversal. This result shows that cavity evolution provides new insight into the solar cycle. Moreover, we selected 30 random cavities from our catalog and studied their morphology, thermal properties, linear polarization signatures, precursors of eruption, and underlying magnetic field and tried to interpret the shapes and stability of the

  11. On Linguistic Structure and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    Stella Center's belief in the basic importance of grammatical structure as a factor in reading comprehension substantiated the author's theory that the ability to comprehend syntactic structure is positively correlated with the ability to comprehend meaning. Original instruments devised to test this hypothesis included a test which utilized…

  12. Structure Strategy Interventions: Increasing Reading Comprehension of Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Ray, Melissa N.

    2011-01-01

    In this review of the literature we examine empirical studies designed to teach the structure strategy to increase reading comprehension of expository texts. First, we review the research that has served as a foundation for many of the studies examining the effects of text structure instruction. Text structures generally can be grouped into six…

  13. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

    1986-06-01

    Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

  14. A comprehensive molecular dynamics study on the self-assembly and properties of SiC based cage structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congyan; Xin, Zihua; Yu, Ming; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.; Shanghai University Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    A molecular dynamics study to investigate a plausible way of fabricating SiC based cage structures has been performed. In this work, the existence of the stable SiC based cage nanostructures SimCn with the size up to about 2.05nm in diameter and the compositions n/(n +m) from 0.4 to 0.6 has been demonstrated using an efficient semi-empirical Hamiltonian method (SCED-LCAO) [PRB 74, 15540 (2006)]. The structural properties are analyzed in terms of the composition, the bonding nature, the surface environment, the local strain, and types of ring structures. It is found that the sp2 bonding nature between Si and C atoms and the environmental mediation are two key factors for the self-assembly of the stable SiC based cage structures. In particular, the transition from one stable cage structure to another of similar composition might occur due to the mending process in the self-assembly. The first and second authors acknowledge the support from the NSFC (grant No.: 61176118) and 085 project of Shanghai University (China) for this work.

  15. A Factor-Analytic Study of the Structure of the Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidenbach, Daniel H.; French, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    The Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II (CIBS-II) is the newest version of a long-standing instrument that is useful for identifying student achievement, identifying and monitoring academic strengths and weaknesses, obtaining data to support referrals, and reporting progress for individual educational plans. Since the CIBS-II is…

  16. The Effects of Story Structure Questioning upon Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Margie; Gambrell, Linda

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a story structure questioning strategy upon the reading comprehension of sixth grade students. An alternate questioning strategy was used as a comparison treatment, and involved more traditional literal, interpretative, and problem solving questions. On the basis of reading level scores, 100 students were…

  17. Structure, Meaning, and Constituency in Visual Narrative Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Neil Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Narrative has been formally studied for at least two millennia, dating back to the writings of Aristotle. While most theories began by describing the construction of plotlines in theatre, most contemporary research on the structure and comprehension of narratives has examined the discourse of spoken language. However, visual narratives in the form…

  18. Effects of Discourse Structure Graphic Organizers on EFL Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 16-week reading instruction program with discourse structure graphic organizers (DSGOs) on the development of English reading comprehension among college-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. A total of 340 first and third semester students of non-English majors at a Chinese university…

  19. Comprehensive studies of the electronic structure of pristine and potassium doped chrysene investigated by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Friedrich; Mahns, Benjamin; Schönfelder, Ronny; Hampel, Silke; Nohr, Markus; Büchner, Bernd; Knupfer, Martin

    2012-09-01

    We have performed electron energy-loss spectroscopy studies in order to investigate the electronic properties of chrysene molecular solids. The valence band electronic excitation spectra and the C 1s core level excitations have been measured for pristine and potassium doped chrysene. The core level studies show a fine structure which signals the presence of four close lying conduction bands close to the Fermi level. Upon potassium doping, these bands are filled with electrons, and we have reached a doping level of about K2.7chrysene. Furthermore, undoped chrysene is characterized by an optical gap of about 3.3 eV and five, relatively weak, excitonic features following the excitation onset. Doping induces major changes in the electronic excitation spectra, with a new, prominent low energy excitation at about 1.3 eV. The results of a Kramers-Kronig analysis indicate that this new feature can be assigned to a charge carrier plasmon in the doped material, and momentum dependent studies reveal a negative plasmon dispersion.

  20. Novel hinge-binding motifs for Janus kinase 3 inhibitors: a comprehensive structure-activity relationship study on tofacitinib bioisosteres.

    PubMed

    Gehringer, Matthias; Forster, Michael; Pfaffenrot, Ellen; Bauer, Silke M; Laufer, Stefan A

    2014-11-01

    The Janus kinases (JAKs) are a family of cytosolic tyrosine kinases crucially involved in cytokine signaling. JAKs have been demonstrated to be valid targets in the treatment of inflammatory and myeloproliferative disorders, and two inhibitors, tofacitinib and ruxolitinib, recently received their marketing authorization. Despite this success, selectivity within the JAK family remains a major issue. Both approved compounds share a common 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine hinge binding motif, and little is known about modifications tolerated at this heterocyclic core. In the current study, a library of tofacitinib bioisosteres was prepared and tested against JAK3. The compounds possessed the tofacitinib piperidinyl side chain, whereas the hinge binding motif was replaced by a variety of heterocycles mimicking its pharmacophore. In view of the promising expectations obtained from molecular modeling, most of the compounds proved to be poorly active. However, strategies for restoring activity within this series of novel chemotypes were discovered and crucial structure-activity relationships were deduced. The compounds presented may serve as starting point for developing novel JAK inhibitors and as a valuable training set for in silico models. PMID:25139757

  1. Brain structural correlates of complex sentence comprehension in children

    PubMed Central

    Fengler, Anja; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Prior structural imaging studies found initial evidence for the link between structural gray matter changes and the development of language performance in children. However, previous studies generally only focused on sentence comprehension. Therefore, little is known about the relationship between structural properties of brain regions relevant to sentence processing and more specific cognitive abilities underlying complex sentence comprehension. In this study, whole-brain magnetic resonance images from 59 children between 5 and 8 years were assessed. Scores on a standardized sentence comprehension test determined grammatical proficiency of our participants. A confirmatory factory analysis corroborated a grammar-relevant and a verbal working memory-relevant factor underlying the measured performance. Voxel-based morphometry of gray matter revealed that while children's ability to assign thematic roles is positively correlated with gray matter probability (GMP) in the left inferior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, verbal working memory-related performance is positively correlated with GMP in the left parietal operculum extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Since these areas are known to be differentially engaged in adults’ complex sentence processing, our data suggest a specific correspondence between children's GMP in language-relevant brain regions and differential cognitive abilities that guide their sentence comprehension. PMID:26468613

  2. Structural Priming and Frequency Effects Interact in Chinese Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hang; Dong, Yanping; Boland, Julie E; Yuan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming. PMID:26869954

  3. Structural Priming and Frequency Effects Interact in Chinese Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hang; Dong, Yanping; Boland, Julie E.; Yuan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming. PMID:26869954

  4. Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgon, J. R.

    A New Zealand pilot study examined Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) scores compared to PAT: Reading Comprehension scores and compared with teacher ratings. TORCH is a reading test package published in 1987 by the Australian Council for Educational Research. It consists of 14 untimed passages intended to assess the extent to which readers in…

  5. Toward comprehensive studies of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures: Combined structure, elastic wave velocity, and viscosity measurements in the Paris-Edinburgh cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kono, Yoshio; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin; Wang, Yanbin

    2014-08-19

    Techniques for measuring liquid structure, elastic wave velocity, and viscosity under high pressure have been integrated using a Paris–Edinburgh cell at Beamline 16-BM-B, HPCAT of the Advanced Photon Source. The Paris–Edinburgh press allows for compressing large volume samples (up to 2 mm in both diameter and length) up to ~7 GPa and 2000 °C. Multi-angle energy dispersive X-ray diffraction provides structure factors of liquid to a large Q of ~19 Å. Ultrasonic techniques have been developed to investigate elastic wave velocity of liquids combined with the X-ray imaging. Falling sphere viscometry, using high-speed X-ray radiography (>1000 frames/s), enables us to investigate a wide range of viscosity, from those of high viscosity silicates or oxides melts to low viscosity (<1 mPa s) liquids and fluids such as liquid metals or salts. The integration of these multiple techniques has promoted comprehensive studies of structure and physical properties of liquids as well as amorphous materials at high pressures and high temperatures, making it possible to investigate correlations between structure and physical properties of liquids in situ.

  6. Toward comprehensive studies of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures: Combined structure, elastic wave velocity, and viscosity measurements in the Paris-Edinburgh cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Yoshio; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin; Wang, Yanbin

    2014-03-01

    Techniques for measuring liquid structure, elastic wave velocity, and viscosity under high pressure have been integrated using a Paris-Edinburgh cell at Beamline 16-BM-B, HPCAT of the Advanced Photon Source. The Paris-Edinburgh press allows for compressing large volume samples (up to 2 mm in both diameter and length) up to ∼7 GPa and 2000 °C. Multi-angle energy dispersive X-ray diffraction provides structure factors of liquid to a large Q of ∼19 Å. Ultrasonic techniques have been developed to investigate elastic wave velocity of liquids combined with the X-ray imaging. Falling sphere viscometry, using high-speed X-ray radiography (>1000 frames/s), enables us to investigate a wide range of viscosity, from those of high viscosity silicates or oxides melts to low viscosity (<1 mPa s) liquids and fluids such as liquid metals or salts. The integration of these multiple techniques has promoted comprehensive studies of structure and physical properties of liquids as well as amorphous materials at high pressures and high temperatures, making it possible to investigate correlations between structure and physical properties of liquids in situ.

  7. Plastoglobules in algae: A comprehensive comparative study of the presence of major structural and functional components in complex plastids.

    PubMed

    Lohscheider, Jens N; Río Bártulos, Carolina

    2016-08-01

    Plastoglobules (PG) are lipophilic droplets attached to thylakoid membranes in higher plants and green algae and are implicated in prenyl lipid biosynthesis. They might also represent a central hub for integration of plastid signals under stress and therefore the adaptation of the thylakoid membrane under such conditions. In Arabidopsis thaliana, PG contain around 30 specific proteins of which Fibrillins (FBN) and Activity of bc1 complex kinases (ABC1K) represent the majority with respect to both number and protein mass. However, nothing is known about the presence of PG in most algal species, which are responsible for about 50% of global primary production. Therefore, we searched the genomes of publicly available algal genomes for components of PG and the associated functional network in order to predict their presence and potential evolutionary conservation of physiological functions. We could identify homologous sequences for core components of PG, like FBN and ABC1K, in most investigated algal species. Furthermore, proteins at central and interesting positions within the PG functional coexpression network were identified. Phylogenetic sequence analysis revealed diversity within FBN and ABC1K sequences among algal species with complex plastids of the red lineage and large differences compared with green lineage species. Two types of FBN were detected that differ in their isoelectric point which seems to correlate with subcellular localization. Subgroups of FBN were shared between many investigated species and modeling of their 3D-structure implied a conserved structure. FBN and ABC1K are essential structural and functional components of PG. Their occurrence in investigated algal species suggests presence of PG therein and functions in prenyl lipid metabolism and adaptation of the thylakoid membrane that are conserved during evolution. PMID:27373732

  8. Effects of Structured Inquiry and Graphic Organizers on Social Studies Comprehension by Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenning, Heather; Knight, Victoria; Spooner, Fred

    2013-01-01

    In social studies, students learn about society and the culture in which they live, current and historical events, people from different backgrounds, and how to develop skills for participating in a democratic system. As people with disabilities are members of our society, participation in social studies content is an important component of their…

  9. Dynamics of Strategies-Based Language Instruction: A Study of Reading Comprehension and Problem Solving Abilities via Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghahari, Shima; Basanjideh, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at exploring the psychological as well as educational outcomes of strategies awareness and use. We set out to examine the effect of reading strategic investment on language achievement and problem solving ability (PSA). The participating EFL learners were heterogeneous in terms of reading instruction; two of the intact groups had…

  10. Psychometric Structure of a Comprehensive Objective Structured Clinical Examination: A Factor Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkan, Kevin; Simon, Steven R.; Baker, Harley; Todres, I. David

    2004-01-01

    Problem Statement and Background: While the psychometric properties of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have been studied, their latent structures have not been well characterized. This study examines a factor analytic model of a comprehensive OSCE and addresses implications for measurement of clinical performance. Methods: An…

  11. Elucidating molecular iridium water oxidation catalysts using metal-organic frameworks: a comprehensive structural, catalytic, spectroscopic, and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Wang, Jin-Liang; Lin, Wenbin

    2012-12-01

    As a new class of porous, crystalline, molecular materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown great promise as recyclable and reusable single-site solid catalysts. Periodic order and site isolation of the catalytic struts in MOFs facilitate the studies of their activities and reaction mechanisms. Herein we report the construction of two highly stable MOFs (1 and 2) using elongated dicarboxylate bridging ligands derived from Cp*Ir(L)Cl complexes (L = dibenzoate-substituted 2,2'-bipyridine, bpy-dc, or dibenzoate-substituted 2-phenylpyridine, ppy-dc) and Zr(6)O(4)(OH)(4)(carboxylate)(12) cuboctahedral secondary building units (SBUs) and the elucidation of water oxidation pathways of the Cp*Ir(L)Cl catalysts using these MOFs. We carried out detailed kinetic studies of Ce(4+)-driven water oxidation reactions (WORs) catalyzed by the MOFs using UV-vis spectroscopy, phosphorescent oxygen detection, and gas chromatographic analysis. These results confirmed not only water oxidation activity of the MOFs but also indicated oxidative degradation of the Cp* rings during the WOR. The (bpy-dc)Ir(H(2)O)(2)XCl (X is likely a formate or acetate group) complex resulted from the oxidative degradation process was identified as a competent catalyst responsible for the water oxidation activity of 1. Further characterization of the MOFs recovered from WORs using X-ray photoelectron, diffuse-reflectance UV-vis absorption, luminescence, and infrared spectroscopies supported the identity of (bpy-dc)Ir(H(2)O)(2)XCl as an active water oxidation catalyst. Kinetics of MOF-catalyzed WORs were monitored by Ce(4+) consumptions and fitted with a reaction-diffusion model, revealing an intricate relationship between reaction and diffusion rates. Our work underscores the opportunity in using MOFs as well-defined single-site solid catalytic systems to reveal mechanistic details that are difficult to obtain for their homogeneous counterparts. PMID:23136923

  12. Comprehensive Structural Studies of 2′,3′-Difluorinated Nucleosides: Comparison of Theory, Solution, and Solid State

    PubMed Central

    Barchi, Joseph J.; Karki, Rajeshri G.; Nicklaus, Marc C.; Siddiqui, Maqbool A.; George, Clifford; Mikhailopulo, Igor A.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2009-01-01

    The conformations of three 2′,3′-difluoro uridine nucleosides were studied by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations in an attempt to define the roles that the two vicinal fluorine atoms play in the puckering preferences of the furanose ring. Two of the compounds examined contained fluorine atoms in either the arabino or xylo dispositions at C2′ and C3′ of a 2′,3′-dideoxyuridine system. The third compound also incorporated fluorine atoms in the xylo configuration on the furanose ring but was substituted with a 6-azauracil base in place of uracil. A battery of NMR experiments in D2O solution was used to identify conformational preferences primarily from coupling constant and NOE data. Both 1H and 19F NMR data were used to ascertain the preferred sugar pucker of the furanose ring through the use of the program PSEUROT. Compound-dependent parameters used in the PSEUROT calculations were newly derived from complete sets of conformations calculated from high-level ab initio methods. The solution and theoretical data were compared to the conformations of each molecule in the solid state. It was shown that both gauche and antiperiplanar effects may be operative to maintain a pseudodiaxial arrangement of the C2′and C3′ vicinal fluorine atoms. These data, along with previously reported data by us and others concerning monofluorinated nucleoside conformations, were used to propose a model of how fluorine influences different aspects of nucleoside conformations. PMID:18558684

  13. Preschoolers' comprehension of goal structure in narratives.

    PubMed

    Wenner, Jennifer A

    2004-03-01

    Preschool children's understanding and use of goals were studied in two experiments. Children heard stories in the presence of pictures or props. The stories were varied by goal success occurring early or late in the story, with late goal success resulting in more causal connections in the narrative. The results showed that children recalled goals spontaneously and that their recall benefited from goal structure of the stories. Pictures benefited the children when the stories were short. Enactment of the props versus static displays of the props did not enhance recall in the second experiment. Preschool children thus demonstrated ability to infer and use goal and causal information in stories for both picture and object support. PMID:15250184

  14. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  15. A comprehensive study on urban true orthorectification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, G.; Chen, W.; Kelmelis, J.A.; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2005-01-01

    To provide some advanced technical bases (algorithms and procedures) and experience needed for national large-scale digital orthophoto generation and revision of the Standards for National Large-Scale City Digital Orthophoto in the National Digital Orthophoto Program (NDOP), this paper presents a comprehensive study on theories, algorithms, and methods of large-scale urban orthoimage generation. The procedures of orthorectification for digital terrain model (DTM)-based and digital building model (DBM)-based orthoimage generation and their mergence for true orthoimage generation are discussed in detail. A method of compensating for building occlusions using photogrammetric geometry is developed. The data structure needed to model urban buildings for accurately generating urban orthoimages is presented. Shadow detection and removal, the optimization of seamline for automatic mosaic, and the radiometric balance of neighbor images are discussed. Street visibility analysis, including the relationship between flight height, building height, street width, and relative location of the street to the imaging center, is analyzed for complete true orthoimage generation. The experimental results demonstrated that our method can effectively and correctly orthorectify the displacements caused by terrain and buildings in urban large-scale aerial images. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of cortical structure abnormalities in drug-naïve, adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a surface-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Zutshi, Amit; Jindal, Sachin; Srikanth, Subbamma G; Kovoor, Jerry M E; Kumar, J Keshav; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

    2012-09-01

    The study objective was to comprehensively evaluate drug-naïve, adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) for cortical structure abnormalities in comparison with healthy controls. In this cross-sectional study of case-control design, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (1-mm) was performed in drug-naïve OCD patients (N = 50) & age- sex-, education- and handedness-matched healthy controls (N = 40). We examined cortical volume, thickness, surface area & local Gyrification Index (LGI) through a completely automated surface-based morphometric analysis using FreeSurfer software. OCD symptoms and insight were assessed using Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Symptom (Y-BOCS) check-list and severity scale. Illness severity was assessed using Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S) Scale. OCD patients had significantly deficient volume, thickness and surface area of right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Right lingual gyrus surface area was found to be significantly decreased in patients. Y-BOCS obsession score had significant negative correlation with left frontal pole volume. Y-BOCS compulsion score had significant negative correlations with right ACG volume and surface area and right lateral orbitofrontal cortex LGI. CGI-Severity score had significant negative correlations with right lingual gyrus volume, thickness and surface area as well as right lateral orbitofrontal area. Y-BOCS insight score showed a significant negative correlation with LGI of left medial OFC and left rostral ACG. Identification of novel deficits involving occipital brain regions and first-time observations of relevant correlations between various illness characteristics and cortical measures in OCD patients supports a network involving anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal and occipital brain regions in the pathogenesis of OCD. PMID:22770508

  17. WWC Review of the Report “Large-Scale Randomized Controlled Trial with 4th Graders Using Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy to Improve Nonfiction Reading Comprehension.” What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined the effects of a web-based tutoring program, “Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy” (“ITSS”), on the reading comprehension of fourth-grade students in language arts classrooms. The analysis included 1,875 to 2,371 fourth-grade students from 100 to 117 classrooms in Pennsylvania elementary schools…

  18. Phonological Awareness and Speech Comprehensibility: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatagiri, H. S.; Levis, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether differences in phonological awareness were related to differences in speech comprehensibility. Seventeen adults who learned English as a foreign language (EFL) in academic settings completed 14 tests of phonological awareness that measured their explicit knowledge of English phonological structures, and three tests of…

  19. Persistent Structural Priming from Language Comprehension to Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Kathryn; Dell, Gary S.; Chang, Franklin; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relationship between syntactic processes in language comprehension and language production, we compared structural persistence from sentence primes that speakers heard to persistence from primes that speakers produced. [Bock, J. K., & Griffin, Z. M. (2000). The persistence of structural priming: transient activation or implicit…

  20. Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution. PMID:18609404

  1. Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Effect of Argument-Structure Complexity on Auditory Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzioli, Fabrizio; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne

    2011-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) demonstrate consistent comprehension problems. The present study investigated whether these problems are driven primarily by structural complexity or length. A picture-sentence matching task was presented to 30 children: (1) 10 children with SLI, (2) 10 comprehension-matched children with typical…

  2. Exploring Mediating Effect of Metacognitive Awareness on Comprehension of Science Texts through Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Chen, Shin-Feng

    2014-01-01

    This study used a Chinese-language version of the Index of Science Reading Awareness (ISRA) to investigate metacognitive awareness and the Reading Comprehension of Science Test (RCST) to explore comprehension of science text by Taiwanese students. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results confirmed the validity of the underlying models of…

  3. Intervention in Comprehension and Memory Strategies: Knowledge and Use of Text Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Jose A.; Carretero, Mario

    1995-01-01

    A reading comprehension instructional program designed to improve knowledge and use of the text structure was analyzed in two complementary studies involving 72 high school students. Readers trained in the program demonstrated improved comprehension and were able to transfer their knowledge to other texts. (SLD)

  4. Comprehensive Molecular Structure of the Eukaryotic Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Derek J.; Devkota, Batsal; Huang, Andrew D.; Topf, Maya; Narayanan, Eswar; Sali, Andrej; Harvey, Stephen C.; Frank, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Despite the emergence of a large number of X-ray crystallographic models of the bacterial 70S ribosome over the past decade, an accurate atomic model of the eukaryotic 80S ribosome is still not available. Eukaryotic ribosomes possess more ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA than bacterial ribosomes, which are implicated in extra-ribosomal functions in the eukaryotic cells. By combining cryo-EM with RNA and protein homology modeling, we obtained an atomic model of the yeast 80S ribosome complete with all ribosomal RNA expansion segments and all ribosomal proteins for which a structural homolog can be identified. Mutation or deletion of 80S ribosomal proteins can abrogate maturation of the ribosome, leading to several human diseases. We have localized one such protein unique to eukaryotes, rpS19e, whose mutations are associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia in humans. Additionally, we characterize crucial and novel interactions between the dynamic stalk base of the ribosome with eukaryotic elongation factor 2. PMID:20004163

  5. Reading Comprehension and Understanding Idiomatic Expressions: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiara Levorato, Maria; Nesi, Barbara; Cacciari, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a…

  6. The Multidimensional Structure of Verbal Comprehension Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Zimra

    1984-01-01

    The multidimensional structure of verbal comprehension test items was investigated. Empirical evidence was provided to support the theory that item tasks are multivariate-multiordered composites of faceted components: language, contextual knowledge, and cognitive operation. Linear and circular properties of cylindrical manifestation were…

  7. Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollenbach, Carolyn

    1986-01-01

    Teaching comprehension skills requires teaching to intuition with activities such as presenting puzzling situations to introduce a topic, using art to elicit latent feelings, using imagery and improvisations to enhance visualization, and using music and dance to encourage nonverbal expressions. (DB)

  8. Prediction in Language Comprehension beyond Specific Words: An ERP Study on Sentence Comprehension in Polish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szewczyk, Jakub M.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several ERP studies have shown that the human language comprehension system anticipates words that are highly likely continuations of a given text. However, it remains an open issue whether the language comprehension system can also make predictions that go beyond a specific word. Here, we address the question of whether readers predict…

  9. A Program Based on the Pragmatic Theory to Develop Grammatical Structure Comprehension Skills for Foreign Learners of Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsamman, Marwan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at designing a program based on the Pragmatic theory to develop grammatical structure comprehension skills for foreign learners of Arabic and examining its effectiveness. Hence, the problem of the study has been summarized in the weakness of grammatical structure comprehension skills for foreign learners of Arabic and in the need…

  10. The Effects of Text Structure Instruction on Expository Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Michael; Bohaty, Janet J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Brown, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In this meta-analysis of 45 studies involving students in Grades 2-12, the authors present evidence on the effects of text structure instruction on the expository reading comprehension of students. The meta-analysis was deigned to answer 2 sets of questions. The first set of questions examined the effectiveness of text structure instruction on…

  11. Are Models Easier to Understand than Code? An Empirical Study on Comprehension of Entity-Relationship (ER) Models vs. Structured Query Language (SQL) Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Pablo; Zorrilla, Marta; Duque, Rafael; Nieto-Reyes, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    Models in Software Engineering are considered as abstract representations of software systems. Models highlight relevant details for a certain purpose, whereas irrelevant ones are hidden. Models are supposed to make system comprehension easier by reducing complexity. Therefore, models should play a key role in education, since they would ease the…

  12. Novel serine-based gemini surfactants as chemical permeation enhancers of local anesthetics: A comprehensive study on structure-activity relationships, molecular dynamics and dermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Raquel S; Cova, Tânia F G G; Silva, Sérgio M C; Oliveira, Rita; do Vale, M Luísa C; Marques, Eduardo F; Pais, Alberto A C C; Veiga, Francisco J B

    2015-06-01

    This work aims at studying the efficacy of a series of novel biocompatible, serine-based surfactants as chemical permeation enhancers for two different local anesthetics, tetracaine and ropivacaine, combining an experimental and computational approach. The surfactants consist of gemini molecules structurally related, but with variations in headgroup charge (nonionic vs. cationic) and in the hydrocarbon chain lengths (main and spacer chains). In vitro permeation and molecular dynamics studies combined with cytotoxicity profiles were performed to investigate the permeation of both drugs, probe skin integrity, and rationalize the interactions at molecular level. Results show that these enhancers do not have significant deleterious effects on the skin structure and do not cause relevant changes on cell viability. Permeation across the skin is clearly improved using some of the selected serine-based gemini surfactants, namely the cationic ones with long alkyl chains and shorter spacer. This is noteworthy in the case of ropivacaine hydrochloride, which is not easily administered through the stratum corneum. Molecular dynamics results provide a mechanistic view of the surfactant action on lipid membranes that essentially corroborate the experimental observations. Overall, this study suggests the viability of these serine-based surfactants as suitable and promising delivery agents in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25748796

  13. A comprehensive alanine-scanning mutagenesis study reveals roles for salt bridges in the structure and activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase.

    PubMed

    Bian, Fei; Yue, Shousong; Peng, Zhenying; Zhang, Xiaowei; Chen, Gao; Yu, Jinhui; Xuan, Ning; Bi, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between salt bridges and stability/enzymatic activity is unclear. We studied this relationship by systematic alanine-scanning mutation analysis using the typical M4 family metalloprotease Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (PAE, also known as pseudolysin) as a model. Structural analysis revealed seven salt bridges in the PAE structure. We constructed ten mutants for six salt bridges. Among these mutants, six (Asp189Ala, Arg179Ala, Asp201Ala, Arg205Ala, Arg245Ala and Glu249Ala) were active and four (Asp168Ala, Arg198Ala, Arg253Ala, and Arg279Ala) were inactive. Five mutants were purified, and their catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km), half-lives (t1/2) and thermal unfolding curves were compared with those of PAE. Mutants Asp189Ala and Arg179Ala both showed decreased thermal stabilities and increased activities, suggesting that the salt bridge Asp189-Arg179 stabilizes the protein at the expense of catalytic efficiency. In contrast, mutants Asp201Ala and Arg205Ala both showed slightly increased thermal stability and slightly decreased activity, suggesting that the salt bridge Asp201-Arg205 destabilizes the protein. Mutant Glu249Ala is related to a C-terminal salt bridge network and showed both decreased thermal stability and decreased activity. Furthermore, Glu249Ala showed a thermal unfolding curve with three discernable states [the native state (N), the partially unfolded state (I) and the unfolded state (U)]. In comparison, there were only two discernable states (N and U) in the thermal unfolding curve of PAE. These results suggest that Glu249 is important for catalytic efficiency, stability and unfolding cooperativity. This study represents a systematic mutational analyses of salt bridges in the model metalloprotease PAE and provides important insights into the structure-function relationship of enzymes. PMID:25815820

  14. Comprehensive study on the structure of the BSA from extended-to aged form in wide (2-12) pH range.

    PubMed

    Varga, N; Hornok, V; Sebők, D; Dékány, I

    2016-07-01

    In this work we studied the structure of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the protein-ligand interactions since researchers prefer to use them as carriers in drug delivery systems. Systematic study (between pH 2-12, in double distilled water and physiological salt solution) was carried out to determine the changes in the secondary and the tertiary structures of the BSA, the apparent molecular weight (Mw), the size (dLS) and the electrokinetic potential (ζ). At pH 7, the BSA has higher stability in the absence (ζ=-69mV, dLS=2.2nm, A2=1.4×10(-3)mlmol/g(2)) than in the presence of salt solution (ζ=-2.4mV, dLS=5.3nm, A2=-3.2×10(-4)mlmol/g(2)). The Mw strongly depends on the pH and the ionic strength (at pH 3 in the absence of salt, the Mw is 54.6kDa while in the presence of salt is 114kDa) which determines the geometry of the protein. The protein-ligand interactions were characterized by fluorescence (FL) and isothermal microcalorimetry (ITC) methods; these independent techniques provided similar thermodynamic parameters such as the binding constant (K) and the Gibbs free energy (ΔG). PMID:26995614

  15. An Intervention to Improve Comprehension of Cause/Effect through Expository Text Structure Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna P.; Pollini, Simonne; Nubla-Kung, Abigail M.; Snyder, Anne E.; Garcia, Amaya; Ordynans, Jill G.; Atkins, J. Grant

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention for second graders at risk for academic failure, which taught reading comprehension embedded in social studies content. The intervention included instruction about the structure of cause/effect expository text, emphasizing clue words, generic questions, graphic organizers, and close…

  16. Agrammatism in sentence production without comprehension deficits: reduced availability of syntactic structures and/or of grammatical morphemes? A case study.

    PubMed

    Nespoulous, J L; Dordain, M; Perron, C; Ska, B; Bub, D; Caplan, D; Mehler, J; Lecours, A R

    1988-03-01

    A French-speaking patient with Broca's aphasia--following a left-hemisphere lesion involving the sylvian region but sparing Broca's area--is presented. Like G. Miceli, A. Mazzuchi, L. Menn, and H. Goodglass's (1983, Brain and Language, 19, 65-97) case 2, this patient produces agrammatic speech in the absence of any comprehension deficit. Unlike Miceli's patient, though, agrammatic speech can be observed in all sentence production tasks (from spontaneous speech to repetition, oral reading, and writing) whereas production of individual words--be they open class or closed class--is almost always intact. On the basis of extensive (psycho)linguistic testing, it is argued that this patient's deficit is not central and not crucially syntactic (at least) at the level of knowledge but seems to disrupt specifically those (automatic?) processes responsible for both retrieval and production of free-standing grammatical morphemes whenever they have to be inserted into phrases and sentences. PMID:3359172

  17. Towards a comprehensive assessment of model structural adequacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Hoshin V.; Clark, Martyn P.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Abramowitz, Gab; Ye, Ming

    2012-08-01

    The past decade has seen significant progress in characterizing uncertainty in environmental systems models, through statistical treatment of incomplete knowledge regarding parameters, model structure, and observational data. Attention has now turned to the issue of model structural adequacy (MSA, a term we prefer over model structure "error"). In reviewing philosophical perspectives from the groundwater, unsaturated zone, terrestrial hydrometeorology, and surface water communities about how to model the terrestrial hydrosphere, we identify several areas where different subcommunities can learn from each other. In this paper, we (a) propose a consistent and systematic "unifying conceptual framework" consisting of five formal steps for comprehensive assessment of MSA; (b) discuss the need for a pluralistic definition of adequacy; (c) investigate how MSA has been addressed in the literature; and (d) identify four important issues that require detailed attention—structured model evaluation, diagnosis of epistemic cause, attention to appropriate model complexity, and a multihypothesis approach to inference. We believe that there exists tremendous scope to collectively improve the scientific fidelity of our models and that the proposed framework can help to overcome barriers to communication. By doing so, we can make better progress toward addressing the question "How can we use data to detect, characterize, and resolve model structural inadequacies?"

  18. Study on comprehensive utilization of secondary resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lihua, G.; Ruilu, L.

    1995-12-31

    In light of the properties on process mineralogy of the old tailings in a certain copper mine in the People`s Republic of China, a new process of combined reagent and stepwise flotation is applied in which the flotation of copper sulfides is followed by the flotation of copper oxides. Recoveries of copper and associated gold and silver have been greatly increased. The tailings obtained were subjected to the gravitational separation-magnetic separation process to recover iron minerals. Tailings from iron separation are taken as fillers and sent to the pit underground. Thus, the secondary resources are comprehensively utilized.

  19. 75 FR 9488 - Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... on December 7, 2007 (72 FR 69288). In an effort to refine the Basel II Capital Accord, the Basel... Office of Thrift Supervision Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study AGENCY: Office of Thrift... collection. Title of Proposal: Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW....

  20. Over-Specified Referring Expressions Impair Comprehension: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Demiral, S. Baris; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often include extra information when producing referring expressions, which is inconsistent with the Maxim of Quantity (Grice, 1975). In this study, we investigated how comprehension is affected by unnecessary information. The literature is mixed: some studies have found that extra information facilitates comprehension and others reported…

  1. Structure of hydrous aluminosilicate glasses along the diopside anorthite join: A comprehensive one- and two-dimensional 1H and 27Al NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xianyu; Kanzaki, Masami

    2008-05-01

    We have taken a systematic approach utilizing advanced solid-state NMR techniques to gain new insights into the controversial issue concerning the dissolution mechanisms of water in aluminosilicate melts (glasses). A series of quenched anhydrous and hydrous (˜2 wt% H 2O) glass samples along the diopside (Di, CaMgSi 2O 6)—anorthite (An, CaAl 2Si 2O 8) join with varying An components (0, 20, 38, 60, 80, and 100 mol %) have been studied. A variety of NMR techniques, including one-dimensional (1D) 1H and 27Al MAS NMR, and 27Al → 1H cross-polarization (CP) MAS NMR, as well as two-dimensional (2D) 1H double-quantum (DQ) MAS NMR, 27Al triple-quantum (3Q) MAS NMR, and 27Al → 1H heteronuclear correlation NMR (HETCOR) and 3QMAS/HETCOR NMR, have been applied. These data revealed the presence of SiOH, free OH ((Ca,Mg)OH) and AlOH species in the hydrous glasses, with the last mostly interconnected with Si and residing in the more polymerized parts of the structure. Thus, there are no fundamental differences in water dissolution mechanisms for Al-free and Al-bearing silicate melts (glasses), both involving two competing processes: the formation of SiOH/AlOH that is accompanied by the depolymerization of the network structure, and the formation of free OH that has an opposite effect. The latter is more important for depolymerized compositions corresponding to mafic and ultramafic magmas. Aluminum is dominantly present in four coordination (Al IV), but a small amount of five-coordinate Al (Al V) is also observed in all the anhydrous and hydrous glasses. Furthermore, six-coordinate Al (Al VI) is also present in most of the hydrous glasses. As Al of higher coordinations are favored by high pressure, Al VIOH and Al VOH may become major water species at higher pressures corresponding to those of the Earth's mantle.

  2. Instruction in Reading Comprehension for Primary-Grade Students: "A Focus on Text Structure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna P.

    2005-01-01

    The studies described here are designed to teach reading comprehension to at-risk students in the second and third grades. The focus is on text structure. First, there is an evaluation of a program that teaches students to identify themes of stories and apply those themes to real life; this instruction goes beyond the plot-level focus of typical…

  3. Structures of Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Use for Reading Comprehension of Geometry Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kai-Lin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored the structural relationship between the students' perceived use of cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies (CMRS) and their reading comprehension of geometry proof (RCGP), and we also examined the differences in students' perceived use of reading strategies among the poor, moderate and good comprehenders. A sample…

  4. Comprehension and retention: The effect of concrete details and causal structure in scientific narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcken, Wendi M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine two of the salient elements of instructional narratives as a guide to instructional practice. The literature summarized in this report discusses the theoretical basis for narrative impact on comprehension and retention, enumerates and defines possible salient narrative elements from the literature, and examines the instructional impact of two of these elements: concrete details and causal structure. This is intended to help provide guidance to instructional designers and teachers who desire to use narrative in science instruction. Participants included 94 high school physics students. An experimental research design of 2 (Gender) x 2 (Concreteness) x 2 (Causal Structure) x 2 (Comprehension as within-subjects) ANCOVA was used to analyze the effects of the narrative elements. It was found that concrete details improved comprehension and retention but that causal structure had no statistically significant impact on comprehension or retention. There were no significant gender differences in comprehension or retention though there were two- and three-way interactions between the independent variables.

  5. The Effect of Accent on Listening Comprehension: A Singapore Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, George K.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted at Nanyang University in Singapore with Chinese-educated students who supposedly received 12 years of instruction in English but who were still deficient in the language. Comprehension of four different English accents were tested, and two tests of measuring aural comprehension were compared. (SW)

  6. Does Simile Comprehension Differ from Metaphor Comprehension? A Functional MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Midori; Toyomura, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroki; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Since Aristotle, people have believed that metaphors and similes express the same type of figurative meaning, despite the fact that they are expressed with different sentence patterns. In contrast, recent psycholinguistic models have suggested that metaphors and similes may promote different comprehension processes. In this study, we investigated…

  7. Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Written Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, David

    2004-01-01

    Sentences convey relationships between the meanings of words, such as who is accomplishing an action or receiving it. Functional neuroimaging based on positron-emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging has been used to identify areas of the brain involved in structuring sentences and determining aspects of meaning associated…

  8. A comprehensive study of the magnetic, structural, and transport properties of the III-V ferromagnetic semiconductor InMnP

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, M.; Hübner, R.; Baehtz, C.; Skorupa, W.; Zhou, Shengqiang; Gao, Kun; Helm, M.; Weschke, E.; Gordan, O.; Salvan, G.; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2015-01-28

    The manganese induced magnetic, electrical, and structural modification in InMnP epilayers, prepared by Mn ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing, are investigated in the following work. All samples exhibit clear hysteresis loops and strong spin polarization at the Fermi level. The degree of magnetization, the Curie temperature, and the spin polarization depend on the Mn concentration. The bright-field transmission electron micrographs show that InP samples become almost amorphous after Mn implantation but recrystallize after pulsed laser annealing. We did not observe an insulator-metal transition in InMnP up to a Mn concentration of 5 at. %. Instead all InMnP samples show insulating characteristics up to the lowest measured temperature. Magnetoresistance results obtained at low temperatures support the hopping conduction mechanism in InMnP. We find that the Mn impurity band remains detached from the valence band in InMnP up to 5 at. % Mn doping. Our findings indicate that the local environment of Mn ions in InP is similar to GaMnAs, GaMnP, and InMnAs; however, the electrical properties of these Mn implanted III-V compounds are different. This is one of the consequences of the different Mn binding energy in these compounds.

  9. Spectroscopic analysis of small organic molecules: A comprehensive near-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure study of C{sub 6}-ring-containing molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kolczewski, C.; Puettner, R.; Martins, M.; Schlachter, A.S.; Snell, G.; Sant'Anna, M.M.; Hermann, K.; Kaindl, G.

    2006-01-21

    We report high-resolution C 1s near-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectra of the C{sub 6}-ring-containing molecules benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}), 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}), cyclohexene (C{sub 6}H{sub 10}), cyclohexane (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}), styrene (C{sub 8}H{sub 8}), and ethylbenzene (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}) which allow us to examine the gradual development of delocalization of the corresponding {pi} electron systems. Due to the high experimental resolution, vibrational progressions can be partly resolved in the spectra. The experimental spectra are compared with theoretical NEXAFS spectra obtained from density-functional theory calculations where electronic final-state relaxation is accounted for. The comparison yields very good agreement between theoretical spectra and experimental results. In all cases, the spectra can be described by excitations to {pi}*- and {sigma}*-type final-state orbitals with valence character, while final-state orbitals of Rydberg character make only minor contributions. The lowest C 1s{yields}1{pi}* excitation energy is found to agree in the (experimental and theoretical) spectra of all molecules except for 1,3-cyclohexadiene (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}) where an energy smaller by about 0.6 eV is obtained. The theoretical analysis can explain this result by different binding properties of this molecule compared to the others.

  10. 78 FR 61844 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ...The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is requesting peer reviewed information that would be useful in the preparation of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (Hurricane Sandy). The USACE is preparing a report that will be submitted to Congress in 2015. The goals of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study authorized under the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, Public Law 113-2......

  11. (Pea)nuts and bolts of visual narrative: Structure and meaning in sequential image comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Neil; Paczynski, Martin; Jackendoff, Ray; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2012-01-01

    Just as syntax differentiates coherent sentences from scrambled word strings, the comprehension of sequential images must also use a cognitive system to distinguish coherent narrative sequences from random strings of images. We conducted experiments analogous to two classic studies of language processing to examine the contributions of narrative structure and semantic relatedness to processing sequential images. We compared four types of comic strips: 1) Normal sequences with both structure and meaning, 2) Semantic Only sequences (in which the panels were related to a common semantic theme, but had no narrative structure), 3) Structural Only sequences (narrative structure but no semantic relatedness), and 4) Scrambled sequences of randomly-ordered panels. In Experiment 1, participants monitored for target panels in sequences presented panel-by-panel. Reaction times were slowest to panels in Scrambled sequences, intermediate in both Structural Only and Semantic Only sequences, and fastest in Normal sequences. This suggests that both semantic relatedness and narrative structure offer advantages to processing. Experiment 2 measured ERPs to all panels across the whole sequence. The N300/N400 was largest to panels in both the Scrambled and Structural Only sequences, intermediate in Semantic Only sequences and smallest in the Normal sequences. This implies that a combination of narrative structure and semantic relatedness can facilitate semantic processing of upcoming panels (as reflected by the N300/N400). Also, panels in the Scrambled sequences evoked a larger left-lateralized anterior negativity than panels in the Structural Only sequences. This localized effect was distinct from the N300/N400, and appeared despite the fact that these two sequence types were matched on local semantic relatedness between individual panels. These findings suggest that sequential image comprehension uses a narrative structure that may be independent of semantic relatedness. Altogether

  12. Enhancing Student Comprehension of Social Studies Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, M. Priscilla; Savage, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Social studies is an information-laden subject, with much of the required information in textbooks. Although text-books are only one medium for learning social studies content, it is the dominant resource in most classrooms. Years ago, Goodlad (1984) found that textbook reading assignments were one of the most common instructional approaches used…

  13. Comparison of Rotor Structural Loads Calculated using Comprehensive Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo

    2005-01-01

    Blade flap and chord bending and torsion moments are investigated for six rotors operating at transition and high speed: H-34 in flight and wind tunnel, SA 330 (research Puma), SA 349/2, UH-60A full-scale, and BO- 105 model (HART-I). The measured data from flight and wind tunnel tests are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. The calculations were made using two free wake models: rolled-up and multiple-trailer with consolidation models. At transition speed, there is fair to good agreement for the flap and chord bending moments between the test data and analysis for the H-34, research Puma, and SA 349/2. Torsion moment correlation, in general, is fair to good for all the rotors investigated. Better flap bending and torsion moment correlation is obtained for the UH-60A and BO-105 rotors by using the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model. In the high speed condition, the analysis shows generally better correlation in magnitude than in phase for the flap bending and torsion moments. However, a significant underprediction of chord bending moment is observed for the research Puma and UH-60A. The poor chord bending moment correlation appears to be caused by the airloads model, not the structural dynamics.

  14. Comprehensive Institutional Planning: Studies in Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armijo, Frank; And Others

    Case studies that describe the attempts of three colleges to improve institutional academic and program planning are presented. The institutions--Willamette University, Lorain County (Ohio) Community College (LCCC), and Ohio University--attempted to adapt and implement the planning process described in "A Handbook for Institutional Academic and…

  15. Comprehensive solar cell modeling and correlation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamorte, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Modeling and correlation studies of solar cells was discussed. Recursive relationships were used to generate solutions at a number of mesh points within the emitter region. Photoexcited hole concentration and built-in electric field were calculated as a function of position. Simulated and experimentally determined I-V curves were shown to have good fit.

  16. A Comprehensive Study of Underground Animals Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klokov, A. V.; Zapasnoy, A. S.; Mironchev, A. S.; Yakubov, V. P.; Shipilova, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method of studying the natural habitats of underground animals by the example of zokor. The purpose of the research is to find habitation of animals using unmanned aircraft and investigate networks of tunnels and burrows with ground penetrating radar "OKO-2". Geolocation data were processed by techniques developed by the authors.

  17. Transmucosal delivery of metformin- a comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Sushma, M; Raju, Y Prasanna; Sundaresan, C R; Vandana, K R; Kumar, N Vijay; Chowdary, V Harini

    2014-01-01

    Discovered in the 1920s, the biguanide metformin hydrochloride is still the first line drug in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin hydrochloride is absorbed slowly and incompletely from the gastrointestinal tract. The present research work was undertaken with the aim of developing a fast dissolving film of metformin hydrochloride, suitable for oral trans mucosal administration. Fast dissolving films allow rapid drug dissolution in the oral cavity, ensuring bypass of first pass metabolism resulting in rapid absorption. Films of metformin were prepared by solvent casting method using Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K15 (HPMC). Six formulations (F1-F6) of metformin hydrochloride were prepared and evaluated for their physical characteristics such as tackiness, thickness, tensile strength, elongation, weight variation, folding endurance, drug content and surface pH. The compatibility of the drug with HPMC was confirmed by FTIR studies. The formulations were subjected to disintegration, in-vitro drug release and the optimised formulation was evaluated for pharmacodynamic studies in diabetic rats. Among the formulations (F1-F6) F4 was found to be the best formulation which contained Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K15 at weight ratios of 1:4 and showed excellent film forming characteristics such as disintegration time at 42 sec and percentage drug release of 94.2% within 5 minutes. Pharmacodynamic assessment in diabetes induced rats demonstrated that the fast dissolving films of metformin had a quicker onset of action compared to conventional formulation. PMID:23848354

  18. Developing Self-Monitored Comprehension Strategies through Argument Structure Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To-Dutka, Julia

    1991-01-01

    Describes teaching an approach to clarifying relationships among ideas in texts (based on S. Toulmin's model of argument analysis) which helps students move from teacher-directed classroom reading to independent self-monitored comprehension. (SR)

  19. Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Wanzek, Jeanne; Stillman-Spisak, Stephanie J.; Solis, Michael; Simmons, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a content acquisition and reading comprehension treatment implemented by eighth-grade social studies teachers. Using a within-teacher design, the eighth-grade teachers' social studies classes were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison conditions. Teachers (n = 5) taught the same instructional…

  20. Neural mechanisms of discourse comprehension: a human lesion study

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Discourse comprehension is a hallmark of human social behaviour and refers to the act of interpreting a written or spoken message by constructing mental representations that integrate incoming language with prior knowledge and experience. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 145) that investigates the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension (measured by the Discourse Comprehension Test) and systematically examine its relation to a broad range of psychological factors, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores obtained from these factors were submitted to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory and extraversion reliably predict individual differences in discourse comprehension: higher working memory scores and lower extraversion levels predict better discourse comprehension performance. Lesion mapping results indicated that these convergent variables depend on a shared network of frontal and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of discourse comprehension, suggesting that core elements of discourse processing emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for executive and social function. PMID:24293267

  1. Neural mechanisms of discourse comprehension: a human lesion study.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Discourse comprehension is a hallmark of human social behaviour and refers to the act of interpreting a written or spoken message by constructing mental representations that integrate incoming language with prior knowledge and experience. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 145) that investigates the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension (measured by the Discourse Comprehension Test) and systematically examine its relation to a broad range of psychological factors, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores obtained from these factors were submitted to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory and extraversion reliably predict individual differences in discourse comprehension: higher working memory scores and lower extraversion levels predict better discourse comprehension performance. Lesion mapping results indicated that these convergent variables depend on a shared network of frontal and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of discourse comprehension, suggesting that core elements of discourse processing emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for executive and social function. PMID:24293267

  2. Report of the Comprehensive Service Needs Study. [Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Inst., Washington, DC.

    Presented is the report of the comprehensive service needs study for the severely handicapped as authorized by section 130 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Chapters focus on the following aspects of the study: definitions; the vocational rehabilitation (VR) system; estimates of the severely disabled population not in institutions; the most…

  3. 78 FR 36753 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ..., considering future sea-level rise and climate change scenarios. In addition, the Comprehensive Study will... of green infrastructure and ecosystem goods and services, regional sediment management and climate change and sea-level rise considerations. Additional information and a study area map may be found...

  4. On the Factor Structure of a Reading Comprehension Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the construct validly of a section of a high stakes test, an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis was employed. The rotation used was varimax with the suppression level of 0.30. Eleven factors were extracted out of 35 reading comprehension items. The fact that these factors emerged speak to the construct…

  5. Memory Operations and Structures in Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Ellipsis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrea Eyleen

    2010-01-01

    Natural language often contains dependencies that span words, phrases, or even sentences. Thus, language comprehension relies on recovering recently processed information from memory for subsequent interpretation. This dissertation investigates the memory operations that subserve dependency resolution through the lens of "verb-phrase ellipsis"…

  6. Connecting Primary Health Care: A Comprehensive Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudloo, Mehran; Abolhassani, Farid; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-01

    The collection of data within the primary health care facilities in Iran is essentially paper-based. It is focused on family's health, monitoring of non-infectious and infectious diseases. Clearly due to the paper-based nature of the tasks, timely decision making at most can be difficult if not impossible. As part of an on-going electronic health record implementation project at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for the first time in the region, based on a comprehensive pilot project, four urban healthcare facilities are connected to their headquarters and beyond, covering all aspects of primary health care, for the last four years. Without delving into the technical aspects of its software engineering processes, the progress of the implementation is reported, selection of summarized data is presented, and experience gained thus far are discussed. Four years passed and if time is any important reason to go by, then it is safe to accept that the software architecture and electronic health record structural model implemented are robust and yet extensible. Aims and duration of a pilot study should be clearly defined prior to start and managed till its completion. Resistance to change and particularly to information technology, apart from its technical aspects, is also based on human factors. PMID:27424015

  7. Student Achievement Outcomes Comprehensive School Reform: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a third-party study of the student achievement effects of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform (CSR). The design was a quasiexperimental, pre-post matched sample (N = 180) with school as unit of analysis, drawing on 3 years of achievement data from standardized external assessments.…

  8. Ciclo Basico Polivalente (Basic Comprehensive Courses of Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of comprehensive secondary schools in Argentina to meet the diversified goals of the population in any given geographical region. The plan described here provides for the creation of several basic-study cycles within one school so that students may pursue courses in commercial, technical, and academic fields.…

  9. Reading Comprehension across Different Genres: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubawski, Michael; Sheehan, Caitlyn

    2010-01-01

    Reading comprehension is often a forgotten skill in secondary classrooms. Teachers of older students assign readings of different styles and levels, but don't teach the skills necessary to process different kinds of texts. This study examined which strategies are effective in giving students the skills necessary to read for understanding by…

  10. Teaching Comprehension and Study Strategies through Modeling and Thinking Aloud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Kate

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on three ideas pertaining to modeling and thinking aloud, presents examples of how the processes can be applied to teaching both text comprehension and study strategies to college developmental readers, and discusses reasons for using modeling and thinking aloud in the classroom. (FL)

  11. A Comprehensive Developmental Studies Program for International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogger, Barbara

    A comprehensive developmental studies program was initiated during Fall 1980 at Navarro College to help Micronesian and other international students become acquainted with American culture and to assist them in the areas of basic skills development, English as a second language (ESL), and career planning. The program offered a special course…

  12. Abstract linguistic structure correlates with temporal activity during naturalistic comprehension.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Jonathan R; Stabler, Edward P; Van Wagenen, Sarah E; Luh, Wen-Ming; Hale, John T

    2016-01-01

    Neurolinguistic accounts of sentence comprehension identify a network of relevant brain regions, but do not detail the information flowing through them. We investigate syntactic information. Does brain activity implicate a computation over hierarchical grammars or does it simply reflect linear order, as in a Markov chain? To address this question, we quantify the cognitive states implied by alternative parsing models. We compare processing-complexity predictions from these states against fMRI timecourses from regions that have been implicated in sentence comprehension. We find that hierarchical grammars independently predict timecourses from left anterior and posterior temporal lobe. Markov models are predictive in these regions and across a broader network that includes the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that while linear effects are wide-spread across the language network, certain areas in the left temporal lobe deal with abstract, hierarchical syntactic representations. PMID:27208858

  13. Investigating the Contributions of Background Knowledge and Reading Comprehension Strategies to L2 Reading Comprehension: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Levi

    2011-01-01

    While a number of studies have investigated the influence of background knowledge and reading comprehension strategies on comprehension, no L2 research exists examining and comparing the unique contributions of these two variables examined together. Therefore, the purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the combined and individual…

  14. On the Parity of Structural Persistence in Language Production and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Tooley, Kristen M.; Bock, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Structural priming creates structural persistence. That is, differences in experience with syntax can change subsequent language performance, and the changes can be observed in both language production and comprehension. However, the effects in comprehension and production appear to differ. In comprehension, persistence is typically found when the verbs are the same in primes and targets; in production, persistence occurs without verb overlap. The contrast suggests a theoretically important hypothesis: parsing in comprehension is lexically driven while formulation in production is structurally driven. A major weakness in this hypothesis about comprehension-production differences is that its empirical motivation rests on the outcomes of experiments in which the priming manipulations differ, the primed sentence structures differ, and the measures of priming differ. To sharpen the comparison, we examined structural persistence with and without verb overlap in both reading comprehension and spoken production, using the same prime presentation procedure, the same syntactic structures, the same sentences, and the same participants. These methods yielded abstract sructural persistence in comprehension as well as production. A measure of the strength of persistence revealed significant effects of priming and verb overlap without significant comprehension—production differences. This argues for uniformity in the structural mechanisms of language processing. PMID:24803423

  15. Correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among participants enrolled in a cohort study in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Joglekar, Neelam S.; Deshpande, Swapna S.; Sahay, Seema; Ghate, Manisha V.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Mehendale, Sanjay M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Optimum comprehension of informed consent by research participants is essential yet challenging. This study explored correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among 1334 participants of a cohort study aimed at estimating HIV incidence in Pune, India. Methods As part of the informed consent process, a structured comprehension tool was administered to study participants. Participants scoring ≥90% were categorised into the ‘optimal comprehension group’, whilst those scoring 80–89% were categorised into the ‘lower comprehension group’. Data were analysed to identify sociodemographic and behavioural correlates of lower consent comprehension. Results The mean ± SD comprehension score was 94.4 ± 5.00%. Information pertaining to study-related risks was not comprehended by 61.7% of participants. HIV-negative men (adjusted OR [AOR] = 4.36, 95% CI 1.71–11.05) or HIV-negative women (AOR = 13.54, 95% CI 6.42–28.55), illiteracy (AOR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.19–2.30), those with a history of multiple partners (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.66) and those never using condoms (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.01–1.82) were more likely to have lower consent comprehension. Conclusions We recommend exploration of domains of lower consent comprehension using a validated consent comprehension tool. Improved education in these specific domains would optimise consent comprehension among research participants. PMID:24029848

  16. Word Order and Information Structure in Czech 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolík, Filip

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment that examined the comprehension of transitive sentences in Czech children and its relationship to case marking, word order and information structure. A total of 107 Czech children aged 2;9-4;5 were tested for comprehension of noun-verb-noun sentences in which word order and given-new status of individual nouns…

  17. Traffic sign symbol comprehension: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Shinar, David; Dewar, Robert; Summala, Heikki; Zakowska, Lidia

    2003-12-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the comprehension levels of highway traffic sign symbols used in different countries, to identify underlying rules that affect comprehension levels, and recommend approaches to deal with the problem. The need for such an evaluation was based on today's travel culture where people are often licensed in one country and then drive--without any further training--in another country. We compared the comprehension levels of different traffic sign symbols in four countries with moderate to high levels of motorization: Canada, Finland, Israel, and Poland. Five different driver populations were sampled in each country: novice drivers, college students, tourists, problem drivers, and older drivers. There were large differences in comprehension among specific sign messages, different countries, and different driver populations. Signs were comprehended best when they were consistent with general ergonomic guidelines for display design as they relate to spatial compatibility, conceptual compatibility, physical representation, familiarity, and standardization. Illustrations of compliance with these principles and violations of these principles are presented, and their implication for traffic safety are discussed. Specific recommendations for sign design that is compliant with ergonomic principles, and for greater international cooperation in sign symbol design are made. PMID:14668174

  18. Enhancing Reading Comprehension among Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Catherine; Dion, Eric; Barrette, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Reading with comprehension is a challenge for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Unfortunately, research has little to offer to teachers trying to help these students. The present study pilots a new intervention targeting vocabulary, main idea identification, anaphoric relations, and text structure. Students (N = 13, M…

  19. The Acquisition of Pronouns by French Children: A Parallel Study of Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesiger, Pascal; Zesiger, Laurence Chillier; Arabatzi, Marina; Baranzini, Lara; Cronel-Ohayon, Stephany; Franck, Julie; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Hamann, Cornelia; Rizzi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines syntactic and morphological aspects of the production and comprehension of pronouns by 99 typically developing French-speaking children aged 3 years, 5 months to 6 years, 5 months. A fine structural analysis of subject, object, and reflexive clitics suggests that whereas the object clitic chain crosses the subject chain, the…

  20. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment and U.S. EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    These case studies are not completed risk assessments but are structured around an approach known as comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA), which combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm (Davis, J.M., J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7:402-9, 2007). ...

  1. A comprehensive update of the sequence and structure classification of kinases

    PubMed Central

    Cheek, Sara; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Zhang, Hong; Grishin, Nick V

    2005-01-01

    Background A comprehensive update of the classification of all available kinases was carried out. This survey presents a complete global picture of this large functional class of proteins and confirms the soundness of our initial kinase classification scheme. Results The new survey found the total number of kinase sequences in the protein database has increased more than three-fold (from 17,310 to 59,402), and the number of determined kinase structures increased two-fold (from 359 to 702) in the past three years. However, the framework of the original two-tier classification scheme (in families and fold groups) remains sufficient to describe all available kinases. Overall, the kinase sequences were classified into 25 families of homologous proteins, wherein 22 families (~98.8% of all sequences) for which three-dimensional structures are known fall into 10 fold groups. These fold groups not only include some of the most widely spread proteins folds, such as the Rossmann-like fold, ferredoxin-like fold, TIM-barrel fold, and antiparallel β-barrel fold, but also all major classes (all α, all β, α+β, α/β) of protein structures. Fold predictions are made for remaining kinase families without a close homolog with solved structure. We also highlight two novel kinase structural folds, riboflavin kinase and dihydroxyacetone kinase, which have recently been characterized. Two protein families previously annotated as kinases are removed from the classification based on new experimental data. Conclusion Structural annotations of all kinase families are now revealed, including fold descriptions for all globular kinases, making this the first large functional class of proteins with a comprehensive structural annotation. Potential uses for this classification include deduction of protein function, structural fold, or enzymatic mechanism of poorly studied or newly discovered kinases based on proteins in the same family. PMID:15771780

  2. HCN Polymers: Toward Structure Comprehension Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Thissen, Roland; Frisari, Ma; Vuitton, Veronique; Quirico, Eric; Le Roy, Léna; Fray, Nicolas; Cottin, Hervé; Horst, Sarah; Yelle, Roger

    A lot of solar system materials, including cometary ices and Titan aerosols, contain dark matter that can be interpreted as complex nitrogen bearing organic matter [1]. In laboratory experi-ments, HCN polymers are thus analogs of great interest. In fact they may be present in Titan atmosphere and in comet nuclei and then reprocessed as a CN distributed source [2], when ices began to sublimate and ejects from the nucleus organic matter grains [3]. The presence of HCN polymers is suggested because HCN molecule has been directly observed in 1P/Halley comet [4] and others. HCN polymers are also of prebiotic interest [5] as it can form amino acid under hydrolysis conditions. Even if they have been studied during the last decades, their chemical composition and structure are still poorly understood, and a great analytical effort has to be continued. In this way we present a high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/HRMS) analysis of HCN polymers. It was shown [6] that this is a suitable technique to elucidate composition and structure of the soluble part of tholins analogs of Titan's atmosphere aerosols. HCN polymers have never been studied by HRMS, thus we used a LTQ-Orbitrap XL high resolution mass spectrometer to analyse the HCN polymers. These are produced at LISA by direct polymerisation of pure liquid HCN, catalyzed by ammonia. HCN polymers have been completely dissolved in methanol and then injected in the mass spectrometer by ElectroSpray Ionization (ESI). This atmospheric pressure ionization process produces protonated or deprotonated ions, but it does not fragment molecules. Thus HRMS, allows a direct access to the stoechiometry of all the ionizable molecules present in the samples. Fragmentation analyses (MS/MS) of selected ions have also been performed. Thess analysis provide information about the different chemical fonctionnalities present in HCN poly-mers and also about their structure. Thus we are able to

  3. Pre-processing in sentence comprehension: Sensitivity to likely upcoming meaning and structure

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, Katherine A.; Troyer, Melissa; Kutas, Marta

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, views of sentence comprehension have been shifting toward wider acceptance of a role for linguistic pre-processing—that is, anticipation, expectancy, (neural) pre-activation, or prediction—of upcoming semantic content and syntactic structure. In this survey, we begin by examining the implications of each of these “brands” of predictive comprehension, including the issue of potential costs and consequences to not encountering highly constrained sentence input. We then describe a number of studies (many using online methodologies) that provide results consistent with prospective sensitivity to various grains and levels of semantic and syntactic information, acknowledging that such pre-processing is likely to occur in other linguistic and extralinguistic domains, as well. This review of anticipatory findings also includes some discussion on the relationship of priming to prediction. We conclude with a brief examination of some possible limits to prediction, and with a suggestion for future work to probe whether and how various strands of prediction may integrate during real-time comprehension.

  4. Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study

    PubMed Central

    Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the “Simple View” of reading. PMID:20814768

  5. Assessment of Comprehensive Analysis Calculation of Structural Loads on Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Blade flap bending moments are investigated for six rotors operating at transition and high speeds: H-34 in flight and wind tunnel, SA 330 (research Puma), SA 349/2, UH-60A full-scale, and BO-105 model (HART-I). The measured data from flight and wind tunnel tests are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. The calculations mere made using two free wake models: rolled-up and multiple-trailer with consolidation models. At transition speed, there is fair to good agreement for the flap bending moment between the test data and analysis for the H-34, research Puma, and SA 349/2 with the rolled-up wake. The calculated flap bending moments differ significantly from measurements for the UH-60A and BO-105. Better correlation is obtained for the UH-60A by using the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model. Although the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model shows good correlation on the normal force for the BO-105, the same analysis shows poor correlation on the flap bending moment. In the high speed condition, the analysis shows generally good agreement with the research Puma flight data in both magnitude and phase. However, poor agreement is obtained for the other rotors examined. Although the analysis significantly underpredicts the vibratory normal force on the advancing side for the H-34, the vibratory bending moment correlation is fair to good on both magnitude and phase.

  6. The Structure of Oral Language and Reading and Their Relation to Comprehension in Kindergarten through Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Herrera, Sarah; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the structure of oral language and reading and their relation to comprehension from a latent variable modeling perspective in Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Participants were students in Kindergarten (n = 218), Grade 1 (n = 372), and Grade 2 (n = 273), attending Title 1 schools. Students were administered phonological…

  7. How to Teach Expository Text Structure to Facilitate Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhondi, Masoumeh; Malayeri, Faramarz Aziz; Samad, Arshad Abd

    2011-01-01

    Expository text offers particular challenges to the reader because of the abstract and unfamiliar concepts that it presents. In order to solve these problems in reading classes, students should be taught the hierarchical structure of the expository text and the interrelationships among ideas. This is what experts in this field refer to as text…

  8. Comprehensive spectral approach for community structure analysis on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danila, Bogdan

    2016-02-01

    A simple but efficient spectral approach for analyzing the community structure of complex networks is introduced. It works the same way for all types of networks, by spectrally splitting the adjacency matrix into a "unipartite" and a "multipartite" component. These two matrices reveal the structure of the network from different perspectives and can be analyzed at different levels of detail. Their entries, or the entries of their lower-rank approximations, provide measures of the affinity or antagonism between the nodes that highlight the communities and the "gateway" links that connect them together. An algorithm is then proposed to achieve the automatic assignment of the nodes to communities based on the information provided by either matrix. This algorithm naturally generates overlapping communities but can also be tuned to eliminate the overlaps.

  9. Development of Comprehensive Modeling Techniques for Smart Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2001-01-01

    A new smart composite laminate model using the coupled thermal-piezoelectric-mechanical (t-p-m) theory is developed to investigate the behavior of multifield coupling due to segmented and distributed piezoelectric actuators. The model addresses structural response under various kinds of loading conditions, mechanical, thermal and electrical. The higher order displacement theory, which can accurately capture the transverse shear effects in the laminated composites, is used to model structural behavior of arbitrary thickness. Thus, the theory has the ability of characterizing in-plane warping and traction free boundary conditions while rendering computational efficiency. To provide more accurate evaluation of coupling effects due to electrical and thermal loading as well as the interaction between all fields, the temperature and electrical fields are modeled using higher order descriptions, which can accurately satisfy the surface boundary conditions of heat flux and electrical potential.

  10. Enhancing Social Studies Vocabulary and Comprehension for 7th Grade English Language Learners: Findings from Two Experimental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Martinez, Leticia R.; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Thompson, Sylvia L.; Franci, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors identified instructional practices associated with improved outcomes for English language learners (ELLs): (1) research-based vocabulary and concept instruction, (2) the use of media to build comprehension and concept knowledge, (3) the use of graphic organizers, and (4) structured peer-pairings. The purpose of our two studies was to…

  11. Comprehensive assessment of cancer missense mutation clustering in protein structures.

    PubMed

    Kamburov, Atanas; Lawrence, Michael S; Polak, Paz; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Lage, Kasper; Golub, Todd R; Lander, Eric S; Getz, Gad

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale tumor sequencing projects enabled the identification of many new cancer gene candidates through computational approaches. Here, we describe a general method to detect cancer genes based on significant 3D clustering of mutations relative to the structure of the encoded protein products. The approach can also be used to search for proteins with an enrichment of mutations at binding interfaces with a protein, nucleic acid, or small molecule partner. We applied this approach to systematically analyze the PanCancer compendium of somatic mutations from 4,742 tumors relative to all known 3D structures of human proteins in the Protein Data Bank. We detected significant 3D clustering of missense mutations in several previously known oncoproteins including HRAS, EGFR, and PIK3CA. Although clustering of missense mutations is often regarded as a hallmark of oncoproteins, we observed that a number of tumor suppressors, including FBXW7, VHL, and STK11, also showed such clustering. Beside these known cases, we also identified significant 3D clustering of missense mutations in NUF2, which encodes a component of the kinetochore, that could affect chromosome segregation and lead to aneuploidy. Analysis of interaction interfaces revealed enrichment of mutations in the interfaces between FBXW7-CCNE1, HRAS-RASA1, CUL4B-CAND1, OGT-HCFC1, PPP2R1A-PPP2R5C/PPP2R2A, DICER1-Mg2+, MAX-DNA, SRSF2-RNA, and others. Together, our results indicate that systematic consideration of 3D structure can assist in the identification of cancer genes and in the understanding of the functional role of their mutations. PMID:26392535

  12. Comprehensive assessment of cancer missense mutation clustering in protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Kamburov, Atanas; Lawrence, Michael S.; Polak, Paz; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Lage, Kasper; Golub, Todd R.; Lander, Eric S.; Getz, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale tumor sequencing projects enabled the identification of many new cancer gene candidates through computational approaches. Here, we describe a general method to detect cancer genes based on significant 3D clustering of mutations relative to the structure of the encoded protein products. The approach can also be used to search for proteins with an enrichment of mutations at binding interfaces with a protein, nucleic acid, or small molecule partner. We applied this approach to systematically analyze the PanCancer compendium of somatic mutations from 4,742 tumors relative to all known 3D structures of human proteins in the Protein Data Bank. We detected significant 3D clustering of missense mutations in several previously known oncoproteins including HRAS, EGFR, and PIK3CA. Although clustering of missense mutations is often regarded as a hallmark of oncoproteins, we observed that a number of tumor suppressors, including FBXW7, VHL, and STK11, also showed such clustering. Beside these known cases, we also identified significant 3D clustering of missense mutations in NUF2, which encodes a component of the kinetochore, that could affect chromosome segregation and lead to aneuploidy. Analysis of interaction interfaces revealed enrichment of mutations in the interfaces between FBXW7-CCNE1, HRAS-RASA1, CUL4B-CAND1, OGT-HCFC1, PPP2R1A-PPP2R5C/PPP2R2A, DICER1-Mg2+, MAX-DNA, SRSF2-RNA, and others. Together, our results indicate that systematic consideration of 3D structure can assist in the identification of cancer genes and in the understanding of the functional role of their mutations. PMID:26392535

  13. [Managing comprehensive care: a case study in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2016-03-01

    This study analyzed management of comprehensive care in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil, at the political, institutional, organizational, and healthcare practice levels and the challenges for establishing coordinated care between municipalities. The information sources were semi-structured interviews with administrators, focal groups with healthcare professionals and users, institutional documents, and observations. A comprehensive and critical analysis was produced with dialectical hermeneutics as the reference. The results show that the Inter-Administrators Regional Commission was the main regional governance strategy. There is a fragmentation between various points and lack of communications linkage in the network. Private interests and partisan political interference overlook the formally agreed-upon flows and create parallel circuits, turning the right to health into currency for trading favors. Such issues hinder coordination of comprehensive care in the inter-municipal network. PMID:27027458

  14. Structured Strategy Instruction: Investigating an Intervention for Improving Sixth-Graders' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorzman, Emma M.; Cheek, Earl H.

    2004-01-01

    Little empirical evidence supporting various instructional strategies for teaching reading comprehension exists. Because difficulties with comprehension are intensified as students reach the intermediate grades, it is essential that middle school educators provide research-based instruction. This study examined the effectiveness of the Directed…

  15. Russian Advanced Preparatory Course: Comprehensive Review of Structural Patterns. Volume 1, Lessons 1-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the first of two volumes dealing with a comprehensive review of structural patterns in the "Advanced Preparatory Course." All essential grammatical structures introduced in the "Basic Course" are included. The textual material in the 20 lessons is designed to stimulate recall and reinforce previously learned grammatical patterns. The…

  16. The Comprehension Processes and Memory Structures Involved in Anaphoric Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    1980-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the inferencing processes involved in anaphoric reference. Results show that an anaphora activates both its referent and concepts when in the same proposition as the referent, and that all three, when in the same proposition, are connected in the long-term representation of a text. (PJM)

  17. Task-dependency and structure-dependency in number interference effects in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Franck, Julie; Colonna, Saveria; Rizzi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We report three experiments on French that explore number mismatch effects in intervention configurations in the comprehension of object A’-dependencies, relative clauses and questions. The study capitalizes on the finding of object attraction in sentence production, in which speakers sometimes erroneously produce a verb that agrees in number with a plural object in object relative clauses. Evidence points to the role of three critical constructs from formal syntax: intervention, intermediate traces and c-command (Franck et al., 2010). Experiment 1, using a self-paced reading procedure on these grammatical structures with an agreement error on the verb, shows an enhancing effect of number mismatch in intervention configurations, with faster reading times with plural (mismatching) objects. Experiment 2, using an on-line grammaticality judgment task on the ungrammatical versions of these structures, shows an interference effect in the form of attraction, with slower response times with plural objects. Experiment 3 with a similar grammaticality judgment task shows stronger attraction from c-commanding than from preceding interveners. Overall, the data suggest that syntactic computations in performance refer to the same syntactic representations in production and comprehension, but that different tasks tap into different processes involved in parsing: whereas performance in self-paced reading reflects the intervention of the subject in the process of building an object A’-dependency, performance in grammaticality judgment reflects intervention of the object on the computation of the subject-verb agreement dependency. The latter shows the hallmarks of structure-dependent attraction effects in sentence production, in particular, a sensitivity to specific characteristics of hierarchical representations. PMID:25914652

  18. Comprehensive screening study of pesticide degradation via oxidation and hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Evelyn; Shi, Honglan; Wang, Tongwen; Ma, Yinfa; Fulmer, Alice; Adams, Craig

    2012-01-11

    This comprehensive study focused on the reactivity of a set of 62 pesticides via oxidization by free chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and permanganate; photodegradation with UV(254); and hydrolysis at pH 2, 7, and 12. Samples were analyzed using direct injection liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection or gas chromatography-electron capture detection after liquid-liquid extraction. Many pesticides were reactive via hydrolysis and/or chlorination and ozonation mechanisms under typical drinking water treatment conditions, with less reactivity exhibited on average for chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, hydrogen peroxide, and UV(254). The pyrazole and organophosphorous pesticides were most reactive in general, whereas carbamates and others were less reactive. The screening study provides guidance for the pesticide/oxidation systems that are most likely to lead to degradates in water treatment and the environment. PMID:22141915

  19. Comprehensive optical study of the dragonfly Aeshna cyanea transparent wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dompreh, K. A.; Eghan, M. J.; Kotsedi, L.; Maaza, M.

    2013-06-01

    The optical properties of the transparent wings of the Dragonfly Aeshna cyanea were studied using a comprehensive set of optical measurements, experimental analysis and theoretical modeling which involves the use of a high level programming language to simulate the optical effects seen. With these, the relative refractive index of the Odonatan wing, the pruinosity associated with the microstructure and the chemical composition of the wings were studied. The Nystrom matrix techniques were applied to solve the surface currents JZ and HZ of the scattered fields for different incident angles from grazing and used to explain the pruinosity associated with the wings microstructure. The wing was found to be an Electro-Optic Material (EOM) associated with a number of Nonlinear Optical (NLO) responses having high frequency absorption for extreme UV and also, leaky multi-channeling wave guide.

  20. A Comprehensive Study of Kepler Phase Curves and Secondary Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLarme, Emily; Angerhausen, D.; Morse, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the initial results of a comprehensive study of 318 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) with R_p > 4 R_e , P < 10d, and V_mag < 15 using all 15 quarters of lightcurve data in the latest Kepler data release. Our analysis quantifies system-level effects from ellipsoidal, Doppler beaming and phase-curve variations, and also characterizes the secondary eclipses. This presentation focuses on 19 confirmed planets from this sample: We were able to confirm and improve the temperatures and albedos for Kepler-1b, 2b, 4b, 5b, 6b, 7b, 8b, 12b , 13b, 17b, and 41b, and present new results for Kepler-3b, 14b, 15b, 18c, 40b, 43b, 44b, and 74b. In addition, we used the same methods to analyze the rocky planets Kepler-10b, 78b, and KOI 1843.03.

  1. Comprehensive Study of High-Tc Interface Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Logvenov, G.; Gozar A.; Butko, V.Y.; Bollinger, A.T.; Bozovic, N.; Radovic, Z.; Bozovic, I.

    2010-08-01

    Using ALL-MBE technique, we have synthesized different heterostructures consisting of an insulator La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} (I) and a metal La{sub 1.56}Sr{sub 0.44}CuO{sub 4} (M) layer neither of which is superconducting by itself. The M-I bilayers were superconducting with a critical temperature T{sub c} {approx} 30-36 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined within 1-2 nm from the interface and is primarily caused by the redistribution of doped holes across the interface. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of the interface superconductivity by a range of experimental techniques including transport measurements of superconducting properties.

  2. Predicting Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap…

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation of Protein Structure Alignment Methods: Scoring by Geometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Kolodny, Rachel; Koehl, Patrice; Levitt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We report the largest and most comprehensive comparison of protein structural alignment methods. Specifically, we evaluate six publicly available structure alignment programs: SSAP, STRUCTAL, DALI, LSQMAN, CE and SSM by aligning all 8,581,970 protein structure pairs in a test set of 2930 protein domains specially selected from CATH v.2.4 to ensure sequence diversity. We consider an alignment good if it matches many residues, and the two substructures are geometrically similar. Even with this definition, evaluating structural alignment methods is not straightforward. At first, we compared the rates of true and false positives using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves with the CATH classification taken as a gold standard. This proved unsatisfactory in that the quality of the alignments is not taken into account: sometimes a method that finds less good alignments scores better than a method that finds better alignments. We correct this intrinsic limitation by using four different geometric match measures (SI, MI, SAS, and GSAS) to evaluate the quality of each structural alignment. With this improved analysis we show that there is a wide variation in the performance of different methods; the main reason for this is that it can be difficult to find a good structural alignment between two proteins even when such an alignment exists. We find that STRUCTAL and SSM perform best, followed by LSQMAN and CE. Our focus on the intrinsic quality of each alignment allows us to propose a new method, called “Best-of-All” that combines the best results of all methods. Many commonly used methods miss 10–50% of the good Best-of-All alignments. By putting existing structural alignments into proper perspective, our study allows better comparison of protein structures. By highlighting limitations of existing methods, it will spur the further development of better structural alignment methods. This will have significant biological implications now that structural

  4. Navigation and Comprehension of Digital Expository Texts: Hypertext Structure, Previous Domain Knowledge, and Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burin, Debora I.; Barreyro, Juan P.; Saux, Gastón; Irrazábal, Natalia C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In contemporary information societies, reading digital text has become pervasive. One of the most distinctive features of digital texts is their internal connections via hyperlinks, resulting in non-linear hypertexts. Hypertext structure and previous knowledge affect navigation and comprehension of digital expository texts. From the…

  5. Valence calculations of lanthanide anion binding energies: a comprehensive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, Steven M.; Beck, Donald R.

    2009-05-01

    We have applied a methodology of universal jls restrictions on the 4f^n subgroup of relativistic configuration-interaction calculations of progressively more complex lanthanide anionsootnotetextS. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012505 (2008).^,ootnotetextS. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 78, 012510 (2008).^,ootnotetextS. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A, in press.. Our completed study of the row predicts bound 6p attachments to all lanthanide ground state configurations except Yb, additional 6p attachments to excited opposite parity configurations in Tb and Lu, and 6s attachments to excited open-6s thresholds in La, Ce, Pr, and Gd. In total we predict more than 100 bound states for the lanthanide anions, and we hope this comprehensive study encourages further experimentalootnotetexte.g. V. T. Davis et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 241, 118 (2005).^,ootnotetexte.g. C. W. Walter et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 052702 (2007). interest in these anions. Such measurements will be useful in ``fine tuning'' these ab initio binding energies to account for missing core-valence correlation and the approximations that were necessary in these complex calculations.

  6. The Reading Comprehension Strategies of Second Language Learners: A Spanish-English Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta Caballero, Karen Anelice

    2012-01-01

    Reading comprehension of school-aged students is an important topic of research; however, research on the reading comprehension of adult foreign/second language learners whose first language is English is limited, especially studies investigating the reading comprehension strategies that readers of different proficiency levels use when they…

  7. Syntactic Comprehension in Reading and Listening: A Study with French Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, Severine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Comprehension syntaxico-semantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level…

  8. Can Speaker Gaze Modulate Syntactic Structuring and Thematic Role Assignment during Spoken Sentence Comprehension?

    PubMed Central

    Knoeferle, Pia; Kreysa, Helene

    2012-01-01

    During comprehension, a listener can rapidly follow a frontally seated speaker’s gaze to an object before its mention, a behavior which can shorten latencies in speeded sentence verification. However, the robustness of gaze-following, its interaction with core comprehension processes such as syntactic structuring, and the persistence of its effects are unclear. In two “visual-world” eye-tracking experiments participants watched a video of a speaker, seated at an angle, describing transitive (non-depicted) actions between two of three Second Life characters on a computer screen. Sentences were in German and had either subjectNP1-verb-objectNP2 or objectNP1-verb-subjectNP2 structure; the speaker either shifted gaze to the NP2 character or was obscured. Several seconds later, participants verified either the sentence referents or their role relations. When participants had seen the speaker’s gaze shift, they anticipated the NP2 character before its mention and earlier than when the speaker was obscured. This effect was more pronounced for SVO than OVS sentences in both tasks. Interactions of speaker gaze and sentence structure were more pervasive in role-relations verification: participants verified the role relations faster for SVO than OVS sentences, and faster when they had seen the speaker shift gaze than when the speaker was obscured. When sentence and template role-relations matched, gaze-following even eliminated the SVO-OVS response-time differences. Thus, gaze-following is robust even when the speaker is seated at an angle to the listener; it varies depending on the syntactic structure and thematic role relations conveyed by a sentence; and its effects can extend to delayed post-sentence comprehension processes. These results suggest that speaker gaze effects contribute pervasively to visual attention and comprehension processes and should thus be accommodated by accounts of situated language comprehension. PMID:23227018

  9. Comprehensive identification of internal structure and alternative splicing events in circular RNAs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Jinfeng; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Jinyang; Chen, Shuai; Zhao, Fangqing

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies demonstrated circular RNAs (circRNAs) does not exclusively comprise mRNA exons, no study has extensively explored their internal structure. By combining an algorithm with long-read sequencing data and experimental validation, we, for the first time, comprehensively investigate internal components of circRNAs in 10 human cell lines and 62 fruit fly samples, and reveal the prevalence of alternative splicing (AS) events within circRNAs. Significantly, a large proportion of circRNA AS exons can hardly be detected in mRNAs and are enriched with binding sites of distinct splicing factors from those enriched in mRNA exons. We find that AS events in circRNAs have a preference towards nucleus localization and exhibit tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression patterns. This study suggests an independent regulation on the biogenesis or decay of AS events in circRNAs and the identified circular AS isoforms provide targets for future studies on circRNA formation and function. PMID:27350239

  10. Comprehensive identification of internal structure and alternative splicing events in circular RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Jinfeng; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Jinyang; Chen, Shuai; Zhao, Fangqing

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies demonstrated circular RNAs (circRNAs) does not exclusively comprise mRNA exons, no study has extensively explored their internal structure. By combining an algorithm with long-read sequencing data and experimental validation, we, for the first time, comprehensively investigate internal components of circRNAs in 10 human cell lines and 62 fruit fly samples, and reveal the prevalence of alternative splicing (AS) events within circRNAs. Significantly, a large proportion of circRNA AS exons can hardly be detected in mRNAs and are enriched with binding sites of distinct splicing factors from those enriched in mRNA exons. We find that AS events in circRNAs have a preference towards nucleus localization and exhibit tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression patterns. This study suggests an independent regulation on the biogenesis or decay of AS events in circRNAs and the identified circular AS isoforms provide targets for future studies on circRNA formation and function. PMID:27350239

  11. Plant Architecture: A Dynamic, Multilevel and Comprehensive Approach to Plant Form, Structure and Ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Barthélémy, Daniel; Caraglio, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The architecture of a plant depends on the nature and relative arrangement of each of its parts; it is, at any given time, the expression of an equilibrium between endogenous growth processes and exogenous constraints exerted by the environment. The aim of architectural analysis is, by means of observation and sometimes experimentation, to identify and understand these endogenous processes and to separate them from the plasticity of their expression resulting from external influences. Scope Using the identification of several morphological criteria and considering the plant as a whole, from germination to death, architectural analysis is essentially a detailed, multilevel, comprehensive and dynamic approach to plant development. Despite their recent origin, architectural concepts and analysis methods provide a powerful tool for studying plant form and ontogeny. Completed by precise morphological observations and appropriated quantitative methods of analysis, recent researches in this field have greatly increased our understanding of plant structure and development and have led to the establishment of a real conceptual and methodological framework for plant form and structure analysis and representation. This paper is a summarized update of current knowledge on plant architecture and morphology; its implication and possible role in various aspects of modern plant biology is also discussed. PMID:17218346

  12. A Comprehensive Study of Soft Palate Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Alexandre; Parada, Carolina; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital birth defects. Tremendous efforts have been made over the last decades towards understanding hard palate development. However, little is known about soft palate morphogenesis and myogenesis. Finding an appropriate surgical repair to restore physiological functions of the soft palate in patients with cleft palate is a major challenge for surgeons, and complete restoration is not always achievable. Here, we first analyzed the morphology, orientation and attachments of the four muscles of the murine soft palate and found that they are very similar to their counterparts in humans, validating the use of mus musculus as a model for future studies. Our data suggests that muscle differentiation extends from the lateral region to the midline following palatal fusion. We also detected an epithelial seam in the fusing soft palatal shelves, consistent with the process of fusion of the posterior palatal shelves, followed by degradation of the epithelial remnants. Innervation and vascularization are present mainly in the oral side of the soft palate, complementing the differentiated muscles. Cell lineage tracing using Wnt1-Cre;Zsgreenfl/fl mice indicated that all the tendons and mesenchyme embedding the soft palate muscles are neural crest-derived. We propose that the posterior attachment of the soft palate to the pharyngeal wall is an interface between the neural crest- and mesoderm-derived mesenchyme in the craniofacial region, and thus can serve as a potential model for the study of boundaries during development. Taken together, our study provides a comprehensive view of the development and morphology of the murine soft palate and serves as a reference for further molecular analyses. PMID:26671681

  13. A Comprehensive Study of Extramural Venous Invasion in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, David; Murray, Graeme I

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy and a leading cause of cancer related death. Cancer staging following resection is key to determining any adjuvant therapy in those patients with high risk disease. In colorectal cancer, tumour stage and lymph node stage are the main pathological factors which have been considered to influence outcome. Increasing emphasis is now being placed on other factors, especially the presence of extramural venous invasion (EMVI). It is important to understand the relationship of EMVI with other pathological factors and to confirm that in an individual centre that EMVI is being detected at an appropriate rate and is of prognostic significance. This comprehensive study assesses the reporting and prognostic significance of EMVI in a single centre, using prospectively collected data from histopathology reports of a cohort of 2405 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a nine year period. Overall, EMVI was reported in 27.9% of colorectal cancer excision specimens. In tumours (n = 1928) that had not received neoadjuvant therapy, the presence of EMVI varied significantly depending on tumour site (χ2 = 12.03, p<0.005), tumour stage (χ2 = 268.188, p<0.001), lymph node stage (χ2 = 294.368, p<0.001) and Dukes’ stage (χ2 = 253.753, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed EMVI as a significant independent prognostic indicator (p<0.001). In conclusion, the presence of EMVI as an independent prognostic indicator is shown and is related to other pathological and prognostic factors. This study emphasises the requirement for the accurate identification of EMVI in colorectal cancer excision specimens and also understanding the relationship of EMVI with other prognostic factors. PMID:26671331

  14. A New Comprehensive Model for Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure of the European Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, A.; Danecek, P.; Molinari, I.; Postpischl, L.; Schivardi, R.; Serretti, P.; Tondi, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    We present a new comprehensive model of crustal and upper mantle structure of the whole European Plate — from the North Atlantic ridge to Urals, and from North Africa to the North Pole — describing seismic speeds (P and S) and density. Our description of crustal structure merges information from previous studies: large-scale compilations, seismic prospection, receiver functions, inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and Green functions from noise correlation. We use a simple description of crustal structure, with laterally-varying sediment and cristalline layers thickness and seismic parameters. Most original information refers to P-wave speed, from which we derive S speed and density from scaling relations. This a priori crustal model by itself improves the overall fit to observed Bouguer anomaly maps, as derived from GRACE satellite data, over CRUST2.0. The new crustal model is then used as a constraint in the inversion for mantle shear wave speed, based on fitting Love and Rayleigh surface wave dispersion. In the inversion for transversely isotropic mantle structure, we use group speed measurements made on European event-to-station paths, and use a global a priori model (S20RTS) to ensure fair rendition of earth structure at depth and in border areas with little coverage from our data. The new mantle model sensibly improves over global S models in the imaging of shallow asthenospheric (slow) anomalies beneath the Alpine mobile belt, and fast lithospheric signatures under the two main Mediterranean subduction systems (Aegean and Tyrrhenian). We map compressional wave speed inverting ISC travel times (reprocessed by Engdahl et al.) with a non linear inversion scheme making use of finite-difference travel time calculation. The inversion is based on an a priori model obtained by scaling the 3D mantle S-wave speed to P. The new model substantially confirms images of descending lithospheric slabs and back-arc shallow asthenospheric regions, shown in

  15. A comprehensive study on GPS-assisted aerial triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Hamid

    Aerial Triangulation (AT) has been used for mapping purposes for a long time to provide 3D coordinates of object points on the ground. This technique uses series of overlapping photographs, and some control points, in order to establish the relationship between the image coordinate system and object coordinate system. In the process of bundle block adjustment, image coordinate observations and coordinates of the ground control points are simultaneously adjusted and the exterior orientation parameters, as well as the ground coordinates of all tie and pass points, are estimated. One of the biggest challenges in AT is to reduce the number of control points. One effective way is to directly measure the exterior orientation parameters of the camera at the time of exposure. Airborne kinematic GPS (Global Positioning System) provides a means of determining the position of the aerial camera at each instant of exposure. The combined GPS-photogrammetric block adjustment takes advantage of weighted GPS observations, which significantly reduces the number of ground control points needed in a conventional block adjustment. A comprehensive software package, GAP (General Adjustment Program), was developed in this research to effectively integrate and adjust GPS, geodetic, and photogrammetric observations. Optimization of the GPS-photogrammetric bundle block adjustments for both simulated large scale mapping and real medium scale mapping was carried out. Aspects of reliability, and precision, as well as practical considerations, for an airborne GPS-photogrammetry system were also investigated. GPS coordinates of the camera exposure stations do not permit recovery of the roll angle of the aircraft in a GPS single strip triangulation. Therefore, ground control points are still required in addition to the GPS coordinates of exposure stations to overcome this problem, and to eliminate singularity of the normal matrix in the least squares adjustment. A new technique for GPS single

  16. A comprehensive study of benzene concentrations and emissions in Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Markus; Eichler, Philipp; Berk Knighton, W.; Estes, Mark; Crawford, James H.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2014-05-01

    The Houston Metropolitan Area (Greater Houston) has a population of over 6 million people, it ranks among the three fastest growing metropolises in the developed world and population growth scenarios predict it to reach megacity status in the coming two to four decades. Greater Houston is home to the largest petrochemical-manufacturing complex in the world with important consequences for the environment in the region. Direct and fugitive emissions of hydrocarbons adversely affect Houston's air quality which has been subject to intense studies over the past two decades. In 2013, NASA conducted the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in support of developing a satellite-based capability to assess Houston's air quality in the future. Amongst other measurements, airborne, mobile ground-based and stationary ground-based measurements of benzene were carried out. Benzene is a carcinogenic air toxic with strict exposure regulations in the U.S. and in Europe. We have used the obtained comprehensive dataset to map benzene concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area, locate and identify point sources, compare industrial and traffic emissions and put them in relation to previous measurements and emission inventories. The obtained data will allow a better assessment of health risks associated with benzene exposure in a large metropolitan area that includes both traffic and industrial benzene sources. This work was funded by BMVIT / FFG-ALR in the frame of the Austrian Space Application Programme (ASAP 8, project 833451). PE was funded through the PIMMS ITN (EU-FP7, agreement number 287382). Additional resources were provided through NASA's Earth Venture program (EV-1) and the NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP). We want to thank Scott Herndon and Aerodyne Research for their support.

  17. Study of State Arts Agencies: A Comprehensive Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Research Center of the Arts, Inc., New York,. NY.

    A comprehensive analysis of state arts agencies in the 50 states and in the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa is presented. Data were collected from interviews with agency directors and agency reports as of fiscal year 1974. The report is organized into eight chapters. Chapter 1 examines budget…

  18. Feasibility Study of Continuous Comprehensive Assessment of Primary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajput, Saria; Tewari, A. D.; Kumar, Santosh

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Educational Measurement and Evaluation (DEME) of the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi, India prepared a scheme of assessment for primary classes based on the concept of continuous and comprehensive evaluation. This scheme was finalized by an expert group before actual tryout. Primary…

  19. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of coplanar waveguide shunt stubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dib, Nihad I.; Ponchak, George E.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of straight and bent coplanar waveguide (CPW) shunt stubs is presented. In the theoretical analysis, the CPW is assumed to be inside a cavity, while, the experiments are performed on open structures. A hybrid technique was developed to analyze the CPW discontinuities which proved to be accurate since the theoretical and experimental results agree very well. The effect of the cavity resonances on the behavior of the stubs with and without air-bridges is investigated. In addition, the encountered radiation loss due to the discontinuities is evaluated experimentally.

  20. A comprehensive study of the delay vector variance method for quantification of nonlinearity in dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Jaksic, V; Mandic, D P; Ryan, K; Basu, B; Pakrashi, V

    2016-01-01

    Although vibration monitoring is a popular method to monitor and assess dynamic structures, quantification of linearity or nonlinearity of the dynamic responses remains a challenging problem. We investigate the delay vector variance (DVV) method in this regard in a comprehensive manner to establish the degree to which a change in signal nonlinearity can be related to system nonlinearity and how a change in system parameters affects the nonlinearity in the dynamic response of the system. A wide range of theoretical situations are considered in this regard using a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system to obtain numerical benchmarks. A number of experiments are then carried out using a physical SDOF model in the laboratory. Finally, a composite wind turbine blade is tested for different excitations and the dynamic responses are measured at a number of points to extend the investigation to continuum structures. The dynamic responses were measured using accelerometers, strain gauges and a Laser Doppler vibrometer. This comprehensive study creates a numerical and experimental benchmark for structurally dynamical systems where output-only information is typically available, especially in the context of DVV. The study also allows for comparative analysis between different systems driven by the similar input. PMID:26909175

  1. A comprehensive study of the delay vector variance method for quantification of nonlinearity in dynamical systems

    PubMed Central

    Mandic, D. P.; Ryan, K.; Basu, B.; Pakrashi, V.

    2016-01-01

    Although vibration monitoring is a popular method to monitor and assess dynamic structures, quantification of linearity or nonlinearity of the dynamic responses remains a challenging problem. We investigate the delay vector variance (DVV) method in this regard in a comprehensive manner to establish the degree to which a change in signal nonlinearity can be related to system nonlinearity and how a change in system parameters affects the nonlinearity in the dynamic response of the system. A wide range of theoretical situations are considered in this regard using a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system to obtain numerical benchmarks. A number of experiments are then carried out using a physical SDOF model in the laboratory. Finally, a composite wind turbine blade is tested for different excitations and the dynamic responses are measured at a number of points to extend the investigation to continuum structures. The dynamic responses were measured using accelerometers, strain gauges and a Laser Doppler vibrometer. This comprehensive study creates a numerical and experimental benchmark for structurally dynamical systems where output-only information is typically available, especially in the context of DVV. The study also allows for comparative analysis between different systems driven by the similar input. PMID:26909175

  2. Effects of Studying to Music and Post-Study Relaxation on Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etaugh, Claire; Ptasnik, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Twenty female and 20 male college students studied a passage in quiet surroundings or while listening to preferred music and then either relaxed or read unrelated material. Reading comprehension of the passage was facilitated by silent study for subjects who seldom listen to music and by poststudy relaxation. (Author)

  3. QRAC-the-Code: a comprehension monitoring strategy for middle school social studies textbooks.

    PubMed

    Berkeley, Sheri; Riccomini, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Requirements for reading and ascertaining information from text increase as students advance through the educational system, especially in content-rich classes; hence, monitoring comprehension is especially important. However, this is a particularly challenging skill for many students who struggle with reading comprehension, including students with learning disabilities. A randomized pre-post experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a comprehension monitoring strategy (QRAC-the-Code) for improving the reading comprehension of 323 students in grades 6 and 7 in inclusive social studies classes. Findings indicated that both general education students and students with learning disabilities who were taught a simple comprehension monitoring strategy improved their comprehension of textbook content compared to students who read independently and noted important points. In addition, students in the comprehension monitoring condition reported using more reading strategies after the intervention. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21757682

  4. (Pea)nuts and Bolts of Visual Narrative: Structure and Meaning in Sequential Image Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Neil; Paczynski, Martin; Jackendoff, Ray; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2012-01-01

    Just as syntax differentiates coherent sentences from scrambled word strings, the comprehension of sequential images must also use a cognitive system to distinguish coherent narrative sequences from random strings of images. We conducted experiments analogous to two classic studies of language processing to examine the contributions of narrative…

  5. Effects of Text Structure on Children's Comprehension of Expository Material. Technical Report No. 316.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moes, Mary A.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between text organization and children's reading comprehension of expository material. Upgraded and downgraded versions of both macrostructures and microstructures were combined to produce four texts on the topic of insect-eating plants. Forty-three seventh grade students were randomly assigned to one of the…

  6. GUIDANCE ON FEASIBILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA (COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION AND LIABILITY ACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guidance document is intended to provide a more detailed structure for identifying, evaluating, and selecting remedial action alternatives under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300)....

  7. A Comprehensive Study of Genic Variation in Natural Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. III. Variations in Genetic Structure and Their Causes between Drosophila melanogaster and Its Sibling Species Drosophila simulans

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, M.; Singh, Rama S.

    1987-01-01

    The natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans were compared for their genetic structure. A total of 114 gene-protein loci were studied in four mainland (from Europe and Africa) and an island (Seychelle) populations of D. simulans and the results were compared with those obtained on the same set of homologous loci in fifteen worldwide populations of D. melanogaster. The main results are as follows: (1) D. melanogaster shows a significantly higher proportion of loci polymorphic than D. simulans (52% vs. 39%, P<0.05), (2) both species have similar mean heterozygosity and mean number of alleles per locus, (3) the two species share some highly polymorphic loci but they do not share loci that show high geographic differentiation, and (4) D. simulans shows significantly less geographic differentiation than D. melanogaster. The differences in genetic differentiation between the two species are limited to loci located on the X and second chromosomes only; loci on the third chromosome show similar level of geographic differentiation in both species. These two species have previously been shown to differ in their pattern of variation for chromosomal polymorphisms, quantitative and physiological characters, two-dimensional electrophoretic (2DE) proteins, middle repetitive DNA and mitochondrial DNA. Variation in niche-widths and/or genetic "strategies" of adaptation appear to be the main causes of differences in the genetic structure of these two species. PMID:17246411

  8. a Comprehensive DFT Study of Zinc Oxide in Different Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar; Afaq, A.; Ahmed, R.; Naseem, S.

    2012-06-01

    A density functional study for structural and electronic properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO), in wurtzite, rock salt and zinc-blende phases has been performed using full potential-linearized augmented plane wave/linearized augmented plane wave plus local ideal orbital (FP-LAPW/L(APW+lo) approach as realized in WIEN2k code. To approximate exchange correlation energy and corresponding potential, a special GGA parameterized by Wu-Cohen has been implemented. Our results of lattice constants, bulk moduli as well as for internal parameter with GGA-WC are found to be more reliable. This study reveals that value of internal parameter decreases with increasing volume whereas computed electronic band structure confirms the direct band gap behavior of ZnO in B4 and B3 phases while indirect band gap behavior in B1 phase. Moreover, two fold degeneracy at the maxima of valence band for B4 and B1 phases whereas three fold for B3 is observed. A detailed comparison with experimental and other first principles studies is also made.

  9. Relations among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (a) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency, (b) silent reading fluency…

  10. Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for Sealaska Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Lynette; John Wade: Larry Coupe

    2006-06-30

    The purposes of this project were: (1) to conduct a comprehensive feasibility study to determine the potential sustainability of wind and/or small hydroelectric power plants on Southeast Alaska native village lands, and (2) to provide the villages with an understanding of the requirements, costs, and benefits of developing and operating wind or small hydroelectric power plants. The program was sponsored by the Tribal Energy program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy. The Contractor was Sealaska Corporation, the Regional Native Corporation for Southeast Alaska that includes 12 village/urban corporations. Most villages are isolated from any central electric transmission and use diesel-electric systems for power generation, making them prime candidates for deploying renewable energy sources. Wind Energy - A database was assembled for all of the candidate sites in SE Alaska, including location, demographics, electricity supply and demand, existing and planned transmission interties with central generation, topographical maps, macro wind data, and contact personnel. Field trips were conducted at the five candidate villages that were deemed most likely to have viable wind resources. Meetings were held with local village and utility leaders and the requirements, costs, and benefits of having local renewable energy facilities were discussed. Two sites were selected for anemometry based on their needs and the probability of having viable wind resources – Yakutat and Hoonah. Anemometry was installed at both sites and at least one year of wind resource data was collected from the sites. This data was compared to long-term data from the closest weather stations. Reports were prepared by meteorologist John Wade that contains the details of the measured wind resources and energy production projections. Preliminary financial analysis of hypothetical wind power stations were prepared to gauge the economic viability of installing such

  11. Supporting Social Studies Reading Comprehension with an Electronic Pop-Up Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Sara Winstead; Gosky, Ross

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how middle school students' comprehension was impacted by reading social studies texts online with a pop-up dictionary function for every word in the text. A quantitative counterbalance design was used to determine how 129 middle school students' reading comprehension test scores for the pop-up dictionary reading differed…

  12. 75 FR 45641 - Guidance for Industry on Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... the draft guidance published in the Federal Register of May 1, 2009 (74 FR 20322). This guidance is... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Label Comprehension Studies for... entitled ``Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products.'' The guidance...

  13. Listening Text Comprehension in Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Study on the Role of Semantic Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level semantic components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the nature of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…

  14. Reciprocal Teaching and Emotional Intelligence: A Study of Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izadi, Mehri; Nowrouzi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the effect of reciprocal reading strategies instruction on reading comprehension of EFL learners. Emotional intelligence, another variable of interest, was assessed to indicate whether it plays a role in learners' comprehension. In a pre- and post-test study, forty-two learners went through a reciprocal reading…

  15. Comprehensive characterization of programmed death ligand structural rearrangements in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Chong, Lauren C; Twa, David D W; Mottok, Anja; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Woolcock, Bruce W; Zhao, Yongjun; Savage, Kerry J; Marra, Marco A; Scott, David W; Gascoyne, Randy D; Morin, Ryan D; Mungall, Andrew J; Steidl, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Programmed death ligands (PDLs) are immune-regulatory molecules that are frequently affected by chromosomal alterations in B-cell lymphomas. Although PDL copy-number variations are well characterized, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of structural rearrangements (SRs) and associated phenotypic consequences is largely lacking. Here, we used oligonucleotide capture sequencing of 67 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues derived from primary B-cell lymphomas and 1 cell line to detect and characterize, at base-pair resolution, SRs of the PDL locus (9p24.1; harboring PDL1/CD274 and PDL2/PDCD1LG2). We describe 36 novel PDL SRs, including 17 intrachromosomal events (inversions, duplications, deletions) and 19 translocations involving BZRAP-AS1, CD44, GET4, IL4R, KIAA0226L, MID1, RCC1, PTPN1 and segments of the immunoglobulin loci. Moreover, analysis of the precise chromosomal breakpoints reveals 2 distinct cluster breakpoint regions (CBRs) within either CD274 (CBR1) or PDCD1LG2 (CBR2). To determine the phenotypic consequences of these SRs, we performed immunohistochemistry for CD274 and PDCD1LG2 on primary pretreatment biopsies and found that PDL SRs are significantly associated with PDL protein expression. Finally, stable ectopic expression of wild-type PDCD1LG2 and the PDCD1LG2-IGHV7-81 fusion showed, in coculture, significantly reduced T-cell activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate the complementary utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization and capture sequencing approaches and provide a classification scheme for PDL SRs with implications for future studies using PDL immune-checkpoint inhibitors in B-cell lymphomas. PMID:27268263

  16. The Effect of Screen Size on Mobile Phone User Comprehension of Health Information and Application Structure: An Experimental Approach.

    PubMed

    Al Ghamdi, Ebtisam; Yunus, Faisal; Da'ar, Omar; El-Metwally, Ashraf; Khalifa, Mohamed; Aldossari, Bakheet; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzes the impact of mobile phone screen size on user comprehension of health information and application structure. Applying experimental approach, we asked randomly selected users to read content and conduct tasks on a commonly used diabetes mobile application using three different mobile phone screen sizes. We timed and tracked a number of parameters, including correctness, effectiveness of completing tasks, content ease of reading, clarity of information organization, and comprehension. The impact of screen size on user comprehension/retention, clarity of information organization, and reading time were mixed. It is assumed on first glance that mobile screen size would affect all qualities of information reading and comprehension, including clarity of displayed information organization, reading time and user comprehension/retention of displayed information, but actually the screen size, in this experimental research, did not have significant impact on user comprehension/retention of the content or on understanding the application structure. However, it did have significant impact on clarity of information organization and reading time. Participants with larger screen size took shorter time reading the content with a significant difference in the ease of reading. While there was no significant difference in the comprehension of information or the application structures, there were a higher task completion rate and a lower number of errors with the bigger screen size. Screen size does not directly affect user comprehension of health information. However, it does affect clarity of information organization, reading time and user's ability to recall information. PMID:26573648

  17. [Comprehensive study of lead pollution in atmospheric aerosol of Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-lin; Tan, Ming-guang; Li, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Yuan-xun; Yue, Wei-sheng; Chen, Jian-min; Wang, Yin-song; Li, Ai-guo; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yuan-mao; Shan, Zhu-ci

    2006-05-01

    The lead contamination, lead species and source assignment were studied by a combination of several analytical techniques such as Proton-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), Proton microprobe (micro-PIXE), Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques. The results indicate that the lead concentration in the air of Shanghai gradually decreased over the last years. The atmospheric lead concentration of PM10 in the winter of 2002 was 369 ng x m(-3), which had declined by 28% in 2001, and in the winter of 2003 it decreased further to 237 ng x m(-3). The main lead species in the samples collected in the winter of 2003 were probably PbCl2, PbSO4 and PbO. The source apportionment was calculated in terms of the combination of lead isotope ratios and lead mass balance method, assisted by single particle analysis with micro-PIXE and pattern recognition. The results suggest that the major contributors of atmospheric lead pollution in Shanghai are the coal combustion dust; the metallurgic dust and vehicle exhaust particles, with a contribution around 50%, 35% and 15%, respectively. It probably is the first time to give a city a quantitative estimation of lead pollution contribution from emission sources. The influence from leaded gasoline was still present in the atmosphere by four or five years after the phasing out of leaded gasoline. PMID:16850817

  18. Viewing Comprehension: Students' Learning Preferences and Strategies When Studying from Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspi, Avner; Gorsky, Paul; Privman, Meira

    2005-01-01

    This research examined how students at the Open University of Israel studied from video recordings of lectures. At the semester's end, seven history students were interviewed in order to trace their experiences, learning strategies and preferences. It was found that (1) reading comprehension strategies are inappropriate for viewing comprehension,…

  19. Why Intensive Interventions Matter: Longitudinal Studies of Adolescents with Reading Disabilities and Poor Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Michael; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe findings from a series of longitudinal studies utilizing a response to intervention framework implemented over 3 years with students in Grades 6 through 8 with reading disabilities and poor reading comprehension. Students were identified based on reading comprehension scores in Grade 5 (n = 1,083) and then randomized to treatment or…

  20. Sentence Integration Processes: An ERP Study of Chinese Sentence Comprehension with Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chin Lung; Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to sentence constituent relations, it allows a test of…

  1. Narrative Comprehension and Production in Children with SLI: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Olmos, Joan Guardia; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and…

  2. ViVar: A Comprehensive Platform for the Analysis and Visualization of Structural Genomic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Sante, Tom; Vergult, Sarah; Volders, Pieter-Jan; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Trooskens, Geert; De Preter, Katleen; Dheedene, Annelies; Speleman, Frank; De Meyer, Tim; Menten, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Structural genomic variations play an important role in human disease and phenotypic diversity. With the rise of high-throughput sequencing tools, mate-pair/paired-end/single-read sequencing has become an important technique for the detection and exploration of structural variation. Several analysis tools exist to handle different parts and aspects of such sequencing based structural variation analyses pipelines. A comprehensive analysis platform to handle all steps, from processing the sequencing data, to the discovery and visualization of structural variants, is missing. The ViVar platform is built to handle the discovery of structural variants, from Depth Of Coverage analysis, aberrant read pair clustering to split read analysis. ViVar provides you with powerful visualization options, enables easy reporting of results and better usability and data management. The platform facilitates the processing, analysis and visualization, of structural variation based on massive parallel sequencing data, enabling the rapid identification of disease loci or genes. ViVar allows you to scale your analysis with your work load over multiple (cloud) servers, has user access control to keep your data safe and is easy expandable as analysis techniques advance. URL: https://www.cmgg.be/vivar/ PMID:25503062

  3. Phenix - a comprehensive python-based system for macromolecular structure solution

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Hung, Li - Wei; Adams, Paul D; Afonine, Pavel V; Bunkoczi, Gabor; Chen, Vincent B; Davis, Ian; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J; Grosse Kunstleve, Ralf W; Mccoy, Airlie J; Moriarty, Nigel W; Oeffner, Robert; Read, Randy J; Richardson, David C; Richardson, Jane S; Zwarta, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    Macromolecular X-ray crystallography is routinely applied to understand biological processes at a molecular level. However, significant time and effort are still required to solve and complete many of these structures because of the need for manual interpretation of complex numerical data using many software packages, and the repeated use of interactive three-dimensional graphics. Phenix has been developed to provide a comprehensive system for crystallographic structure solution with an emphasis on automation of all procedures. This has relied on the development of algorithms that minimize or eliminate subjective input, the development of algorithms that automate procedures that are traditionally performed by hand, and finally the development of a framework that allows a tight integration between the algorithms.

  4. International benchmarking of specialty hospitals. A series of case studies on comprehensive cancer centres

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Benchmarking is one of the methods used in business that is applied to hospitals to improve the management of their operations. International comparison between hospitals can explain performance differences. As there is a trend towards specialization of hospitals, this study examines the benchmarking process and the success factors of benchmarking in international specialized cancer centres. Methods Three independent international benchmarking studies on operations management in cancer centres were conducted. The first study included three comprehensive cancer centres (CCC), three chemotherapy day units (CDU) were involved in the second study and four radiotherapy departments were included in the final study. Per multiple case study a research protocol was used to structure the benchmarking process. After reviewing the multiple case studies, the resulting description was used to study the research objectives. Results We adapted and evaluated existing benchmarking processes through formalizing stakeholder involvement and verifying the comparability of the partners. We also devised a framework to structure the indicators to produce a coherent indicator set and better improvement suggestions. Evaluating the feasibility of benchmarking as a tool to improve hospital processes led to mixed results. Case study 1 resulted in general recommendations for the organizations involved. In case study 2, the combination of benchmarking and lean management led in one CDU to a 24% increase in bed utilization and a 12% increase in productivity. Three radiotherapy departments of case study 3, were considering implementing the recommendations. Additionally, success factors, such as a well-defined and small project scope, partner selection based on clear criteria, stakeholder involvement, simple and well-structured indicators, analysis of both the process and its results and, adapt the identified better working methods to the own setting, were found. Conclusions The improved

  5. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) normative sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analytic techniques that were not reported in the in the CTONI-2 "Examiner's Manual". Results…

  6. Developmental Relations Between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first grade students (N = 316, mean age = 7.05 at first test) through fourth grade to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed. PMID:25201552

  7. Comprehensive joint feedback control for standing by functional neuromuscular stimulation-a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L; Kirsch, Robert F; Triolo, Ronald J

    2010-12-01

    Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, 3-D computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation patterns consistent with maximal joint stiffness values achievable about neutral stance given typical SCI muscle properties. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the baseline case of maximum constant muscle excitations used clinically, the controller reduced UE loading by 55% in resisting external force perturbations and by 84% during simulated one-arm functional tasks. Performance was most sensitive to inaccurate measurements of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion position and hip ab/adduction velocity feedback. In conclusion, comprehensive joint feedback demonstrates potential to markedly improve FNS standing function. However, alternative control structures capable of effective performance with fewer sensor-based feedback parameters may better facilitate clinical usage. PMID:20923741

  8. Recommended neuroanatomical sampling practices for comprehensive brain evaluation in nonclinical safety studies.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Robert C; Lowry-Franssen, Catherine; Benkovic, Stanley A

    2011-01-01

    Adequate tissue sampling is known to reduce the likelihood that the toxicity of novel biomolecules, chemicals, and drugs might go undetected. Each organ, and often specific structurally and functionally distinct regions within it, must be assessed to detect potential site-specific toxicity. Adequate sampling of the brain requires particular consideration because of the many major substructures and more than 600 subpopulations of generally irreplaceable cells with unique functions and vulnerabilities. All known neurotoxicants affect specific subpopulations (usually neurons) rather than damaging a certain percentage of cells throughout the brain; thus, all populations should be independently assessed for lesions. Historically, the affected neural cell subpopulation has not been predictable, but it is now clear that sampling selected populations (e.g., cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellar folia) cannot forecast the health of other populations. This article reviews the neuroanatomical domains affected by several model neurotoxicants to illustrate the need for more comprehensive neurohistological evaluation during nonclinical development of novel compounds. The article also describes an easily executed, cost-effective method that uses a set number of evenly spaced coronal (cross) sections to accomplish this comprehensive brain assessment during nonclinical safety studies performed in rodents, dogs, and nonhuman primates. PMID:21378207

  9. Comprehensive Joint Feedback Control for Standing by Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation – a Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint-feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, three-dimensional computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation patterns consistent with maximal joint stiffness values achievable about neutral stance given typical SCI muscle properties. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the baseline case of maximum constant muscle excitations used clinically, the controller reduced UE loading by 55% in resisting external force perturbations and by 84% during simulated one-arm functional tasks. Performance was most sensitive to inaccurate measurements of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion position and hip ab/adduction velocity feedback. In conclusion, comprehensive joint-feedback demonstrates potential to markedly improve FNS standing function. However, alternative control structures capable of effective performance with fewer sensor-based feedback parameters may better facilitate clinical usage. PMID:20923741

  10. Toward a Comprehensive Framework of Study Abroad Intentions and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Lakshmi; de Jong, Pieter; Schnusenberg, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Increased activity by U.S. students to study abroad has invited several studies that have investigated the reasons for U.S. students to study abroad. Literature in the context of study abroad choices has been fragmented, with each study presenting an ad-hoc set of factors the author/s deem as important or that have been shown to be important in…

  11. Decellularized Extracellular Matrix as an In Vitro Model to Study the Comprehensive Roles of the ECM in Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Chen, Guoping; Endo, Chiho; Maruyama, Hiroka; Wakui, Miyuki; Nemoto, Eri; Kawazoe, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are a promising cell source for regenerative medicine. Stem cell differentiation must be regulated for applications in regenerative medicine. Stem cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM) in vivo. The ECM is composed of many types of proteins and glycosaminoglycans that assemble into a complex structure. The assembly of ECM molecules influences stem cell differentiation through orchestrated intracellular signaling activated by many ECM molecules. Therefore, it is important to understand the comprehensive role of the ECM in stem cell differentiation as well as the functions of the individual ECM molecules. Decellularized ECM is a useful in vitro model for studying the comprehensive roles of ECM because it retains a native-like structure and composition. Decellularized ECM can be obtained from in vivo tissue ECM or ECM fabricated by cells cultured in vitro. It is important to select the correct decellularized ECM because each type has different properties. In this review, tissue-derived and cell-derived decellularized ECMs are compared as in vitro ECM models to examine the comprehensive roles of the ECM in stem cell differentiation. We also summarize recent studies using decellularized ECM to determine the comprehensive roles of the ECM in stem cell differentiation. PMID:26770210

  12. A comprehensive study of long-term skeletal changes after spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiao; Tong, Wei; Chandra, Abhishek; Hsu, Shao-Yun; Jia, Haoruo; Zhu, Ji; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Levine, Michael A; Zhang, Yejia; Yan, Shi-Gui; Liu, X Sherry; Sun, Dongming; Young, Wise; Qin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced bone loss represents the most severe osteoporosis with no effective treatment. Past animal studies have focused primarily on long bones at the acute stage using adolescent rodents. To mimic chronic SCI in human patients, we performed a comprehensive analysis of long-term structural and mechanical changes in axial and appendicular bones in adult rats after SCI. In this experiment, 4-month-old Fischer 344 male rats received a clinically relevant T13 contusion injury. Sixteen weeks later, sublesional femurs, tibiae, and L4 vertebrae, supralesional humeri, and blood were collected from these rats and additional non-surgery rats for micro-computed tomography (µCT), micro-finite element, histology, and serum biochemical analyses. At trabecular sites, extreme losses of bone structure and mechanical competence were detected in the metaphysis of sublesional long bones after SCI, while the subchondral part of the same bones showed much milder damage. Marked reductions in bone mass and strength were also observed in sublesional L4 vertebrae but not in supralesional humeri. At cortical sites, SCI induced structural and strength damage in both sub- and supralesional long bones. These changes were accompanied by diminished osteoblast number and activity and increased osteoclast number and activity. Taken together, our study revealed site-specific effects of SCI on bone and demonstrated sustained inhibition of bone formation and elevation of bone resorption at the chronic stage of SCI. PMID:26528401

  13. A comprehensive study of long-term skeletal changes after spinal cord injury in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tiao; Tong, Wei; Chandra, Abhishek; Hsu, Shao-Yun; Jia, Haoruo; Zhu, Ji; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Levine, Michael A; Zhang, Yejia; Yan, Shi-Gui; Liu, X Sherry; Sun, Dongming; Young, Wise; Qin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced bone loss represents the most severe osteoporosis with no effective treatment. Past animal studies have focused primarily on long bones at the acute stage using adolescent rodents. To mimic chronic SCI in human patients, we performed a comprehensive analysis of long-term structural and mechanical changes in axial and appendicular bones in adult rats after SCI. In this experiment, 4-month-old Fischer 344 male rats received a clinically relevant T13 contusion injury. Sixteen weeks later, sublesional femurs, tibiae, and L4 vertebrae, supralesional humeri, and blood were collected from these rats and additional non-surgery rats for micro-computed tomography (µCT), micro-finite element, histology, and serum biochemical analyses. At trabecular sites, extreme losses of bone structure and mechanical competence were detected in the metaphysis of sublesional long bones after SCI, while the subchondral part of the same bones showed much milder damage. Marked reductions in bone mass and strength were also observed in sublesional L4 vertebrae but not in supralesional humeri. At cortical sites, SCI induced structural and strength damage in both sub- and supralesional long bones. These changes were accompanied by diminished osteoblast number and activity and increased osteoclast number and activity. Taken together, our study revealed site-specific effects of SCI on bone and demonstrated sustained inhibition of bone formation and elevation of bone resorption at the chronic stage of SCI. PMID:26528401

  14. Usefulness of comprehensive feasibility studies in environmental epidemiology investigations: a case study in Minnesota.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, A P; Williams, A N; Sprafka, J M; Mandel, J S; Straub, C P

    1988-01-01

    Episodes of public water supply contamination with industrial or agricultural chemicals frequently give rise to public concerns about adverse health effects. These concerns may precipitate epidemiologic or clinical investigations requiring large expenditures of state and federal resources regardless of whether such investigations are justified by scientific criteria. An alternative is a comprehensive feasibility study, utilizing all available information to determine whether large-scale studies are warranted or feasible. At a relatively modest cost, a feasibility study allows health officials to identify information needs and deficiencies, outline potential study options and costs, clearly establish the rationale for a proposed study or, conversely, prevent unwarranted expenditures of public resources. Furthermore, a feasibility study may in itself resolve many community and scientific concerns. This article provides a case study of the usefulness of a formal feasibility study in a situation involving an elevated cancer rate and contaminated municipal water supply wells surrounding a federal superfund site. PMID:3341499

  15. Material properties and structural characterization of M3Si6O12N2:Eu2+ (M = Ba, Sr)--a comprehensive study on a promising green phosphor for pc-LEDs.

    PubMed

    Braun, Cordula; Seibald, Markus; Börger, Saskia L; Oeckler, Oliver; Boyko, Teak D; Moewes, Alexander; Miehe, Gerhard; Tücks, Andreas; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2010-08-16

    The efficient green phosphor Ba(3)Si(6)O(12)N(2):Eu(2+) and its solid-solution series Ba(3-x)Sr(x)Si(6)O(12)N(2) (with x approximately = 0.4 and 1) were synthesized in a radio-frequency furnace under nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures up to 1425 degrees C. The crystal structure (Ba(3)Si(6)O(12)N(2), space group P3 (no. 147), a = 7.5218(1), c = 6.4684(1) A, wR2 = 0.048, Z = 1) has been solved and refined on the basis of both single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction data. Ba(3)Si(6)O(12)N(2):Eu(2+) is a layer-like oxonitridosilicate and consists of vertex-sharing SiO(3)N-tetrahedra forming 6er- and 4er-rings as fundamental building units (FBU). The nitrogen atoms are connected to three silicon atoms (N3), while the oxygen atoms are either terminally bound (O1) or bridge two silicon atoms (O2) (numbers in superscripted square brackets after atoms indicate the coordination number of the atom in question). Two crystallographically independent Ba(2+) sites are situated between the silicate layers. Luminescence investigations have shown that Ba(3)Si(6)O(12)N(2):Eu(2+) exhibits excellent luminescence properties (emission maximum at approximately 527 nm, full width at half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 65 nm, low thermal quenching), which provides potential for industrial application in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). In-situ high-pressure and high-temperature investigations with synchrotron X-ray diffraction indicate decomposition of Ba(3)Si(6)O(12)N(2) under these conditions. The band gap of Ba(3)Si(6)O(12)N(2):Eu(2+) was measured to be 7.05+/-0.25 eV by means of X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). This agrees well with calculated band gap of 6.93 eV using the mBJ-GGA potential. Bonding to the Ba atoms is highly ionic with only the 4p(3/2) orbitals participating in covalent bonds. The valence band consists primarily of N and O p states and the conduction band contains primarily Ba d and f states

  16. Coastal Studies in a Comprehensive Summer Field Geology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Barry; Jones, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a college geology course that incorporates a coastal segment. Field studies are done on Plum Island and include examining beaches, dune fields, and an adjacent marsh and spit. Topics include sedimentation, coastal geomorphology, botanical effects, and coastal studies methodology. (MA)

  17. Comprehension and Recall of Television's Computerized Image: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos; Chartrand, Sylvie

    This exploratory study of the effects of the new visual communications media imagery (e.g., video games, digital television, and computer graphics) on the visual perception process is designed to provide a theoretical framework for research, introduce appropriate research instruments for such study, and experiment with the application of biometric…

  18. A comprehensive core-phase study from reflected waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Schmandt, B.; Sun, D.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2012-12-01

    A recent event beneath central America produced an excellent set of core phases recorded by USArray ranging from 18 to 30 degree. The results from 1D modeling (Schmandt, 2012) indicate that the ratio of PKiKP/PcP is about 0.16 whereas the prediction from the reference model PREM is 0.085. The prediction can match this ratio by adding a weak ULVZ (with -5% in Vp, -10% in Vs, and 5% in density) at the CMB if the top is gradational. The variation in the core-phases ratios involving ScP, ScS, PcP, PKiKP displays considerable scatter with a factor of 4 or more. Here, we investigate this scatter by examining the roles of source directivity, variation in 3D velocity structures and attenuation, and the station site effects. Preliminary waveform complexity measured by the Multi-Path Detector analysis (Sun et.al, 2009) indicates that a small scale variation of the order of 100 to 200km near the CMB is involved. To localize the causes of these fluctuations we generate seismogram using both WKM ray code and numerical code. The former produced ray-path corrected for 2D structure while the latter are more complete. This is achieved by using a staggered grid finite difference with embedded earthquake sources. To reach high frequencies (1Hz) , we use a fine grid size of 0.7 km to reduce the dispersion. A correction account for out of plane spreading is applied as a post processing step.

  19. Comprehensive multiphase NMR: a promising technology to study plants in their native state.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Heather L; Soong, Ronald; Courtier-Murias, Denis; Botana, Adolfo; Fortier-Mcgill, Blythe; Maas, Werner E; Fey, Michael; Hutchins, Howard; Krishnamurthy, Sridevi; Kumar, Rajeev; Monette, Martine; Stronks, Henry J; Campbell, Malcolm M; Simpson, Andre

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is arguably one the most powerful tools to study the interactions and molecular structure within plants. Traditionally, however, NMR has developed as two separate fields, one dealing with liquids and the other dealing with solids. Plants in their native state contain components that are soluble, swollen, and true solids. Here, a new form of NMR spectroscopy, developed in 2012, termed comprehensive multiphase (CMP)-NMR is applied for plant analysis. The technology composes all aspects of solution, gel, and solid-state NMR into a single NMR probe such that all components in all phases in native unaltered samples can be studied and differentiated in situ. The technology is evaluated using wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the cellulose-deficient mutant ectopic lignification1 (eli1) as examples. Using CMP-NMR to study intact samples eliminated the bias introduced by extraction methods and enabled the acquisition of a more complete structural and metabolic profile; thus, CMP-NMR revealed molecular differences between wild type (WT) and eli1 that could be overlooked by conventional methods. Methanol, fatty acids and/or lipids, glutamine, phenylalanine, starch, and nucleic acids were more abundant in eli1 than in WT. Pentaglycine was present in A. thaliana seedlings and more abundant in eli1 than in WT. PMID:25855560

  20. A Comprehensive Study of Genic Variation in Natural Populations of Drosophila Melanogaster. IV. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and the Role of History Vs. Selection in the Genetic Structure of Geographic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hale, L. R.; Singh, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary studies with restriction fragment length polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster revealed considerable variation in terms of nucleotide sequence and overall size. In this report we present data from more isofemale lines and more restriction enzymes, and explore the utility of the data in inferring a colonization history of this species. Size variation in the noncoding A + T-rich region is particularly plentiful, with size variants occurring in all restriction site haplotypes in all populations. We report here classes of small-scale mobility polymorphisms (apparent range of 20 bp) in specific restriction fragments in the coding region. The variation in one such fragment appears to be generated even more rapidly than in the noncoding region. On the basis of the distribution of restriction site haplotypes, the species range can be divided into three major regions along longitudinal lines: Euro-African populations are the most diverse and are taken to be oldest; Far East populations have a complex distribution of haplotypes; Western Hemisphere populations are the least diverse and are interpreted to be the youngest. The history inferred from mtDNA alone is remarkably similar to one based on several nuclear markers. The mtDNA haplotype distribution is also very different from that of allozymes in these same populations. We interpret this as further evidence that natural selection is still the most parsimonious explanation for the parallel latitudinal allozyme clines in this species. PMID:1682210

  1. Comprehension of Co-Speech Gestures in Aphasic Patients: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Noëmi; Preisig, Basil C.; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Vanbellingen, Tim; Nyffeler, Thomas; Gutbrod, Klemens; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-speech gestures are omnipresent and a crucial element of human interaction by facilitating language comprehension. However, it is unclear whether gestures also support language comprehension in aphasic patients. Using visual exploration behavior analysis, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of congruence between speech and co-speech gestures on comprehension in terms of accuracy in a decision task. Method Twenty aphasic patients and 30 healthy controls watched videos in which speech was either combined with meaningless (baseline condition), congruent, or incongruent gestures. Comprehension was assessed with a decision task, while remote eye-tracking allowed analysis of visual exploration. Results In aphasic patients, the incongruent condition resulted in a significant decrease of accuracy, while the congruent condition led to a significant increase in accuracy compared to baseline accuracy. In the control group, the incongruent condition resulted in a decrease in accuracy, while the congruent condition did not significantly increase the accuracy. Visual exploration analysis showed that patients fixated significantly less on the face and tended to fixate more on the gesturing hands compared to controls. Conclusion Co-speech gestures play an important role for aphasic patients as they modulate comprehension. Incongruent gestures evoke significant interference and deteriorate patients’ comprehension. In contrast, congruent gestures enhance comprehension in aphasic patients, which might be valuable for clinical and therapeutic purposes. PMID:26735917

  2. A comprehensive study of extended tetrathiafulvalene cruciform molecules for molecular electronics: synthesis and electrical transport measurements.

    PubMed

    Parker, Christian R; Leary, Edmund; Frisenda, Riccardo; Wei, Zhongming; Jennum, Karsten S; Glibstrup, Emil; Abrahamsen, Peter Bæch; Santella, Marco; Christensen, Mikkel A; Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Li, Tao; Gonzalez, Maria Teresa; Jiang, Xingbin; Morsing, Thorbjørn J; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Laursen, Bo W; Nørgaard, Kasper; van der Zant, Herre; Agrait, Nicolas; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2014-11-26

    Cruciform-like molecules with two orthogonally placed π-conjugated systems have in recent years attracted significant interest for their potential use as molecular wires in molecular electronics. Here we present synthetic protocols for a large selection of cruciform molecules based on oligo(phenyleneethynylene) (OPE) and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) scaffolds, end-capped with acetyl-protected thiolates as electrode anchoring groups. The molecules were subjected to a comprehensive study of their conducting properties as well as their photophysical and electrochemical properties in solution. The complex nature of the molecules and their possible binding in different configurations in junctions called for different techniques of conductance measurements: (1) conducting-probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) measurements on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), (2) mechanically controlled break-junction (MCBJ) measurements, and (3) scanning tunneling microscopy break-junction (STM-BJ) measurements. The CP-AFM measurements showed structure-property relationships from SAMs of series of OPE3 and OPE5 cruciform molecules; the conductance of the SAM increased with the number of dithiafulvene (DTF) units (0, 1, 2) along the wire, and it increased when substituting two arylethynyl end groups of the OPE3 backbone with two DTF units. The MCBJ and STM-BJ studies on single molecules both showed that DTFs decreased the junction formation probability, but, in contrast, no significant influence on the single-molecule conductance was observed. We suggest that the origins of the difference between SAM and single-molecule measurements lie in the nature of the molecule-electrode interface as well as in effects arising from molecular packing in the SAMs. This comprehensive study shows that for complex molecules care should be taken when directly comparing single-molecule measurements and measurements of SAMs and solid-state devices thereof. PMID:25375316

  3. 78 FR 71707 - MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Public Meeting and Outreach Sessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Federal Highway Administration MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Public Meeting and... Century Act (MAP-21) Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study. The Transportation Research Board... MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study. The DOT will hold a second public...

  4. A Comprehensive Prospective Clinical Study of Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Ankit; Hussain, Akhlak

    2014-01-01

    The actual prevalence of hydatid disease in northern part of India is found more than usually interpreted. The present study has been done on 25 patients suffering from hydatid disease of various sites and treated during June 2009 to November 2011 at JLN Medical College and Hospital, Ajmer, with the aim of studying the clinical manifestations of hydatid disease of different sites and/or organ system and of analysing the morbidity and mortality of hydatid disease. The age, sex, h/o dog contact, duration of hospital stay, clinical presentation, treatment advised, findings and difficulties encountered during operation, and postoperative management of patients as well as morbidity and mortality were recorded and analysed. We observed that the mean age was 40 years. The sex incidence revealed female preponderance in the study (M : F: 1 : 2). Duration of illness in the present study varied from 1 month to 6 years in case of liver hydatid disease. Majority of patients were from rural areas (21) and the remaining (4) from urban areas. Swelling was the most common presenting feature. Incidence of hydatid disease at unusual sites in India is higher than in other parts of the world. PMID:24734188

  5. Women's Studies Sourcebook: A Comprehensive, Classified Bibliography of Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judith D., Comp.

    Over 1,000 entries are presented in this bibliography of resources about women. Subject categories include the following: abortion; academia; art; biography; black women; business, banking, and economics; crime; day care; education; employment; health; history; Jewish women; lesbianism; literary works; medicine; music; national studies; police…

  6. Improving Middle-School Students' Knowledge and Comprehension in Social Studies: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Fall, Anna-Mária; Stillman-Spisak, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to replicate findings that demonstrated impact on students' reading comprehension and social studies content learning. Using a randomized control trial, intervention, and outcome measures, this study was replicated in 85 8th-grade social studies classes with 19 teachers. Teachers were provided professional development on…

  7. A comprehensive study on maxillofacial trauma conducted in Yamunanagar, India

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Rishi; Sharma, Parveen; Garg, Amandeep; Dhillon, Guneet

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, D.A.V [C] Dental College and Hospital, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India conducted a study on patients with maxillofacial fractures in a time span of seven years (2003-2010). The purpose of this study was to evaluate their aetiology, incidence, patterns and different modalities employed for management. Methods: In this study, 740 patients with 1054 fractures were evaluated clinically and radiographically, based on which closed reduction and open reduction was undertaken. Review of patient records included: Age, sex, time, mechanism and etiology of injury, history of bleeding, unconsciousness and prior first aid, type of vehicle and use of preventive measures, type of fracture and treatment modalities. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for highest number of fractures predominantly occurring in the age group of 21-30 years (38.3%)1,2. Males incurred more fractures with a male female ratio of 4.2: 1.Mandible was the most commonly fractured bone with parasymphysis being the commonest affected site.76.66% patients had associated head injury and 15.68 % had history of unconsciousness. Open reduction and internal fixation was the preferred modality for mandible whereas the mid face fractures were treated more often by closed methods. Conclusions: Injuries occurred more commonly in 20 – 40 age range with road traffic accident being the major etiological factor. Majority of the patients were driving two wheelers and most were under the effect of alcohol. Most of the injuries occurred during night and road traffic accidents (71.89%) were found to be the major etiological factor. Out of 532 road traffic accidents, 490 patients (66.2%) were on two wheelers, among whom 49(10%) were wearing helmet. In the mandible, fractures occurred most commonly in the parasymphyseal region (224, 30.2%), and out of the 314 fractures of the middle third showed, 155 (49.4%) ZMC. OPG was the most commonly advised X

  8. Comprehensive Infrared Study of Tetryl, Dinitrotoluene, and Trinitrotoluene Compounds.

    PubMed

    Puiu, Adriana; Giubileo, Gianfranco; Cesaro, Stella Nunziante; Bencivenni, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The present work describes an experimental and theoretical study of energetic materials used for detecting explosives in order to prevent terrorist actions, as well as for de-mining projects. Particular attention was devoted to examining the infrared absorption spectroscopy of classic explosives in order to create a useful mobile apparatus for on-field detection of explosives. This paper reports the vibrational absorption spectra of tetryl, dinitrotoluene, and trinitrotoluene molecules approached using two different spectroscopic techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra of all samples were analyzed in a very wide spectral range (400-7500 cm(-1)) showing for the first time the existence of weak absorption bands attributable to overtones or combination bands, while laser photoacoustic spectroscopy spectra have been investigated in the fingerprint region of organic compounds that share the CO2 laser emission range (~920-1100 cm(-1)). The Fourier transform infrared spectra of both matrix isolated dinitrotoluenes have been also investigated. The theoretical treatment of tetryl is reported for the first time. PMID:26555761

  9. Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project: comprehensive chronic rat study.

    PubMed

    Condie, L W; Lauer, W C; Wolfe, G W; Czeh, E T; Burns, J M

    1994-11-01

    The health effects testing program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project was designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater in comparison with Denver's present high-quality drinking water. The 1 x 10(6) gal/day treatment plant provided 500-fold concentrates of water that had been treated by multiple processes to remove microbial and chemical contaminants. Fischer 344 rats were exposed to the complex mixture solutions for up to 2 yr to evaluate chronic toxicity and oncogenicity effects. The following parameters were evaluated: clinical observations, survival rate, growth, food and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross autopsy and histopathological examination of all lesions, major tissues and organs. Clinical pathology, gross pathology, and microscopic pathology conducted at wk 26 and 65 and at the end of the study did not reveal any findings that could be considered to be treatment related. Administration of drinking water concentrates at up to 500 times the original concentration in the original water samples to F344 rats for up to 104 wk did not result in any overt toxicological or carcinogenic effects. PMID:7959456

  10. Comprehensive study on the concept of temporal optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junhe; Zheng, Guozeng; Wu, Jianjie

    2016-06-01

    Time and space are dual variables which bring a lot of analogies during theoretical study. In this paper, we extend the concept of a spatial optical waveguide to the temporal domain. Here we show that it is possible to confine the optical pulse within a time interval by introducing the temporal index boundaries. The confined pulse will propagate at a speed of the index change in the waveguide, and it will be behind the original optical pulse which propagates without the temporal index variations. In this way, we may offer an approach to broaden the bandwidth of the slow light and to tune the light speed based on the existing slow light devices. The temporal waveguide has modes, which are the temporal waveforms maintaining their shapes during the propagation. In a single-mode temporal waveguide, the pulse retains its shape as the only mode of the waveguide just like an optical soliton. In a multimode temporal waveguide, multimode interference effect exists, which can duplicate a single pulse into multiple copies and be potentially implemented for all-optical signal processing.

  11. Solar Coronal Structure Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Marilyn E.; Saba, Julia; Strong, Keith; Nitta, Nariaki; Harvey, Karen

    1997-01-01

    The subject of this investigation is the study the physics of the solar corona through the analysis of the EUV and UV data produced by two flights (12 May 1992 and 25 April 1994) of the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment (SPDE) sounding rocket payload, in combination with Yohkoh and groundbased data. These joint datasets are useful for understanding the physical state of the solar atmosphere from the photosphere to the corona at the time of the rocket flights. Each rocket flight produced both spectral and imaging data. Highlights of this initial year of the contract included compilation, scaling and co-alignment of image sets, substantial progress on the Bright Point study, initial work on the Active Region and Large Scale Structure studies, DRSC slit-aspect determination work and calibration activities. One paper was presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the AAS/SPD in Bozeman, Montana. An initial set of calibrated spectra were placed into the public domain via the World Wide Web. Three Quarterly Progress Reports have been submitted; progress for the fourth quarter of the contract is summarized in this Final Contract Report. The intent of the investigation is to compare the physics of small- and medium-scale structure with that of large-scale structures with weak fields. A study has been identified in each size domain. The calibration of the rocket data forms an important element of the work. Of equal importance is the slit-aspect solution, which determines the correspondence between locations along the spectrograph slit and points on the solar disk.

  12. Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for the Makah Indian Tribe

    SciTech Connect

    RobertLynette; John Wade; Larry Coupe

    2005-03-31

    The purpose of this project was to determine the technical feasibility, economic viability, and potential impacts of installing and operating a wind power station and/or small hydroelectric generation plants on the Makah reservation. The long-term objective is to supply all or a portion of Tribe's electricity from local, renewable energy sources in order to reduce costs, provide local employment, and reduce power outages. An additional objective was for the Tribe to gain an understanding of the requirements, costs, and benefits of developing and operating such plants on the reservation. The Makah Indian Reservation, with a total land area of forty-seven square miles, is located on the northwestern tip of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. Four major watersheds drain the main Reservation areas and the average rainfall is over one hundred inches per year. The reservation's west side borders the Pacific Ocean, but mostly consists of rugged mountainous terrain between 500 and 1,900 feet in elevation. Approximately 1,200 tribal members live on the Reservation and there is an additional non-Indian residential population of about 300. Electric power is provided by the Clallam County PUD. The annual usage on the reservation is approximately 16,700 mWh. Project Work Wind Energy--Two anemometer suites of equipment were installed on the reservation and operated for a more than a year. An off-site reference station was identified and used to project long-term wind resource characteristics at the two stations. Transmission resources were identified and analyzed. A preliminary financial analysis of a hypothetical wind power station was prepared and used to gauge the economic viability of installation of a multi-megawatt wind power station. Small Hydroelectric--Two potential sites for micro/small-hydro were identified by analysis of previous water resource studies, topographical maps, and conversations with knowledgeable Makah personnel. Field trips were conducted to

  13. The Effect of L2 Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience on Pragmatic Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the effect of general proficiency and study-abroad experience on pragmatic comprehension in second-language English. Participants were 25 native English speakers and 64 Japanese college students of English divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 22) had lower proficiency and no study-abroad experience. Group 2…

  14. The Impact of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on L2 Listening Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillos, Jorge H.; Chieffo, Lisa; Fan, Chunbo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of a five-week intermediate Spanish course on the listening comprehension ability of 48 participants in short-term study abroad programs, and compares these groups with 92 peers enrolled in a similar course on the home campus. While both on-campus and study abroad groups experienced similar gains in listening…

  15. The Effects of Four Study Strategies on Main Idea and Detail Comprehension of Sixth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Dixie Lee; And Others

    A study compared the effects of four study strategies on at-risk sixth-grade students' comprehension and retention of main ideas and details in considerate and less considerate social studies text. The four strategies investigated consisted of the following two pairs: (1) mapping with and without instruction in identifying important details; and…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Enhancing Critical Thinking and Reading Comprehension in Title I Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Bracken, Bruce; Feng, Annie; Brown, Elissa

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal study of student growth gains was conducted in Title I schools to assess growth in reading comprehension and critical thinking. Results suggested that all students benefited from the intervention of Project Athena units of study designed for high-ability learners. In addition, the study suggested that the comparison curriculum also…

  17. Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge among Middle School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Fall, Ana-Mari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a content knowledge and reading comprehension treatment implemented by eighth-grade general education social studies teachers among students with disabilities included in the classes. Data on students with disabilities across 2 years of study were combined for the analysis presented here. Students in…

  18. Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burlamaque-Neto, A C; Santos, G R; Lisbôa, L M; Goldim, J R; Machado, C L B; Matte, U; Giugliani, R

    2012-02-01

    In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research. PMID:22249427

  19. Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Burlamaque-Neto, A.C.; Santos, G.R.; Lisbôa, L.M.; Goldim, J.R.; Machado, C.L.B.; Matte, U.; Giugliani, R.

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research. PMID:22249427

  20. Comprehensive evaluations of the adverse effects of drugs: importance of appropriate study selection and data sources

    PubMed Central

    Golder, Su P.; Vandenbroucke, Jan P.

    2011-01-01

    While systematic reviews and meta-analyses are at the top of the evidence hierarchy, most of the methodology has focused on assessing treatment benefit. Hence, we propose a structured framework for the initial steps of searching and identifying relevant data sources so that adverse effects can be evaluated in a comprehensive, unbiased manner. The unique methodological challenges stem from the difficulties of addressing diverse outcomes encompassing common, mild symptoms to rare, fatal events. Retrieval of the most appropriate studies should be specifically tailored to fit the nature of the adverse effects, according to the primary objective and study question. In our framework, the structure of the review takes different forms depending on whether the main aim is on scoping/hypothesis generation, or evaluating statistically the magnitude of risk (hypothesis testing), or clarifying characteristics and risk factors of the adverse effect. The wide range of data sources covering adverse effects all have distinct strengths and limitations, and selection of appropriate sources depends on characteristics of the adverse effect (e.g. background incidence and effect size of the drug, clinical presentation, time of onset after drug exposure). Reviewers need to retrieve particular study designs that are most likely to yield robust data on the adverse effects of interest, rather than rely on studies that cannot reliably detect adverse effects, and may yield ‘false negatives’. Type II errors (a particular problem when evaluating rare adverse effects) can lull us into a false sense of security (e.g. wrongly concluding that there was no significant difference in harm between drug and control, with the drug erroneously judged as safe). Given the rapid rate at which methodological improvements occur, this proposed framework is by no means definitive, but aims to stimulate further debate and discussion amongst the pharmacoepidemiological and systematic review communities to reach

  1. A comprehensive study on atomic layer deposition of molybdenum sulfide for electrochemical hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Do Hyun; Jin, Zhenyu; Shin, Seokhee; Lee, Wook-Seong; Min, Yo-Sep

    2016-03-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has emerged as an efficient method to design and prepare catalysts with atomic precision. Here, we report a comprehensive study on ALD of molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) for an electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction. By using molybdenum hexacarbonyl and dimethyldisulfide as the precursors of Mo and S, respectively, the MoSx catalysts are grown at 100 °C on porous carbon fiber papers (CFPs). The ALD process results in the growth of particle-like MoSx on the CFP due to the lack of adsorption sites, and its crystallographic structure is a mixture of amorphous and nano-crystalline phases. In order to unveil the intrinsic activity of the ALD-MoSx, the exchange current densities, Tafel slopes, and turnover frequencies of the catalysts grown under various ALD conditions have been investigated by considering the fractional surface coverage of MoSx on the CFP and catalytically-active surface area. In addition, the ALD-MoSx/CFP catalysts exhibit excellent catalytic stability due to the strong adhesion of MoSx on the CFP and the mixed phase.Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has emerged as an efficient method to design and prepare catalysts with atomic precision. Here, we report a comprehensive study on ALD of molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) for an electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction. By using molybdenum hexacarbonyl and dimethyldisulfide as the precursors of Mo and S, respectively, the MoSx catalysts are grown at 100 °C on porous carbon fiber papers (CFPs). The ALD process results in the growth of particle-like MoSx on the CFP due to the lack of adsorption sites, and its crystallographic structure is a mixture of amorphous and nano-crystalline phases. In order to unveil the intrinsic activity of the ALD-MoSx, the exchange current densities, Tafel slopes, and turnover frequencies of the catalysts grown under various ALD conditions have been investigated by considering the fractional surface coverage of MoSx on the CFP and catalytically

  2. GWIDD: a comprehensive resource for genome-wide structural modeling of protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are a key component of life processes. The knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of these interactions is important for understanding protein function. Genome-Wide Docking Database (http://gwidd.bioinformatics.ku.edu) offers an extensive source of data for structural studies of protein-protein complexes on genome scale. The current release of the database combines the available experimental data on the structure and characteristics of protein interactions with structural modeling of protein complexes for 771 organisms spanned over the entire universe of life from viruses to humans. The interactions are stored in a relational database with user-friendly interface that includes various search options. The search results can be interactively previewed; the structures, downloaded, along with the interaction characteristics. PMID:23245398

  3. A Collective Case Study Observing the Print and Online Comprehension of Four Second Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens, Cortney Lyn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide baseline information regarding the comprehension processes second graders use when reading informational text in print and online form. The study focused on informational text found in print, in closed hypertext Web sites, and during open Internet searches because academic success depends on the quick…

  4. A Correlation Study between EFL Strategic Listening and Listening Comprehension Skills among Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between EFL students strategic listening and their listening comprehension skills. Eighty secondary school students participated in this study. Participants' strategic listening was measured by a Strategic Listening Interview (SLI), a Strategic Listening Questionnaire (SLQ) and a…

  5. Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content through Text in High School Social Studies Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon; Kent, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text intervention implemented with 11th-grade students enrolled in U.S. History classes. Using a within-teacher randomized design, the study was conducted in 41 classes (23 treatment classes) with 14 teachers providing the…

  6. A Study of the Sustained Effects of Comprehensive School Reform Programs in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William; Baugh, Carnell; Sheffer, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to present post-funding Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) data to address the more lasting features of CSR programs, their relation to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and support of its requirements, and the impact of CSR on student achievement. For the schools included in this study, many of the components…

  7. The Application of Bakhtinian Theories on Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yin Lam

    2010-01-01

    Due to the dominance of behaviorism, applied linguistics, and cognitive psychology since 1960s, many research studies in reading focused on the accuracy and speed required for successful comprehension. There exists a research gap in understanding the individual differences among readers when reading the same text. This study aimed at investigating…

  8. Adding New Dimensions to Case Study Evaluations: The Case of Evaluating Comprehensive Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Davis, Darnella

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the adaptation of the case study method to assessing increasingly complex, comprehensive reform initiatives that highlight the blurring of the boundaries between phenomenon and context and the concurrence of multiple interventions. Completed studies of two education reform programs illustrate the ongoing challenges of…

  9. A Qualitative Study of Facilitators and Barriers Related to Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Barclay, Chris; Mattison, Amira; Tan, Sim Yin; Sabnis, Sujay; Brundage, Amber; Marshall, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the majority of school psychologists' time continues to be dedicated to SPED related activities. Despite ongoing calls for school psychologists to expand their roles, why many practitioners do not deliver more comprehensive services is not well understood. This qualitative study investigated facilitators of and…

  10. GWAS Central: a comprehensive resource for the comparison and interrogation of genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tim; Hastings, Robert K; Gollapudi, Sirisha; Free, Robert C; Brookes, Anthony J

    2014-07-01

    To facilitate broad and convenient integrative visualization of and access to GWAS data, we have created the GWAS Central resource (http://www.gwascentral.org). This database seeks to provide a comprehensive collection of summary-level genetic association data, structured both for maximal utility and for safe open access (i.e., non-directional signals to fully preclude research subject identification). The resource emphasizes on advanced tools that allow comparison and discovery of relevant data sets from the perspective of genes, genome regions, phenotypes or traits. Tested markers and relevant genomic features can be visually interrogated across up to 16 multiple association data sets in a single view, starting at a chromosome-wide view and increasing in resolution down to individual bases. In addition, users can privately upload and view their own data as temporary files. Search and display utility is further enhanced by exploiting phenotype ontology annotations to allow genetic variants associated with phenotypes and traits of interest to be precisely identified, across all studies. Data submissions are accepted from individual researchers, groups and consortia, whereas we also actively gather data sets from various public sources. As a result, the resource now provides over 67 million P-values for over 1600 studies, making it the world's largest openly accessible online collection of summary-level GWAS association information. PMID:24301061

  11. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  12. Examining Associations Among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Little, Callie W; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-07-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-sex dizygotic) from the Florida Twin Project on Behavior and Environment (FTP-BE) and 2647 twin pairs (865 monozygotic, 1782 dizygotic) from the larger Florida Twin Project on Reading (FTP-R) in Grades 3 through 7. Three separate models, each representing a different definition of ADHD (full ADHD, inattention only, and hyperactivity/impulsivity only), showed similar patterns of results; therefore, results of the full ADHD model are discussed. Overlapping genetic influences were found between ADHD, homework behavior, and reading comprehension, but no shared environmental influences among all three. However, shared environmental influences overlapped between homework behavior and reading comprehension. Although the sources of this environmental overlap are unknown, these results have implications for improving homework practices and their subsequent influence on literacy skills through homework environments. PMID:25349092

  13. Effect of Pictograph-Based Discharge Instructions on Older Adults' Comprehension and Recall: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeungok

    2016-01-01

    Many older adults return home with limited comprehension of hospital discharge instructions because current text-based instructions are difficult to understand. To address this issue, the author developed discharge instructions using pictographs (i.e., simple line drawings showing step-by-step discharge actions) for older adults under care of hip replacement surgery. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of pictograph-based discharge instructions on comprehension and recall of older adults with low literacy skills. A posttest-only comparison group design was used to compare pictograph-based (n = 21) to text-only (n = 21) discharge instructions at 4 weeks after discharge instruction education. Significantly greater improvements in scores on comprehension and recall were demonstrated by the pictograph group than the text-only group. A follow-up, full-scale study is suggested to examine the effect of pictograph-based instructions on adherence to instructions and health outcomes. PMID:26020574

  14. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: a longitudinal study from Grade 1 to Grade 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-09-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 1, but not in Grade 2, after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 2, but not in Grade 1, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in Grade 1, whereas silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency in Grade 2. PMID:22726256

  15. The architecture of visual narrative comprehension: the interaction of narrative structure and page layout in understanding comics

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Neil

    2014-01-01

    How do people make sense of the sequential images in visual narratives like comics? A growing literature of recent research has suggested that this comprehension involves the interaction of multiple systems: The creation of meaning across sequential images relies on a “narrative grammar” that packages conceptual information into categorical roles organized in hierarchic constituents. These images are encapsulated into panels arranged in the layout of a physical page. Finally, how panels frame information can impact both the narrative structure and page layout. Altogether, these systems operate in parallel to construct the Gestalt whole of comprehension of this visual language found in comics. PMID:25071651

  16. The architecture of visual narrative comprehension: the interaction of narrative structure and page layout in understanding comics.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil

    2014-01-01

    How do people make sense of the sequential images in visual narratives like comics? A growing literature of recent research has suggested that this comprehension involves the interaction of multiple systems: The creation of meaning across sequential images relies on a "narrative grammar" that packages conceptual information into categorical roles organized in hierarchic constituents. These images are encapsulated into panels arranged in the layout of a physical page. Finally, how panels frame information can impact both the narrative structure and page layout. Altogether, these systems operate in parallel to construct the Gestalt whole of comprehension of this visual language found in comics. PMID:25071651

  17. Structure and dynamics of molecular networks: A novel paradigm of drug discovery: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Csermely, Peter; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Kiss, Huba J.M.; London, Gábor; Nussinov, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in genome- and proteome-based high-throughput screening methods and in rational drug design, the increase in approved drugs in the past decade did not match the increase of drug development costs. Network description and analysis not only gives a systems-level understanding of drug action and disease complexity, but can also help to improve the efficiency of drug design. We give a comprehensive assessment of the analytical tools of network topology and dynamics. The state-of-the-art use of chemical similarity, protein structure, protein-protein interaction, signaling, genetic interaction and metabolic networks in the discovery of drug targets is summarized. We propose that network targeting follows two basic strategies. The “central hit strategy” selectively targets central node/edges of the flexible networks of infectious agents or cancer cells to kill them. The “network influence strategy” works against other diseases, where an efficient reconfiguration of rigid networks needs to be achieved. It is shown how network techniques can help in the identification of single-target, edgetic, multi-target and allo-network drug target candidates. We review the recent boom in network methods helping hit identification, lead selection optimizing drug efficacy, as well as minimizing side-effects and drug toxicity. Successful network-based drug development strategies are shown through the examples of infections, cancer, metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Summarizing >1200 references we suggest an optimized protocol of network-aided drug development, and provide a list of systems-level hallmarks of drug quality. Finally, we highlight network-related drug development trends helping to achieve these hallmarks by a cohesive, global approach. PMID:23384594

  18. A comprehensive study on atomic layer deposition of molybdenum sulfide for electrochemical hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Do Hyun; Jin, Zhenyu; Shin, Seokhee; Lee, Wook-Seong; Min, Yo-Sep

    2016-03-24

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has emerged as an efficient method to design and prepare catalysts with atomic precision. Here, we report a comprehensive study on ALD of molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) for an electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction. By using molybdenum hexacarbonyl and dimethyldisulfide as the precursors of Mo and S, respectively, the MoSx catalysts are grown at 100 °C on porous carbon fiber papers (CFPs). The ALD process results in the growth of particle-like MoSx on the CFP due to the lack of adsorption sites, and its crystallographic structure is a mixture of amorphous and nano-crystalline phases. In order to unveil the intrinsic activity of the ALD-MoSx, the exchange current densities, Tafel slopes, and turnover frequencies of the catalysts grown under various ALD conditions have been investigated by considering the fractional surface coverage of MoSx on the CFP and catalytically-active surface area. In addition, the ALD-MoSx/CFP catalysts exhibit excellent catalytic stability due to the strong adhesion of MoSx on the CFP and the mixed phase. PMID:26973254

  19. A Comprehensive Computational Study of the Interaction between Human Serum Albumin and Fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Leonis, Georgios; Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Papavasileiou, Konstantinos D; Reis, Heribert; Steinbrecher, Thomas; Papadopoulos, Manthos G

    2015-12-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant blood plasma protein, which transports fatty acids, hormones, and drugs. We consider nanoparticle-HSA interactions by investigating the binding of HSA with three fullerene analogs. Long MD simulations, quantum mechanical (fragment molecular orbital, energy decomposition analysis, atoms-in-molecules), and free energy methods elucidated the binding mechanism in these complexes. Such a systematic study is valuable due to the lack of comprehensive theoretical approaches to date. The main elements of the mechanism include the following: binding to IIA site results in allosteric modulation of the IIIA and heme binding sites with an increase in α-helical structure of IIIA. Fullerenes displayed high binding affinities for HSA; therefore, HSA can be used as a fullerene carrier, facilitating any toxic function the fullerene may exert. Complex formation is driven by hydrogen bonding, van der Waals, nonpolar, charge transfer, and dispersion energy contributions. Proper functionalization of C60 has enhanced its binding to HSA by more than an order of magnitude. This feature may be important for biological applications (e.g., photodynamic therapy of cancer). Satisfactory agreement with relevant experimental and theoretical data has been obtained. PMID:26523956

  20. A Study of the Relationship between Physical Skills and Achievement in Listening Comprehension, Mathematics, and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Josey; Jones, Robbie

    To determine if a relationship existed between physical skills and achievement in reading, mathematics, and listening comprehension of fifth-grade students, a study evaluated 334 fifth-graders in Starkville, Mississippi, on 20 physical fitness, motor fitness, and sports skills, as well as the Stanford Achievement Tests. The physical skills test…

  1. Metaphor Comprehension in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Case Studies of Two High-Functioning Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melogno, Sergio; D'Ardia, Caterina; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents case studies on metaphor comprehension in two boys with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder, aged 9;1 (9 years, 1 month) and 8;11. The participants were assessed twice, before and after an intervention program aimed at improving their social skills. The focus of the article is on the specific patterns exhibited by…

  2. Comprehensive Religious Studies in Public Education: Educating for a Religiously Literate Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblith, Suzanne; Bailey, Bea

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to enlarge the conversation about religion and public education by inviting readers to think about the benefits to be gained in society by providing a comprehensive religious studies curriculum in our public schools. In such a program, students will develop knowledge and understanding about various religious traditions, forge…

  3. A Comprehensive Imaging and Raman Spectroscopy Study of ALH84001 and a Terrestrial Analogue from Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A.; Fries, M.; Amundsen, H. E. F.; Mysen, B.; Fogel, M.; Schweizer, M.; Boctor, N. Z.

    2006-03-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive Raman microprobe study of a depth profile of ALH84001 and a terrestrial analogue. We find that ALH84001 globules contain hematite as well as magnetite. Macromolecular carbon is always associated with magnetite both in the carbonates and in the bulk matrix.

  4. The Effects of Using Advance Organizers on Improving EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafari, Khadijeh; Hashim, Fatimah

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using two types of written advance organizers, key sentences and key vocabulary, on the improvement of EFL learners' listening comprehension. 108 second year university students at the higher and lower listening proficiency levels were randomly assigned to one control group and two experimental groups. Prior…

  5. Cognition, Language Contact, and the Development of Pragmatic Comprehension in a Study-Abroad Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    This study examined two issues: (a) whether there are gains in accurate and speedy comprehension of second language (L2) pragmatic meaning over time and (b) whether the gains are associated with cognitive processing ability and the amount of language contact in an L2 environment. Forty-four college students in a US institution completed three…

  6. Comprehension and Recall of Internet News: A Quantitative Study of Web Page Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, D. Leigh

    This experimental study examined the effects of multimedia on Internet news readers, in particular focusing on Web site design and its effect on comprehension and recall of news stories. Subjects (84 undergraduate students) viewed one of two versions of the same Web site--one with multimedia and one without. The Web site consisted of six stories…

  7. Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Final Results from a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2010-4027

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Isenberg, Eric; Dolfin, Sarah; Bleeker, Martha; Johnson, Amy; Grider, Mary; Jacobus, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences contracted with Mathematica Policy Research to conduct a large-scale evaluation of comprehensive teacher induction. The purpose of the study was to determine whether augmenting the set of services districts usually provide to support beginning teachers with a more…

  8. Case Study of an Institutionalized Urban Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah A.; Rukavina, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    This single case study (Yin, 2009) compares an established urban physical education/ sport/physical activity program with two models: Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program/CSPAP (AAHPERD, 2013; CDC, 2013); and Lawson's propositions (2005) for sport, exercise and physical education for empowerment and community development to…

  9. A Study of Reading Comprehension in Older Children Using Selected Korean Bible Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2014-01-01

    Problem: The problem of this study was to determine the difference in Bible comprehension scores among gender-based groups of older children using selected passages from three Bible translations: the Children's Bible, the Easy Bible, and the New Revised Korean Bible. Procedures: A total of 288 older children in three churches (Beautiful Baptist…

  10. Supporting nanomaterial risk assessment by case studies of nano-titanium dioxide using comprehensive environmental assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we describe a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach for two case studies of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) in real world applications: water treatment and sunscreen. CEA combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm.

  11. School Improvement by Design: Lessons from a Study of Comprehensive School Reform Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Brian; Correnti, Richard; Miller, Robert J.; Camburn, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the design, implementation, and instructional effectiveness of three of America's most widely disseminated comprehensive school reform programs (the Accelerated Schools Project, America's Choice, and Successful for All) over a four year period that encompassed the school years 2000-2001 through 2003-2004. The authors' goal in…

  12. 78 FR 76888 - MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... were referenced in a notice published on November 29, 2013, at 78 FR 71707. The original meeting notice..., 2013, at 78 FR 71707, the FHWA published in the Federal Register a notice to announce two upcoming... Federal Highway Administration MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Materials...

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study of Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Spanish Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of prosodic elements is recognised in most definitions of fluency. Although speed and accuracy have been typically considered the constituents of reading fluency, prosody is emerging as an additional component. The relevance of prosody in comprehension is increasingly recognised in the latest studies. The purpose of this research is…

  14. Developmental Relations between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…

  15. The Effect of Internet Usage on Technology Comprehension of Physics Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzel, Hatice

    2011-01-01

    Rapid technological enhancements and changes necessitate people who can understand the relation between science and technology and perceive as well as comment on technological enhancements. The aim of the present study was to determine physics students comprehension of the operation principles of wired telephone, mobile phone, and latest medical…

  16. Comprehension Strategy Instruction during Parent-Child Shared Reading: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a series of workshops and at-home activities designed to teach parents to integrate comprehension strategy instruction into read-alouds with their pre-kindergarten-aged children. Twenty parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to condition and parents in the experimental (workshop) condition were taught to…

  17. Follow-Up Study of Schools Implementing Comprehensive School Reform in the Southwest. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) programs were implemented in 1998 in five states working with the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL). SEDL's five-state region includes Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. This study examined the implementation status of CSR programs since funding ended. Two hundred and…

  18. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  19. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury: A Comprehensive Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel; And Others

    This document reports a comprehensive followup study to describe postservice life status of former vocational rehabilitation clients and to develop an empirical index of postservice adjustment to spinal cord injury. Significant findings, conclusions, and implications are found at the beginning. The introduction section summarizes followup studies…

  20. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  1. Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the First Year of a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2009-4034

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Dolfin, Sarah; Bleeker, Martha; Johnson, Amy; Isenberg, Eric; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Grider, Mary; Britton, Edward; Ali, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    In practice, teacher induction is common, but induction that is intensive, comprehensive, structured, and sequentially delivered in response to teachers' emerging pedagogical needs is less so. Congressional interest in formal, comprehensive teacher induction has grown in recent years. The National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional…

  2. Action starring narratives and events: Structure and inference in visual narrative comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Neil; Wittenberg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Studies of discourse have long placed focus on the inference generated by information that is not overtly expressed, and theories of visual narrative comprehension similarly focused on the inference generated between juxtaposed panels. Within the visual language of comics, star-shaped “flashes” commonly signify impacts, but can be enlarged to the size of a whole panel that can omit all other representational information. These “action star” panels depict a narrative culmination (a “Peak”), but have content which readers must infer, thereby posing a challenge to theories of inference generation in visual narratives that focus only on the semantic changes between juxtaposed images. This paper shows that action stars demand more inference than depicted events, and that they are more coherent in narrative sequences than scrambled sequences (Experiment 1). In addition, action stars play a felicitous narrative role in the sequence (Experiment 2). Together, these results suggest that visual narratives use conventionalized depictions that demand the generation of inferences while retaining narrative coherence of a visual sequence. PMID:26709362

  3. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  4. Solar Coronal Structure Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Nariaki; Bruner, Marilyn E.; Saba, Julia; Strong, Keith; Harvey, Karen

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this investigation is to study the physics of the solar corona through the analysis of the EUV and UV data produced by two flights (12 May 1992 and 25 April 1994) of the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment (SPDE) sounding rocket payload, in combination with Yohkoh and ground-based data. Each rocket flight produced both spectral and imaging data. These joint datasets are useful for understanding the physical state of various features in the solar atmosphere at different heights ranging from the photosphere to the corona at the time of the, rocket flights, which took place during the declining phase of a solar cycle, 2-4 years before the minimum. The investigation is narrowly focused on comparing the physics of small- and medium-scale strong-field structures with that of large-scale, weak fields. As we close th is investigation, we have to recall that our present position in the understanding of basic solar physics problems (such as coronal heating) is much different from that in 1995 (when we proposed this investigation), due largely to the great success of SOHO and TRACE. In other words, several topics and techniques we proposed can now be better realized with data from these missions. For this reason, at some point of our work, we started concentrating on the 1992 data, which are more unique and have more supporting data. As a result, we discontinued the investigation on small-scale structures, i.e., bright points, since high-resolution TRACE images have addressed more important physics than SPDE EUV images could do. In the final year, we still spent long time calibrating the 1992 data. The work was complicated because of the old-fashioned film, which had problems not encountered with more modern CCD detectors. After our considerable effort on calibration, we were able to focus on several scientific topics, relying heavily on the SPDE UV images. They include the relation between filaments and filament channels, the identification of hot

  5. A study of idiom comprehension in children with semantic-pragmatic difficulties. Part I: Task effects on the assessment of idiom comprehension in children.

    PubMed

    Kerbel, D; Grunwell, P

    1998-01-01

    In the apparent absence of suitable measures of idiom comprehension in normally developing and clinical populations, this study examined the relationship between a newly developed play task and a more conventional definition task. On the play task, children listened to a 1.5-minute, tape-recorded story into which were embedded 12 common idioms drawn from recordings of classroom teaching and children's television. As the story was then played again, sentence by sentence, the children were required to act it out using a play set and props. For each idiom, it was possible to act out either the idiomatic or literal meaning, but only the idiomatic meaning made sense in the context. The children's actions were video-taped and then played back to the child during the definition task. For this task, the video was stopped after each idiom occurred and the children were asked what they thought each idiom meant. Four groups of children were included. Twenty-six children (aged between 6-11 years), considered to have semantic-pragmatic difficulties, were compared with two groups of mainstream children (aged 6;6-7;6 and 10;6-11;6, respectively) and with a group of children (aged between 8-11 years) diagnosed with (other) language disorders not primarily of a semantic or pragmatic nature. The results indicate that the definition task underestimated common-idiom comprehension in normally developing children and, in particular, in children diagnosed with semantic-pragmatic difficulties or (other) language disorders. Furthermore, a significant difference in idiom comprehension between the two clinical groups evidenced on the play task was entirely masked on the definition task. It appeared that the expressive and metalinguistic demands of the definition task had a greater negative effect on the group of children with language disorders than on the children with semantic-pragmatic difficulties. Possible mechanisms through which the play task might have overestimated or underestimated

  6. Comprehensive comparison of the chemical and structural characterization of landfill leachate and leonardite humic fractions.

    PubMed

    Tahiri, Abdelghani; Richel, Aurore; Destain, Jacqueline; Druart, Philippe; Thonart, Philippe; Ongena, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous mixtures of organic compounds that occur everywhere in the environment. They represent most of the dissolved organic matter in soils, sediments (fossil), water, and landfills. The exact structure of HS macromolecules has not yet been determined because of their complexity and heterogeneity. Various descriptions of HS are used depending on specific environments of origin and research interests. In order to improve the understanding of the structure of HS extracted from landfill leachate (LHS) and commercial HS from leonardite (HHS), this study sought to compare the composition and characterization of the structure of LHS and HHS using elemental composition, chromatographic (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), and spectroscopic techniques (UV-vis, FTIR, NMR, and MALDI-TOF). The results showed that LHS molecules have a lower molecular weight and less aromatic structure than HHS molecules. The characteristics of functional groups of both LHS and HHS, however, were basically similar, but there was some differences in absorbance intensity. There were also less aliphatic and acidic functional groups and more aromatic and polyphenolic compounds in the humic acid (HA) fraction than in the fulvic acid (FA) and other molecules (OM) fractions of both origins. The differences between LHS and HHS might be due to the time course of humification. Combining the results obtained from these analytical techniques cold improve our understanding of the structure of HS of different origins and thus enhance their potential use. PMID:26781101

  7. Emergent Theory and the Effects of Structural Reforms on De Facto Tracking in Two Comprehensive High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Sarah Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study accepted the theoretical framework of Friedkin and Thomas (1997), who proposed that tracking systems in large comprehensive high schools are emergent. The study replicates a network analysis methodology used by Heck, Price, and Thomas (2004) to understand the way tracking emerged in one high school in Hawaii. However, this study…

  8. Why Intensive Interventions Matter: Longitudinal Studies of Adolescents With Reading Disabilities and Poor Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Michael; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe findings from a series of longitudinal studies utilizing a response to intervention framework implemented over 3 years with students in Grades 6 through 8 with reading disabilities and poor reading comprehension. Students were identified based on reading comprehension scores in Grade 5 (n = 1,083) and then randomized to treatment or comparison conditions. Beginning in sixth grade, students assigned to intervention were provided treatment for 1, 2, or 3 years based on their response to instruction in each preceding year. Screening procedures, progress monitoring tools, tiers of instruction, and findings from each year of the study are reported. Additional studies investigating reading and behavioral outcomes through multi-level, growth modeling, and studies of the cognitive and neural correlates of inadequate response are also reported. PMID:25378799

  9. Educational Facilities Study Manual and Design; Flint-Genesee County Comprehensive Land Use-Transportation Planning Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genesee County Metropolitan Planning Commission, Flint, MI.

    The Educational Facilities Study Item of the Flint-Genesee County (Michigan) Comprehensive Land Use-Transportation Planning Study is implementing a program to identify present and future educational problems and needs in Genesee County. This report is a technical document to guide the execution of the research and analysis of the study. The study…

  10. Inverse Load Calculation of Wind Turbine Support Structures - A Numerical Verification Using the Comprehensive Simulation Code FAST: Preprint (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Pahn, T.; Jonkman, J.; Rolges, R.; Robertson, A.

    2012-11-01

    Physically measuring the dynamic responses of wind turbine support structures enables the calculation of the applied loads using an inverse procedure. In this process, inverse means deriving the inputs/forces from the outputs/responses. This paper presents results of a numerical verification of such an inverse load calculation. For this verification, the comprehensive simulation code FAST is used. FAST accounts for the coupled dynamics of wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity and turbine controls. Simulations are run using a 5-MW onshore wind turbine model with a tubular tower. Both the applied loads due to the instantaneous wind field and the resulting system responses are known from the simulations. Using the system responses as inputs to the inverse calculation, the applied loads are calculated, which in this case are the rotor thrust forces. These forces are compared to the rotor thrust forces known from the FAST simulations. The results of these comparisons are presented to assess the accuracy of the inverse calculation. To study the influences of turbine controls, load cases in normal operation between cut-in and rated wind speed, near rated wind speed and between rated and cut-out wind speed are chosen. The presented study shows that the inverse load calculation is capable of computing very good estimates of the rotor thrust. The accuracy of the inverse calculation does not depend on the control activity of the wind turbine.

  11. A Comprehensive Proteomic Study of the Skin Secretions of the Frog Lithobates spectabilis.

    PubMed

    Demesa-Balderrama, Griselda; Meneses, Erika P; Hernández-Orihuela, Lorena; Pando-Robles, Victoria; Rodriguez, Maria C; Barrientos-Salcedo, Carolina; Aguilar, Manuel B; Batista, Cesar V F

    2016-01-01

    Disulfide C-terminal loop fragments derived from AMPs and the presence of peptidases have been previously reported in the skin secretions of different amphibians. However, there are only a few studies on the identification of enzymes in frog skin secretion based on the primary structure of these proteins. Similarly, little data exist regarding the identification of disulfide C-terminal loops at large scale. Therefore, a comprehensive study on this issue certainly could bring in much more information for understanding this molecular process and its biochemical consequences. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize the presence of disulfide C-terminal loop fragments of AMPs and identify the proteins and probable enzymes present in the completely unknown secretion contents of the frog Lithobates spectabilis. For this purpose, high-resolution mass spectrometry was applied to analyze the skin secretions processed by two different protocols: (1) using a cocktail of enzymatic inhibitors and 2) without any protease inhibitors, maintaining the solution for 2 hours at 10°C. Results from procedure-1, revealed 122 molecular masses, whereas procedure-2 permitted 253 different molecular masses to be identified. Fifty-nine peptides including 22 disulfide C-terminal loop-containing peptides were obtained following procedure-2. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation, tryptic digestion and LCMS/ MS were used for "de novo" sequencing of 111 different peptides and the unequivocal identification of fifteen proteins including at least three different peptidases. Additionally, it was possible to fully sequence eight peptides, including a ranatuerin-related peptide identified here as Spectabilin, that was subsequently chemically synthesized and showed high antibacterial, antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities. PMID:27145929

  12. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: An eye movement study

    PubMed Central

    ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MONICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5; 8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5; 6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  13. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan; Macwhinney, Brian

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  14. The thematic hierarchy in sentence comprehension: A study on the interaction between verb class and word order in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Dickey, Michael W; Wainselboim, Alejandro J; París, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Linking is the theory that captures the mapping of the semantic roles of lexical arguments to the syntactic functions of the phrases that realize them. At the sentence level, linking allows us to understand "who did what to whom" in an event. In Spanish, linking has been shown to interact with word order, verb class, and case marking. The current study aims to provide the first piece of experimental evidence about the interplay between word order and verb type in Spanish. We achieve this by adopting role and reference grammar and the extended argument dependency model. Two different types of clauses were examined in a self-paced reading task: clauses with object-experiencer psychological verbs and activity verbs. These types of verbs differ in the way that their syntactic and semantic structures are linked, and thus they provide interesting evidence on how information that belongs to the syntax-semantics interface might influence the predictive and integrative processes of sentence comprehension with alternative word orders. Results indicate that in Spanish, comprehension and processing speed is enhanced when the order of the constituents in the sentence mirrors their ranking on a semantic hierarchy that encodes a verb's lexical semantics. Moreover, results show that during online comprehension, predictive mechanisms based on argument hierarchization are used rapidly to inform the processing system. Our findings corroborate already existing cross-linguistic evidence on the issue and are briefly discussed in the light of other sentence-processing models. PMID:25529525

  15. Comprehension of Written Grammar Test: Reliability and Known-Groups Validity Study with Hearing and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Hubley, Anita M.; Millhoff, Courtney; Mazlouman, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to gather validation evidence for the "Comprehension of Written Grammar" (CWG; Easterbrooks, 2010) receptive test of 26 grammatical structures of English print for use with children who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH). Reliability and validity data were collected for 98 participants (49 DHH and 49…

  16. Cell Structure Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, James V.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students use microscopes and digital images to examine Elodea, a fresh water plant, before and after the process of plasmolysis, identify plant cellular structures before and after plasmolysis, and calculate the size of the plant's vacuole. (ASK)

  17. Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test in Children and Adolescents with Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Vertinski, Mary; Mayfield, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is a relatively new version of the Trail Making Test that has a number of appealing features, including a large normative sample that allows raw scores to be converted to standard "T" scores adjusted for age. Preliminary validity information suggests that CTMT scores are sensitive to brain injury and…

  18. The Effects of Surface Structure Variables on Performance in Reading Comprehension Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Priscilla; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Concludes that reading comprehension tests that are valid for beginning readers should incorporate different factors than tests appropriate for upper elementary readers, since word recognition and word meaning are prime sources of difficulty for younger readers while content density depresses the performance of readers in upper elementary grades.…

  19. Adapting Structuration Theory as a Comprehensive Theory for Distance Education: The ASTIDE Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktaruzzaman, Md; Plunkett, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Distance Education (DE) theorists have argued about the requirement for a theory to be comprehensive in a way that can explicate many of the activities associated with DE. Currently, Transactional Distance Theory (TDT) (Moore, 1993) and the Theory of Instructional Dialogue (IDT) (Caspi & Gorsky, 2006) are the most prominent theories, yet they…

  20. Comprehensive long-span paired-end-tag mapping reveals characteristic patterns of structural variations in epithelial cancer genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hillmer, Axel M.; Yao, Fei; Inaki, Koichiro; Lee, Wah Heng; Ariyaratne, Pramila N.; Teo, Audrey S.M.; Woo, Xing Yi; Zhang, Zhenshui; Zhao, Hao; Ukil, Leena; Chen, Jieqi P.; Zhu, Feng; So, Jimmy B.Y.; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Poh, Wan Ting; Zawack, Kelson F.B.; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Gao, Song; Li, Guoliang; Kumar, Vikrant; Lim, Hui Ping J.; Sia, Yee Yen; Chan, Chee Seng; Leong, See Ting; Neo, Say Chuan; Choi, Poh Sum D.; Thoreau, Hervé; Tan, Patrick B.O.; Shahab, Atif; Ruan, Xiaoan; Bergh, Jonas; Hall, Per; Cacheux-Rataboul, Valère; Wei, Chia-Lin; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Sung, Wing-Kin; Bourque, Guillaume; Liu, Edison T.; Ruan, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Somatic genome rearrangements are thought to play important roles in cancer development. We optimized a long-span paired-end-tag (PET) sequencing approach using 10-Kb genomic DNA inserts to study human genome structural variations (SVs). The use of a 10-Kb insert size allows the identification of breakpoints within repetitive or homology-containing regions of a few kilobases in size and results in a higher physical coverage compared with small insert libraries with the same sequencing effort. We have applied this approach to comprehensively characterize the SVs of 15 cancer and two noncancer genomes and used a filtering approach to strongly enrich for somatic SVs in the cancer genomes. Our analyses revealed that most inversions, deletions, and insertions are germ-line SVs, whereas tandem duplications, unpaired inversions, interchromosomal translocations, and complex rearrangements are over-represented among somatic rearrangements in cancer genomes. We demonstrate that the quantitative and connective nature of DNA–PET data is precise in delineating the genealogy of complex rearrangement events, we observe signatures that are compatible with breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, and we discover that large duplications are among the initial rearrangements that trigger genome instability for extensive amplification in epithelial cancers. PMID:21467267

  1. Comprehensive Mechanisms for Combustion Chemistry: An Experimental and Numerical Study with Emphasis on Applied Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dryer, Frederick L.

    2009-04-10

    This project was an integrated experimental/numerical effort to study pyrolysis and oxidation reactions and mechanisms for small-molecule hydrocarbon structures under conditions representative of combustion environments. The experimental aspects of the work were conducted in large-diameter flow reactors, at 0.3 to 18 atm pressure, 500 to 1100 K temperature, and 10-2 to 2 seconds reaction time. Experiments were also conducted to determine reference laminar flame speeds using a premixed laminar stagnation flame experiment and particle image velocimetry, as well as pressurized bomb experiments. Flow reactor data for oxidation experiments include: (1)adiabatic/isothermal species time-histories of a reaction under fixed initial pressure, temperature, and composition; to determine the species present after a fixed reaction time, initial pressure; (2)species distributions with varying initial reaction temperature; (3)perturbations of a well-defined reaction systems (e.g. CO/H2/O2 or H2/O2)by the addition of small amounts of an additive species. Radical scavenging techniques are applied to determine unimolecular decomposition rates from pyrolysis experiments. Laminar flame speed measurements are determined as a function of equivalence ratio, dilution, and unburned gas temperature at 1 atm pressure. Hierarchical, comprehensive mechanistic construction methods were applied to develop detailed kinetic mechanisms which describe the measurements and literature kinetic data. Modeling using well-defined and validated mechanisms for the CO/H2/Oxidant systems and perturbations of oxidation experiments by small amounts of additives were also used to derive absolute reaction rates and to investigate the compatibility of published elementary kinetic and thermochemical information. Numerical tools were developed and applied to assess the importance of individual elementary reactions to the predictive performance of the

  2. Structural studies on resids

    SciTech Connect

    Strausz, O.P. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1988-01-01

    Investigations aimed at elucidating structural elements in Alberta oil and asphaltenes and heavy ends have yielded important and unforeseen results. Athabasca asphaltene has been separated into five different molecular weight fractions, each of which was analyzed by high-resolution /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy. In all these fractions, as well as in the whole asphaltene, the aliphatic and aromatic carbon and hydrogen types were determined quantitatively, from which it was concluded that there exists a large network of straight-chain aliphatic side chains and bridging units. Only 43% of the asphaltene is aromatic and the average n-alkyl chain length is 9. Further insights into the aspahaltene structure were obtained using the Ru(VIII)-catalyzed oxidation technique. This reagent selectively and quantitatively oxidizes aromatic carbons to CO/sub 2/ while converting side chains to alkanoic acids, alkyl bridging units to {alpha}, {omega}-dicarboxylic acids, and di- and triaromatic moieties to benzene polycarboxylic acids. In this way the authors were able to determine, quantitatively, the extents and concentration distributions of the numerous n-alkyl side chains and bridging units connected to aromatic nuclei, and of the aromatic clusters. Examination of the aromatic-free oxidized residue gave further information on the alkyl substituents attached to saturated, cyclic systems. A schematic model of the gross structural features of the asphaltene is presented. A brief overview of the heterocyclic compound classes identified in the asphaltene and maltene fractions of the bitumen is presented. The nature and concentration distributions of the carboxylic acids, sulfides and thiophenes in the two fractions are different and possible explanations for these observations are discussed.

  3. The Complexity of Hydration of Phloroglucinol: A Comprehensive Structural and Thermodynamic Characterization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hydrate formation is of great importance as the inclusion of water molecules affects many solid state properties and hence determines the required chemical processing, handling, and storage. Phloroglucinol is industrially important, and the observed differences in the morphology and diffuse scattering effects with growth conditions have been scientifically controversial. We have studied the anhydrate and dihydrate of phloroglucinol and their transformations by a unique combination of complementary experimental and computational techniques, namely, moisture sorption analysis, hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, isothermal calorimetry, single crystal and powder X-ray diffractometry, and crystal energy landscape calculations. The enthalpically stable dihydrate phase is unstable below 16% relative humidity (25 °C) and above 50 °C (ambient humidity), and the kinetics of hydration/dehydration are relatively rapid with a small hysteresis. A consistent atomistic picture of the thermodynamics of the hydrate/anhydrate transition was derived, consistent with the disordered single X-ray crystal structure and crystal energy landscape showing closely related low energy hydrate structures. These structures provide models for proton disorder and show stacking faults as intergrowth of different layers are possible. This indicates that the consequent variability in crystal surface features and diffuse scattering with growth conditions is not a practical concern. PMID:22390190

  4. A Comprehensive Investigation of the Structuring of the Interstellar Medium of Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, You-Hua; Wakker, Bart

    2001-01-01

    We proposed to use the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), ROSAT (X-ray satellite), Advanced Spacecraft for Cosmology Astrophysics (ASCA), and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archival data, complemented by data obtained from ground-based observatories, to study the physical structure of the interstellar medium as a result of interactions between massive stars and the ambient medium. During the granting period, we have carried out the major tasks proposed originally and reported the results in a large number of papers. The papers published during the last two years below. We conclude that this program has been highly successfully.

  5. Whole genome comparison between table and wine grapes reveals a comprehensive catalog of structural variants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most important Mediterranean fruit crop, used to produce both wine and spirits as well as table grape and raisins. Wine and table grape cultivars represent two divergent germplasm pools with different origins and domestication history, as well as differential characteristics for berry size, cluster architecture and berry chemical profile, among others. ‘Sultanina’ plays a pivotal role in modern table grape breeding providing the main source of seedlessness. This cultivar is also one of the most planted for fresh consumption and raisins production. Given its importance, we sequenced it and implemented a novel strategy for the de novo assembly of its highly heterozygous genome. Results Our approach produced a draft genome of 466 Mb, recovering 82% of the genes present in the grapevine reference genome; in addition, we identified 240 novel genes. A large number of structural variants and SNPs were identified. Among them, 45 (21 SNPs and 24 INDELs) were experimentally confirmed in ‘Sultanina’ and six SNPs in other 23 table grape varieties. Transposable elements corresponded to ca. 80% of the repetitive sequences involved in structural variants and more than 2,000 genes were affected in their structure by these variants. Some of these genes are likely involved in embryo development, suggesting that they may contribute to seedlessness, a key trait for table grapes. Conclusions This work produced the first structural variants and SNPs catalog for grapevine, constituting a novel and very powerful tool for genomic studies in this key fruit crop, particularly useful to support marker assisted breeding in table grapes. PMID:24397443

  6. Comprehensive development master plan: a study of environmental politics. [Dade County

    SciTech Connect

    Rogier, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an investigation of environmental politics in Dade County, Florida. Influence efforts of a small group of citizens in a growing urban community in a fragile tropical everglades setting are reviewed. Environmentalists and other interest groups in the community each worked to have their values written into the Comprehensive Development Master Plan. The Planning Department chose and used the Citizens Advisory Task Force. For the most part, environmental members outvoiced economic members in policy making decisions. The three part plan was produced using new types of data and concepts, combined with traditional planning techniques. Part I policies became more generalized with each formulation. The Environmental Protection Guide classified land for urban use by environmental sensitivity. The Metropolitan Development Guide gave data and implementation techniques. When the County Commission made its final decisions on the Comprehensive Development Master Plan it formulated and legitimated a plan stating environmental values.

  7. A comprehensive study of stent visualization enhancement in X-ray images by image processing means.

    PubMed

    Bismuth, Vincent; Vaillant, Régis; Funck, François; Guillard, Niels; Najman, Laurent

    2011-08-01

    In this work we propose a comprehensive study of Digital Stent Enhancement (DSE), from the analysis of the requirements to the validation of the proposed solution. First, we derive the stent visualization requirements in the context of the clinical application and workflow. Then, we propose a DSE algorithm combining automatic detection, tracking, registration and contrast enhancement. The most original parts of our solution: landmark segmentation and non-linear image registration are detailed. Finally, we validate the algorithm on a large number of synthetic and clinical cases. Performance is characterized in terms of automation, image quality and execution time. This work is, to the best of our knowledge, the first comprehensive article on DSE, covering problem statement, proposed solution, and validation strategies. PMID:21530360

  8. The impact of teach-back on comprehension of discharge instructions and satisfaction among emergency patients with limited health literacy: A randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Griffey, Richard T.; Shin, Nicole; Jones, Solita; Aginam, Nnenna; Gross, Maureen; Kinsella, Yonitte; Williams, Jennifer A.; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Goodman, Melody; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recommended as a ‘universal precaution’ for improving provider–patient communication, teach-back has a limited evidence base. Discharge from the emergency department (ED) to home is an important high-risk transition of care with potential for miscommunication of critical information. We examined whether teach-back improves: comprehension and perceived comprehension of discharge instructions and satisfaction among patients with limited health literacy (LHL) in the ED. Methods We performed a randomized, controlled study among adult patients with LHL, to teach-back or standard discharge instructions. Patients completed an audio-recorded structured interview evaluating comprehension and perceived comprehension of (1) diagnosis, (2) ED course, (3) post-ED care, and (4) reasons to return and satisfaction using four Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems questions. Concordance with the medical record was rated using a five-level scale. We analyzed differences between groups using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Results Patients randomized to receive teach-back had higher comprehension of post-ED care areas: post-ED medication (P < 0.02), self-care (P < 0.03), and follow-up instructions (P < 0.0001), but no change in patient satisfaction or perceived comprehension. Conclusion Teach-back appears to improve comprehension of post-ED care instructions but not satisfaction or perceived comprehension. Our data from a randomized, controlled study support the effectiveness of teach-back in a busy clinical setting. Further research is needed to test the utility and feasibility of teach-back for routine use including its impacts on distal outcomes. PMID:26617669

  9. A comprehensive spectrometry study of a stray neutron radiation field in scanning proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares, Vladimir; Romero-Expósito, Maite; Farah, Jad; Trinkl, Sebastian; Domingo, Carles; Dommert, Martin; Stolarczyk, Liliana; Van Ryckeghem, Laurent; Wielunski, Marek; Olko, Pawel; Harrison, Roger M.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the stray neutron radiation field in scanning proton therapy considering a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom and a clinically-relevant beam condition. Using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry systems (ERBSS), Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group measured neutron spectra at ten different positions around a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom irradiated for a brain tumor with a scanning proton beam. This study compares the different systems and unfolding codes as well as neutron spectra measured in similar conditions around a water tank phantom. The ten spectra measured with two ERBSS systems show a generally similar thermal component regardless of the position around the phantom while high energy neutrons (above 20 MeV) were only registered at positions near the beam axis (at 0°, 329° and 355°). Neutron spectra, fluence and ambient dose equivalent, H *(10), values of both systems were in good agreement (<15%) while the unfolding code proved to have a limited effect. The highest H *(10) value of 2.7 μSv Gy‑1 was measured at 329° to the beam axis and 1.63 m from the isocenter where high-energy neutrons (E  ⩾  20 MeV) contribute with about 53%. The neutron mapping within the gantry room showed that H *(10) values significantly decreased with distance and angular position with respect to the beam axis dropping to 0.52 μSv Gy‑1 at 90° and 3.35 m. Spectra at angles of 45° and 135° with respect to the beam axis measured here with an anthropomorphic phantom showed a similar peak structure at the thermal, fast and high energy range as in the previous water-tank experiments. Meanwhile, at 90°, small differences at the high-energy range were observed. Using ERBSS systems, neutron spectra mapping was performed to characterize the exposure of scanning proton therapy patients. The ten measured spectra provide precise information about the exposure of healthy organs to thermal

  10. A comprehensive spectrometry study of a stray neutron radiation field in scanning proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Mares, Vladimir; Romero-Expósito, Maite; Farah, Jad; Trinkl, Sebastian; Domingo, Carles; Dommert, Martin; Stolarczyk, Liliana; Van Ryckeghem, Laurent; Wielunski, Marek; Olko, Pawel; Harrison, Roger M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the stray neutron radiation field in scanning proton therapy considering a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom and a clinically-relevant beam condition. Using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry systems (ERBSS), Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group measured neutron spectra at ten different positions around a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom irradiated for a brain tumor with a scanning proton beam. This study compares the different systems and unfolding codes as well as neutron spectra measured in similar conditions around a water tank phantom. The ten spectra measured with two ERBSS systems show a generally similar thermal component regardless of the position around the phantom while high energy neutrons (above 20 MeV) were only registered at positions near the beam axis (at 0°, 329° and 355°). Neutron spectra, fluence and ambient dose equivalent, H (*)(10), values of both systems were in good agreement (<15%) while the unfolding code proved to have a limited effect. The highest H (*)(10) value of 2.7 μSv Gy(-1) was measured at 329° to the beam axis and 1.63 m from the isocenter where high-energy neutrons (E  ⩾  20 MeV) contribute with about 53%. The neutron mapping within the gantry room showed that H (*)(10) values significantly decreased with distance and angular position with respect to the beam axis dropping to 0.52 μSv Gy(-1) at 90° and 3.35 m. Spectra at angles of 45° and 135° with respect to the beam axis measured here with an anthropomorphic phantom showed a similar peak structure at the thermal, fast and high energy range as in the previous water-tank experiments. Meanwhile, at 90°, small differences at the high-energy range were observed. Using ERBSS systems, neutron spectra mapping was performed to characterize the exposure of scanning proton therapy patients. The ten measured spectra provide precise information about the exposure of healthy organs to

  11. Source attribution and structure classification-assisted strategy for comprehensively profiling Chinese herbal formula: Ganmaoling granule as a case.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinfeng; Shi, Ziyi; Song, Yuelin; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Mingbo; Tu, Pengfei; Jiang, Yong

    2016-09-16

    Chinese herbal formula (CHF) has extremely complex chemical composition. Herein, a source attribution and structure classification-assisted strategy was established based on reductionism for rapidly and comprehensively profiling CHF, and Ganmaoling granule (GMLG) was selected as a representative case to illustrate such a strategy and to confirm its applicability. Firstly, comprehensive data acquisition was achieved using neutral losses along with full scan on a liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometer (LC-IT-TOF-MS). Then, the detected precursor and product ions were paired to construct a list of ion transitions for profiling GMLG and its constituent herbs using the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) mode on a LC coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-Q-Trap-MS). The mass parameters of sMRM were optimized using an online optimization strategy to achieve the highest sensitivity, and the automated source attribution was performed with the assistant of the "Quantitate" function of Analyst software. The target peaks were then structurally classified into seven classes through integrating the mass defect filtering (MDF) and diagnostic fragment ion filtering (DFIF), and identified by combination of the mass fragmentation rules and a 'structure extension' approach. Using this strategy, 261 components, including 148 trace ones (with the intensity lower than 100,000 cps), were tentatively characterized. The findings demonstrated that such a comprehensive source attribution and structure classification-assisted strategy is qualified to be an efficient approach for rapidly and globally characterizing the chemical profile of CHF. PMID:27543387

  12. The neural mechanisms of speech comprehension: fMRI studies of semantic ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Jennifer M; Davis, Matthew H; Johnsrude, Ingrid S

    2005-08-01

    A number of regions of the temporal and frontal lobes are known to be important for spoken language comprehension, yet we do not have a clear understanding of their functional role(s). In particular, there is considerable disagreement about which brain regions are involved in the semantic aspects of comprehension. Two functional magnetic resonance studies use the phenomenon of semantic ambiguity to identify regions within the fronto-temporal language network that subserve the semantic aspects of spoken language comprehension. Volunteers heard sentences containing ambiguous words (e.g. 'the shell was fired towards the tank') and well-matched low-ambiguity sentences (e.g. 'her secrets were written in her diary'). Although these sentences have similar acoustic, phonological, syntactic and prosodic properties (and were rated as being equally natural), the high-ambiguity sentences require additional processing by those brain regions involved in activating and selecting contextually appropriate word meanings. The ambiguity in these sentences goes largely unnoticed, and yet high-ambiguity sentences produced increased signal in left posterior inferior temporal cortex and inferior frontal gyri bilaterally. Given the ubiquity of semantic ambiguity, we conclude that these brain regions form an important part of the network that is involved in computing the meaning of spoken sentences. PMID:15635062

  13. The effect of individual differences in working memory capacity on sentence comprehension: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene D; Malaia, Evie; Seo, Roy; Cheng, Hu

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the interaction between working memory systems and language processing by examining how differences in working memory capacity (WMC) modulates neural activation levels and functional connectivity during sentence comprehension. The results indicate that two working memory systems may be involved in sentence comprehension, the verbal working memory system and the episodic buffer, but during different phases of the task. A sub-region of the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45) was correlated with WMC during the probe and not during sentence reading while the only region to reveal a correlation with WMC during sentence reading was the posterior cingulate/precuneus area, a region linked to event representation. In addition, functional connectivity analysis suggests that there were two distinct networks affected by WMC. The first was a semantic network that included the middle temporal cortex, an anterior region of the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal region. The second included the posterior cingulate and BA 45 of the inferior frontal gyrus. We propose here that high capacity readers may generate an event representation of the sentence during reading that aids in comprehension and that this event representation involves the processing of the posterior cingulate cortex. PMID:23124385

  14. Sequential Coherence in Sentence Pairs Enhances Imagery during Comprehension: An Individual Differences Study

    PubMed Central

    Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates how sequential coherence in sentence pairs (events in sequence vs. unrelated events) affects the perceived ability to form a mental image of the sentences for both auditory and visual presentations. In addition, we investigated how the ease of event imagery affected online comprehension (word reading times) in the case of sequentially coherent and incoherent sentence pairs. Two groups of comprehenders were identified based on their self-reported ability to form vivid mental images of described events. Imageability ratings were higher and faster for pairs of sentences that described events in coherent sequences rather than non-sequential events, especially for high imagers. Furthermore, reading times on individual words suggested different comprehension patterns with respect to sequence coherence for the two groups of imagers, with high imagers activating richer mental images earlier than low imagers. The present results offer a novel link between research on imagery and discourse coherence, with specific contributions to our understanding of comprehension patterns for high and low imagers. PMID:26383115

  15. Reflexive anaphor resolution in spoken language comprehension: structural constraints and beyond.

    PubMed

    Clackson, Kaili; Heyer, Vera

    2014-01-01

    We report results from an eye-tracking during listening study examining English-speaking adults' online processing of reflexive pronouns, and specifically whether the search for an antecedent is restricted to syntactically appropriate positions. Participants listened to a short story where the recipient of an object was introduced with a reflexive, and were asked to identify the object recipient as quickly as possible. This allowed for the recording of participants' offline interpretation of the reflexive, response times, and eye movements on hearing the reflexive. Whilst our offline results show that the ultimate interpretation for reflexives was constrained by binding principles, the response time, and eye-movement data revealed that during processing participants were temporarily distracted by a structurally inappropriate competitor antecedent when this was prominent in the discourse. These results indicate that in addition to binding principles, online referential decisions are also affected by discourse-level information. PMID:25191290

  16. Reflexive anaphor resolution in spoken language comprehension: structural constraints and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Clackson, Kaili; Heyer, Vera

    2014-01-01

    We report results from an eye-tracking during listening study examining English-speaking adults’ online processing of reflexive pronouns, and specifically whether the search for an antecedent is restricted to syntactically appropriate positions. Participants listened to a short story where the recipient of an object was introduced with a reflexive, and were asked to identify the object recipient as quickly as possible. This allowed for the recording of participants’ offline interpretation of the reflexive, response times, and eye movements on hearing the reflexive. Whilst our offline results show that the ultimate interpretation for reflexives was constrained by binding principles, the response time, and eye-movement data revealed that during processing participants were temporarily distracted by a structurally inappropriate competitor antecedent when this was prominent in the discourse. These results indicate that in addition to binding principles, online referential decisions are also affected by discourse-level information. PMID:25191290

  17. Phenotypic and Genetic Associations between Reading Comprehension, Decoding Skills, and ADHD Dimensions: Evidence from Two Population-Based Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plourde, Vickie; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Marino, Cecilia; Tremblay, Richard T.; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    Background: The phenotypic and genetic associations between decoding skills and ADHD dimensions have been documented but less is known about the association with reading comprehension. The aim of the study is to document the phenotypic and genetic associations between reading comprehension and ADHD dimensions of inattention and…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Reading Comprehension Achievement from Grades 3 to 10: Investigating Models of Stability, Cumulative Growth, and Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiatkowska-White, Bozena; Kirby, John R.; Lee, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 78 Canadian English-speaking students examined the applicability of the stability, cumulative, and compensatory models in reading comprehension development. Archival government-mandated assessments of reading comprehension at Grades 3, 6, and 10, and the Canadian Test of Basic Skills measure of reading comprehension…

  19. A Study of the Relationship of English Comprehension Level and Academic Performance of Foreign Students in the Naval Postgraduate School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jung Ho

    A statistical analysis was conducted to investigate and evaluate the relationship of English comprehension levels of foreign students with their graduate academic performances at the Naval Postgraduate School. In this study, English comprehension level test scores of foreign students were correlated with the final academic grades received at the…

  20. The Role of Two Reading Strategies in Text Comprehension: An Eye Fixation Study in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Schoot, Menno; Vasbinder, Alain L.; Horsley, Tako M.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether 10-12-year-old children use two reading strategies to aid their text comprehension: (1) distinguishing between important and unimportant words; and (2) resolving anaphoric references. Of interest was the question to what extent use of these reading strategies was predictive of reading comprehension skill over and above…

  1. The Listening Comprehension Strategies Used by College Students to Cope with the Aural Problems in EFL Classes: An Analytical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoneim, Nahed Mohamed Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The current study focused on the problems which students encounter while listening to the English language, the mental processes they activate in listening comprehension, and the strategies they use in different phases of comprehension. Also, it aimed to find out whether there were any differences between advanced and intermediate students in…

  2. Individual Differences in Fifth Graders' Literacy and Academic Language Predict Comprehension Monitoring Development: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth graders' (n = 52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task,…

  3. Developmental Relations between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: A Longitudinal Study from Grade 1 to Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders.…

  4. A Descriptive Study to Determine the Opinions of Community Band Members regarding the Effectiveness of Comprehensive Musicianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Various comprehensive musicianship teaching methods have been used in school instrumental programs throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The intention of this study was to determine the attitudes of adult community band members on the use of comprehensive musicianship teaching methods within rehearsals. Members of the South of the…

  5. Feasibility Study of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Appalachian Communities: The McDowell CHOICES Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emily M.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.; Elliott, Eloise M.; Bulger, Sean M.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Neal, William; Allar, Ishonté

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of childhood obesity has prompted calls for comprehensive approaches to school-based physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) development and related contextual issues within a rural Appalachian county using a Systems Approach. A…

  6. A comprehensive classification of nucleic acid structural families based on strand direction and base pairing.

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, R; Zakrzewska, K; Sun, J S; Harvey, S C

    1992-01-01

    We propose a classification of DNA structures formed from 1 to 4 strands, based only on relative strand directions, base to strand orientation and base pairing geometries. This classification and its associated notation enable all nucleic acids to be grouped into structural families and bring to light possible structures which have not yet been observed experimentally. It also helps in understanding transitions between families and can assist in the design of multistrand structures. PMID:1383936

  7. Syntactic Priming and the Lexical Boost Effect during Sentence Production and Sentence Comprehension: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral syntactic priming effects during sentence comprehension are typically observed only if both the syntactic structure and lexical head are repeated. In contrast, during production syntactic priming occurs with structure repetition alone, but the effect is boosted by repetition of the lexical head. We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal…

  8. Study on the path of comprehensive reform and development of the People's Hospital of Shimian County.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Gui; Gao, Wan-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The People's Hospital of Shimian County is located in the underdeveloped agricultural county of western China with a population of 120,000. In light of the region's geographic location and cultural characteristics, the hospital has laid out a development strategy of becoming a regional healthcare service center-in Shimian and extends services to surrounding regions. Its reform process would start with the overhaul of the personnel system to rejuvenate the hospital's internal operation, and then move towards more comprehensive reforms on corporate governance structure and trans-regional integration of medical resources. On the basis of constructing a digital hospital, we would build an information platform to explore the 'Shimian model' of information-based healthcare reform through regional medical coordination and whole-sector oversight. An appropriate strategy and development roadmap, comprehensively internal and external reforms and persistent culture building, as well as the use of information technology will help put the hospital onto a track of fast and healthy development and in the right direction of healthcare reform that accords with our national circumstances. This article makes a review, summary and analysis of the process and further discusses about how to overhaul the healthcare system through reform and development. PMID:25333011

  9. Bridging the gap between comprehensive extraction protocols in plant metabolomics studies and method validation.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Foubert, Kenn; Voorspoels, Stefan; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation. Validation of an extraction protocol in untargeted plant metabolomics should ideally be accomplished by validating the protocol for all possible outcomes, i.e. for all secondary metabolites potentially present in the plant. In an effort to approach this ideal validation scenario, two plant matrices were selected based on their wide versatility of phytochemicals: meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) for its polyphenols content, and spicy paprika powder (from the genus Capsicum) for its apolar phytochemicals content (carotenoids, phytosterols, capsaicinoids). These matrices were extracted with comprehensive extraction protocols adapted from literature and analysed with a generic LC-PDA-amMS characterization platform that was previously validated for broad range phytochemical analysis. The performance of the comprehensive sample preparation protocols was assessed based on extraction efficiency, repeatability and intermediate precision and on ionization suppression/enhancement evaluation. The manuscript elaborates on the finding that none of the extraction methods allowed to exhaustively extract the metabolites. Furthermore, it is shown that depending on the extraction conditions enzymatic degradation mechanisms can occur. Investigation of the fractions obtained with the different extraction methods

  10. Fluid–Structure Interaction Analysis of Papillary Muscle Forces Using a Comprehensive Mitral Valve Model with 3D Chordal Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, Milan; Jensen, Morten Ø.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.; Cochran, Richard P.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.

    2015-07-17

    Numerical models of native heart valves are being used to study valve biomechanics to aid design and development of repair procedures and replacement devices. These models have evolved from simple two-dimensional approximations to complex three-dimensional, fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) systems. Such simulations are useful for predicting the mechanical and hemodynamic loading on implanted valve devices. A current challenge for improving the accuracy of these predictions is choosing and implementing modeling boundary conditions. In order to address this challenge, we are utilizing an advanced in-vitro system to validate FSI conditions for the mitral valve system. Explanted ovine mitral valves were mounted in an in vitro setup, and structural data for the mitral valve was acquired with *CT. Experimental data from the in-vitro ovine mitral valve system were used to validate the computational model. As the valve closes, the hemodynamic data, high speed lea et dynamics, and force vectors from the in-vitro system were compared to the results of the FSI simulation computational model. The total force of 2.6 N per papillary muscle is matched by the computational model. In vitro and in vivo force measurements are important in validating and adjusting material parameters in computational models. The simulations can then be used to answer questions that are otherwise not possible to investigate experimentally. This work is important to maximize the validity of computational models of not just the mitral valve, but any biomechanical aspect using computational simulation in designing medical devices.

  11. A Comprehensive Study of Three Delay Compensation Algorithms for Flight Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Liwen; Cardullo, Frank M.; Houck, Jacob A.; Kelly, Lon C.; Wolters, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes a comprehensive study of three predictors used for compensating the transport delay in a flight simulator; The McFarland, Adaptive and State Space Predictors. The paper presents proof that the stochastic approximation algorithm can achieve the best compensation among all four adaptive predictors, and intensively investigates the relationship between the state space predictor s compensation quality and its reference model. Piloted simulation tests show that the adaptive predictor and state space predictor can achieve better compensation of transport delay than the McFarland predictor.

  12. A comprehensive study of interactions between lectins and glycoproteins for the development of effective theranostic nanoagents.

    PubMed

    Shipunova, V O; Nikitin, M P; Zelepukin, I V; Nikitin, P I; Deyev, S M; Petrov, R V

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the interactions between lectins and glycoproteins possessing different glycosylation profiles in the composition of nanoparticles was carried out in order to find specifically interacting protein pairs for the creation of novel classes of multifunctional nanoagets that based on protein-assisted selfassembly. We obtained information about specific interactions of certain lectins with selected glycoproteins as well as about the ability of certain monosaccharides to competitively inhibit binding of glycoproteins with lectins. These protein-mediated interactions may be involved in the formulation of self-assembled nanoparticles for therapy and diagnostics of various diseases. PMID:26518557

  13. Activations of "Motor" and Other Non-Language Structures during Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Laurie A.; Paans, Anne M. J.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Zwarts, Frans

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experiment in which subjects read syntactically unambiguous and ambiguous sentences which were disambiguated after several words to the less likely possibility. Understanding such sentences involves building an initial structure, inhibiting the non-preferred structure, detecting that later input is…

  14. Syntax Encodes Information Structure: Evidence from On-Line Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Meredith; Savova, Virginia; Gibson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Although sentences are thought to be generally easier to process when given information precedes new information, closer examination reveals that these preferences only manifest within some syntactic structures. Here, we examine the consequences of the relative ordering of given and new information ("information structure") for the on-line…

  15. The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil; Jackendoff, Ray; Holcomb, Phillip J; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2014-11-01

    Constituent structure has long been established as a central feature of human language. Analogous to how syntax organizes words in sentences, a narrative grammar organizes sequential images into hierarchic constituents. Here we show that the brain draws upon this constituent structure to comprehend wordless visual narratives. We recorded neural responses as participants viewed sequences of visual images (comics strips) in which blank images either disrupted individual narrative constituents or fell at natural constituent boundaries. A disruption of either the first or the second narrative constituent produced a left-lateralized anterior negativity effect between 500 and 700ms. Disruption of the second constituent also elicited a posteriorly-distributed positivity (P600) effect. These neural responses are similar to those associated with structural violations in language and music. These findings provide evidence that comprehenders use a narrative structure to comprehend visual sequences and that the brain engages similar neurocognitive mechanisms to build structure across multiple domains. PMID:25241329

  16. The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Neil; Jackendoff, Ray; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2014-01-01

    Constituent structure has long been established as a central feature of human language. Analogous to how syntax organizes words in sentences, a narrative grammar organizes sequential images into hierarchic constituents. Here we show that the brain draws upon this constituent structure to comprehend wordless visual narratives. We recorded neural responses as participants viewed sequences of visual images (comics strips) in which blank images either disrupted individual narrative constituents or fell at natural constituent boundaries. A disruption of either the first or the second narrative constituent produced a left-lateralized anterior negativity effect between 500-700ms. Disruption of the second constituent also elicited a posteriorly-distributed positivity (P600) effect. These neural responses are similar to those associated with structural violations in language and music. These findings provide evidence that comprehenders use a narrative structure to comprehend visual sequences and that the brain engages similar neurocognitive mechanisms to build structure across multiple domains. PMID:25241329

  17. WWC Review of the Report “Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge in Middle School.” What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined the effects of the instructional practice “Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text” (“PACT”), an approach that aims to improve social studies content knowledge and reading comprehension. This study took place in two middle schools in a near-urban district in Texas. Study authors…

  18. A Chaotic Home Environment Accounts for the Association between Respect for Rules Disposition and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jeanette; Hart, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between socioemotional dispositions from the developmental propensity model and reading comprehension and whether those associations could be accounted for by level of chaos in the home. Data from 342 monozygotic and 333 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs age 7-13 years were used. A parent rated the twins on sympathy, respect for rules, negative emotionality, and daring and level of chaos in the twins’ home. Reading comprehension was measured using a state-wide school assessment. Only respect for rules significantly and uniquely predicted reading comprehension. Biometric models indicated that respect for rules was positively associated with reading comprehension via the shared environment and home chaos accounted for a significant amount of that shared environmental variance even after controlling for family income. Children with higher respect for rules have better reading comprehension scores in school and this relationship owes partly to the level of chaos in the family home. PMID:25328362

  19. A Chaotic Home Environment Accounts for the Association between Respect for Rules Disposition and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jeanette; Hart, Sara A

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the association between socioemotional dispositions from the developmental propensity model and reading comprehension and whether those associations could be accounted for by level of chaos in the home. Data from 342 monozygotic and 333 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs age 7-13 years were used. A parent rated the twins on sympathy, respect for rules, negative emotionality, and daring and level of chaos in the twins' home. Reading comprehension was measured using a state-wide school assessment. Only respect for rules significantly and uniquely predicted reading comprehension. Biometric models indicated that respect for rules was positively associated with reading comprehension via the shared environment and home chaos accounted for a significant amount of that shared environmental variance even after controlling for family income. Children with higher respect for rules have better reading comprehension scores in school and this relationship owes partly to the level of chaos in the family home. PMID:25328362

  20. Achieving Stability Requirements for Nanoprobe and Long Beam Lines at NSLS II. A Comprehensive Study

    SciTech Connect

    Simos,N.; Fallier, M.; Hill, J.; Berman, L.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Broadbent, A.

    2008-06-23

    Driven by beam stability requirements at the NSLS II synchrotron, such that the desired small beam sizes and high brightness are both realized and stable, a comprehensive study has been launched seeking to provide assurances that stability at the nanometer level at critical x-ray beam-lines, is achievable, given the natural and cultural vibration environment at the selected site. The study consists of (a) an extensive investigation of the site to evaluate the existing ground vibration, in terms of amplitude, frequency content and coherence, and (b) of a numerical study of wave propagation and interaction with the infrastructure of the sensitive lines. The paper presents results from both aspects of the study.

  1. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Papillary Muscle Forces Using a Comprehensive Mitral Valve Model with 3D Chordal Structure.

    PubMed

    Toma, Milan; Jensen, Morten Ø; Einstein, Daniel R; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Cochran, Richard P; Kunzelman, Karyn S

    2016-04-01

    Numerical models of native heart valves are being used to study valve biomechanics to aid design and development of repair procedures and replacement devices. These models have evolved from simple two-dimensional approximations to complex three-dimensional, fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) systems. Such simulations are useful for predicting the mechanical and hemodynamic loading on implanted valve devices. A current challenge for improving the accuracy of these predictions is choosing and implementing modeling boundary conditions. In order to address this challenge, we are utilizing an advanced in vitro system to validate FSI conditions for the mitral valve system. Explanted ovine mitral valves were mounted in an in vitro setup, and structural data for the mitral valve was acquired with [Formula: see text]CT. Experimental data from the in vitro ovine mitral valve system were used to validate the computational model. As the valve closes, the hemodynamic data, high speed leaflet dynamics, and force vectors from the in vitro system were compared to the results of the FSI simulation computational model. The total force of 2.6 N per papillary muscle is matched by the computational model. In vitro and in vivo force measurements enable validating and adjusting material parameters to improve the accuracy of computational models. The simulations can then be used to answer questions that are otherwise not possible to investigate experimentally. This work is important to maximize the validity of computational models of not just the mitral valve, but any biomechanical aspect using computational simulation in designing medical devices. PMID:26183963

  2. Comprehensive separation and structural analyses of polyphenols and related compounds from bracts of hops (Humulus lupulus L.).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Yanagida, Akio; Komeya, Satoshi; Kawana, Miho; Honma, Daiki; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Kanda, Tomomasa; Shibusawa, Yoichi

    2014-03-12

    A novel sequential chromatographic technique was applied to the comprehensive separation of polyphenols and related compounds from a hop bract extract. Over 100 types of constituents were effectively isolated from only 25 g of extract in high yields by high-speed countercurrent chromatography followed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Among the materials isolated, the structures of 39 compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data including electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and one-dimensional/two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Three new compounds, 1 known compound identified for the first time in plants, and 20 known compounds that have not been reported in hops, were found. The hop bract extract also contained an abundance of highly oligomeric proanthocyanidins, which consisted of B-type procyanidin structures. PMID:24547976

  3. Comprehensive scaling study of NbO2 insulator-metal-transition selector for cross point array application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Euijun; Park, Jaehyuk; Woo, Jiyong; Lee, Daeseok; Prakash, Amit; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2016-04-01

    The transition metal oxide, NbO2, which exhibits an insulator to metal transition (IMT) is regarded as a promising selector device to be integrated with a resistive memory for cross point array application. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the scaling of an NbO2 selector using a mushroom device structure. A thorough understanding of the scaling behavior of forming voltage (Vf), threshold voltage (Vth), and current (Ith) is essential to evaluate the potential of voltage as well as current scaling and selectivity of NbO2 selector. Importantly, by analyzing the scaling trend of threshold current, we believed that the IMT behavior is strongly affected by filamentary conducting path formed during the forming process. The findings provide the promise to maximize the selector device performance by minimizing the conducting path inside the NbO2 layer.

  4. Comprehensive study and design of scaled metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with ultrathin aluminum oxide interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahara, Ryohei; Hideshima, Iori; Oka, Hiroshi; Minoura, Yuya; Ogawa, Shingo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2015-06-01

    Advanced metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with a sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and improved interface properties were demonstrated by controlling interface reactions using ultrathin aluminum oxide (AlOx) interlayers. A step-by-step in situ procedure by deposition of AlOx and hafnium oxide (HfOx) layers on Ge and subsequent plasma oxidation was conducted to fabricate Pt/HfO2/AlOx/GeOx/Ge stacked structures. Comprehensive study by means of physical and electrical characterizations revealed distinct impacts of AlOx interlayers, plasma oxidation, and metal electrodes serving as capping layers on EOT scaling, improved interface quality, and thermal stability of the stacks. Aggressive EOT scaling down to 0.56 nm and very low interface state density of 2.4 × 1011 cm-2eV-1 with a sub-nm EOT and sufficient thermal stability were achieved by systematic process optimization.

  5. A 10-year longitudinal fMRI study of narrative comprehension in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Altaye, Mekibib; Rajagopal, Akila; Eaton, Kenneth; Meng, XiangXiang; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehension of spoken narratives requires coordination of multiple language skills. As such, for normal children narrative skills develop well into the school years and, during this period, are particularly vulnerable in the face of brain injury or developmental disorder. For these reasons, we sought to determine the developmental trajectory of narrative processing using longitudinal fMRI scanning. 30 healthy children between the ages of 5 and 18 enrolled at ages 5, 6, or 7, were examined annually for up to 10 years. At each fMRI session, children were presented with a set of five, 30s–long, stories containing 9, 10, or 11 sentences designed to be understood by a 5 year old child. FMRI data analysis was conducted based on a hierarchical linear model (HLM) that was modified to investigate developmental changes while accounting for missing data and controlling for factors such as age, linguistic performance and IQ. Performance testing conducted after each scan indicated well above the chance (p < 0.002) comprehension performance. There was a linear increase with increasing age in bilateral superior temporal cortical activation (BA 21 and 22) linked to narrative processing. Conversely, age-related decreases in cortical activation were observed in bilateral occipital regions, cingulate and cuneus, possibly reflecting changes in the default mode networks. The dynamic changes observed in this longitudinal fMRI study support the increasing role of bilateral BAs 21 and 22 in narrative comprehension, involving non-domain-specific integration in order to achieve final story interpretation. The presence of a continued linear development of this area throughout childhood and teenage years with no apparent plateau, indicates that full maturation of narrative processing skills has not yet occurred and that it may be delayed to early adulthood. PMID:22951258

  6. A comprehensive joint replacement program for total knee arthroplasty: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jon R; Warren, Meghan; Ganley, Kathleen J; Prefontaine, Paul; Wylie, Jack W

    2008-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the US. It is important to have a comprehensive inpatient TKA program which maximizes outcomes while minimizing adverse events. The purpose of this study was to describe a TKA program – the Joint Replacement Program (JRP) – and report post-surgical outcomes. Methods 74 candidates for a primary TKA were enrolled in the JRP. The JRP was designed to minimize complications and optimize patient-centered outcomes using a team approach including the patient, patient's family, and a multidisciplinary team of health professionals. The JRP consisted of a pre-operative class, standard pathways for medical care, comprehensive peri-operative pain management, aggressive physical therapy (PT), and proactive discharge planning. Measures included functional tests, knee range of motion (ROM), and medical record abstraction of patient demographics, length of stay, discharge disposition, and complications over a 6-month follow-up period. Results All patients achieved medical criteria for hospital discharge. The patients achieved the knee flexion ROM goal of 90° (91.7 ± 5.4°), but did not achieve the knee extension ROM goal of 0° (2.4 ± 2.6°). The length of hospital stay was two days for 53% of the patients, with 39% and 7% discharged in three and four days, respectively. All but three patients were discharged home with functional independence. 68% of these received outpatient physical therapy compared with 32% who received home physical therapy immediately after discharge. Two patients (< 3%) had medical complications during the inpatient hospital stay, and 9 patients (12%) had complications during the 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion The comprehensive JRP for TKA was associated with satisfactory clinical outcomes, short lengths of stay, a high percentage of patients discharged home with outpatient PT, and minimal complications. This JRP may represent an efficient, effective and safe

  7. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Joel B. Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2008-08-15

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)-(NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]*nH{sub 2}O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a{approx_equal}12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application. - Graphical abstract: The structure of ammonium metatungstate powders are highly dependent on hydration and POM molecule rotation, with cation and hydrogen bonding forces directing a mixture of structures that have been studied with bulk and single-crystal methods. The illustration shows Monte Carlo simulated anion structural disorder for the fully dehydrated form of the title compound.

  8. Comprehensive modelling study on observed new particle formation at the SORPES station in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; Zhou, Luxi; Ding, Aijun; Qi, Ximeng; Nie, Wei; Wang, Minghuai; Chi, Xuguang; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Roldin, Pontus; Rusanen, Anton; Kulmala, Markku; Boy, Michael

    2016-03-01

    New particle formation (NPF) has been investigated intensively during the last 2 decades because of its influence on aerosol population and the possible contribution to cloud condensation nuclei. However, intensive measurements and modelling activities on this topic in urban metropolitan areas in China with frequent high-pollution episodes are still very limited. This study provides results from a comprehensive modelling study on the occurrence of NPF events in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, China. The comprehensive modelling system, which combines the WRF-Chem (the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry) regional chemical transport model and the MALTE-BOX sectional box model (the model to predict new aerosol formation in the lower troposphere), was shown to be capable of simulating atmospheric nucleation and subsequent growth. Here we present a detailed discussion of three typical NPF days, during which the measured air masses were notably influenced by either anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. Overall, simulated NPF events were generally in good agreement with the corresponding measurements, enabling us to get further insights into NPF processes in the YRD region. Based on the simulations, we conclude that biogenic organic compounds, particularly monoterpenes, play an essential role in the initial condensational growth of newly formed clusters through their low-volatility oxidation products. Although some uncertainties remain in this modelling system, this method provides a possibility to better understand particle formation and growth processes.

  9. Is Passive Syntax Semantically Constrained? Evidence From Adult Grammaticality Judgment and Comprehension Studies.

    PubMed

    Ambridge, Ben; Bidgood, Amy; Pine, Julian M; Rowland, Caroline F; Freudenthal, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    To explain the phenomenon that certain English verbs resist passivization (e.g., *£5 was cost by the book), Pinker (1989) proposed a semantic constraint on the passive in the adult grammar: The greater the extent to which a verb denotes an action where a patient is affected or acted upon, the greater the extent to which it is compatible with the passive. However, a number of comprehension and production priming studies have cast doubt upon this claim, finding no difference between highly affecting agent-patient/theme-experiencer passives (e.g., Wendy was kicked/frightened by Bob) and non-actional experiencer theme passives (e.g., Wendy was heard by Bob). The present study provides evidence that a semantic constraint is psychologically real, and is readily observed when more fine-grained independent and dependent measures are used (i.e., participant ratings of verb semantics, graded grammaticality judgments, and reaction time in a forced-choice picture-matching comprehension task). We conclude that a semantic constraint on the passive must be incorporated into accounts of the adult grammar. PMID:26607289

  10. Differential effects of verbal aptitude and study questions on comprehension of science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, William G.; Whittaker, Harold G.; Loose, Kenneth D.

    Selective attention models predict that verbatim study questions can divert students from meaningfully encoding attributes of science concepts. The aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) hypothesis predicts that such questions can be particularly dysfunctional to low-ability students. These predictions assume the measurement of true comprehension of concepts as a criterion. Eighth-grade students (n = 217) were randomly assigned to a text-only, text-question or a placebo treatment. The text verbally described five fossil types. The questions consisted of 28 fill-in-the-blank queries about the text. The posttest required students to visually identify and discriminate 40 fossil specimens as to fossil type. Comprehension of the concepts clearly took place-a fact substantiated by the very low scores obtained by the placebo group. As predicted (p < 0.05), low-verbal students performed better when provided with a text-only rather than a text-question treatment. In contrast, high-verbal students were less effected by the verbatim study questions. Main effects among these groups were also detected. Apparently such questions can overprompt students, resulting in their copying of words from a text to an answer-blank without semantically encoding (i.e., comprehending) the copied words.

  11. Comprehensive modeling of structural modification induced by a femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Somayeh; Sadat Arabanian, Atoosa; Massudi, Reza

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive theoretical model is proposed based on equations describing the nonlinear propagation of an ultrashort pulse inside transparent material, electron density evolution, non-Fourier heat conduction, and thermo-elasto plastic displacement which are respectively solved by various methods. These methods include the split-step finite difference technique and alternating-direction implicit algorithm, fourth-order Range–Kutta algorithm, hybrid finite-element method/finite-difference method, and finite-element method in both space and time to achieve refractive index changes. The whole chain of processes occurring in the interaction of a focused ultrashort laser pulse with fused silica glass in prevalent conditions of micromachining applications is numerically investigated. By optimizing the numerical method and by using an adaptive mesh approach, the execution time of the program is significantly reduced so that the calculations are done at each time step in a fraction of a second. Simulation results show that the energy and duration of the input pulse are very important parameters in induced changes, but the chirp of the input pulse is not an effective parameter. Consequently, by appropriate setting of those parameters one can design a desired refractive index profile.

  12. A complete tropical cyclone radial wind structure model and comprehensive comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavas, D. R.; Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2014-12-01

    This work develops a simple model for the complete radial structure of the tropical cyclone wind field at the top of the boundary layer. The model is constructed by mathematically merging existing theoretical solutions for the radial wind structure in the inner convecting and outer non-convecting regions. The model is then evaluated against three observational datasets. First, the outer solution is tested against a global database from the QuikSCAT satellite (1999-2009) and found to reproduce the characteristic wind structure of tropical cyclones at large radii where convection is absent, suggesting that it successfully captures the physics of this region. Second, the inner solution is tested against the HWind database (2004-2012) for the Atlantic and East Pacific basins and are shown to credibly represent the inner-core structure but substantially underestimate wind speeds at large radii. The complete model is then shown to largely rectify this underestimation, particularly at higher intensities. Finally, model variability is compared with the Extended Best Track dataset (1988-2013). The complete model exhibits two modes of variability corresponding to the independent variations in storm size and in inner structure that mirror that observed in nature, including the independent variability of the inner and outer regions of tropical cyclones. More broadly, the model provides insight into clear definitions of the terms "size" and "structure" and their respective, independent variabilities.

  13. SunShot Vision Study: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Potential for U.S. Solar Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    The SunShot Vision Study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the potential for solar technologies to meet a significant share of electricity demand in the United States during the next several decades.

  14. A comprehensive comparative study of the predose effect for three quartz crystals of different origin.

    PubMed

    Kitis, George; Pagonis, Vasilis; Chen, Reuven; Polymeris, George

    2006-01-01

    The study of the thermoluminiscence (TL) sensitivity of quartz due to heat and irradiation treatments is of importance in dating and retrospective dosimetry. A comprehensive comparative study of the predose effect was carried out for three types of quartz of different origin. Complete TL vs. dose and sensitivity S vs. predose curves were obtained for the dose range of 0.1 < D < 400 Gy. Additional complete sensitivity vs. predose curves were obtained for samples which underwent a combined predose irradiation and a subsequent heat treatment to 500 degrees C. Although the TL vs. dose curves showed very different behaviours, the sensitivity vs. predose curves showed several common characteristics. The sensitivity vs. predose curves showed abrupt changes approximately 10 Gy. The sensitivity after a combined predose irradiation and heat treatment to 500 degrees C showed a very gradual change in the whole dose range studied. These results are explained qualitatively by using the modified Zimmerman model for quartz. PMID:16717111

  15. Comprehensive Secondary Structure Elucidation of Four Genera of the Family Pospiviroidae

    PubMed Central

    Giguère, Tamara; Raj Adkar-Purushothama, Charith; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA molecules that infect plants. Since they are non-coding, their structures play a critical role in their life cycles. To date, little effort has been spend on elucidating viroid structures in solution due to both the experimental difficulties and the time-consuming nature of the methodologies implicated. Recently, the technique of high-throughput selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) was adapted for the probing of the members of family Avsunviroidae, all of whom replicate in the chloroplast and demonstrate ribozyme activity. In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR) and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here. PMID:24897295

  16. Comprehensive secondary structure elucidation of four genera of the family Pospiviroidae.

    PubMed

    Giguère, Tamara; Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA molecules that infect plants. Since they are non-coding, their structures play a critical role in their life cycles. To date, little effort has been spend on elucidating viroid structures in solution due to both the experimental difficulties and the time-consuming nature of the methodologies implicated. Recently, the technique of high-throughput selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) was adapted for the probing of the members of family Avsunviroidae, all of whom replicate in the chloroplast and demonstrate ribozyme activity. In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR) and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here. PMID:24897295

  17. Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Using Optical Fiber Sensing Technology: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Ye, X. W.; Su, Y. H.; Han, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, a significant number of innovative sensing systems based on optical fiber sensors have been exploited in the engineering community due to their inherent distinctive advantages such as small size, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and corrosion, and embedding capability. A lot of optical fiber sensor-based monitoring systems have been developed for continuous measurement and real-time assessment of diversified engineering structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels, pipelines, wind turbines, railway infrastructure, and geotechnical structures. The purpose of this review article is devoted to presenting a summary of the basic principles of various optical fiber sensors, innovation in sensing and computational methodologies, development of novel optical fiber sensors, and the practical application status of the optical fiber sensing technology in structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure. PMID:25133250

  18. The Genomic Threading Database: a comprehensive resource for structural annotations of the genomes from key organisms.

    PubMed

    McGuffin, Liam J; Street, Stefano A; Bryson, Kevin; Sørensen, Søren-Aksel; Jones, David T

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the Genomic Threading Database (GTD) contains structural assignments for the proteins encoded within the genomes of nine eukaryotes and 101 prokaryotes. Structural annotations are carried out using a modified version of GenTHREADER, a reliable fold recognition method. The Gen THREADER annotation jobs are distributed across multiple clusters of processors using grid technology and the predictions are deposited in a relational database accessible via a web interface at http://bioinf.cs.ucl.ac.uk/GTD. Using this system, up to 84% of proteins encoded within a genome can be confidently assigned to known folds with 72% of the residues aligned. On average in the GTD, 64% of proteins encoded within a genome are confidently assigned to known folds and 58% of the residues are aligned to structures. PMID:14681393

  19. Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure using optical fiber sensing technology: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ye, X W; Su, Y H; Han, J P

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, a significant number of innovative sensing systems based on optical fiber sensors have been exploited in the engineering community due to their inherent distinctive advantages such as small size, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and corrosion, and embedding capability. A lot of optical fiber sensor-based monitoring systems have been developed for continuous measurement and real-time assessment of diversified engineering structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels, pipelines, wind turbines, railway infrastructure, and geotechnical structures. The purpose of this review article is devoted to presenting a summary of the basic principles of various optical fiber sensors, innovation in sensing and computational methodologies, development of novel optical fiber sensors, and the practical application status of the optical fiber sensing technology in structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure. PMID:25133250

  20. The dynamic influence of emotional words on sentence comprehension: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinfeng; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we explored the influence of emotional words on the semantic integration of their following neutral nouns during sentence comprehension. We manipulated the emotionality of verbs and the semantic congruity of their following (neutral) object nouns in sentences. Event-related potentials were recorded to the verbs, which were either negative or neutral, and to the object nouns, which were either semantically congruent or incongruent relative to the preceding contexts. We found an N400 and a P600 effect in response to the semantic congruity of the nouns when they followed the neutral verbs. However, the P600 (but not the N400) semantic congruity effect may have been attenuated when the nouns followed the negative verbs. Meanwhile, the negative verbs elicited a larger P2 and N400 than did the neutral verbs. The results indicate that the attention captured by emotional words impaired reanalysis of the following incongruent information, demonstrating a dynamic influence of emotional words on the semantic processing of following information during sentence comprehension. PMID:26833049

  1. Studies of early comprehensive judgment on seismic tendency after a moderate or strong earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei-Bin; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Jian; Xi, Dun-Li

    1993-05-01

    In this paper, the methods of pattern recognition and fuzzy cluster are applied to estimate comprehensive whether there would be an earthquake which magnitude is commensurate with ( N= M 0±0.3) or great M> M 0) than M 0 within 3 months using sequential data in 3 days immediately after a moderate or strong earthquake ( M 0≥4.7) occurred, The result of retrospective test indicates that the comprehensive judgment effects by using these applied mathematics methods are better than that of using every individual method obviously. The V mark value of algorithm CORA-3 in pattern recognition is the highest among them. There are 44 known earthquake sequence data (5 type- I and 39 type- II) used to learn and train, the results of internal coincidence test show that all 44 sequence samples could be distinguished correctly. Extrapolation test by using other 4 known earthquake sequences (2 type- I and 2 type- II) shows that all 4 extrapolation samples could be distinguished correctly also. In the process of study, these methods have been applied to judge the post-earthquake tendency of 2 moderate earthquakes occurred recently, one is distinguished correctly and the other wrong. The algorithm Hamming in pattern recognition and fuzzy cluster method have been applied to judge the early post-earthquake tendency after a moderate or strong earthquake, too. The V mark values of internal coincidence tests could get above 0.8 most cases of extrapolating are correct.

  2. The role of prominence in Spanish sentence comprehension: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Tabullo, Ángel; París, Luis; Wainselboim, Alejandro J

    2015-11-01

    Prominence is the hierarchical relation among arguments that allows us to understand 'Who did what to whom' in a sentence. The present study aimed to provide evidence about the role of prominence information for the incremental interpretation of arguments in Spanish. We investigated the time course of neural correlates associated to the comprehension of sentences that require a reversal of argument prominence hierarchization. We also studied how the amount of available prominence information may affect the incremental build-up of verbal expectations. Results of the ERP data revealed that at the disambiguating verb region, object-initial sentences (only one argument available) elicited a centro-parietal negativity with a peak at 400 ms post-onset. Subject-initial sentences (two arguments available) yielded a broadly distributed positivity at around 650 ms. This dissociation suggests that argument interpretation may depend on their morphosyntactic features, and also on the amount of prominence information available before the verb is encountered. PMID:26291770

  3. Comprehensive study on the light shielding potential of thermotropic layers for the development of new materials.

    PubMed

    Gruber, D P; Winkler, G; Resch, K

    2015-01-10

    In recent years thermotropic overheating protection glazings have been the focus for both solar thermal collector technology and architecture. A thermotropic glazing changes its light transmittance from highly transparent to light diffusing upon reaching a certain threshold temperature autonomously and reversibly. In thermotropic systems with fixed domains (TSFD) the scattering domains are embedded in a polymer matrix, which exhibits a sudden change of the refractive index upon reaching a threshold temperature. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively investigate the light shielding characteristics and potential of TSFD materials by applying simulation of light scattering in particle-filled layers. In random walk simulations a variety of parameters were varied systematically, and the effect on the light transmission behavior of TSFD was studied. The calculation steps of the simulation process are shown in detail. The simulations demonstrate that there is great potential for the production of functional materials with high overheating protection efficiency. PMID:25967611

  4. Damming the genomic data flood using a comprehensive analysis and storage data structure

    PubMed Central

    Bouffard, Marc; Phillips, Michael S.; Brown, Andrew M.K.; Marsh, Sharon; Tardif, Jean-Claude; van Rooij, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Data generation, driven by rapid advances in genomic technologies, is fast outpacing our analysis capabilities. Faced with this flood of data, more hardware and software resources are added to accommodate data sets whose structure has not specifically been designed for analysis. This leads to unnecessarily lengthy processing times and excessive data handling and storage costs. Current efforts to address this have centered on developing new indexing schemas and analysis algorithms, whereas the root of the problem lies in the format of the data itself. We have developed a new data structure for storing and analyzing genotype and phenotype data. By leveraging data normalization techniques, database management system capabilities and the use of a novel multi-table, multidimensional database structure we have eliminated the following: (i) unnecessarily large data set size due to high levels of redundancy, (ii) sequential access to these data sets and (iii) common bottlenecks in analysis times. The resulting novel data structure horizontally divides the data to circumvent traditional problems associated with the use of databases for very large genomic data sets. The resulting data set required 86% less disk space and performed analytical calculations 6248 times faster compared to a standard approach without any loss of information. Database URL: http://castor.pharmacogenomics.ca PMID:21159730

  5. Structural dynamics verification facility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiraly, L. J.; Hirchbein, M. S.; Mcaleese, J. M.; Fleming, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a structural dynamics verification facility to support structures programs was studied. Most of the industry operated facilities are used for highly focused research, component development, and problem solving, and are not used for the generic understanding of the coupled dynamic response of major engine subsystems. Capabilities for the proposed facility include: the ability to both excite and measure coupled structural dynamic response of elastic blades on elastic shafting, the mechanical simulation of various dynamical loadings representative of those seen in operating engines, and the measurement of engine dynamic deflections and interface forces caused by alternative engine mounting configurations and compliances.

  6. A comprehensive study of the spread of radioactive contamination in the geological medium near Lake Karachai, Chelyabinsk oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Malkovsky, V. I.; Tarasov, N. N.; Dikov, Yu. P.

    2010-02-01

    The spread of radioactive contamination in the subsurface medium near Lake Karachai is considered. The complexity of this process requires a comprehensive approach to its study. The source of radioactive contamination is overviewed. The map of faults in subsurface medium is considered in order to determine the prevailing direction of contaminated groundwater flow. Photometry in observation wells has been used for structural geological estimation of transport properties of the shallow aquifer, where contaminated groundwater is moving. This study was carried out along with hydrochemical logging, which makes it possible to estimate the dynamics of contamination of subsurface medium and vertical distribution of groundwater contamination. Special attention is paid to transport of radionuclides in the form of radiocolloid particles. Groundwater samples were taken from various depths corresponding to different contamination levels near Lake Karachai. The depth intervals of sampling were determined from the data of hydrochemical logging. Ultrafiltration through membranes with a specific pore size in combination with gamma spectrometry was used to characterize radionuclide transfer with colloidal particles differing in size. The local elemental composition of the radiocolloid surface was studied by Auger spectroscopy. The chemical composition and structure of radiocolloid particles were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with consecutive etching of the particle surface by argon ions for a certain depth. The data obtained indicate that radiocolloid particles are heterogeneous and an organic shell consisting of humic and fulvic acids and technogenic organic compounds coat their surface.

  7. Chemometric analysis of comprehensive LC×LC-MS data: Resolution of triacylglycerol structural isomers in corn oil.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Reig, Meritxell; Jaumot, Joaquim; van Beek, Teris A; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel; Tauler, Romà

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive hyphenated two-dimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC×LC-MS) is a very powerful analytical tool achieving high throughput resolution of highly complex natural samples. However, even using this approach there is still the possibility of not resolving some of the analytes of interest. For instance, triacylglycerols (TAGs) structural isomers in oil samples are extremely difficult to separate chromatographically due to their very similar structure and chemical properties. Traditional approaches based on current vendor chromatographic software cannot distinguish these isomers from their different mass spectral features. In this work, a chemometric approach is proposed to solve this problem. First, the experimental LC×LC-MS data structure is discussed, and results achieved by different methods based on the fulfilment of the trilinear model are compared. Then, the step-by-step resolution and identification of strongly coeluted compounds from different examples of triacylglycerols (TAGs) structural isomers in corn oil samples are described. As a conclusion, the separation power of two-dimensional chromatography can be significantly improved when it is combined with the multivariate curve resolution method. PMID:27591659

  8. Comprehensive versus matched psychosocial treatment in the MTA study: conceptual and empirical issues.

    PubMed

    Wells, K C

    2001-03-01

    Addressed some factual inaccuracies and presented alternative positions on key issues raised in the article by Greene and Ablon (this issue) on the question, "What does the Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) tell us about effective psychosocial treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?" The Greene and Ablon critique does not present for the reader's consideration the full range of findings from the MTA study, notably those most relevant to psychosocial treatment, and articulates a theoretical position that effective treatment requires matching treatment to children's assessed needs, an approach not taken in the MTA study. In this article, I present the full range of findings from the MTA study related to psychosocial treatment effects, correct the misperceptions that exist about the study based on limited reviews such as Greene and Ablon's, and review the empirical and experimental design issues that produced the decision by the MTA investigative team to study the effects of intensive, comprehensive psychosocial treatment. I argue that the questions asked by the MTA study about psychosocial treatment were important, relevant, and were addressed well in the MTA study design. PMID:11294072

  9. The Herschel Comprehensive (U)LIRG Emission Survey (HERCULES): CO Ladders, Fine Structure Lines, and Neutral Gas Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; van der Werf, P. P.; Aalto, S.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Fischer, J.; Gao, Y.; González-Alfonso, E.; Greve, T. R.; Harris, A. I.; Henkel, C.; Israel, F. P.; Isaak, K. G.; Kramer, C.; Meijerink, R.; Naylor, D. A.; Sanders, D. B.; Smith, H. A.; Spaans, M.; Spinoglio, L.; Stacey, G. J.; Veenendaal, I.; Veilleux, S.; Walter, F.; Weiß, A.; Wiedner, M. C.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Xilouris, E. M.

    2015-03-01

    (Ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) are objects characterized by their extreme infrared (8-1000 μm) luminosities (L LIRG > 1011 L ⊙ and L ULIRG > 1012 L ⊙). The Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey (PI: van der Werf) presents a representative flux-limited sample of 29 (U)LIRGs that spans the full luminosity range of these objects (1011 L ⊙ <= L IR <= 1013 L ⊙). With the Herschel Space Observatory, we observe [C II] 157 μm, [O I] 63 μm, and [O I] 145 μm line emission with Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer, CO J = 4-3 through J = 13-12, [C I] 370 μm, and [C I] 609 μm with SPIRE, and low-J CO transitions with ground-based telescopes. The CO ladders of the sample are separated into three classes based on their excitation level. In 13 of the galaxies, the [O I] 63 μm emission line is self absorbed. Comparing the CO excitation to the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite 60/100 μm ratio and to far infrared luminosity, we find that the CO excitation is more correlated to the far infrared colors. We present cooling budgets for the galaxies and find fine-structure line flux deficits in the [C II], [Si II], [O I], and [C I] lines in the objects with the highest far IR fluxes, but do not observe this for CO 4 <= J upp <= 13. In order to study the heating of the molecular gas, we present a combination of three diagnostic quantities to help determine the dominant heating source. Using the CO excitation, the CO J = 1-0 linewidth, and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution, we conclude that galaxies with large CO linewidths always have high-excitation CO ladders, and often low AGN contributions, suggesting that mechanical heating is important. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Straus, S E; Hickie, I; Sharpe, M C; Dobbins, J G; Komaroff, A

    1994-12-15

    The complexities of the chronic fatigue syndrome and the methodologic problems associated with its study indicate the need for a comprehensive, systematic, and integrated approach to the evaluation, classification, and study of persons with this condition and other fatiguing illnesses. We propose a conceptual framework and a set of guidelines that provide such an approach. Our guidelines include recommendations for the clinical evaluation of fatigued persons, a revised case definition of the chronic fatigue syndrome, and a strategy for subgrouping fatigued persons in formal investigations. PMID:7978722

  11. Cross-talk artefacts in Kelvin probe force microscopy imaging: A comprehensive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbet, S.; Popoff, M.; Diesinger, H.; Deresmes, D.; Théron, D.; Mélin, T.

    2014-04-01

    We provide in this article a comprehensive study of the role of ac cross-talk effects in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM), and their consequences onto KPFM imaging. The dependence of KPFM signals upon internal parameters such as the cantilever excitation frequency and the projection angle of the KPFM feedback loop is reviewed, and compared with an analytical model. We show that ac cross-talks affect the measured KPFM signals as a function of the tip-substrate distance, and thus hamper the measurement of three-dimensional KPFM signals. The influence of ac cross-talks is also demonstrated onto KPFM images, in the form of topography footprints onto KPFM images, especially in the constant distance (lift) imaging mode. Our analysis is applied to unambiguously probe charging effects in tobacco mosaic viruses (TMVs) in ambient air. TMVs are demonstrated to be electrically neutral when deposited on silicon dioxide surfaces, but inhomogeneously negatively charged when deposited on a gold surface.

  12. Comprehensive NO-dependent study of the products of the oxidation of atmospherically relevant aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, Adam W; Elrod, Matthew J

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive product study, performed via the turbulent flow chemical ionization mass spectrometry (TF-CIMS) technique, of the primary OH-initiated oxidation of many of the atmospherically abundant aromatic compounds was performed. The bicyclic peroxy radical intermediate, a key proposed intermediate species in the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) for the atmospheric oxidation of aromatics, was detected in all cases, as were stable bicyclic species. The NO product yield dependences suggest a potential role for bicyclic peroxy radical + HO(2) reactions at high HO(2)/NO ratios, which are postulated to be a possible source of the inconsistencies between previous environmental chamber results and predictions from the MCM for ozone production and OH reactivity. The TF-CIMS product yield results are also compared to previous environment chamber results and to the latest MCM parametrization. PMID:21553858

  13. On the classification of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators: A comprehensive performance evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegseis, J.; Duchmann, A.; Tropea, C.; Grundmann, S.

    2013-08-01

    The increasing popularity and maturity of plasma actuators for many flow control applications requires a common standard for plasma actuator performance evaluation. In the present work, a comprehensive comparative study of existing and new evaluation measures is presented, based on results from identical plasma-actuator configurations. A power-flow diagram is introduced that covers the entire range of power stages from the energy source to the flow-control success. All individual power stages are explained, existing controversial definitions are clarified, and an evaluation guideline is applied to previously obtained data. Finally, the defined systematic analysis is applied to the results of a recently conducted plasma-actuator in-flight experiment.

  14. Experimental study of the quantitative precision for valve-based comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Siegler, W Christopher; Fitz, Brian D; Hoggard, Jamin C; Synovec, Robert E

    2011-07-01

    For complex sample analysis, there is a need for multidimensional chromatographic instrumentation to be able to separate more compounds, often in shorter time frames. This has led to the development of comprehensive two-dimensional chromatographic instrumentation, such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC). Lately, much of the focus in this field has been on decreasing peak widths and, therefore, increasing peak capacity and peak capacity production. All of these advancements make it possible to analyze more compounds in a shorter amount of time, but the data still need to remain quantitative to address the needs of most applications. In this report, the relationship among the modulation ratio (M(R)), peak sampling phase (φ), retention time variation (Δt(R)), and how these parameters relate to quantitative analysis precision via the relative standard deviation (RSD) was studied experimentally using a valve-based GC × GC instrument. A wide range of the number of modulations across the first dimension peak width, that is, a M(R) range from ~1 to 10, was examined through maintaining an average first dimension peak width at the base, (1)w(b) of ~3 s and varying the second dimension separation run time from 300 to 2900 ms. An average RSD of 2.1% was experimentally observed at an average M(R) of 2, with a corresponding peak capacity production of ~1200 peaks/min possible. Below this M(R) the RSD quickly increased. In a long-term study of the quantitative precision at a M(R) of 2.5, using 126 replicate injections of a test mixture spanning ~35 h, the RSD averaged 3.0%. The findings have significant implications for optimizing peak capacity production by allowing the use of the longest second dimension run time, while maintaining quantitative precision. PMID:21627311

  15. Structural Studies of Ciliary Components

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Naoko; Taschner, Michael; Engel, Benjamin D.; Lorentzen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are organelles found on most eukaryotic cells, where they serve important functions in motility, sensory reception, and signaling. Recent advances in electron tomography have facilitated a number of ultrastructural studies of ciliary components that have significantly improved our knowledge of cilium architecture. These studies have produced nanometer‐resolution structures of axonemal dynein complexes, microtubule doublets and triplets, basal bodies, radial spokes, and nexin complexes. In addition to these electron tomography studies, several recently published crystal structures provide insights into the architecture and mechanism of dynein as well as the centriolar protein SAS-6, important for establishing the 9-fold symmetry of centrioles. Ciliary assembly requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a process that moves macromolecules between the tip of the cilium and the cell body. IFT relies on a large 20-subunit protein complex that is thought to mediate the contacts between ciliary motor and cargo proteins. Structural investigations of IFT complexes are starting to emerge, including the first three‐dimensional models of IFT material in situ, revealing how IFT particles organize into larger train-like arrays, and the high-resolution structure of the IFT25/27 subcomplex. In this review, we cover recent advances in the structural and mechanistic understanding of ciliary components and IFT complexes. PMID:22683354

  16. Morphological constraints in children's spoken language comprehension: a visual world study of plurals inside compounds in English.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renita; Gerth, Sabrina; Clahsen, Harald

    2013-11-01

    Many previous studies have shown that the human language processor is capable of rapidly integrating information from different sources during reading or listening. Yet, little is known about how this ability develops from child to adulthood. To gain insight into how children (in comparison to adults) handle different kinds of linguistic information during on-line language comprehension, the current study investigates a well-known morphological phenomenon that is subject to both structural and semantic constraints, the plurals-in-compounds effect, i.e. the dislike of plural (specifically regular plural) modifiers inside compounds (e.g. rats eater). We examined 96 seven-to-twelve-year-old children and a control group of 32 adults measuring their eye-gaze changes in response to compound-internal plural and singular forms. Our results indicate that children rely more upon structural properties of language (in the present case, morphological cues) early in development and that the ability to efficiently integrate information from multiple sources takes time for children to reach adult-like levels. PMID:24007920

  17. Comprehensive Structural Characterization of the Bacterial Homospermidine Synthase–an Essential Enzyme of the Polyamine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Krossa, Sebastian; Faust, Annette; Ober, Dietrich; Scheidig, Axel J.

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved bacterial homospermidine synthase (HSS) is a key enzyme of the polyamine metabolism of many proteobacteria including pathogenic strains such as Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; The unique usage of NAD(H) as a prosthetic group is a common feature of bacterial HSS, eukaryotic HSS and deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). The structure of the bacterial enzyme does not possess a lysine residue in the active center and thus does not form an enzyme-substrate Schiff base intermediate as observed for the DHS. In contrast to the DHS the active site is not formed by the interface of two subunits but resides within one subunit of the bacterial HSS. Crystal structures of Blastochloris viridis HSS (BvHSS) reveal two distinct substrate binding sites, one of which is highly specific for putrescine. BvHSS features a side pocket in the direct vicinity of the active site formed by conserved amino acids and a potential substrate discrimination, guiding, and sensing mechanism. The proposed reaction steps for the catalysis of BvHSS emphasize cation-π interaction through a conserved Trp residue as a key stabilizer of high energetic transition states. PMID:26776105

  18. Comprehensive Structural Dynamic Analysis of the SSME/AT Fuel Pump First-Stage Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed structural dynamic analysis of the Pratt & Whitney high-pressure fuel pump first-stage turbine blades has been performed to identify the cause of the tip cracking found in the turbomachinery in November 1997. The analysis was also used to help evaluate potential fixes for the problem. Many of the methods available in structural dynamics were applied, including modal displacement and stress analysis, frequency and transient response to tip loading from the first-stage Blade Outer Gas Seals (BOGS), fourier analysis, and shock spectra analysis of the transient response. The primary findings were that the BOGS tip loading is impulsive in nature, thereby exciting many modes of the blade that exhibit high stress at the tip cracking location. Therefore, a proposed BOGS count change would not help the situation because a clearly identifiable resonance situation does not exist. The recommendations for the resolution of the problem are to maintain the existing BOGS count, eliminate the stress concentration in the blade due to its geometric design, and reduce the applied load on the blade by adding shiplaps in the BOGS.

  19. Fluid-Structure Interactions of the Mitral Valve and Left Heart: Comprehensive Strategies, Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Daniel R.; Del Pin, Facundo; Jiao, Xiangmin; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.; Cochran, Richard P.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The remodeling that occurs after a posterolateral myocardial infarction can alter mitral valve function by creating conformational abnormalities in the mitral annulus and in the posteromedial papillary muscle, leading to mitral regurgitation (MR). It is generally assumed that this remodeling is caused by a volume load and is mediated by an increase in diastolic wall stress. Thus, mitral regurgitation can be both the cause and effect of an abnormal cardiac stress environment. Computational modeling of ischemic MR and its surgical correction is attractive because it enables an examination of whether a given intervention addresses the correction of regurgitation (fluid-flow) at the cost of abnormal tissue stress. This is significant because the negative effects of an increased wall stress due to the intervention will only be evident over time. However, a meaningful fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart is not trivial; it requires a careful characterization of the in-vivo cardiac geometry, tissue parameterization though inverse analysis, a robust coupled solver that handles collapsing Lagrangian interfaces, automatic grid-generation algorithms that are capable of accurately discretizing the cardiac geometry, innovations in image analysis, competent and efficient constitutive models and an understanding of the spatial organization of tissue microstructure. In this manuscript, we profile our work toward a comprehensive fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart by reviewing our early work, presenting our current work and laying out our future work in four broad categories: data collection, geometry, fluid-structure interaction and validation. PMID:20454531

  20. Does Mood Influence Text Processing and Comprehension? Evidence from an Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Mason, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated that mood influences cognitive processes. However, there is scarce data regarding the link between everyday emotional states and readers' text processing and comprehension. Aim: We aim to extend current research on the effects of mood induction on science text processing and comprehension, using…

  1. Reading Comprehension and Working Memory's Executive Processes: An Intervention Study in Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Madruga, Juan A.; Elosua, Maria Rosa; Gil, Laura; Gomez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila, Jose Oscar; Orjales, Isabel; Contreras, Antonio; Rodriguez, Raquel; Melero, Maria Angeles; Duque, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a highly demanding task that involves the simultaneous process of extracting and constructing meaning in which working memory's executive processes play a crucial role. In this article, a training program on working memory's executive processes to improve reading comprehension is presented and empirically tested in two…

  2. QRAC-the-Code: A Comprehension Monitoring Strategy for Middle School Social Studies Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Sheri; Riccomini, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Requirements for reading and ascertaining information from text increase as students advance through the educational system, especially in content-rich classes; hence, monitoring comprehension is especially important. However, this is a particularly challenging skill for many students who struggle with reading comprehension, including students…

  3. Comprehensive Characterization of the Electronic Structure of U(4+) in Uranium(IV) Phosphate Chloride.

    PubMed

    Bronova, Anna; Droß, Thomas; Glaum, Robert; Lueken, Heiko; Speldrich, Manfred; Urland, Werner

    2016-07-18

    Emerald-green single crystals of U(PO4)Cl were grown by chemical vapor transport in a temperature gradient (1000 → 900 °C). The crystal structure of U(PO4)Cl (Cmcm, Z = 4, a = 5.2289(7) Å, b = 11.709(2) Å, c = 6.9991(8) Å) consists of a three-dimensional network of [PO4] tetrahedra and bicapped octahedral [U(IV)O6Cl2] groups. Polarized absorption spectra measured for two perpendicular polarization directions show a large number of well-resolved electronic transitions. These transitions can be fully assigned on the basis of a detailed ligand-field treatment within the framework of the angular overlap model. The magnetic behavior predicted on the basis of the spectroscopic data is in agreement with an f (2) system and perfectly matched by the results of temperature-dependent susceptibility measurements. PMID:27355375

  4. A Study in Structured Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutzmer, Willard Ernest

    This study tested the hypothesis that group interaction skill and useful learning occur in a discussion group which is academically structured. A class procedure involving a cognitive map, member skills and roles, and group etiquette was incorporated into a class ("Education and the Contemporary Scene," Fall Quarter, 1968) at the University of…

  5. A Comprehensive Structural Dynamic Analysis Approach for Multi Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perino, Scott; Bayandor, Javid; Siddens, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The anticipated NASA Mars Sample Return Mission (MSR) requires a simple and reliable method in which to return collected Martian samples back to earth for scientific analysis. The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is NASA's proposed solution to this MSR requirement. Key aspects of the MMEEV are its reliable and passive operation, energy absorbing foam-composite structure, and modular impact sphere (IS) design. To aid in the development of an EEV design that can be modified for various missions requirements, two fully parametric finite element models were developed. The first model was developed in an explicit finite element code and was designed to evaluate the impact response of the vehicle and payload during the final stage of the vehicle's return to earth. The second model was developed in an explicit code and was designed to evaluate the static and dynamic structural response of the vehicle during launch and reentry. In contrast to most other FE models, built through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) pre-processor, the current model was developed using a coding technique that allows the analyst to quickly change nearly all aspects of the model including: geometric dimensions, material properties, load and boundary conditions, mesh properties, and analysis controls. Using the developed design tool, a full range of proposed designs can quickly be analyzed numerically and thus the design trade space for the EEV can be fully understood. An engineer can then quickly reach the best design for a specific mission and also adapt and optimize the general design for different missions.

  6. A comprehensive study of isomerization and protonation reactions in the photocycle of the photoactive yellow protein.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lili; Wang, Hongjuan; Chen, Xuebo; Fang, Weihai; Wang, Haobin

    2014-12-14

    The light-activated photoactive yellow protein (PYP) chromophore uses a series of reactions to trigger photo-motility and biological responses, and generate a wide range of structural signals. To provide a comprehensive mechanism of the overall process at the atomic level, we apply a CASPT2//CASSCF/AMBER QM/MM protocol to investigate the relaxation pathways for a variety of possible isomerization and proton transfer reactions upon photoexcitation of the wild-type PYP. The nonadiabatic relay through an S1/S0 conical intersection [CI(S1/S0)] is found to play a decisive major role in bifurcating the excited state relaxation into a complete and short photocycle. Two major and one minor deactivation channels were found starting from the CI(S1/S0)-like intermediate IT, producing the cis isomers pR1, ICP, and ICT through "hula twist", "bicycle pedal" and one-bond flip isomerization reactions. The overall photocycle can be achieved by competitive parallel/sequential reactions, in which the ground state recovery is controlled by a series of slow volume-conserving bicycle pedal/hula twist and one-bond flip isomerization reactions, as well as fast protonation-deprotonation processes and the hydrophobic-hydrophilic state transformation. PMID:25195953

  7. Grammatical feature dissimilarities make relative clauses easier: A comprehension study with Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Adani, Flavia; van der Lely, Heather K.J.; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The Relativized Minimality approach to A′-dependencies (Friedmann et al., 2009) predicts that headed object relative clauses (RCs) and which—questions are the most difficult, due to the presence of a lexical restriction on both the subject and the object DP which creates intervention. We investigated comprehension of center-embedded headed object RCs with Italian children, where Number and Gender feature values on subject and object DPs are manipulated. We found that, Number conditions are always more accurate than Gender ones, showing that intervention is sensitive to DP-internal structure. We propose a finer definition of the lexical restriction where external and syntactically active features (such as Number) reduce intervention whereas internal and (possibly) lexicalized features (such as Gender) do so to a lesser extent. Our results are also compatible with a memory interference approach in which the human parser is sensitive to highly specific properties of the linguistic input, such as the cue-based model (Van Dyke, 2007). PMID:21151323

  8. Using the Visual World Paradigm to Study Retrieval Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Campanelli, Luca; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    The cue-based retrieval theory (Lewis et al., 2006) predicts that interference from similar distractors should create difficulty for argument integration, however this hypothesis has only been examined in the written modality. The current study uses the Visual World Paradigm (VWP) to assess its feasibility to study retrieval interference arising from distractors present in a visual display during spoken language comprehension. The study aims to extend findings from Van Dyke and McElree (2006), which utilized a dual-task paradigm with written sentences in which they manipulated the relationship between extra-sentential distractors and the semantic retrieval cues from a verb, to the spoken modality. Results indicate that retrieval interference effects do occur in the spoken modality, manifesting immediately upon encountering the verbal retrieval cue for inaccurate trials when the distractors are present in the visual field. We also observed indicators of repair processes in trials containing semantic distractors, which were ultimately answered correctly. We conclude that the VWP is a useful tool for investigating retrieval interference effects, including both the online effects of distractors and their after-effects, when repair is initiated. This work paves the way for further studies of retrieval interference in the spoken modality, which is especially significant for examining the phenomenon in pre-reading children, non-reading adults (e.g., people with aphasia), and spoken language bilinguals. PMID:27378974

  9. Comprehensive abatement performance pilot study: Volume 2 -- Multi-element data analyses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinateder, J.; Ma, Z.J.

    1998-07-01

    The report presents the results of the statistical analysis of multi-element data collected during a pilot study that preceded the Comprehensive Abatement Performance (CAP) Study. The goal of the CAP Study was to assess the long-term efficacy of lead-based paint abatement. For the multi-element analysis, concentrations of lead, as well as of aluminum, barium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, magnesium, nickel, potassium, titanium, and zinc in dust and soil samples were measured. Concentrations of barium, cadmium, chromium, titanium, and zinc were measured because these elements were regarded as possible constituents of paint. Concentrations of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, nickel, and potassium were measured because these elements were regarded as likely to be found in soil. The multi-element analysis was undertaken to determine whether relationships among these elements could provide a tracer for identifying the sources and pathways of lead in households. Pilot study data were used to (1) characterize the concentrations of lead, aluminum, barium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, magnesium, nickel, potassium, titanium, and zinc samples in household dust and soil; (2) measure the differences in these concentrations associated with renovation and lead-based paint abatement; and (3) investigate the relationship among the elements by sample type (i.e., samples taken from different locations).

  10. Using the Visual World Paradigm to Study Retrieval Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Sekerina, Irina A; Campanelli, Luca; Van Dyke, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    The cue-based retrieval theory (Lewis et al., 2006) predicts that interference from similar distractors should create difficulty for argument integration, however this hypothesis has only been examined in the written modality. The current study uses the Visual World Paradigm (VWP) to assess its feasibility to study retrieval interference arising from distractors present in a visual display during spoken language comprehension. The study aims to extend findings from Van Dyke and McElree (2006), which utilized a dual-task paradigm with written sentences in which they manipulated the relationship between extra-sentential distractors and the semantic retrieval cues from a verb, to the spoken modality. Results indicate that retrieval interference effects do occur in the spoken modality, manifesting immediately upon encountering the verbal retrieval cue for inaccurate trials when the distractors are present in the visual field. We also observed indicators of repair processes in trials containing semantic distractors, which were ultimately answered correctly. We conclude that the VWP is a useful tool for investigating retrieval interference effects, including both the online effects of distractors and their after-effects, when repair is initiated. This work paves the way for further studies of retrieval interference in the spoken modality, which is especially significant for examining the phenomenon in pre-reading children, non-reading adults (e.g., people with aphasia), and spoken language bilinguals. PMID:27378974

  11. Studying health-seeking behaviours: collecting reliable data, conducting comprehensive analysis.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Babar T; Haran, David; Hatcher, Juanita; Iqbal Azam, Syed

    2008-01-01

    There is certainly a growing need to justify the significance of studying health-seeking behaviours for designing advocacy campaigns, lobbying for a policy shift and convincing donors to invest in priority areas. Moreover, policymakers need to be encouraged to design evidence-based policies that take into account information relating to health-promoting, -seeking and -utilization behaviour and the factors determining these behaviours. This paper primarily covers the 'methodology' used in the study of health-seeking behaviours and determinants of health services utilization in a predominantly rural district of Pakistan. The paper substantiates that this methodology is comprehensive and reliable, and there is potential for replicating this in similar settings. The approach of Kroeger in his research on the study of health-seeking behaviours, particularly in developing countries, provides the most holistic framework for examining, analysing and interpreting factors and determinants of health-seeking behaviours and health services utilization in developing countries. This study endeavoured to validate Kroeger's framework in a Pakistani setting, exploring all the factors listed through mixed method research, and qualitative supplemented by representative quantitative enquiry. This approach has also helped in understanding the inter-relationship of various factors and drivers of health-seeking behaviours from all angles. PMID:17537278

  12. A Comprehensive Study of Copper Guanidine Quinoline Complexes: Predicting the Activity of Catalysts in ATRP with DFT.

    PubMed

    Rösener, Thomas; Bienemann, Olga; Sigl, Kerstin; Schopp, Nora; Schnitter, Fabian; Flörke, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Alexander; Döring, Artjom; Kuckling, Dirk; Herres-Pawlis, Sonja

    2016-09-12

    Copper complexes of the hybrid guanidine ligands 1,3-dimethyl-N-(quinolin-8-yl)-imidazolidin-2-imine (DMEGqu) and 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-2-(quinolin-8-yl)-guanidine (TMGqu) have been studied comprehensively with regard to their structural and electrochemical properties and their activity in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A simple analysis of the molecular structures of the complexes gives no indication about their activity in ATRP; however, with the help of DFT and NBO analysis the influence of particular coordinating donors on the electrochemical properties could be fully elucidated. With an adequate DFT methodology and newly applied theoretical isodesmic reactions it was possible to predict the relative position of the redox potentials of copper complexes containing DMEGqu and TMGqu ligands. In addition, predictions could be made as to whether the complexes of DMEGqu or TMGqu are more active in ATRP. Four new Cu(I) complexes were tested in standard ATRP reactions and kinetically investigated both in bulk and in solution. It could be proven that complexes featuring DMEGqu possess a lower redox potential and are more active in ATRP, although the tetramethylguanidine moiety represents the stronger donor. PMID:27505859

  13. Factors associated with syphilis infection: a comprehensive analysis based on a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Li, S-L; Lin, H-L; Lin, Z-F; Zhu, X-Z; Fan, J-Y; Gao, K; Zhang, H-L; Lin, L-R; Liu, L-L; Tong, M-L; Niu, J-J; Yang, T-C

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate factors that influence the likelihood of syphilis infection from risk-taking behaviours and medical conditions. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by enrolling 664 syphilis inpatients (excluding 11 congenital syphilis patients) and 800 sex- and age-matched controls. Medical histories, clinical data and patient interview data were collected and subjected to logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of syphilis in the study population was 3·9% (675/17,304). By univariate analysis, syphilis infection was associated with migration between cities, marital status, smoking, reproductive history, hypertension, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (P < 0·05). A high rate of syphilis-HBV co-infection was observed in HIV-negative patients and further research revealed an association between syphilis and specific HBV serological reactivity. Syphilis was also associated with the frequency, duration and status of tobacco use. Multivariate analysis indicated that syphilis infection was independently associated with migration between cities [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·368, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·048-1·785], current smoking (aOR 1·607, 95% CI 1·177-2·195), elevated BUN (aOR 1·782, 95% CI 1·188-2·673) and some serological patterns of HBV infection. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, inpatients and blood donors should be tested for HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV simultaneously. PMID:26467944

  14. Low Non-structured Antiretroviral Therapy Interruptions in HIV-Infected Persons Who Inject Drugs Receiving Multidisciplinary Comprehensive HIV Care at an Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment Center.

    PubMed

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Mojal, Sergio; Roquer, Albert; Samos, Pilar; Luque, Sonia; Martinez, Diana; Martires, Paula Karen; Torrens, Marta

    2016-05-01

    Continuous HIV treatment is necessary to ensure successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of patient-initiated non-structured treatment interruptions in HIV-infected persons who inject drugs and who received a multidisciplinary comprehensive program, including medical HIV care, drug-dependence treatment and psychosocial support, at a drug outpatient addiction center. Non-structured treatment interruptions were defined as ≥30 consecutive days off cART without medical indication. During a median follow-up of 53.8 months, 37/132 (28 %) patients experienced the first non-structured treatment interruptions. The cumulative probability of cART interruption at 5 years was 31.2 % (95 % CI 22.4-40.0). Current drug use injection ≥1/day (HR 14.77; 95 % CI 5.90-36.96) and cART naive patients (HR 0.35, 95 % CI 0.14-0.93) were predictive factors for non-structured treatment interruptions. HIV care provided at a drug addiction center is a useful strategy to sustain continuous cART, however, drug abstinence is essential for the long-term maintenance of cART. PMID:26427376

  15. Comprehensive Longitudinal Study Challenges the Existence of Neonatal Imitation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Oostenbroek, Janine; Suddendorf, Thomas; Nielsen, Mark; Redshaw, Jonathan; Kennedy-Costantini, Siobhan; Davis, Jacqueline; Clark, Sally; Slaughter, Virginia

    2016-05-23

    Human children copy others' actions with high fidelity, supporting early cultural learning and assisting in the development and maintenance of behavioral traditions [1]. Imitation has long been assumed to occur from birth [2-4], with influential theories (e.g., [5-7]) placing an innate imitation module at the foundation of social cognition (potentially underpinned by a mirror neuron system [8, 9]). Yet, the very phenomenon of neonatal imitation has remained controversial. Empirical support is mixed and interpretations are varied [10-16], potentially because previous investigations have relied heavily on cross-sectional designs with relatively small samples and with limited controls [17, 18]. Here, we report surprising results from the most comprehensive longitudinal study of neonatal imitation to date. We presented infants (n = 106) with nine social and two non-social models and scored their responses at 1, 3, 6, and 9 weeks of age. Longitudinal analyses indicated that the infants did not imitate any of the models, as they were just as likely to produce the gestures in response to control models as they were to matching models. Previous positive findings were replicated in limited cross-sections of the data, but the overall analyses confirmed these findings to be mere artifacts of restricted comparison conditions. Our results undermine the idea of an innate imitation module and suggest that earlier studies reporting neonatal imitation were methodologically limited. PMID:27161497

  16. Transcriptomic profiling of rat liver samples in a comprehensive study design by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Binsheng; Wang, Charles; Su, Zhenqiang; Hong, Huixiao; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Shi, Leming; Auerbach, Scott S.; Tong, Weida; Xu, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    RNA-Seq provides the capability to characterize the entire transcriptome in multiple levels including gene expression, allele specific expression, alternative splicing, fusion gene detection, and etc. The US FDA-led SEQC (i.e., MAQC-III) project conducted a comprehensive study focused on the transcriptome profiling of rat liver samples treated with 27 chemicals to evaluate the utility of RNA-Seq in safety assessment and toxicity mechanism elucidation. The chemicals represented multiple chemogenomic modes of action (MOA) and exhibited varying degrees of transcriptional response. The paired-end 100 bp sequencing data were generated using Illumina HiScanSQ and/or HiSeq 2000. In addition to the core study, six animals (i.e., three aflatoxin B1 treated rats and three vehicle control rats) were sequenced three times, with two separate library preparations on two sequencing machines. This large toxicogenomics dataset can serve as a resource to characterize various aspects of transcriptomic changes (e.g., alternative splicing) that are byproduct of chemical perturbation. PMID:25977778

  17. Lateral capillary forces of cylindrical fluid menisci: a comprehensive quasi-static study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrangeli, M.; Valsamis, J.-B.; Van Hoof, C.; Celis, J.-P.; Lambert, P.

    2010-07-01

    Capillarity is pivotal to many important technologies, including capillary self-alignment and self-assembly for heterogeneous microsystem integration and packaging. Lateral capillary forces ensuing from perturbed fluid menisci were the object of substantial theoretical and numerical modeling in recent years. Anyway, those studies were so far unsatisfactorily supported by direct experimental inspections. In this paper we present a comprehensive quasi-static study of lateral capillary forces arising from a constrained cylindrical fluid meniscus subjected to small lateral perturbations. We describe the novel experimental apparatus that we designed to accurately characterize such a fundamental system. We then reproduce our experimental data on lateral meniscus forces and stiffnesses by means of both a finite element and a novel analytical model. The agreement between our measurements and models, while confirming earlier reports, provides a solid foundation for the applications of lateral capillary forces to microsystem assembly. Moreover, our experimental apparatus may enable the exploitation of Gibbs' inequality to measure the advancing contact angles of liquids, and it may be used as a reference testbed for further experimental investigations on constrained fluid menisci.

  18. Comprehensive characterization of well-defined silk fibroin surfaces: Toward multitechnique studies of surface modification effects.

    PubMed

    Amornsudthiwat, Phakdee; Nitschke, Mirko; Zimmermann, Ralf; Friedrichs, Jens; Grundke, Karina; Pöschel, Kathrin; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Werner, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at a comprehensive surface characterization of untreated and oxygen plasma-treated silk fibroin with a particular focus on phenomena relevant to biointeraction and cell adhesion. For that purpose, a range of advanced surface diagnostic techniques is employed to thoroughly investigate well-defined and especially clean silk fibroin samples in a comparable setting. This includes surface chemistry and surface charges as factors, which control protein adsorption, but also hydration and swelling of the material as important parameters, which govern the mechanical stiffness at the interface with aqueous media. Oxygen plasma exposure of silk fibroin surfaces reveals that material ablation strongly predominates over the introduction of functional groups even for mild plasma conditions. A substantial increase in mechanical stiffness is identified as the most prominent effect upon this kind of plasma treatment. Regarding the experimental approach and the choice of techniques, the work goes beyond previous studies in this field and paves the way for well-founded investigations of other surface-selective modification procedures that enhance the applicability of silk fibroin in biomedical applications. PMID:25899685

  19. Heavy metal contamination along the China coastline: A comprehensive study using Artificial Mussels and native mussels.

    PubMed

    Degger, Natalie; Chiu, Jill M Y; Po, Beverly H K; Tse, Anna C K; Zheng, Gene J; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Xu, Di; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Wang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Wen-Hua; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2016-09-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out to assess metal contamination in five cities spanning from temperate to tropical environment along the coastal line of China with different hydrographical conditions. At each of the five cities, Artificial Mussels (AM) were deployed together with a native species of mussel at a control site and a polluted site. High levels of Cr, Cu and Hg were found in Qingdao, high level of Cd, Hg and Pb was found in Shanghai, and high level of Zn was found in Dalian. Furthermore, level of Cu contamination in all the five cities was consistently much higher than those reported in similar studies in other countries (e.g., Australia, Portugal, Scotland, Iceland, Korea, South Africa and Bangladesh). Levels of individual metal species in the AM showed a highly significant correlation with that in the native mussels (except for Zn in Mytilus edulis and Cd in Perna viridis), while no significant difference can be found between the regression relationships of metal in the AM and each of the two native mussel species. The results demonstrated that AM can provide a reliable time-integrated estimate of metal concentration in contrasting environments over large biogeographic areas and different hydrographic conditions, and overcome the shortcomings of monitoring metals in water, sediment and the use of biomonitors. PMID:27233049

  20. Involvement of the Motor System in Comprehension of Non-Literal Action Language: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that the sensory-motor system is involved in semantic processing of language stimuli, it is still unclear whether comprehension of abstract concepts is embodied, and whether the involvement of the sensory-motor system is context-dependent. Investigation of how the motor system is activated during comprehension of non-literal action languages can help address these issues. So far several studies have reported brain activations during non-literal action language comprehension, but the findings are highly inconsistent because of different types of non-literal action language stimuli. To clarify how the motor system is involved in comprehension of different types of non-literal languages, the current study conducted quantitative meta-analyses on fMRI findings about comprehension of sentences describing fictive motions, metaphoric actions, and idiomatic actions. Results showed that fictive motion sentences elicited activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus, an area important for spatial processing. For metaphoric actions, the left precentral gyrus (BA 6) was strongly activated, suggesting a link between metaphoric and literal meanings. For idiomatic actions, activity was found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), highlighting semantic selection and inhibition. No premotor or motor activity was found in idiom condition. These results together suggest that the involvement of the sensory-motor system in abstract concepts processing is flexible, depending on semantic features of the language stimuli and links between abstract and literal meanings. PMID:25681159

  1. A Comprehensive Study of Martian Central Pit Craters to Constrain Formation Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, A.; Barlow, N. G.; Tornabene, L. L.

    2014-07-01

    We are constraining a formation model for martian central pit "floor pit" craters. In order to do this, we are mapping these craters using MOLA, THEMIS, CTX, CRISM, and HiRISE to get as comprehensive a picture as possible.

  2. How Word Decoding, Vocabulary and Prior Topic Knowledge Predict Reading Comprehension. A Study of Language-Minority Students in Norwegian Fifth Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydland, Veslemoy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover; Fulland, Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global…

  3. A Comparative Study of Listening Comprehension Measures in English as an Additional Language and Native English-Speaking Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKendry, Mairead Grainne; Murphy, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of different measures of listening comprehension for Years 2, 3 and 4 children with English as an additional language (EAL). Non-standardised uses of reading comprehension measures are often employed as proxy measures of listening comprehension, i.e. for purposes for which they were not…

  4. A Modified Delphi Study to Identify the Significant Works Pertaining to the Understanding of Reading Comprehension and Content Analysis of the Identified Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Norma D.

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this study explored the significant works pertaining to the understanding of reading comprehension using a Modified Delphi Method. A panel of reading comprehension experts in the field of reading identified 20 works they considered to be significant to the understanding of reading comprehension. The panel of experts additionally…

  5. Comprehensive School Reform Models: A Study Guide for Comparing CSR Models (and How Well They Meet Minnesota's Learning Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Loescher, Siri; Jacob, Stacy; Cekic, Osman; Kupersmith, Leigh; Musoba, Glenda Droogsma

    A growing number of schools are exploring the prospect of applying for funding to implement a Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) model. But the process of selecting a CSR model can be complicated because it frequently involves self-study and a review of models to determine which models best meet the needs of the school. This study guide is intended…

  6. Does Look-up Frequency Help Reading Comprehension of EFL Learners? Two Empirical Studies of Electronic Dictionaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Toshiko; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    Two empirical studies were conducted in which the differences in Japanese EFL learners' look-up behavior between hand-held electronic dictionaries (EDs) and printed dictionaries (PDs) were investigated. We focus here on the relation between learners' look-up frequency and degree of reading comprehension of the text. In the first study, a total of…

  7. An Initial Study of the Effects of Cooperative Learning on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition, and Motivation to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaaban, Kassim

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning (CL) model and whole class instruction in improving learners' reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and motivation to read. Forty-four grade five English as a foreign language learners participated in the study, and a posttest-only control group experimental design…

  8. Promise and Possibilities of Infusing Parent-Child Read Alouds with Comprehension Strategy Instruction: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of two manuscripts that resulted from a single study that tested the efficacy of teaching parents how to infuse comprehension strategy instruction into read alouds with their preschool-aged children. Twenty dyads, each composed of an incoming kindergartener and one of his or her parents, participated in this study.…

  9. Comprehension of Discourse Markers and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    According to many research findings, the presence of discourse markers (DMs) enhances readers' comprehension of the texts they read. However, there is a paucity of research on the relationship between knowledge of DMs and reading comprehension (RC) and the present study explores the relationship between them. Knowledge of DMs is measured through…

  10. Label-free IgG/anti-IgG biosensing based on long period fiber gratings: a comprehensive feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavaioli, F.; Trono, C.; Giannetti, A.; Tombelli, S.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Jana, S.; Bera, S.; Mallick, A.; Baldini, F.

    2015-03-01

    Long period fiber gratings (LPGs) have recently been proposed as label-free biosensors. A biochemical interaction occurring along the grating region can be evaluated as a refractive index (RI) change, which modifies the transmission spectrum of the fiber. This is an emergent, alternative choice with respect to other label-free optical systems, such as surface plasmon resonance, interferometric and in-fiber configurations, and resonating structures. In this work, various types of not-coated LPGs, in which the coupling occurs with increasing cladding mode orders, were manufactured for increasing the RI sensitivity of these sensors. After the functionalization of the fiber surface using Eudragit L100 copolymer, a label-free IgG/anti-IgG bioassay was realized for analyzing the antigen/antibody interaction following the same model assay. A comprehensive feasibility study was carried out among the different LPGs in order to assess and compare the biosensor performance, highlighting the advantages and the disadvantages of each type. Experimental results proved an improvement in the RI sensitivity and in the biosensor performance in the case of high-order cladding mode LPGs, with values of detection limit lower than 50 ng mL-1 (330 pM). The performance enhancement can be explained with the increase in the penetration depth of the evanescent field due to the increase of the cladding mode order. The sensor response was also studied using complex matrices made up of human serum.

  11. Reading comprehension and its underlying components in second-language learners: A meta-analysis of studies comparing first- and second-language learners.

    PubMed

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2014-03-01

    We report a systematic meta-analytic review of studies comparing reading comprehension and its underlying components (language comprehension, decoding, and phonological awareness) in first- and second-language learners. The review included 82 studies, and 576 effect sizes were calculated for reading comprehension and underlying components. Key findings were that, compared to first-language learners, second-language learners display a medium-sized deficit in reading comprehension (pooled effect size d = -0.62), a large deficit in language comprehension (pooled effect size d = -1.12), but only small differences in phonological awareness (pooled effect size d = -0.08) and decoding (pooled effect size d = -0.12). A moderator analysis showed that characteristics related to the type of reading comprehension test reliably explained the variation in the differences in reading comprehension between first- and second-language learners. For language comprehension, studies of samples from low socioeconomic backgrounds and samples where only the first language was used at home generated the largest group differences in favor of first-language learners. Test characteristics and study origin reliably contributed to the variations between the studies of language comprehension. For decoding, Canadian studies showed group differences in favor of second-language learners, whereas the opposite was the case for U.S. studies. Regarding implications, unless specific decoding problems are detected, interventions that aim to ameliorate reading comprehension problems among second-language learners should focus on language comprehension skills. PMID:23937316

  12. Processing of false belief passages during natural story comprehension: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kandylaki, Katerina D; Nagels, Arne; Tune, Sarah; Wiese, Richard; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Kircher, Tilo

    2015-11-01

    The neural correlates of theory of mind (ToM) are typically studied using paradigms which require participants to draw explicit, task-related inferences (e.g., in the false belief task). In a natural setup, such as listening to stories, false belief mentalizing occurs incidentally as part of narrative processing. In our experiment, participants listened to auditorily presented stories with false belief passages (implicit false belief processing) and immediately after each story answered comprehension questions (explicit false belief processing), while neural responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All stories included (among other situations) one false belief condition and one closely matched control condition. For the implicit ToM processing, we modeled the hemodynamic response during the false belief passages in the story and compared it to the hemodynamic response during the closely matched control passages. For implicit mentalizing, we found activation in typical ToM processing regions, that is the angular gyrus (AG), superior medial frontal gyrus (SmFG), precuneus (PCUN), middle temporal gyrus (MTG) as well as in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) billaterally. For explicit ToM, we only found AG activation. The conjunction analysis highlighted the left AG and MTG as well as the bilateral IFG as overlapping ToM processing regions for both implicit and explicit modes. Implicit ToM processing during listening to false belief passages, recruits the left SmFG and billateral PCUN in addition to the "mentalizing network" known form explicit processing tasks. PMID:26356583

  13. Pyrolysis comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography study of petroleum source rock.

    PubMed

    Wang, Frank Cheng-Yu; Walters, Clifford C

    2007-08-01

    Detailed compositional analyses of sedimentary organic matter can provide information on its biotic input, environment of deposition, and level of thermal maturation. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (py-GC), often coupled with a mass spectrometer (py-GC/MS), is one technique used to provide this information. New developments in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC or 2D-GC), coupled with pyrolysis (py-GC x GC), offer the prospect of providing more complete and quantitative compositional information of complex organic solids, such as kerogen and coals. This study will describe applications of pyrolysis-GC x GC to the characterization of petroleum source rocks using flame ionization detector (FID) and sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD). In the hydrocarbon analysis by FID, paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics form distinct two-dimensional separated groups. In the analysis with SCD, sulfur-containing compounds can be distinguished as different classes, such as mercaptans, sulfides, thiophenes, benzothiophenes, and dibenzothiophenes. Single components or summed bands of homologous components can be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. With these detailed molecular fingerprints, the relations between kerogen composition and its biotic input, environment of deposition, and thermal maturation may be better understood. PMID:17585835

  14. Comprehensive near infrared study of Jatropha oil esterification with ethanol for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alianda Dantas de; Sá, Ananda Franco de; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pacheco, José Geraldo A; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes; Larrechi, Maria Soledad

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive near infrared study for in-line monitoring of the esterification reaction of high acid oils, such as Jatropha curcas oil, using ethanol. Parallel reactions involved in the process were carried out to select a spectral region that characterizes the evolution of the esterification reaction. Using absorbance intensities at 5176cm(-1), the conversion and kinetic behaviors of the esterification reaction were estimated. This method was applied to evaluate the influence of temperature and catalyst concentration on the estimates of initial reaction rate and ester conversion as responses to a 2(2) factorial experimental design. Employment of an alcohol/oil ratio of 16:1, catalyst concentration of 1.5% w/w, and temperatures at 65°C or 75°C, made it possible to reduce the initial acidity from 18% to 1.3% w/w, which is suitable for transesterification of high free fatty acid oils for biodiesel production. Using the proposed analytical method in the esterification reaction of raw materials with high free fatty acid content for biodiesel makes the monitoring process inexpensive, fast, simple, and practical. PMID:27415971

  15. A Comprehensive Study of the Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Fly Ash Based Geopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mehdi; Behnia, Arash; Javadi Pordsari, Alireza; Mehrali, Mohammad; Alengaram, U. Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2016-01-01

    As a cementitious material, geopolymers show a high quasi-brittle behavior and a relatively low fracture energy. To overcome such a weakness, incorporation of fibers to a brittle matrix is a well-known technique to enhance the flexural properties. This study comprehensively evaluates the short and long term impacts of different volume percentages of polypropylene fiber (PPF) reinforcement on fly ash based geopolymer composites. Different characteristics of the composite were compared at fresh state by flow measurement and hardened state by variation of shrinkage over time to assess the response of composites under flexural and compressive load conditions. The fiber-matrix interface, fiber surface and toughening mechanisms were assessed using field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that incorporation of PPF up to 3 wt % into the geopolymer paste reduces the shrinkage and enhances the energy absorption of the composites. While, it might reduce the ultimate flexural and compressive strength of the material depending on fiber content. PMID:26807825

  16. A Comprehensive Study of the Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Fly Ash Based Geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mehdi; Behnia, Arash; Javadi Pordsari, Alireza; Mehrali, Mohammad; Alengaram, U Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2016-01-01

    As a cementitious material, geopolymers show a high quasi-brittle behavior and a relatively low fracture energy. To overcome such a weakness, incorporation of fibers to a brittle matrix is a well-known technique to enhance the flexural properties. This study comprehensively evaluates the short and long term impacts of different volume percentages of polypropylene fiber (PPF) reinforcement on fly ash based geopolymer composites. Different characteristics of the composite were compared at fresh state by flow measurement and hardened state by variation of shrinkage over time to assess the response of composites under flexural and compressive load conditions. The fiber-matrix interface, fiber surface and toughening mechanisms were assessed using field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that incorporation of PPF up to 3 wt % into the geopolymer paste reduces the shrinkage and enhances the energy absorption of the composites. While, it might reduce the ultimate flexural and compressive strength of the material depending on fiber content. PMID:26807825

  17. Comprehensive Study of Hydrated IDPs: X-Ray Diffraction, IR Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, K.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Nozaki, W.; Tomeoka, K.

    2003-01-01

    Chondritic hydrated interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) comprise up to 50% of all IDPs collected in the stratosphere(1). Although much is known about the mineralogy, chemistry and carbon abundance of hydrated IDPs (2-4) controversies still exist regarding their formation, history, and relationship to other primitive solar system materials. Hydrated IDPs are generally believed to be derived from asteroidal sources that have undergone some degree of aqueous alteration. However, the high C contents of hydrated IDPs (by 2 to 6X CI levels (3,4) indicate that they are probably not derived from the same parent bodies sampled by the known chondritic meteorites. We report the comprehensive study of individual hydrated IDPs. The strong depletion in Ca (I) has been used as a diagnostic feature of hydrated IDPs. The particles are embedded in elemental sulfur or low viscosity epoxy and ultramicrotomed thin sections are observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) followed by other measurements including: 1) FTIR microspectroscopy to understand the significant constraints on the organic functionality and the nature of the C-bearing phases and 2) powder X-ray difiaction using a synchrotron X-ray source to understand the bulk mineralogy of the particles.

  18. Comprehensive transient-state study for CARMENES NIR high-thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Santiago; Sánchez, Miguel A.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Rabaza, Ovidio; Ramón, Alejandro; Abril, Miguel; Costillo, Luis P.; Morales, Rafael; Rodríguez, Alicia; Amado, Pedro J.

    2010-07-01

    CARMENES has been proposed as a next-generation instrument for the 3.5m Calar Alto Telescope. Its objective is finding habitable exoplanets around M dwarfs through radial velocity measurements (m/s level) in the near-infrared. Consequently, the NIR spectrograph is highly constraint regarding thermal/mechanical requirements. Indeed, the requirements used for the present study limit the thermal stability to +/-0.01K (within year period) over a working temperature of 243K in order to minimise radial velocity drifts. This can be achieved by implementing a solution based on several temperature-controlled rooms (TCR), whose smallest room encloses the vacuum vessel which houses the spectrograph's optomechanics. Nevertheless, several options have been taken into account to minimise the complexity of the thermal design: 1) Large thermal inertia of the system, where, given a thermal instability of the environment (typically, +/-0.1K), the optomechanical system remains stable within +/-0.01K in the long run; 2) Environment thermal control, where thermal stability is ensured by controlling the temperature of the environment surrounding the vacuum vessel. The present article also includes the comprehensive transient-state thermal analyses which have been implemented in order to make the best choice, as well as to give important inputs for the thermal layout of the instrument.

  19. A comprehensive study on different modelling approaches to predict platelet deposition rates in a perfusion chamber

    PubMed Central

    Pallarès, Jordi; Senan, Oriol; Guimerà, Roger; Vernet, Anton; Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Vilahur, Gemma; Badimon, Lina; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Cito, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Thrombus formation is a multiscale phenomenon triggered by platelet deposition over a protrombotic surface (eg. a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque). Despite the medical urgency for computational tools that aid in the early diagnosis of thrombotic events, the integration of computational models of thrombus formation at different scales requires a comprehensive understanding of the role and limitation of each modelling approach. We propose three different modelling approaches to predict platelet deposition. Specifically, we consider measurements of platelet deposition under blood flow conditions in a perfusion chamber for different time periods (3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes) at shear rates of 212 s−1, 1390 s−1 and 1690 s−1. Our modelling approaches are: i) a model based on the mass-transfer boundary layer theory; ii) a machine-learning approach; and iii) a phenomenological model. The results indicate that the three approaches on average have median errors of 21%, 20.7% and 14.2%, respectively. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using an empirical data set as a proxy for a real-patient scenario in which practitioners have accumulated data on a given number of patients and want to obtain a diagnosis for a new patient about whom they only have the current observation of a certain number of variables. PMID:26391513

  20. Comprehensive capture of cutaneous melanoma by the Ontario Cancer Registry: validation study using community pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jennifer M; Schwartz, Rodrigo; Fung, Kinwah; Rochon, Paula; Chan, An-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is often managed outside hospital settings, creating the potential for underreporting to cancer registries. To our knowledge, completeness of melanoma capture in cancer registries has not been assessed using external data sources since the 1980s. We evaluated the melanoma capture rate from 1993 to 2009 in a provincial cancer registry. We identified all melanoma diagnoses in pathology reports from a major community laboratory in Ontario, Canada. Pathologically confirmed diagnoses were linked to Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) records using health insurance numbers. We calculated capture rates as the proportion of patients with melanoma confirmed by a pathology report, with a corresponding melanoma diagnosis in OCR. OCR captured 3,798 of 4,275 (88.8, 95 % confidence interval: 87.9, 89.8 %) invasive melanoma diagnoses over the 17-year period. Annual capture rates of 94 % or higher were found for over half the study period. Among all 29,133 melanoma diagnoses in OCR, 27.6 % were registered based on a pathology report alone, compared with 3.4 % for non-cutaneous malignancies. This suggests that comprehensive capture of melanoma cases by a provincial cancer registry is achievable using source data from community laboratories. There is a need for ongoing validation to ensure data remain accurate and complete to reliably inform clinical care, research, and policy. PMID:26537120

  1. Facial expression recognition and histograms of oriented gradients: a comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Carcagnì, Pierluigi; Del Coco, Marco; Leo, Marco; Distante, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    Automatic facial expression recognition (FER) is a topic of growing interest mainly due to the rapid spread of assistive technology applications, as human-robot interaction, where a robust emotional awareness is a key point to best accomplish the assistive task. This paper proposes a comprehensive study on the application of histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) descriptor in the FER problem, highlighting as this powerful technique could be effectively exploited for this purpose. In particular, this paper highlights that a proper set of the HOG parameters can make this descriptor one of the most suitable to characterize facial expression peculiarities. A large experimental session, that can be divided into three different phases, was carried out exploiting a consolidated algorithmic pipeline. The first experimental phase was aimed at proving the suitability of the HOG descriptor to characterize facial expression traits and, to do this, a successful comparison with most commonly used FER frameworks was carried out. In the second experimental phase, different publicly available facial datasets were used to test the system on images acquired in different conditions (e.g. image resolution, lighting conditions, etc.). As a final phase, a test on continuous data streams was carried out on-line in order to validate the system in real-world operating conditions that simulated a real-time human-machine interaction. PMID:26543779

  2. Semantic Integration Processes at Different Levels of Syntactic Hierarchy during Sentence Comprehension: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Jiang, Xiaoming; Ye, Zheng; Zhang, Yaxu; Lou, Kaiyang; Zhan, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    An event-related potential (ERP) study was conducted to investigate the temporal neural dynamics of semantic integration processes at different levels of syntactic hierarchy during Chinese sentence reading. In a hierarchical structure, "subject noun" + "verb" + "numeral" + "classifier" + "object noun," the object noun is constrained by selectional…

  3. Computational Studies of Flame Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Vaishali

    This thesis is concerned with computational studies of laminar flame structures using detailed and skeletal chemical kinetic mechanisms. Elementary reactions in these mechanisms control the observable combustion properties such as flame speed, autoignition temperature, ignition delay time, and extinction characteristics in nonpremixed and premixed flame phenomena. First part of thesis deals with computational investigations of influence of carbon monoxide and hydrogen addition on methane flames stabilized in counterflow configuration. Computations were performed employing detailed chemical kinetic mechanism---the San Diego mechanism. In case of nonpremixed flames, effect of carbon xvi monoxide addition on structure and critical condition of extinction were examined. Differences between addition on fuel and oxidizer sides were investigated and plausible explanation given for the differences. For premixed flames, effect of addition of hydrogen and carbon monoxide to reactant mixture was studied. Critical conditions of extinction were predicted using computations for various compositions. Rates of production and consumption of various species were calculated and flame structure was analyzed for nonpremixed and premixed flames. It was found that moderate amount of carbon monoxide addition to methane enhances flame reactivity. However, with large amount of carbon monoxide addition, additive chemistry dominates. Addition of increasing amounts of hydrogen in premixed reactant stream enhances methane flame reactivity. In second part of thesis, kinetic modeling was performed to elucidate the structure and mechanism of extinction and autoignition of nonpremixed toluene flames in counterflow configuration. Computations were performed using detailed chemistry to determine flame structure and to obtain values for critical conditions of extinction and autoignition. Sensitivity analysis of rate parameters, reaction pathway analysis, and spatial reaction rate profiles were used to

  4. A COMPREHENSIVE NEW DETECTOR FOR DETAILED STUDY OF THE QGP, INITIAL CONDITION AND SPIN PHYSICS AT RHIC II.

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, J.W.; BELLWIED, R.; SMIRNOV, N.; STEINBERG, P.; SURROW, B.; ULLRICH, T.

    2004-03-15

    A case is presented for compelling physics at a high luminosity RHIC II collider. A comprehensive new detector system is introduced to address this physics. The experimental focus is on detailed jet tomography of the quark gluon plasma (QGP); measuring gluon saturation in the nucleus, investigating the color glass condensate, measuring effects of the QCD vacuum on particle masses, determining the structure and dynamics within the proton and possible new phenomena. The physics and detector capabilities are introduced.

  5. Comprehensive assessment of radiation dose estimates for the CORE320 study.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, Frank J; Mather, Richard T; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Brinker, Jeffrey; Chen, Marcus Y; Cox, Christopher; Matheson, Matthew B; Dewey, Marc; DiCarli, Marcelo F; Miller, Julie M; Geleijns, Jacob; George, Richard T; Paul, Narinder; Texter, John; Vavere, Andrea; Yaw, Tan Swee; Lima, Joao A C; Clouse, Melvin E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively study estimated radiation doses for subjects included in the main analysis of the Combined Non-invasive Coronary Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Using 320 Detector Computed Tomography (CORE320) study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00934037), a clinical trial comparing combined CT angiography (CTA) and perfusion CT with the reference standard catheter angiography plus myocardial perfusion SPECT. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Prospectively acquired data on 381 CORE320 subjects were analyzed in four groups of testing related to radiation exposure. Radiation dose estimates were compared between modalities for combined CTA and perfusion CT with respect to covariates known to influence radiation exposure and for the main clinical outcomes defined by the trial. The final analysis assessed variations in radiation dose with respect to several factors inherent to the trial. RESULTS. The mean radiation dose estimate for the combined CTA and perfusion CT protocol (8.63 mSv) was significantly (p < 0.0001 for both) less than the average dose delivered from SPECT (10.48 mSv) and the average dose from diagnostic catheter angiography (11.63 mSv). There was no significant difference in estimated CTA-perfusion CT radiation dose for subjects who had false-positive or false-negative results in the CORE320 main analyses in a comparison with subjects for whom the CTA-perfusion CT findings were in accordance with the reference standard SPECT plus catheter angiographic findings. CONCLUSION. Radiation dose estimates from CORE320 support clinical implementation of a combined CT protocol for assessing coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion. PMID:25539270

  6. The neural basis of hand gesture comprehension: A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Andric, Michael; Mathew, Mili M

    2015-10-01

    Gestures play an important role in face-to-face communication and have been increasingly studied via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although a large amount of data has been provided to describe the neural substrates of gesture comprehension, these findings have never been quantitatively summarized and the conclusion is still unclear. This activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis investigated the brain networks underpinning gesture comprehension while considering the impact of gesture type (co-speech gestures vs. speech-independent gestures) and task demand (implicit vs. explicit) on the brain activation of gesture comprehension. The meta-analysis of 31 papers showed that as hand actions, gestures involve a perceptual-motor network important for action recognition. As meaningful symbols, gestures involve a semantic network for conceptual processing. Finally, during face-to-face interactions, gestures involve a network for social emotive processes. Our finding also indicated that gesture type and task demand influence the involvement of the brain networks during gesture comprehension. The results highlight the complexity of gesture comprehension, and suggest that future research is necessary to clarify the dynamic interactions among these networks. PMID:26271719

  7. Structural studies of bee melittin

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, D.; Terwilliger, T.C.; Tsui, F.

    1980-10-01

    The question of how proteins refold in passing from an aqueous phase to an amphipathic environment such as a membrane is beig addressed by a structural study of bee melittin. Melittin is the toxic, main protein of bee venom, and has been shown by others to integrate into natural and synthetic membranes and to lyse a variety of cells. This function is presumably related to its unusual sequence. Except for charges at the N-terminus and at lysine 7, the first 20 residues are largely apolar. In contrast, the last six residues contain four charges and two polar residues.

  8. Cancer Therapy Directed by Comprehensive Genomic Profiling: A Single Center Study.

    PubMed

    Wheler, Jennifer J; Janku, Filip; Naing, Aung; Li, Yali; Stephen, Bettzy; Zinner, Ralph; Subbiah, Vivek; Fu, Siqing; Karp, Daniel; Falchook, Gerald S; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M; Piha-Paul, Sarina; Anderson, Roosevelt; Ke, Danxia; Miller, Vincent; Yelensky, Roman; Lee, J Jack; Hong, David S; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-07-01

    Innovative molecular diagnostics deployed in the clinic enable new ways to stratify patients into appropriate treatment regimens. These approaches may resolve a major challenge for early-phase clinical trials, which is to recruit patients who, while having failed previous treatments, may nevertheless respond to molecularly targeted drugs. We report the findings of a prospective, single-center study conducted in patients with diverse refractory cancers who underwent comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP; next-generation sequencing, 236 genes). Of the 500 patients enrolled, 188 (37.6%) received either matched (N = 122/188, 65%) or unmatched therapy (N = 66/188, 35%). The most common reasons that patients were not evaluable for treatment included insufficient tissue, death, or hospice transfer. The median number of molecular alterations per patient was five (range, 1-14); median number of prior therapies, four. The most common diagnoses were ovarian cancer (18%), breast cancer (16%), sarcoma (13%), and renal cancer (7%). Of the 339 successfully profiled patients, 317 (93.5%) had at least one potentially actionable alteration. By calculating matching scores, based on the number of drug matches and genomic aberrations per patient, we found that high scores were independently associated with a greater frequency of stable disease ≥6 months/partial/complete remission [22% (high scores) vs. 9% (low scores), P = 0.024], longer time-to-treatment failure [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.36-0.74; P = 0.0003], and survival (HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.43-1.0; P = 0.05). Collectively, this study offers a clinical proof of concept for the utility of CGP in assigning therapy to patients with refractory malignancies, especially in those patients with multiple genomic aberrations for whom combination therapies could be implemented. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3690-701. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197177

  9. Updated model of group A Streptococcus M proteins based on a comprehensive worldwide study.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D J; Drèze, P-A; Vu, T; Bessen, D E; Guglielmini, J; Steer, A C; Carapetis, J R; Van Melderen, L; Sriprakash, K S; Smeesters, P R

    2013-05-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) M protein is an important virulence factor and potential vaccine antigen, and constitutes the basis for strain typing (emm-typing). Although >200 emm-types are characterized, structural data were obtained from only a limited number of emm-types. We aim to evaluate the sequence diversity of near-full-length M proteins from worldwide sources and analyse their structure, sequence conservation and classification. GAS isolates recovered from throughout the world during the last two decades underwent emm-typing and complete emm gene sequencing. Predicted amino acid sequence analyses, secondary structure predictions and vaccine epitope mapping were performed using MUSCLE and Geneious software. A total of 1086 isolates from 31 countries were analysed, representing 175 emm-types. emm-type is predictive of the whole protein structure, independent of geographical origin or clinical association. Findings of an emm-type paired with multiple, highly divergent central regions were not observed. M protein sequence length, the presence or absence of sequence repeats and predicted secondary structure were assessed in the context of the latest vaccine developments. Based on these global data, the M6 protein model is updated to a three representative M protein (M5, M80 and M77) model, to aid in epidemiological analysis, vaccine development and M protein-related pathogenesis studies. PMID:23464795

  10. The theory-of-mind network in support of action verb comprehension: evidence from an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Bi, Yanchao; Zhao, Ying; Luo, Chunming; Li, Xingshan

    2015-02-01

    The theory-of-mind (ToM) network refers to a specific group of brain regions implicated in the thinking of people's mental states. It remains unclear how this network contributes to verb comprehension. In the present study, we compared brain activations evoked by verbs that refer to social actions, private actions, and nonhuman events. All classic regions of the ToM network, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) whose activation during word comprehension is typically interpreted as the processing of motion properties, showed stronger activations to social action verbs than the others. These findings indicate that the ToM network is involved in the processing of social/mental knowledge of verb meanings. Furthermore, the activation of the pSTS during word comprehension mainly reflects the processing of social/mental properties but not that of biological-motion properties. PMID:25498409

  11. Individual differences in fifth graders’ reading and language predict their comprehension monitoring development: An eye-movement study

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth-graders’ (n=52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation, and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read two sentences; the second included either a plausible or implausible word in the context of the first sentence. Stronger readers had shorter reading times overall suggesting faster processing of text. Generally fifth-graders reacted to the implausible word (i.e., longer gaze duration on the implausible v. the plausible word, which reflects lexical access). Students with stronger academic language, compared to those with weaker academic language, generally spent more time re-reading the implausible target compared to the plausible target. This difference increased from fall to spring. Results support the centrality of academic language for meaning integration, setting standards of coherence, and utilizing comprehension repair strategies. PMID:27065721

  12. Comprehensive study and design of scaled metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with ultrathin aluminum oxide interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Asahara, Ryohei; Hideshima, Iori; Oka, Hiroshi; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Ogawa, Shingo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden

    2015-06-08

    Advanced metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with a sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and improved interface properties were demonstrated by controlling interface reactions using ultrathin aluminum oxide (AlO{sub x}) interlayers. A step-by-step in situ procedure by deposition of AlO{sub x} and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) layers on Ge and subsequent plasma oxidation was conducted to fabricate Pt/HfO{sub 2}/AlO{sub x}/GeO{sub x}/Ge stacked structures. Comprehensive study by means of physical and electrical characterizations revealed distinct impacts of AlO{sub x} interlayers, plasma oxidation, and metal electrodes serving as capping layers on EOT scaling, improved interface quality, and thermal stability of the stacks. Aggressive EOT scaling down to 0.56 nm and very low interface state density of 2.4 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} with a sub-nm EOT and sufficient thermal stability were achieved by systematic process optimization.

  13. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level. PMID:25059843

  14. The Many Facets and Applications of Text Structure in Supporting Educational Trajectories of Elementary and Middle Grade Children in Content Area Reading Comprehension and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albro, Elizabeth; Williams, Joanna P.; Wijekumar, Kausalai; Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Harris, Karen R.

    2015-01-01

    Content area reading comprehension and writing have been a challenge for children in the U.S. schools for many years as evidenced by state and national assessments. One promising solution to the problem is text structure based instruction that promotes strategic selection, encoding, retrieval, and use of information for myriads of activities…

  15. Structures, performance, benefit, cost study. [gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feder, E.

    1981-01-01

    Aircraft engine structures were studied to identify the advanced structural technologies that would provide the most benefits to future aircraft operations. A series of studies identified engine systems with the greatest potential for improvements. Based on these studies, six advanced generic structural concepts were selected and conceptually designed. The benefits of each concept were quantitatively assessed in terms of thrust specific fuel consumption, weight, cost, maintenance cost, fuel burned and direct operating cost plus interest. The probability of success of each concept was also determined. The concepts were ranked and the three most promising were selected for further study which consisted of identifying and comprehensively outlining the advanced technologies required to develop these concepts for aircraft engine application. Analytic, fabrication, and test technology developments are required. The technology programs outlined emphasize the need to provide basic, fundamental understanding of technology to obtain the benefit goals.

  16. Principal Component Analysis Study of Visual and Verbal Metaphoric Comprehension in Children with Autism and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, Nira; Kasirer, Anat

    2012-01-01

    This research extends previous studies regarding the metaphoric competence of autistic and learning disabled children on different measures of visual and verbal non-literal language comprehension, as well as cognitive abilities that include semantic knowledge, executive functions, similarities, and reading fluency. Thirty seven children with…

  17. Assessment of Reading Comprehension, Panel 5; Conference on Studies in Reading (Washington, D.C., August 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marshall S., Ed.

    The aim of the panel on reading comprehension, sponsored by the National Institute of Education Conference on Studies in Reading, was to determine the influence of intellectual factors, general experiences with the world, knowledge specific to the particular reading task, and general decoding skills to successful reading performance. In addition,…

  18. Creating a Safe Space: A Case Study of Complex Trauma and a Call for Proactive Comprehensive Psychoeducational Assessments and Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainwaring, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    This article advocates for proactive, dynamic and comprehensive psycho-educational assessments for children and young people who have a history of complex trauma, because of its known effects on development and learning. A case study is shared of a young woman with a history of complex trauma because of exposure to parental neglect, multiple…

  19. Mental Health Improves after Transition from Comprehensive School to Vocational Education or Employment in England: A National Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Jennifer; Dietrich, Julia; Chow, Angela; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2016-01-01

    Underpinned by stage-environment fit and job demands-resources theories, this study examined how adolescents' anxiety, depressive symptoms, and positive functioning developed as they transferred from comprehensive school to further education, employment or training, or became NEET (not in education, employment, or training), at age 16 years, in…

  20. A Study To Determine the Effect of Writing Activities on Reading Comprehension on Second Grade Students at Linden School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda

    A study investigated what effect, if any, a planned program of writing activities had on reading comprehension. A group of second grade students from Linden Elementary School, West Virginia, were the subjects. Subjects were divided into a control (12 students) and an experimental (13 students) group. Both groups were given a pretest and a…

  1. Audio/Visual Aids: A Study of the Effect of Audio/Visual Aids on the Comprehension Recall of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavaro, Sandra

    A study investigated whether the use of audio/visual aids had an effect upon comprehension recall. Thirty fourth-grade students from an urban public school were randomly divided into two equal samples of 15. One group was given a story to read (print only), while the other group viewed a filmstrip of the same story, thereby utilizing audio/visual…

  2. Relationship between Reading Proficiency, Strategic Competence, and Reading Comprehension Test Performance: A Study of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes; Afghari, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    The study scrutinized the interaction between reading proficiency and strategic competence via reading comprehension test performance of Iranian EFL learners. The further concern was to scrutinize the extent to which strategic competence affected the participants' test performance. The participants were 506 postgraduate students who took a reading…

  3. Open-Trial Pilot Study of a Comprehensive School-Based Intervention for High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Smith, Tristram H.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Smith, Rachael A.; Gullo, Gaetano; McDonald, Christin A.; Mirwis, Joshua; Toomey, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a notable lack of manualized comprehensive school-based interventions (CSBIs) for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). This pilot study examined the feasibility and initial efficacy of a CSBI for 12 children with HFASDs, aged 6 to 9 years. Treatment included a 3-week summer preparation program followed by a…

  4. The Intercultural Dimension in EFL-Teaching: A Study of Conceptions among Finland-Swedish Comprehensive School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzen-Ostermark, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The overall aim of this study is to deepen our knowledge about the attitudes of teachers at the upper level of the Finland-Swedish comprehensive school towards the treatment of culture in English foreign language (EFL) teaching. More specifically, the questions are how teachers interpret the concept "culture" in English foreign language teaching,…

  5. Online Reading Comprehension among Seventh Grade Students with High Incidence Disabilities in Inclusive Settings: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Katherine R.

    2010-01-01

    Because research exploring how students with disabilities read and comprehend on the Internet is scarce, a mixed methods study was implemented to determine if Internet Reciprocal Teaching (IRT) is an effective intervention for improving online reading comprehension among seventh grade students with high-incidence disabilities in inclusive…

  6. Alternative Roles and Interagency Relationships of State Education Agencies in Comprehensive Statewide Planning. Report of a Special Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Robert E.

    This document reports the results of a special study of the role and interagency relationships of State education agencies in comprehensive Statewide planning. The report deals first with the scope, nature, and organization of State planning; it then provides some examples of planning relationships in New York State and in the Commonwealth of…

  7. Comprehensive Reading Instruction for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: Findings from the First Three Years of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allor, Jill H.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cheatham, Jennifer P.; Champlin, Tammi M.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal experimental study investigated the reading progress of students with IQs ranging from 40 to 69 (i.e., range for students with mild or moderate mental retardation or intellectual disabilities [ID]) across at least two academic years, as well as the effectiveness of a comprehensive reading intervention for these students across…

  8. Self-Efficacy and Preparation of Scholarly Writing: Online Doctoral Coursework to Comprehensive Examination--a Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sonya C.

    2013-01-01

    Writing is seldom explicitly taught, most specifically, in academic and scholarly writing. Therefore, this mixed methods correlational phenomenology research study explored the correlation between self-efficacy perception and course room preparation for the comprehensive examination, APA standards in the course room, APA standards evaluation for…

  9. Prosody and language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a summary of the most recent advances on the study of how prosody is used during language comprehension. Prosody is characterized as an abstract structure composed of discrete tonal elements aligned with the segmental composition of the sentence organized in constituents of increasing size, and this structure is influenced by the phonological, syntactic, and informational structures of the sentence. Here, we discuss evidence that listeners are affected by prosody when establishing those linguistic structures. Prosody has been shown to influence the segmentation of the utterance into syllables and words, and, in some cases, whether a syllable or word is judged to be present or not. The literature on how prosody informs the structural relationship between words and phrases is also discussed, contrasting views that assume a direct (albeit probabilistic) link between syntax and prosody with those that posit a complex interface between syntax and prosodic structure. Finally, the role of prosody in conveying important aspects pertaining to the sentence's information structure (i.e., which parts of the sentence's meaning are highlighted and brought forward to the discourse, which ones are presupposed and left in the background, which attitudes are being conveyed about the concepts or propositional content) has long been recognized. Current research focuses on which prosodic elements contribute to marking the dimensions (or semantic primitives) of the information structure. PMID:26267554

  10. Impaired context processing during irony comprehension in schizotypy: An ERPs study.

    PubMed

    Del Goleto, Sarah; Kostova, Milena; Blanchet, Alain

    2016-07-01

    Mentalizing deficits are a core manifestation of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. They contribute to the social handicap associated with the pathology, leading to disruption in autonomy, professional achievement, and interpersonal relationships. However, the underlying mechanisms of these deficits remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that context processing deficits would be responsible for mentalizing difficulties in schizotypy (personality traits considered as attenuated manifestations of schizophrenic symptoms) by using an irony comprehension task. Irony processing is a mentalizing exercise that requires the ability to take into account the semantic context to understand the literal meaning of the utterance, and to integrate the pragmatic context to infer the speaker's intention. These two steps of processing can be indexed by the N400 and P600 components, respectively, of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Forty participants were assigned to high or low schizotypy groups according to their Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) score, and ERPs were recorded while they read short stories ending with a literal, ironic, or incompatible statement. In the low-SPQ group, there was a significant N400 semantic context effect (literal targets elicited less negative N400 amplitudes compared to incompatible targets) followed by a P600 pragmatic context effect (ironic targets evoked greater positive P600 amplitudes than literal targets). In contrast, there was neither a N400 nor P600 effect in the high-SPQ group. These abnormalities were associated with high interpersonal SPQ factor scores. These results show a strong association between context processing, mentalizing abilities, and interpersonal functioning in schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:27117136

  11. Comprehensive sequence analysis of nine Usher syndrome genes in the UK National Collaborative Usher Study

    PubMed Central

    Le Quesne Stabej, Polona; Saihan, Zubin; Rangesh, Nell; Steele-Stallard, Heather B; Ambrose, John; Coffey, Alison; Emmerson, Jenny; Haralambous, Elene; Hughes, Yasmin; Steel, Karen P; Luxon, Linda M; Webster, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Background Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising retinitis pigmentosa, hearing loss and, in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous with three distinctive clinical types (I–III) and nine Usher genes identified. This study is a comprehensive clinical and genetic analysis of 172 Usher patients and evaluates the contribution of digenic inheritance. Methods The genes MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, USH2A, GPR98, WHRN, CLRN1 and the candidate gene SLC4A7 were sequenced in 172 UK Usher patients, regardless of clinical type. Results No subject had definite mutations (nonsense, frameshift or consensus splice site mutations) in two different USH genes. Novel missense variants were classified UV1-4 (unclassified variant): UV4 is ‘probably pathogenic’, based on control frequency <0.23%, identification in trans to a pathogenic/probably pathogenic mutation and segregation with USH in only one family; and UV3 (‘likely pathogenic’) as above, but no information on phase. Overall 79% of identified pathogenic/UV4/UV3 variants were truncating and 21% were missense changes. MYO7A accounted for 53.2%, and USH1C for 14.9% of USH1 families (USH1C:c.496+1G>A being the most common USH1 mutation in the cohort). USH2A was responsible for 79.3% of USH2 families and GPR98 for only 6.6%. No mutations were found in USH1G, WHRN or SLC4A7. Conclusions One or two pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in 86% of cases. No convincing cases of digenic inheritance were found. It is concluded that digenic inheritance does not make a significant contribution to Usher syndrome; the observation of multiple variants in different genes is likely to reflect polymorphic variation, rather than digenic effects. PMID:22135276

  12. Comprehensive psychological intervention to improve outcome in functional gastrointestinal disorder: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu Tien; Kwok, Kah Foo Victor; Tan, Shian Ming; Yek, Ming Hwei; Ong, Wai Choung; Barbier, Sylvaine; Ng, Beng Yeong

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) have a decreased quality of life (QoL). Psychological illnesses are strongly associated with FGIDs. This study examined the effect of a comprehensive psychological intervention programme designed for refractory FGID patients. METHODS Refractory FGID patients at a tertiary gastroenterology unit were encouraged to participate in a psychological intervention programme, which included screening for anxiety and depression in patients, educating patients and physicians on FGIDs, and providing early access to psychiatric consultation for patients with significant psychological illnesses. The duration of follow-up was six months. Outcomes were measured using the Irritable Bowel Syndrome-QoL (IBS-QoL) instrument and the EuroQol five dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire. RESULTS A total of 1,189 patients (68% female, 80% Chinese, mean age 48.6 years) participated in the programme. Among these participants, 51% had a significant psychological disorder (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS] anxiety or depression score > 7). These participants had a significantly poorer QoL (IBS-QoL and EQ-5D, both p < 0.0001), and were more likely to be single or English-speaking, as compared to the participants without psychological disorders. Participants who completed ≥ 3 months of follow-up (n = 906) showed significant and durable improvement. High baseline HADS anxiety score predicted improvement (p < 0.001), with participant IBS-QoL and EQ-5D scores decreasing over time. CONCLUSION The intervention programme was associated with a clinically meaningful improvement in the QoL of patients with refractory FGIDs. High baseline anxiety was predictive of improvement. PMID:26243975

  13. Comprehensive behavioral study of mGluR3 knockout mice: implication in schizophrenia related endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously performed systematic association studies of glutamate receptor gene family members with schizophrenia, and found positive associations of polymorphisms in the GRM3 (a gene of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3: mGluR3) with the disorder. Physiological roles of GRM3 in brain functions and its functional roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia remain to be resolved. Results We generated mGluR3 knockout (KO) mice and conducted comprehensive behavioral analyses. KO mice showed hyperactivity in the open field, light/dark transition, and 24-hour home cage monitoring tests, impaired reference memory for stressful events in the Porsolt forced swim test, impaired contextual memory in cued and contextual fear conditioning test, and impaired working memory in the T-Maze forced alternation task test. Hyperactivity and impaired working memory are known as endophenotypes of schizophrenia. We examined long-term synaptic plasticity by assessing long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region in the hippocampi of KO and wild-type (WT) mice. We observed no differences in the amplitude of LTP between the two genotypes, suggesting that mGluR3 is not essential for LTP in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. As hyperactivity is typically associated with increased dopaminergic transmission, we performed in vivo microdialysis measurements of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of KO and WT mice. We observed enhancements in the methamphetamine (MAP)-induced release of dopamine in KO mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a disturbance in the glutamate-dopamine interaction may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia-like behavior, such as hyperactivity in mGluR3 KO mice. PMID:24758191

  14. A comprehensive study on landfill site selection for Kolkata City, India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Koushik; Dutta, Amit; Krishna, A P

    2014-07-01

    Kolkata is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India and the capital city of the state of West Bengal. With an area of 187.33 km2 and a population of about 10 million (including a floating population of about 6 million), the city generates about 3500 Metric Ton (MT) of solid waste per day. Currently, Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) disposes its waste at Dhapa (21.47 ha), where the disposal rate exceeds 3000 MT/day, and at Garden Reach (3.52 ha), where the disposal rate is 100 MT/day. Considering the exhaustion of Dhapa land space, city planners are urgently searching for an alternate disposal ground. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), under the sponsorship of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), has brought out literature developing the site selection criteria for municipal solid waste disposal ground to suit Indian conditions. The developed criteria encompass environmental conditions, accessibility, geological and hydrogeological conditions, and ecological and societal effects. This paper attempts to locate the most suitable site for disposal of KMC area solid waste using the multicriterion decision analysis as stipulated in CPCB 2003 guidelines and the overlay analysis of geographic information system (GIS). Implications: The paper is based on landfill site selection for dumping of solid waste generated within Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area. The methodology uses GIS/remote sensing, Site Sensitivity Index (an offshoot of pairwise comparison technique developed in CPCB 2003 guidelines, Government of India), and the Delphi technique. Dhapa landfill site, where solid waste of KMC area is currently being disposed, is exhausted; the authors of this article thus found it relevant to carry out a research on the selection of an alternative landfill site. The study undertaken was comprehensive, yet presented in a lucid way so that policymakers will find easy to comprehend. PMID:25122958

  15. Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have

  16. The Meditative Mind: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of MRI Studies

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade mind and body practices, such as yoga and meditation, have raised interest in different scientific fields; in particular, the physiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects observed in meditators have been investigated. Neuroimaging studies have studied the effects of meditation on brain structure and function and findings have helped clarify the biological underpinnings of the positive effects of meditation practice and the possible integration of this technique in standard therapy. The large amount of data collected thus far allows drawing some conclusions about the neural effects of meditation practice. In the present study we used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis to make a coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging data on the effects of meditation on brain structure and function. Results indicate that meditation leads to activation in brain areas involved in processing self-relevant information, self-regulation, focused problem-solving, adaptive behavior, and interoception. Results also show that meditation practice induces functional and structural brain modifications in expert meditators, especially in areas involved in self-referential processes such as self-awareness and self-regulation. These results demonstrate that a biological substrate underlies the positive pervasive effect of meditation practice and suggest that meditation techniques could be adopted in clinical populations and to prevent disease. PMID:26146618

  17. The Meditative Mind: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of MRI Studies.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade mind and body practices, such as yoga and meditation, have raised interest in different scientific fields; in particular, the physiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects observed in meditators have been investigated. Neuroimaging studies have studied the effects of meditation on brain structure and function and findings have helped clarify the biological underpinnings of the positive effects of meditation practice and the possible integration of this technique in standard therapy. The large amount of data collected thus far allows drawing some conclusions about the neural effects of meditation practice. In the present study we used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis to make a coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging data on the effects of meditation on brain structure and function. Results indicate that meditation leads to activation in brain areas involved in processing self-relevant information, self-regulation, focused problem-solving, adaptive behavior, and interoception. Results also show that meditation practice induces functional and structural brain modifications in expert meditators, especially in areas involved in self-referential processes such as self-awareness and self-regulation. These results demonstrate that a biological substrate underlies the positive pervasive effect of meditation practice and suggest that meditation techniques could be adopted in clinical populations and to prevent disease. PMID:26146618

  18. Motives for marijuana use among heavy-using high school students: An analysis of structure and utility of the Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Claire E; Banes, Kelsey E; Stephens, Robert S; Walker, Denise D; Roffman, Roger A

    2016-06-01

    Motives for marijuana use are important predictors of problematic outcomes associated with marijuana use. Most measures, to date, were developed by adapting alcohol motives measures. However, the Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (CMMQ) was created using a bottom-up approach to evaluate twelve distinct motives for use. The CMMQ was developed and validated in a normative college population. As such, no known study has evaluated the factor structure and utility of the CMMQ in a heavy-using, high school student population. The current study utilized a sample of 252 heavy marijuana-using high school students recruited for a combination motivational enhancement/cognitive behavioral intervention. Results from baseline measures indicated that the factor structure of the CMMQ was maintained in this population. Results from multiple regression analyses revealed distinct relationships with measures of negative consequences of use, including indices of marijuana use, marijuana-related problems, self-efficacy, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In particular, the Coping motive was associated with several negative outcomes, which is consistent with previous marijuana and alcohol motives literature. Results suggest that the CMMQ may be useful in assessing marijuana motives among heavy marijuana-using adolescents. PMID:26878304

  19. A Comprehensive Study of Proto-Planetary Disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars using Long-Baseline Infrared Interferometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannirkulam, Ajay

    2007-12-01

    Planetary systems are born in circumstellar disks around young stellar objects (YSOs) and the disk is thought to play a major role in the evolution of planetary systems. A good understanding of disk structure and its time evolution is therefore essential in comprehending planet formation, planet migration and the diversity of planetary systems. In this thesis, I use high angular resolution observations and state-of-the-art radiative transfer modeling to probe circumstellar disk structure and validate current disk models. First, I discuss models and observations of the gas-dust transition region in YSOs. The dust component in circumstellar disks gets truncated at a finite radius from the central star, inside of which it is too hot for dust to survive. The truncated disk forms an "evaporation front" whose shape depends sensitively on dust properties. The possibility of using the front as a probe of the dust physics operating in circumstellar disks is explored. The CHARA near-infrared (near-IR) array is used to resolve out the evaporation front in the Herbig Ae stars MWC275 and AB Aur, and the presence of an additional near-IR opacity source within the "conventional" dust destruction radius is reported. Second, I describe comprehensive disk models that simultaneously explain the SED (from UV to milli-meter ) and long-baseline interferometry (from near-IR to mm) of Herbig Ae stars. The models are constrained with a wide range of data drawn from the literature as well as new observations made for this study. Specifically, new H and K band interferometry from the CHARA array and new mid-IR interferometry from the novel Keck Aperture Masking Experiment is reported. I will end my talk with a discussion on exciting prospects for measuring the gas-disk morphology on scales of fractions of an AU with the CHARA array, introducing a new powerful tool to understand the "star-disk connection".

  20. Examining Associations among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Callie W.; Hart, Sara A.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence…

  1. Increasing the Social Studies Reading Comprehension of Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryski, Crystal

    2009-01-01

    This action research project sets out to identify which component of multi-text instruction is most effective in increasing the reading comprehension level of middle school students with learning disabilities. The research is going to be conducted over a two-week time period during the Spring 2009 with three male middle school students with…

  2. Students' Political Engagement: A Comprehensive Study of University of Ottawa Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockemer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article comprehensively examines the level and patterns of political participation of University of Ottawa (U-Ottawa) undergraduate students. Based on a self-administered survey of 570 undergraduate students of all disciplines, I find that U-Ottawa students show high degrees of political interest and involvement (e.g. the average U-Ottawa…

  3. Implementing the Massachusetts Model for Comprehensive School Counseling Programs: A Case Study Examining MARC Award Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Post secondary education is essential to success. To ensure that students who graduate from high school are prepared to make informed decisions about their life after high school, they need to be explicitly taught career development skills. These skills should be part of a comprehensive, results-based, developmentally appropriate comprehensive…

  4. Revealing Hidden Competencies: A New Method for Studying Language Comprehension in Children with Motor Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauley, Kathleen M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Noun and verb comprehension of 11 children with cerebral palsy or other motor impairments was assessed by presenting a linguistic stimulus and determining whether the child watched a video event that matched or did not match the stimulus. Subjects, aged 2-6, watched the match significantly more, especially when dynamic visual stimuli were…

  5. Comprehensive School Reform: A Longitudinal Study of School Improvement in One State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Thomas L.; Burross, Heidi Legg; McCaslin, Mary M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on comprehensive school reform (CSR) reform in 48 schools over 6 consecutive years. In 1998, a total of 24 schools received CSR awards to improve student achievement. Control schools were carefully matched on 26 demographic variables to form a comparison group. Students' average performance, as represented in publicly available school…

  6. Research Note: The Effect of Visuals on Listening Comprehension: A Study of Japanese Learners' Listening Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Kyoko

    2002-01-01

    Aims to identify listening comprehension strategies used by adult Japanese native speakers and monolingual Australian learners of the Japanese language. Investigates how two different listening contexts (audiovisual and audio-only) may influence listeners' choice of strategies and how the strategies chosen relate to learners' proficiency.…

  7. Moving from Explicit to Implicit: A Case Study of Improving Inferential Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yi-Fen; McTigue, Erin M.; Joshi, R. Malatesha

    2012-01-01

    The article describes a successful intervention program in developing inferential comprehension in a sixth grader. Steve (pseudonym) was proficient in word reading, was able to detect explicit information while reading, but struggled with linking textual information to yield integral ideas. After 10 weeks of working with Steve on word analogies,…

  8. Using Semantic Ambiguity Instruction to Improve Third Graders' Metalinguistic Awareness and Reading Comprehension: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipke, Marcy; Ehri, Linnea C.; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2009-01-01

    An experiment examined whether metalinguistic awareness involving the detection of semantic ambiguity can be taught, and whether this instruction improves students' reading comprehension. Lower SES third graders from a variety of cultural backgrounds (M = 8 yr. 7 mo., N = 46) were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Those receiving…

  9. Should Pantomime and Gesticulation Be Assessed Separately for Their Comprehensibility in Aphasia? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gesticulation (gestures accompanying speech) and pantomime (gestures in the absence of speech) can each be comprehensible. Little is known about the differences between these two gesture modes in people with aphasia. Aims: To discover whether there are differences in the communicative use of gesticulation and pantomime in QH, a person…

  10. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  11. Applying Research in Reading Comprehension to Social Studies Instruction for Middle and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Secondary-level content area teachers face unique challenges in helping their students successfully read, understand, and learn content from complex texts in their discipline. In this article, a set of research-based practices designed to provide effective and feasible instruction to improve students' reading and comprehension of text and…

  12. Effects of an Automated Vocabulary and Comprehension Intervention: An Early Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Goldstein, Howard; Sherman, Amber; Noe, Sean; Tabbah, Rhonda; Ziolkowski, Robyn; Schneider, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that oral language skills in preschool, including vocabulary and comprehension, predict later reading proficiency and that substantial differences in oral language skills exist when children enter school. Although explicit instruction embedded in storybooks is a promising intervention approach, high-fidelity implementation…

  13. A Study of Cognitive Mapping as a Means to Improve Summarization and Comprehension of Expository Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddell, Robert B.; Boyle, Owen F.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the effects of cognitive mapping on written summarization and comprehension of expository text. Concludes that mapping appears to assist students in: (1) developing procedural knowledge resulting in more effective written summarization and (2) identifying and using supporting details in their essays. (MG)

  14. Implementation Study of the Comprehensive Services Program of Palm Beach County, Florida. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Sandra; Karlstrom, Mikael; Haywood, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The Comprehensive Services Program of Palm Beach County, Florida, was an ambitious and innovative effort to improve the school readiness of low-income children in Palm Beach County by identifying needs early and providing early intervention services to support physical, cognitive, and emotional health and development. Services were delivered to…

  15. The Relationship between Reading Comprehension, Decoding, and Fluency in Greek: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padeliadu, Susana; Antoniou, Faye

    2014-01-01

    Experts widely consider decoding and fluency as the basis of reading comprehension, while at the same time consistently documenting problems in these areas as major characteristics of students with learning disabilities. However, scholars have developed most of the relevant research within phonologically deep languages, wherein decoding problems…

  16. A comprehensive study of thermoelectric and transport properties of β-silicon carbide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Valentín, L. A.; Betancourt, J.; Fonseca, L. F.; Pettes, M. T.; Shi, L.; Soszyński, M.; Huczko, A.

    2013-11-14

    The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities of individual β-silicon carbide nanowires produced by combustion in a calorimetric bomb were studied using a suspended micro-resistance thermometry device that allows four-point probe measurements to be conducted on each nanowire. Additionally, crystal structure and growth direction for each measured nanowire was directly obtained by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The Fermi level, the carrier concentration, and mobility of each nanostructure were determined using a combination of Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity measurements, energy band structure and transport theory calculations. The temperature dependence of the thermal and electrical conductivities of the nanowires was explained in terms of contributions from boundary, impurity, and defect scattering.

  17. Comprehensive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Victor V.

    Comprehensive planning, defined as the work of those who engage in efforts, within a delimited geographic area, to identify and order the physical, social, and economic relationships of that area, is discussed in the four sections of this paper. Section I, Introduction, describes what "planning" and "comprehensive planning" are. In Section II, Why…

  18. A prospective study of complications from comprehensive abortion care services in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In March 2002, Nepal's Parliament approved legislation to permit abortion on request up to 12 weeks of pregnancy. Between 2004 and 2007, 176 comprehensive abortion care (CAC) service sites were established in Nepal, leading to a rise in safe, legal abortions. Though monitoring systems have been developed, reporting of complications has not always been complete or accurate. The purpose of this study was to report the frequency and type of abortion complications arising from CAC procedures in different types of facilities in Nepal. Methods A total of 7,386 CAC clients from a sample of facilities across Nepal were enrolled over a three-month period in 2008. Data collection included an initial health questionnaire at the time of abortion care and a follow-up questionnaire assessing complications, administered two weeks after the abortion procedure. A total of 7,007 women (95%) were successfully followed up. Complication rates were assessed overall and by facility type. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between experiencing a complication and client demographic and facility characteristics. Results Among the 7,007 clients who were successfully followed, only 1.87% (n = 131) experienced signs and symptoms of complications at the two-week follow up, the most common being retained products of conception (1.37%), suspected sepsis (0.39%), offensive discharge (0.51%) and moderate bleeding (0.26%). Women receiving care at non-governmental organization (NGO) facilities were less likely to experience complications than women at government facilities, adjusting for individual and facility characteristics (AOR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08-0.40). Compared to women receiving CAC at 4-5 weeks gestation, women at 10-12 weeks gestation were more likely to experience complications, adjusting for individual and facility characteristics (AOR = 4.21; 95% CI: 1.38-12.82). Conclusions The abortion complication rate in Nepali CAC facilities is low and

  19. Rapid, comprehensive, and affordable mycobacterial diagnosis with whole-genome sequencing: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Pankhurst, Louise J; del Ojo Elias, Carlos; Votintseva, Antonina A; Walker, Timothy M; Cole, Kevin; Davies, Jim; Fermont, Jilles M; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah M; Kohl, Thomas A; Kong, Clare; Lemaitre, Nadine; Niemann, Stefan; Paul, John; Rogers, Thomas R; Roycroft, Emma; Smith, E Grace; Supply, Philip; Tang, Patrick; Wilcox, Mark H; Wordsworth, Sarah; Wyllie, David; Xu, Li; Crook, Derrick W

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Slow and cumbersome laboratory diagnostics for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) risk delayed treatment and poor patient outcomes. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) could potentially provide a rapid and comprehensive diagnostic solution. In this prospective study, we compare real-time WGS with routine MTBC diagnostic workflows. Methods We compared sequencing mycobacteria from all newly positive liquid cultures with routine laboratory diagnostic workflows across eight laboratories in Europe and North America for diagnostic accuracy, processing times, and cost between Sept 6, 2013, and April 14, 2014. We sequenced specimens once using local Illumina MiSeq platforms and processed data centrally using a semi-automated bioinformatics pipeline. We identified species or complex using gene presence or absence, predicted drug susceptibilities from resistance-conferring mutations identified from reference-mapped MTBC genomes, and calculated genetic distance to previously sequenced UK MTBC isolates to detect outbreaks. WGS data processing and analysis was done by staff masked to routine reference laboratory and clinical results. We also did a microcosting analysis to assess the financial viability of WGS-based diagnostics. Findings Compared with routine results, WGS predicted species with 93% (95% CI 90–96; 322 of 345 specimens; 356 mycobacteria specimens submitted) accuracy and drug susceptibility also with 93% (91–95; 628 of 672 specimens; 168 MTBC specimens identified) accuracy, with one sequencing attempt. WGS linked 15 (16% [95% CI 10–26]) of 91 UK patients to an outbreak. WGS diagnosed a case of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis before routine diagnosis was completed and discovered a new multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cluster. Full WGS diagnostics could be generated in a median of 9 days (IQR 6–10), a median of 21 days (IQR 14–32) faster than final reference laboratory reports were produced (median of 31 days [IQR 21–44]), at a cost

  20. Investigating Solvent Purity Utilizing Comprehensive Gas Chromatography: A Study of Acetones

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Jon H.; Bolz, Cinnamon DH; Wahl, Karen L.

    2010-04-01

    Broad spectrum chemical analysis of trace level components is a continuing challenge for any analytical chemist. This challenge is further confounded when chemical impurities may be present in common organic solvents or when chemical artifacts may be formed, produced and introduced during an analytical procedure. Minimizing and understanding these chemical artifacts, is critical for trace level detection and is crucial for unambiguous analytical results. Comprehensive gas chromatography is an excellent analytical tool to help address these complex mixture challenges. This work examines the impurities present in various acetone sources utilizing comprehensive gas chromatography. This work highlights the extreme variability possible in solvent sources and hence the importance of understanding the impurities that may confound an analytical method or result.

  1. Subsurface geology of the Lusi region: preliminary results from a comprehensive seismic-stratigraphic study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscariello, Andrea; Do Couto, Damien; Lupi, Matteo; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the subsurface data of a large sector in the Sidoarjo district (East Java, Indonesia) where the sudden catastrophic Lusi eruption started the 26th May 2006. Our goal is to understand the stratigraphic and structural features which can be genetically related to the surface manifestations of deep hydrothermal fluids and thus allow us to predict possible future similar phenomena in the region. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we examined a series of densely spaced 2D reflection commercial seismic lines This allowed the reconstruction of the lateral variability of key stratigraphic horizons as well as the main tectonic features. In particular, we shed light on the deep structure of the Watukosek fault system and the associated fracture corridors crossing the entire stratigraphic successions. To the South-West, when approaching the volcanic complex, we could identify a clear contrast in seismic facies between chaotic volcanoclastic wedges and clastic-prone sedimentary successions as well as between the deeper stratigraphic units consisting of carbonates and lateral shales units. The latter show possible ductile deformation associated to fault-controlled diapirism which control in turns deformation of overlying stratigraphic units and deep geo-fluids circulation. Large collapse structures recognized in the study area (e.g. well PRG-1) are interpreted as the results of shale movement at depth. Similarly to Lusi, vertical deformation zones ("pipes"), likely associated with deeply rooted strike-slip systems seem to be often located at the interface between harder carbonate rocks forming isolated build ups and the laterally nearby clastic (shale-prone)-units. The mechanisms of deformation of structural features (strike vs dip slip systems) which may affect either the basement rock or the overlying deeper stratigraphic rocks is also being investigated to understand the relationship between deep and shallower (i.e. meteoric) fluid

  2. A study of comprehension and use of weather information by various agricultural groups in Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine whether current techniques are adequate for communicating improved weather forecasts to users. Primary concern was for agricultural users. Efforts were made to learn the preferred source of weather forecasts and the frequency of use. Attempts were also made to measure knowledge of specific terms having to do with weather and comprehension of terms less often used but critical to varying intensities of weather.

  3. Exploring Factors that Affect the Accessibility of Reading Comprehension Assessments for Students with Disabilities: A Study of Segmented Text. CRESST Report 746

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Kao, Jenny C.; Leon, Seth; Sullivan, Lisa; Herman, Joan L.; Pope, Rita; Nambiar, Veena; Mastergeorge, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to explore factors that affect the accessibility of reading comprehension assessments for students with disabilities. The study consisted of testing students using reading comprehension passages that were broken down into shorter "segments" or "chunks." The results of the segmenting study indicated that: (a) segmenting did not…

  4. Neurobiological bases of reading comprehension: Insights from neuroimaging studies of word level and text level processing in skilled and impaired readers

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J.; Menc, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Pugh, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    For accurate reading comprehension, readers must first learn to map letters to their corresponding speech sounds and meaning and then they must string the meanings of many words together to form a representation of the text. Furthermore, readers must master the complexities involved in parsing the relevant syntactic and pragmatic information necessary for accurate interpretation. Failure in this process can occur at multiple levels and cognitive neuroscience has been helpful in identifying the underlying causes of success and failure in reading single words and in reading comprehension. In general, neurobiological studies of skilled reading comprehension indicate a highly overlapping language circuit for single word reading, reading comprehension and listening comprehension with largely quantitative differences in a number of reading and language related areas. This paper reviews relevant research from studies employing neuroimaging techniques to study reading with a focus on the relationship between reading skill, single word reading, and text comprehension. PMID:23662034

  5. A comprehensive study of the parameter determination and depth of investigation for MRS models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozmand, A.; Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the parameter determination of magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) models in a joint MRS and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data analysis scheme. We assessed model parameter determination by calculating the model parameter uncertainties, based on the a-posterior model covariance matrix. Doing this, we include the full system transfer function, including data noise and system parameters, which are crucial in order to obtain reliable uncertainty estimates. The analyses are computed for conductive layered half-spaces. The entire MRS data set, dependent on pulse moment and time gate values, together with TEM data, was used for all analyses and realistic noise levels were assigned to the data. The sensitivity analyses were studied for the determination of water content as a key parameter estimated during inversion of MRS data. We show the results for different suites of (three-layer) models, in which we investigated the effect of resistivity, water content, relaxation time, loop side length, number of pulse moments, and measurement dead time on the determination of water content in a water-bearing layer. For all suites of models the effect of a top conductive and a top resistive layer were compared. Moreover, we analyzed all models for measurement dead times of both 40 ms (typically used with Numis Poly/Plus equipment, IRIS Instruments) and 10 ms (relevant to GMR equipment, Vista Clara Inc.), and for different noise levels. We conclude that, in general, the resistivity of the water-bearing layer (layer of interest, LOI) does not affect the determination of water content in the LOI, but resistivity of the top layer increases depth resolution; the water content of the LOI does not influence its determination considerably in cases where the signal has a relatively long relaxation time in the LOI; determination of the water content in the LOI is improved by increasing the relaxation time of the signal in the LOI; short measurement dead

  6. Identification of novel drug-resistant EGFR mutant inhibitors by in silico screening using comprehensive assessments of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Hisami; Tsuganezawa, Keiko; Yuki, Hitomi; Mikuni, Junko; Yoshikawa, Seiko; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Fujimoto, Takako; Terazawa, Yumiko; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Akiko; Honma, Teruki

    2012-06-15

    EGFR is a target protein for the treatment of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The mutations associated with the activation of EGFR kinase activity, such as L858R and G719S, destabilize the inactive conformation of EGFR and are closely linked with the development of NSCLC. The additional T790M mutation reportedly causes drug resistance against the commercially available EGFR inhibitors, gefitinib and erlotinib. In this study, we searched for novel G719S/T790M EGFR inhibitors by a new in silico screening strategy, using two datasets. The results of in silico screening using protein-ligand docking are affected by the selection of 3D structure of the target protein. As the first strategy, we chose the 3D structures for in silico screening by test dockings using the G719S/T790M crystal structure, its molecular dynamics snapshots, and known inhibitors of the drug-resistant EGFR. In the second strategy, we selected the 3D structures by test dockings using all of the EGFR structures, regardless of the mutations, and all of the known EGFR inhibitors. Using each of the 3D structures selected by the strategies, 1000 compounds were chosen from the 71,588 compounds. Kinase assays identified 15 G719S/T790M EGFR inhibitors, including two compounds with novel scaffolds. Analyses of their structure-activity relationships revealed that interactions with the mutated Met790 residue specifically increase the inhibitory activity against G719S/T790M EGFR. PMID:22607878

  7. Field-structured composite studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James Ellis; Williamson, Rodney L.

    2004-04-01

    Field-structured composites (FSCs) were produced by hosting micron-sized gold-coated nickel particles in a pre-polymer and allowing the mixture to cure in a magnetic field environment. The feasibility of controlling a composite's electrical conductivity using feedback control applied to the field coils was investigated. It was discovered that conductivity in FSCs is primarily determined by stresses in the polymer host matrix due to cure shrinkage. Thus, in cases where the structuring field was uniform and unidirectional so as to produce chainlike structures in the composite, no electrical conductivity was measured until well after the structuring field was turned off at the gel point. In situations where complex, rotating fields were used to generate complex, three-dimensional structures in a composite, very small, but measurable, conductivity was observed prior to the gel point. Responsive, sensitive prototype chemical sensors were developed based on this technology with initial tests showing very promising results.

  8. The Comprehension of Idiomatic Expressions in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schettino, Antonio; Lauro, Leonor Romero; Crippa, Franca; Anselmetti, Simona; Cavallaro, Roberto; Papagno, Costanza

    2010-01-01

    Recent fMRI and TMS studies on idiom comprehension have shown that the prefrontal cortex is involved in idiom processing. Since schizophrenic patients exhibit prefrontal "structural" changes and dysexecutive "behavioural" deficits, we hypothesised an impairment in idiom comprehension, correlating with performance on executive tasks. In this study,…

  9. Petroleum alteration by thermochemical sulfate reduction - A comprehensive molecular study of aromatic hydrocarbons and polar compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Clifford C.; Wang, Frank C.; Qian, Kuangnan; Wu, Chunping; Mennito, Anthony S.; Wei, Zhibin

    2015-03-01

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) alters petroleum composition as it proceeds towards the complete oxidation of hydrocarbons to CO2. The effects of TSR on the molecular and isotopic composition of volatile species are well known; however, the non-volatile higher molecular weight aromatic and polar species have not been well documented. To address this deficiency, a suite of onshore Gulf coast oils and condensates generated from and accumulating in Smackover carbonates was assembled to include samples that experienced varying levels of TSR alteration and in reservoir thermal cracking. The entire molecular composition of aromatic hydrocarbons and NSO species were characterized and semi-quantified using comprehensive GC × GC (FID and CSD) and APPI-FTICR-MS. The concentration of thiadiamondoids is a reliable indicator of the extent of TSR alteration. Once generated by TSR, thiadiamondoids remain thermally stable in all but the most extreme reservoir temperatures (>180 °C). Hydrocarbon concentrations and distributions are influenced by thermal cracking and TSR. With increasing TSR alteration, oils become enriched in monoaromatic hydrocarbons and the distribution of high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons shifts towards more condensed species with a decrease in the number of alkyl carbons. Organosulfur compounds are created by the TSR process. In addition to the increase in benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes noted in previous studies, TSR generates condensed species containing one or more sulfur atoms that likely are composed of a single or multiple thiophenic cores. We hypothesize that these species are generated from the partial oxidation of PAHs and dealkylation reactions, followed by sulfur incorporation and condensation reactions. The organosulfur species remaining in the TSR altered oils are "proto-solid bitumen" moieties that upon further condensation, oxidation or sulfur incorporation result in highly sulfur enriched solid bitumen, which is

  10. 3-D habitat suitability of jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi in the Southeastern Pacific, a comprehensive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Habasque, Jérémie; Hattab, Tarek; Hintzen, Niels T.; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Demarcq, Hervé; Gerlotto, François

    2016-08-01

    South Pacific jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, has an ocean-scale distribution, from the South American coastline to New Zealand and Tasmania. This fish, captured by Humans since the Holocene, is nowadays heavily exploited and its population has decreased substantially since the mid-1990s. The uncertainty associated to jack mackerel population structure currently hampers management. Several hypotheses have been proposed from a single population up to several discrete populations. Still no definitive answer was given. Determining how environmental conditions drive jack mackerel distribution can provide insights on its population structure. To do so, here we performed in three steps. First, we used satellite data to develop a statistical model of jack mackerel horizontal habitat suitability. Model predictions based on interaction between temperature and chlorophyll-a match the observed jack mackerel distribution, even during extreme El Niño event. Second, we studied the impact of oxygen and show that jack mackerel distribution and abundance is correlated to oxygen over a wide variety of scales and avoid low oxygen areas and periods. Third, on the basis of the above we built a conceptual 3D model of jack mackerel habitat in the Southeastern Pacific. We reveal the presence of a low suitable habitat along the Chilean and Peruvian coast, figuratively presenting a closed door caused by a gap in the horizontal habitat at ∼19-22°S and a shallow oxycline off south-centre Peru. This kind of situation likely occurs on a seasonal basis, in austral summer but also at longer temporal scales. A lack of exchanges at some periods/seasons partially isolate jack mackerel distributed off Peru. On the other hand the continuity in the habitat during most of the year explains why exchanges occur. We conclude that the more likely population structure for jack mackerel is a pelagic metapopulation.

  11. Comprehensive Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Larger Text Print In this article A complex disease requires a comprehensive approach Today multiple sclerosis ( ... Your Whole Health, Your Whole Team: Managing Your Complex MS Symptoms Webinar/telelearning presented by Roz Kalb, ...

  12. Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

  13. Review of the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) family of studies: a comprehensively examined sample for genetic and epidemiological studies of type 2 diabetes and its complications.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Donald W; Cox, Amanda J; Freedman, Barry I; Hugenschimdt, Christina E; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Herrington, David; Agarwal, Subhashish; Register, Thomas C; Maldjian, Joseph A; Ng, Maggie C-Y; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Langefeld, Carl D; Williamson, Jeff D; Carr, J Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) is a genetic and epidemiological study of 1,443 European American and African American participants from 564 families with multiple cases of type 2 diabetes. Initially, participants were comprehensively examined for measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) including computed tomography measurement of vascular calcified plaque, ultrasound imaging of carotid artery wall thickness, and electrocardiographic intervals. Subsequent studies have investigated the relationship between bone mineral density and vascular calcification, measures of adiposity, and biomarkers. Ongoing studies are carrying out an extensive evaluation of cerebrovascular disease using magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive assessment. A second, parallel study, the African American DHS, has expanded the sample of African Americans to investigate marked racial differences in subclinical CVD between European Americans and African Americans. Studies in development will evaluate the impact of social stress during the lifecourse on CVD risk, and the prevalence of gastroparesis in this diabetes enriched sample. In addition, the ongoing high mortality rate in DHS participants provides novel insights into the increased risks for type 2 diabetes affected individuals. A comprehensive genetic analysis of the sample is underway using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. Data from this GWAS survey will complement prior family-based linkage data in the analysis of genetic contributors to the wide range of traits in the sample. To our knowledge the DHS family of studies has created the most comprehensively examined sample of individuals with type 2 diabetes yet available, and represents a unique resource for the study people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide a collective overview of the major results from the DHS family of studies, and relate them to the larger body of biomedical investigations of diabetes and its complications. PMID

  14. [Comparative study of homeopathic remedies clinical efficacy in comprehensive treatment of inflammatory periodontal diseases in patients with burdened allergic status].

    PubMed

    Grudianov, A I; Bezrukova, I V; Aleksandrovskaia, I Iu

    2006-01-01

    Comparative analysis of clinical efficacy of 3 antihomotoxic homeopathic preparations (Traumeel S, Engistol and Echinacea compositum S) with non-specific immunostimulating and anti-inflammatory effects was performed. The study showed that Traumeel S had maximal anti-inflammatory effect. In proportion as destructive process weighting the efficacy of homeopathic preparations was decreased. The preparations are indicated for comprehensive treatment of inflammatory periodontal diseases in patients with burdened allergic status or heavy concomitant pathology. PMID:16710274

  15. Spatial and stage-structured population model of the American crocodile for comparison of comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) alternatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Timothy W.; Slone, Daniel H.; Swain, Eric D.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Lohmann, Melinda; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Priority Ecosystems Science (PES) initiative to provide the ecological science required during Everglades restoration, we have integrated current regional hydrologic models with American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) research and monitoring data to create a model that assesses the potential impact of Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) efforts on the American crocodile. A list of indicators was created by the Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER) component of CERP to help determine the success of interim restoration goals. The American crocodile was established as an indicator of the ecological condition of mangrove estuaries due to its reliance upon estuarine environments characterized by low salinity and adequate freshwater inflow. To gain a better understanding of the potential impact of CERP restoration efforts on the American crocodile, a spatially explicit crocodile population model has been created that has the ability to simulate the response of crocodiles to various management strategies for the South Florida ecosystem. The crocodile model uses output from the Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME) model, an application of the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator. TIME has the capability to link to the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), which is the primary regional tool used to assess CERP restoration scenarios. A crocodile habitat suitability index and spatial parameter maps that reflect salinity, water depth, habitat, and nesting locations are used as driving functions to construct crocodile finite rate of increase maps under different management scenarios. Local stage-structured models are integrated with a spatial landscape grid to display crocodile movement behavior in response to changing environmental conditions. Restoration efforts are expected to affect salinity levels throughout the habitat of

  16. A comprehensive photometric study of dynamically evolved small van den Bergh-Hagen open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2016-09-01

    We present results from Johnson UBV, Kron-Cousins RI and Washington CT1T2 photometries for seven van den Bergh-Hagen (vdBH) open clusters, namely, vdBH 1, 10, 31, 72, 87, 92, and 118. The high-quality, multi-band photometric data sets were used to trace the cluster stellar density radial profiles and to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and colour-colour (CC) diagrams from which we estimated their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. The clusters in our sample cover a wide age range, from ˜ 60 Myr up to 2.8 Gyr, are of relatively small size (˜ 1 - 6 pc) and are placed at distances from the Sun which vary between 1.8 and 6.3 kpc, respectively. We also estimated lower limits for the cluster present-day masses as well as half-mass relaxation times (tr). The resulting values in combination with the structural parameter values suggest that the studied clusters are in advanced stages of their internal dynamical evolution (age/tr ˜ 20 - 320), possibly in the typical phase of those tidally filled with mass segregation in their core regions. Compared to open clusters in the solar neighbourhood, the seven vdBH clusters are within more massive (˜ 80 - 380M$⊙$), with higher concentration parameter values (c ˜ 0.75-1.15) and dynamically evolved ones.

  17. Comprehensive study of numerical anisotropy and dispersion in 3-D TLM meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berini, Pierre; Wu, Ke

    1995-05-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the numerical anisotropy and dispersion of 3-D TLM meshes constructed using several generalized symmetrical condensed TLM nodes. The dispersion analysis is performed in isotropic lossless, isotropic lossy and anisotropic lossless media and yields a comparison of the simulation accuracy for the different TLM nodes. The effect of mesh grading on the numerical dispersion is also determined. The results compare meshes constructed with Johns' symmetrical condensed node (SCN), two hybrid symmetrical condensed nodes (HSCN) and two frequency domain symmetrical condensed nodes (FDSCN). It has been found that under certain circumstances, the time domain nodes may introduce numerical anisotropy when modelling isotropic media.

  18. Structural studies in limestone sulfidation

    SciTech Connect

    Fenouil, L.A.; Lynn, S.

    1993-05-01

    This study investigates the sulfidation of limestone at high temperatures (700--900{degree}C) as the first step in the design of a High-Temperature Coal-Gas Clean-Up system using millimeter-size limestone particles. Several workers have found that the rate of this reaction significantly decreases after an initial 10 to 15% conversion of CaCO{sub 3} to CaS. The present work attempts to explain this feature. It is first established that millimeter-size limestone particles do not sinter at temperatures up to the CaCO{sub 3} calcination point (899{degree}C at 1.03 bar CO{sub 2} partial pressure). It is then shown that CaS sinters rapidly at 750 to 900{degree}C if CO{sub 2} is present in the gas phase. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) data reveal that the CaS product layer sinters and forms a quasi-impermeable coating around the CaCO{sub 3} grains that greatly hinders more H{sub 2}S from reaching the still unreacted parts of the stone. Moreover, most of the pores initially present within the limestone structure begin to disappear or, at least, are significantly reduced in size. From then on, subsequent conversion is limited by diffusion of H{sub 2}S through the CaS layer, possibly by S{sup 2{minus}} ionic diffusion. The kinetics is then adequately described by a shrinking-core model, in which a sharp front of completely converted limestone is assumed to progress toward the center of the pellet. Finally, experimental evidence and computer simulations using simple sintering models suggest that the CaS sintering, responsible for the sharp decrease in the sulfidation rate, is surface-diffusion controlled.

  19. Predicting Reading Comprehension Academic Achievement in Late Adolescents with Velo-Cardio-Facial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome (VCFS): A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, K.; Hier, B.; Fremont, W.; Faraone, S. V.; Kates, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The primary objective of the current study was to examine the childhood predictors of adolescent reading comprehension in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). Although much research has focused on mathematics skills among individuals with VCFS, no studies have examined predictors of reading comprehension. Methods: 69 late adolescents…

  20. Comprehensive study of ZnO nanostructures grown using chemical bath deposition: from growth to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urgessa, Z. N.; Murape, D. M.; Oluwafemi, O. S.; Venter, A.; Wagner, M.; Botha, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    ZnO nanostructures were grown using a simple and environmentally friendly chemical bath deposition technique on pre-treated p-type silicon substrate at temperatures below 100°C. The effects of growth parameters like seed layer density, growth time, growth temperature, precursor concentration and annealing temperature on the structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were systematically studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements. A variety of architectures is demonstrated, ranging from single crystalline nanoparticles and c-axis orientated nanorods to highly compact crystalline thin films. Post-growth annealing at different temperatures profoundly affects the optical properties of the nanorods by, for example, reducing hydrogen- and intrinsic defect-related emission. The rectifying properties of the ZnO/Si heterojunction are discussed.

  1. Bridging Functional and Structural Cardiotoxicity Assays Using Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for a More Comprehensive Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Clements, Mike; Millar, Val; Williams, Angela S; Kalinka, Sian

    2015-11-01

    More relevant and reliable preclinical cardiotoxicity tests are required to improve drug safety and reduce the cost of drug development. Current in vitro testing strategies predominantly take the form of functional assays to predict the potential for drug-induced ECG abnormalities in vivo. Cardiotoxicity can also be structural in nature, so a full and efficient assessment of cardiac liabilities for new chemical entities should account for both these phenomena. As well as providing a more appropriate nonclinical model for in vitro cardiotoxicity testing, human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes offer an integrated system to study drug impact on cardiomyocyte structure as well as function. Employing human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiacmyocytes (hESC-CMs) on 3 assay platforms with complementary insights into cardiac biology (multielectrode array assay, electrophysiology; impedance assay, cell movement/beating; and high content analysis assay, subcellular structure) we profiled a panel of 13 drugs with well characterized cardiac liabilities (Amiodarone, Aspirin, Astemizole, Axitinib, AZT, Bepridil, Doxorubicin, E-4031, Mexiletine, Rosiglitazone, Sunitinib, Sibutramine, and Verapamil). Our data show good correlations with previous studies and reported clinical observations. Using multiparameter phenotypic profiling techniques we demonstrate the dynamic relationship that exists between functional and structural toxicity, and the benefits of this more holistic approach to risk assessment. We conclude by showing for the first time how the advent of transparent MEA plate technology enables functional and structural cardiotoxic responses to be recorded from the same cell population. This approach more directly links changes in morphology of the hESC-CMs with recorded electrophysiology signatures, offering even greater insight into the wide range of potential drug impacts on cardiac physiology, with a throughput that is more amenable to early drug discovery. PMID:26259608

  2. Disentangling Accent from Comprehensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine which linguistic aspects of second language speech are related to accent and which to comprehensibility. To address this goal, 19 different speech measures in the oral productions of 40 native French speakers of English were examined in relation to accent and comprehensibility, as rated by 60 novice raters…

  3. The whole elephant: a comprehensive study of seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle beneath Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, V.; Park, J.

    2003-04-01

    Seismic waves propagating through Earth's upper mantle commonly display evidence of anisotropic (i.e. direction-dependent) wavespeed. Common techniques for identifying and quantifying these properties all suffer from inherent non-uniqueness. In combination, however, different anisotropy-aware analysis tools make possible a description of how anisotropic properties are distributed in the volume of interest. We performed a set of studies of seismic anisotropy in Kamchatka, using core-refracted phases (SKS splitting), teleseismic P-to-S converted body-waves (receiver functions), mode-converted (quasi-Love) surface waves an shear wave birefringence from seismic events in the subducting Pacific plate. These four types of observations are sensitive to different aspects of anisotropic structure, in terms of the wavelength (from 100s of km for surface waves to sub-kilometer structures for receiver functions) and the sampling (from whole upper mantle for SKS phases to 10s of km for local S splitting). Futhermore, observations of shear-wave birefringence reflect path-integrated effects, while mode-converted phases identify strong gradients in anisotropic properties. Our studies allow us to identify regions of coherent fabric in the upper mantle beneath Kamchatka with some confidence. We see evidence for sub-slab trench-parallel flow of mantle material, and for a rapid reorientation of this flow at the northern edge of the Pacific plate. We see some evidence for trench-normal fabric above the slab, consistent with subduction-driven corner flow. However trench-normal fabric is not pervasive, especially near the end of the Kamchatka subduction zone. We also find ample evidence for strong fabric at the crust-mantle boundary beneath Kamchatka, possibly indicating mobility in the continental lithosphere.

  4. A Comprehensive Paleomagnetic Study on Radiometrically Dated Late Cretaceous Lava Flows from Jalisco Block (Western Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Cervantes, M. A.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Morales, J.

    2014-12-01

    Western and central Mexico is segmented by several regional structural systems that bound crustal blocs. Paleomagnetic data from the western and eastern Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt as well as from adjacent terrains are still scarce which limits analyses of the both local and regional-scale tectonic evolution. A combined radiometric and paleomagnetic survey performed on late Cretaceous lava flows demonstrate that vertical-axis rotations characterize the paleotectonic evolution of western-central Mexico. The characteristic paleomagnetic directions determined in this study may be considered of primary (thermoremanent) origin. Multicomponent demagnetization plots were observed in some cases. In general, the polarity obtained for the flows studied is consistent with their stratigraphic position and with the radiometric age determination. The mean inclination is in reasonably good agreement with the expected inclination for the Late Creataceous, as derived from reference poles given by Besse and Courtillot (2002) for the North American craton. The declination, however, is quite different from that expected, which suggests a possible counterclockwise tectonic rotation of at least 12º. Aceptable palointensity determinations were obtained for only eleven individual samples from two basaltic lava flows. The mean virtual dipole moment (VDM) obtained in this study is 4.2 ± 1.2 _ 1022 A m2, which is almost half than the present geomagnetic field strength.

  5. [Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Soil Heavy Metals Based on Monte Carlo Simulation and Case Study].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Dai, Dan; Cai, Yi-min; Chen, Wei-ping; Hou, Yu; Yang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Based on the stochastic. theory, the Monte Carlo simulation was introduced in ecological risk assessment and health risk assessment. Together with the multi-statistical technique, the proposed models were used for risk analysis in the Bin-Chang Coal Chemical industry park. The results showed that high levels of Cd, Co, and Cr were found in the area with long time mining. The comprehensive single index and comprehensive risk index showed that the ecological risk of soil metals fell into the poor level, with probabilities of 53.2% and 55.6%, respectively. The health risk caused by hand to mouth ingestion was significantly greater than that by dermal exposure, and Cr was of prime concern for pollution control. Children were taking a major health risk. Their non-cancer risks were maintained at a high level, and 5.0-fold higher than adults under hand to mouth ingestion, and 8.2-fold higher than adults under dermal exposure. The cancer risk for children under these two exposure ways were both above the safety standard suggested by USEPA. PMID:26911013

  6. Semantic brain areas are involved in gesture comprehension: An electrical neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Gabaro, Veronica; Orlandi, Andrea; Zani, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    While the mechanism of sign language comprehension in deaf people has been widely investigated, little is known about the neural underpinnings of spontaneous gesture comprehension in healthy speakers. Bioelectrical responses to 800 pictures of actors showing common Italian gestures (e.g., emblems, deictic or iconic gestures) were recorded in 14 persons. Stimuli were selected from a wider corpus of 1122 gestures. Half of the pictures were preceded by an incongruent description. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites while participants decided whether the stimulus was congruent. Congruent pictures elicited a posterior P300 followed by late positivity, while incongruent gestures elicited an anterior N400 response. N400 generators were investigated with swLORETA reconstruction. Processing of congruent gestures activated face- and body-related visual areas (e.g., BA19, BA37, BA22), the left angular gyrus, mirror fronto/parietal areas. The incongruent-congruent contrast particularly stimulated linguistic and semantic brain areas, such as the left medial and the superior temporal lobe. PMID:26011745

  7. Relation of infant motor development with nonverbal intelligence, language comprehension and neuropsychological functioning in childhood: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Serdarevic, Fadila; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Mous, Sabine E; White, Tonya; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-09-01

    Within a population-based study of 3356 children, we investigated whether infant neuromotor development was associated with cognition in early childhood. Neuromotor development was examined with an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination between 9 and 20 weeks. Parents rated their children's executive functioning at 4 years. At age 6 years, children performed intelligence and language comprehension tests, using Dutch test batteries. At age 6-9 years, neuropsychological functioning was assessed in 486 children using the validated NEPSY-II-NL test battery. We showed that less optimal neurodevelopment in infancy may predict poor mental rotation, immediate memory, shifting, and planning; but not nonverbal intelligence or language comprehension. PMID:26549804

  8. Comprehension Strategy Gloves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Gayle

    2002-01-01

    Describes the idea of creating a glove for each of the comprehension strategies for use with different text structures. Notes that the gloves serve as a multisensory approach by providing visual clues through icons on each finger and the palm. Discusses three different gloves: the prereading glove, the narrative text structure glove, and the…

  9. Reading disability defined as a discrepancy between listening and reading comprehension: a longitudinal study of stability, gender differences, and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Badian, N A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether defining reading disability by a discrepancy between group-administered tests of listening and reading comprehension would produce result similar in terms of stability, gender ratio, and prevalence to IQ-achievement test discrepancy definitions. The total population of a small school district (N = 1,008) was followed from prekindergarten through Grade 7-8 for 13 years. As is often seen in epidemiological studies using IQ and individually administered reading tests to define reading disability, stability in the classification of reading disability was low. Among the participants with a consistent reading disability, the male-to-female ratio was 3.2:1, compared with 1.3:1 for the 5.1% of the sample who were nondiscrepant poor readers in both lower and upper grades. A mean 2.7% of the population was classified as reading disabled over the eight-grade span, and only 1.7% demonstrated a consistent reading disability in both the lower and the upper grades. An increase in the ratio of nondiscrepant to discrepant poor readers after Grade 5 was due mainly to late-emerging poor readers. It was concluded that defining reading comprehension disability in terms of a discrepancy between listening and reading comprehension provides a fairly accurate estimate of the stability, gender ratio, and prevalence of the disorder. PMID:15499714

  10. Minnesota Linking Study: A Study of the Alignment of the NWEA RIT Scale with the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments (MCA) Testing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) completed a study to connect the scale of the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments (MCA) Testing Program used for Minnesota's mathematics and reading assessments with NWEA's RIT (Rasch Unit) scale. Information from the state assessments was used in a study to establish performance-level scores on…

  11. Development of a comprehensive, validated pharmacophore hypothesis for anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) inhibitors using genetic algorithms, Pareto scoring, and structural biology.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ting-Lan; Amin, Elizabeth A

    2012-07-23

    Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF), an 89-kDa zinc hydrolase secreted by the bacilli, is the toxin component chiefly responsible for pathogenesis and has been a popular target for rational and structure-based drug design. Although hundreds of small-molecule compounds have been designed to target the LF active site, relatively few reported inhibitors have exhibited activity in cell-based assays, and no LF inhibitor is currently available to treat or prevent anthrax. This study presents a new pharmacophore map assembly, validated by experiment, designed to rapidly identify and prioritize promising LF inhibitor scaffolds from virtual compound libraries. The new hypothesis incorporates structural information from all five available LF enzyme-inhibitor complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and is the first LF pharmacophore map reported to date that includes features representing interactions involving all three key subsites of the LF catalytic binding region. In a wide-ranging validation study on all 546 compounds for which published LF biological activity data exist, this model displayed strong selectivity toward nanomolar-level LF inhibitors, successfully identifying 72.1% of existing nanomolar-level compounds in an unbiased test set, while rejecting 100% of weakly active (>100 μM) compounds. In addition to its capabilities as a database searching tool, this comprehensive model points to a number of key design principles and previously unidentified ligand-receptor interactions that are likely to influence compound potency. PMID:22697455

  12. Comprehensive studies of response characteristics of organic photodetectors based on rubrene and C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dezhi; Xu, Kai; Zhou, Xiaokang; Wang, Yanping; Ma, Dongge

    2014-06-01

    We studied the transient response characteristics of organic photodetectors composing of high mobility materials of rubrene and C60, respectively, as donor and acceptor. It was found that the response speed was limited by the delay time of both exciton diffusion and transit, and an anomalous phenomenon that the bandwidth decreases as the reverse bias increases was found for the first time. The investigation of frequency dependence at different device structures and light excitations demonstrated that the light absorption of rubrene prevents the photodetector from obtaining a fast response. With the help of magnetic field effect study, it was clearly elucidated that the slow diffusion time of the long lifetime triplet excitons generated from singlet fission in rubrene limited the bandwidth of the device. Moreover, the simulation of the response of photodetector under transient and steady state by exciton transport-diffusion equation showed that the exciton dissociation efficiency in rubrene increases more quickly than that in C60, which should account for the negative dependence of bandwidth on the reverse bias in rubrene-based device.

  13. A Comprehensive Study of Molecular Evolution at the Self-Incompatibility Locus of Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Ashkani, Jahanshah; Rees, D J G

    2016-03-01

    The family Rosaceae includes a range of important fruit trees, most of which have the S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI). Several models have been developed to explain how pollen (SLF) and pistil (S-RNase) components of the S-locus interact. It was discovered in 2010 that additional SLF proteins are involved in pollen specificity, and a Collaborative Non-Self Recognition model has been proposed for SI in Solanaceae; however, the validity of such model remains to be elucidated for other species. The results of this study support the divergent evolution of the S-locus genes from two Rosaceae subfamilies, Prunoideae/Amygdaloideae and Maloideae, The difference identified in the selective pressures between the two lineages provides evidence for positive selection at specific sites in both the S-RNase and the SLF proteins. The evolutionary findings of this study support the role of multiple SLF proteins leading to a Collaborative Non-Self Recognition model for SI in the Maloideae. Furthermore, the identification of the sites responsible for SI specificity determination and the mapping of these sites onto the modelled tertiary structure of ancestor proteins provide useful information for rational functional redesign and protein engineering for the future engineering of new functional alleles providing increased diversity in the SI system in the Maloideae. PMID:26714486

  14. Comprehensive physicochemical studies of a new hybrid material: 2-amino-4-methyl-3-nitropyridinium hydrogen oxalate.

    PubMed

    Bryndal, I; Kucharska, E; Wandas, M; Lorenc, J; Hermanowicz, K; Mączka, M; Lis, T; Marchewka, M; Hanuza, J

    2014-01-01

    A new organic-organic salt, 2-amino-4-methyl-3-nitropyridinium hydrogen oxalate (AMNPO), and its deuterium analogue have been synthesized and characterized by means of FT-IR, FT-Raman, DSC and single crystal X-ray studies. The DSC measurements and temperature dependence of the IR and Raman spectra in the range 4-295 K show that it undergoes a reversible phase transition at ~240 K. At room temperature it crystallizes in noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The unit-cell is built of the 2-amino-4-methyl-3-nitropyridinium cations and oxalate monoanions which are connected via the N-H···O and O-H···O hydrogen bonds. The geometrical and hydrogen bond parameters are similar for non-deuterated (at 120 and 293 K) and deuterated compounds (at 90K). The phase transition is probably a consequence of order-disorder transition inside of hydrogen network. The 6-311G(2d,2p) basis set with B3LYP functional have been used to discuss the structure and vibrational spectra of the studied compound. PMID:24013114

  15. Comprehensive studies of response characteristics of organic photodetectors based on rubrene and C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dezhi; Xu, Kai; Zhou, Xiaokang; Wang, Yanping; Ma, Dongge

    2014-06-28

    We studied the transient response characteristics of organic photodetectors composing of high mobility materials of rubrene and C{sub 60}, respectively, as donor and acceptor. It was found that the response speed was limited by the delay time of both exciton diffusion and transit, and an anomalous phenomenon that the bandwidth decreases as the reverse bias increases was found for the first time. The investigation of frequency dependence at different device structures and light excitations demonstrated that the light absorption of rubrene prevents the photodetector from obtaining a fast response. With the help of magnetic field effect study, it was clearly elucidated that the slow diffusion time of the long lifetime triplet excitons generated from singlet fission in rubrene limited the bandwidth of the device. Moreover, the simulation of the response of photodetector under transient and steady state by exciton transport-diffusion equation showed that the exciton dissociation efficiency in rubrene increases more quickly than that in C{sub 60}, which should account for the negative dependence of bandwidth on the reverse bias in rubrene-based device.

  16. Bridging the solution divide: comprehensive structural analyses of dynamic RNA, DNA, and protein assemblies by small angle X-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Rambo, Robert P.; Tainer, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) is changing how we perceive biological structures, because it reveals dynamic macromolecular conformations and assemblies in solution. SAXS information captures thermodynamic ensembles, enhances static structures detailed by high-resolution methods, uncovers commonalities among diverse macromolecules, and helps define biological mechanisms. SAXS-based experiments on RNA riboswitches and ribozymes and on DNA-protein complexes including DNA-PK and p53 discover flexibilities that better define structure-function relationships. Furthermore, SAXS results suggest conformational variation is a general functional feature of macromolecules. Thus, accurate structural analyses will require a comprehensive approach that assesses both flexibility, as seen by SAXS, and detail, as determined by X-ray crystallography and NMR. Here, we review recent SAXS computational tools, technologies, and applications to nucleic acids and related structures. PMID:20097063

  17. The Study of CIQ Inspection Rate's Setting Problem Based on Gray-fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Liu; Ding, Liu Wen

    Inspection is not only one of the most significant duties, but the important prerequisite for going through Customs. Setting the inspection rate scientifically can not only solve the contradiction between the "check on" and "service" for CIQ (CHINA ENTRY-EXIT INSPECTION AND UARANTINE)site inspection personnel, but can highlight the key of inspection and enhance the ratio of discovering, achieving the optimum allocation of CIQ's limited human and material resources. In this article, from the characteristics of inspection risk evaluation themselves, considering the setting problem of check rate at from the angle of data mining, construct an index system rationally and objectively. On the basis of Fuzzy theory, evaluate the risk of the inward and outward goods with the grey-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and establish the inspection rate scientifically.

  18. Comprehensive techno-economic analysis of wastewater-based algal biofuel production: A case study.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Cheng, Sibo; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Ding, Rijia; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Combining algae cultivation and wastewater treatment for biofuel production is considered the feasible way for resource utilization. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis method that integrates resources availability into techno-economic analysis was employed to evaluate the wastewater-based algal biofuel production with the consideration of wastewater treatment improvement, greenhouse gases emissions, biofuel production costs, and coproduct utilization. An innovative approach consisting of microalgae cultivation on centrate wastewater, microalgae harvest through flocculation, solar drying of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, and utilization of co-products, was analyzed and shown to yield profound positive results in comparison with others. The estimated break even selling price of biofuel ($2.23/gallon) is very close to the acceptable level. The approach would have better overall benefits and the internal rate of return would increase up to 18.7% if three critical components, namely cultivation, harvest, and downstream conversion could achieve breakthroughs. PMID:27039331

  19. Comprehensive study of emission source contributions for tropospheric ozone formation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, Syuichi; Hayami, Hiroshi; Uno, Itsushi

    2015-01-01

    Emission source contributions of tropospheric ozone (O3) were comprehensively investigated by using the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM) for sensitivity analysis and the ozone source apportionment technology (OSAT) for mass balance analysis in the comprehensive air-quality model with extensions (CAMx). The response of O3 to emissions reductions at various levels in mainland China, Korea, and Japan were estimated and compared with results calculated by the brute force method (BFM) where one model parameter is varied at a time. Emissions were assessed at three receptor sites in Japan that experienced severe pollution events in May 2009. For emissions from China, HDDM assessed O3 response with a bias of only up to 3 ppbv (a relative error of 4.5%) even for a 50% reduction but failed to assess a more extreme reduction. OSAT was reasonably accurate at 100% reduction, with a -4 ppbv (-7%) bias, but was less accurate at moderate ranges of reduction (˜50-70%). For emissions from Korea and Japan, HDDM captured the nonlinear response at all receptor sites and at all reduction levels to within 1% in all but one case; however, the bias of OSAT increased with the increasing reduction of emissions. One possible reason for this is that OSAT does not account for NO titration. To address this, a term for potential ozone (PO; O3 and NO2 together) was introduced. Using of PO instead of O3 improved the performance of OSAT, especially for emissions reductions from Korea and Japan. The proposed approach with PO refined the OSAT results and did not degrade HDDM performance.

  20. Hemispheric asymmetry in event knowledge activation during incremental language comprehension: A visual half-field ERP study.

    PubMed

    Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P; Elman, Jeffrey L

    2016-04-01

    During incremental language comprehension, the brain activates knowledge of described events, including knowledge elements that constitute semantic anomalies in their linguistic context. The present study investigates hemispheric asymmetries in this process, with the aim of advancing our understanding of the neural basis and functional properties of event knowledge activation during incremental comprehension. In a visual half-field event-related brain potential (ERP) experiment, participants read brief discourses in which the third sentence contained a word that was either highly expected, semantically anomalous but related to the described event (Event-Related), or semantically anomalous but unrelated to the described event (Event-Unrelated). For both visual fields of target word presentation, semantically anomalous words elicited N400 ERP components of greater amplitude than did expected words. Crucially, Event-Related anomalous words elicited a reduced N400 relative to Event-Unrelated anomalous words only with left visual field/right hemisphere presentation. This result suggests that right hemisphere processes are critical to the activation of event knowledge elements that violate the linguistic context, and in doing so informs existing theories of hemispheric asymmetries in semantic processing during language comprehension. Additionally, this finding coincides with past research suggesting a crucial role for the right hemisphere in elaborative inference generation, raises interesting questions regarding hemispheric coordination in generating event-specific linguistic expectancies, and more generally highlights the possibility of functional dissociation of event knowledge activation for the generation of elaborative inferences and for linguistic expectancies. PMID:26878980

  1. Toward a comprehensive interpretation of intravital microscopy images in studies of lung tissue dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, Maria; Schirrmann, Kerstin; Schnabel, Christian; Meissner, Sven; Kertzscher, Ulrich; Kirsten, Lars; Koch, Edmund

    2015-06-01

    Intravital microscopy (IVM) is a well-established imaging technique for real-time monitoring of microscale lung tissue dynamics. Although accepted as a gold standard in respiratory research, its characteristic image features are scarcely understood, especially when trying to determine the actual position of alveolar walls. To allow correct interpretation of these images with respect to the true geometry of the lung parenchyma, we analyzed IVM data of alveoli in a mouse model in comparison with simultaneously acquired optical coherence tomography images. Several IVM characteristics, such as double ring structures or disappearing alveoli in regions of liquid filling, could be identified and related to the position of alveoli relative to each other. Utilizing a ray tracing approach based on an idealized geometry of the mouse lung parenchyma, two major reflection processes could be attributed to the IVM image formation: partial reflection and total internal reflection between adjacent alveoli. Considering the origin of the reflexes, a model was developed to determine the true position of alveolar walls within IVM images. These results allow thorough understanding of IVM data and may serve as a basis for the correction of alveolar sizes for more accurate quantitative analysis within future studies of lung tissue dynamics.

  2. A comprehensive study on the cell chemistry of the sodium superoxide (NaO2) battery.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Pascal; Bender, Conrad L; Sann, Joachim; Dürr, Anna Katharina; Jansen, Martin; Janek, Jürgen; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2013-07-28

    This work reports on the cell chemistry of a room temperature sodium-oxygen battery using an electrolyte of diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diglyme) and sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (NaSO3CF3, sodium triflate). Different from lithium-oxygen cells, where lithium peroxide is found as the discharge product, sodium superoxide (NaO2) is formed in the present cell, with overpotentials as low as 100 mV during charging. Several analytical methods are used to follow the cell reaction during discharge and charge. Changes in structure and morphology are studied by SEM and XRD. It is found that NaO2 grows as cubic particles with feed sizes in the range of 10-50 μm; upon recharge the particles consecutively decompose. Pressure monitoring during galvanostatic cycling shows that the coulombic efficiency (e(-)/O2) for discharge and charge is approx. 1.0, the expected value for NaO2 formation. Also optical spectroscopy is identified as a convenient and useful tool to follow the discharge-charge process. The maximum discharge capacity is found to be limited by oxygen transport within the electrolyte soaked carbon fiber cathode and pore blocking near the oxygen interface is observed. Finally electrolyte decomposition and sodium dendrite growth are identified as possible reasons for the limited capacity retention of the cell. The occurrence of undesired side reactions is analyzed by DEMS measurements during cycling as well as by post mortem XPS investigations. PMID:23552701

  3. A comprehensive study of relativistic gravity using PSR B1534+12

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, Emmanuel; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Thorsett, Stephen E. E-mail: stairs@astro.ubc.ca

    2014-05-20

    We present updated analyses of pulse profiles and their arrival times from PSR B1534+12, a 37.9 ms radio pulsar in orbit with another neutron star. A high-precision timing model is derived from 22 yr of timing data and accounts for all astrophysical processes that systematically affect pulse arrival times. Five 'post-Keplerian' parameters are measured that represent relativistic corrections to the standard Keplerian quantities of the pulsar's binary orbit. These relativistic parameters are then used to test general relativity by comparing the measurements with their predicted values. We conclude that relativity theory is confirmed to within 0.17% of its predictions. Furthermore, we derive the following astrophysical results from our timing analysis: a distance of d {sub GR} = 1.051 ± 0.005 kpc to the pulsar-binary system, by relating the 'excess' orbital decay to Galactic parameters; evidence for pulse 'jitter' in PSR B1534+12 due to short-term magnetospheric activity; and evolution in pulse-dispersion properties. As a secondary study, we also present several analyses on pulse-structure evolution and its connection to relativistic precession of the pulsar's spin axis. The precession-rate measurement yields a value of Ω{sub 1}{sup spin}=0.59{sub −0.08}{sup +0.12}° yr{sup –1} (68% confidence) that is consistent with expectations and represents an additional test of relativistic gravity.

  4. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume VII: fish communities, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    Adult fishes representing a total of 66 species were collected at transects in the Savannah River, intake canals, and the mouths of Upper Three Runs Creek, Steel Creek, Four Mile Creek, Beaver Dam Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek. Densities and seasonal trends of adult fish in the mouths of the ambient temperature creeks were similar to those in the river, with very low densities in January and higher densities in the other months. In contrast, relative density in thermally influenced Four Mile Creek peaked during January at levels greater than the other transects, indicating a wintertime aggregation of fishes in its heated waters which were up to 7/sup 0/C warmer than ambient temperatures. Fish avoided Four Mile Creek during May, August, and October when excessively high water temperatures occurred. Ichthyoplankton densities were highest downstream of the SRP during February, March, and April, highest near the SRP during May, and highest upstream of the SRP during June and July. Studies of nonthermal, thermal, and post-thermal areas in SRP stream and swamp systems indicate that the thermal streams have markedly reduced species richness and abundance relative to ambient temperature areas. An average of 37 fish were impinged daily on the SRP pumphouse intake screens. Entrainment of larval fish and eggs at the SRP pumphouses during the 1983 spawning season totaled 37.2 x 10/sup 6/ ichthyoplankters which was 9.3% of the ichthyoplankton that passed by the intake canals and structures. 69 refs., 33 figs., 61 tabs.

  5. A Pilot Study of Reading Comprehension Strategies of Students Who Are Deaf/Hard of Hearing in a Non-English-Speaking Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartawi, Abdelaziz; Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty students from the United Arab Emirates who had hearing impairments participated in a study of three different techniques for teaching reading comprehension: the Experience-Based Approach, a modified version of Reciprocal Teaching, and a Key Word Strategy. Reading comprehension was highest under the Key Word Strategy conditions. (Author/CR)

  6. A Study of a District-Wide Vocabulary Program Implemented to Improve Reading Comprehension on the North Carolina End-of-Grade Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers-Blaebaum, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a strong link between reading comprehension and vocabulary, yet many children lack the required vocabulary needed to perform adequately on reading comprehension assessments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the teaching of Larry Bell's 12 Powerful Words vocabulary program in order to raise third, fourth…

  7. The Effect of Student-Related and Text-Related Characteristics on Student's Reading Behaviour and Text Comprehension: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Linda; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the present study was on the mediation and moderation effects of reading processes as evidenced from eye movements on the relation between cognitive and linguistic student characteristics (word decoding, vocabulary, comprehension skill, short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal intelligence) and text comprehension. Forty 4th…

  8. Is Listening Comprehension Influenced by the Cultural Knowledge of the Learners? A Case Study of Iranian EFL Pre-Intermediate Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiarvand, Morteza; Adinevand, Somaye

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cultural knowledge on improving Iranian EFL learners' listening comprehension. To achieve this purpose, out of 300 participants, 120 pre-intermediate language learners were selected based on their scores on a listening comprehension test and were randomly assigned to four groups. Each…

  9. Comprehensive DFT study of nitrous oxide decomposition over Fe-ZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Heyden, Andreas; Peters, Baron; Bell, Alexis T; Keil, Frerich J

    2005-02-10

    The reaction mechanism for nitrous oxide decomposition has been studied on hydrated and dehydrated mononuclear iron sites in Fe-ZSM-5 using density functional theory. In total, 46 different surface species with different spin states (spin multiplicity M(S) = 4 or 6) and 63 elementary reactions were considered. Heats of adsorption, activation barriers, reaction rates, and minimum energy pathways were determined. The approximate minimum energy pathways and transition states were calculated using the "growing string method" and a modified "dimer method". Spin surface crossing (e.g., O(2) desorption) was considered. The minimum potential energy structure on the seam of two potential energy surfaces was determined with a multiplier penalty function algorithm by Powell and approximate rates of spin surface crossings were calculated. It was found that nitrous oxide decomposition is first order with respect to nitrous oxide concentration and zero order with respect to oxygen concentration. Water impurities in the gas stream have a strong inhibiting effect. In the concentration range of 1-100 ppb, the presence of water vapor influences the surface composition and the apparent rate coefficient. This is especially relevant in the temperature range of 600-700 K where most experimental kinetic studies are performed. Apparent activation barriers determined over this temperature range vary from 28.4 (1 ppb H(2)O) to 54.8 kcal/mol (100 ppb H(2)O). These results give an explanation why different research groups and different catalyst pretreatments often result in very different activation barriers and preexponential factors. Altogether perfect agreement with experimental results could be achieved. PMID:16851168

  10. Fused deposition of ceramics: A comprehensive experimental, analytical and computational study of material behavior, fabrication process and equipment design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Anna

    extensive experimental investigations. Studies are conducted in the following categories: (1) Flow modeling during extrusion and deposition; (2) Thermal modeling; (3) Flow control during deposition; (4) Product characterization and property determination for dimensional analysis; (5) Development of a novel technology based on a mini-extrusion system. Studies in each of these stages have involved experimental as well as analytical approaches to develop a comprehensive modeling.

  11. Structural Studies of GABAA Receptor Binding Sites: Which Experimental Structure Tells us What?

    PubMed

    Puthenkalam, Roshan; Hieckel, Marcel; Simeone, Xenia; Suwattanasophon, Chonticha; Feldbauer, Roman V; Ecker, Gerhard F; Ernst, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Atomic resolution structures of cys-loop receptors, including one of a γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA receptor) subtype, allow amazing insights into the structural features and conformational changes that these pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) display. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of more than 30 cys-loop receptor structures of homologous proteins that revealed several allosteric binding sites not previously described in GABAA receptors. These novel binding sites were examined in GABAA receptor homology models and assessed as putative candidate sites for allosteric ligands. Four so far undescribed putative ligand binding sites were proposed for follow up studies based on their presence in the GABAA receptor homology models. A comprehensive analysis of conserved structural features in GABAA and glycine receptors (GlyRs), the glutamate gated ion channel, the bacterial homologs Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC) and Gloeobacter violaceus GLIC, and the serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptor was performed. The conserved features were integrated into a master alignment that led to improved homology models. The large fragment of the intracellular domain that is present in the structure of the 5-HT3 receptor was utilized to generate GABAA receptor models with a corresponding intracellular domain fragment. Results of mutational and photoaffinity ligand studies in GABAA receptors were analyzed in the light of the model structures. This led to an assignment of candidate ligands to two proposed novel pockets, candidate binding sites for furosemide and neurosteroids in the trans-membrane domain were identified. The homology models can serve as hypotheses generators, and some previously controversial structural interpretations of biochemical data can be resolved in the light of the presented multi-template approach to comparative modeling. Crystal and cryo-EM microscopic structures of the closest homologs that were solved in different conformational

  12. Studying the Atomic Nucleus - A New Era in Nuclear Structure Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R. F.

    2011-05-06

    The study of atomic nuclei is part of the fascinating quest to understand the fundamental nature and origins of matter. This field, nuclear structure, is undergoing a revolutionary transformation that is breaking cherished paradigms, opening new vistas of nuclear matter for study, and which has the promise of leading to a new comprehensive understanding. The advent of new facilities for the production and study of exotic nuclei provides access to an entirely new territory of nuclei, and advances in extreme computing are enabling similar advances in the theory of atomic nuclei.

  13. Large space erectable structures - building block structures study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, W. H.; Skoumal, D. E.; Straayer, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A modular planar truss structure and a long slender boom concept identified as building block approaches to construction of large spacecraft configurations are described. The concepts are compatible in weight and volume goals with the Space Transportation System, use standard structural units, and represent high on-orbit productivity in terms of structural area or beam length. Results of structural trade studies involving static and dynamic analyses of a single module and rigid body deployment analyses to assess kinetics and kinematics of automatic deployment of the building block modules are presented.

  14. Comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Wendell B.; Austin, Edward E.

    1988-01-01

    The development and application of comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods in the field of rotorcraft technology are described. These large scale analyses and the resulting computer programs are intended to treat the complex aeromechanical phenomena that describe the behavior of rotorcraft. They may be used to predict rotor aerodynamics, acoustic, performance, stability and control, handling qualities, loads and vibrations, structures, dynamics, and aeroelastic stability characteristics for a variety of applications including research, preliminary and detail design, and evaluation and treatment of field problems. The principal comprehensive methods developed or under development in recent years and generally available to the rotorcraft community because of US Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (ARTA) sponsorship of all or part of the software systems are the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation (C81), Dynamic System Coupler (DYSCO), Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis Program (SIMVIB), Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD), General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), and Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS).

  15. A comprehensive study of the influence of the stoichiometry on the physical properties of TiO{sub x} films prepared by ion beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Marchi, M. Claudia; Bilmes, Sara A.; Ribeiro, C. T. M.; Ochoa, E. A.; Kleinke, M.; Alvarez, F.

    2010-09-15

    A comprehensive study of nonstoichiometry titanium oxide thin films (TiO{sub x}, 0.3{<=}x{<=}2) prepared by ion beam deposition technique is reported. The physical properties of the material are studied by ultraviolet and x-ray photoelectron, Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, and atomic force microscopy. An abrupt transition from metallic characteristics to a wide gap semiconductor is observed in a very narrow range of oxygen variation. Concomitantly with this change the crystal structure and morphology suffer remarkable physical properties modifications. This transformation is ascribed to surface-volume energy minimization due to the influence of oxygen determining the size of the TiO{sub 2} particles during coalescence.

  16. Study on the path of comprehensive reform and development of the People’s Hospital of Shimian County

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The People’s Hospital of Shimian County is located in the underdeveloped agricultural county of western China with a population of 120,000. In light of the region’s geographic location and cultural characteristics, the hospital has laid out a development strategy of becoming a regional healthcare service center-in Shimian and extends services to surrounding regions. Its reform process would start with the overhaul of the personnel system to rejuvenate the hospital’s internal operation, and then move towards more comprehensive reforms on corporate governance structure and trans-regional integration of medical resources. On the basis of constructing a digital hospital, we would build an information platform to explore the ‘Shimian model’ of information-based healthcare reform through regional medical coordination and whole-sector oversight. An appropriate strategy and development roadmap, comprehensively internal and external reforms and persistent culture building, as well as the use of information technology will help put the hospital onto a track of fast and healthy development and in the right direction of healthcare reform that accords with our national circumstances. This article makes a review, summary and analysis of the process and further discusses about how to overhaul the healthcare system through reform and development. PMID:25333011

  17. Comprehensive vacuum ultraviolet photoionization study of the CF3• trifluoromethyl radical using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dossmann (Soldi-Lose), Héloïse; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent; de Miranda, Barbara K. C.; Alcaraz, Christian

    2012-05-01

    The trifluoromethyl radical, CF3•, is studied for the first time by means of threshold photoelectron spectroscopy (TPES). The radical is produced in the gas phase using the flash-pyrolysis technique from hexafluoroethane as a precursor. CF3+ total ion yield and mass-selected TPES of the radical are recorded using a spectrometer based upon velocity map imaging and Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight coupled to the synchrotron radiation. The high resolution of the instrument and of the photons allows the observation of rich vibrational progressions in the TPES of CF3•. By using Franck-Condon factors computed by Bowman and coworkers, we have been able to simulate the TPES. The initial vibrational temperature of the radical beam has been evaluated at 350 ± 70 K. The structures have been identified as transitions between (n1,n2) and (n1+,n2+) vibrational levels of CF3 and CF3+ with small excitation of the breathing mode, ν1+, and large excitation (n2+ = 10-26) of the umbrella mode, ν2+, in the cation. From the energy separation between the two resolved peaks of each band, a value of 994 ± 16 cm-1 has been derived for the ν1+ breathing frequency of CF3+. For the high-lying n2+ levels, the apparent ν2+ umbrella spacing, 820 ± 14 cm-1, is fairly constant. Taking into account the ν2+ anharmonicity calculated by Bowman and coworkers, we have deduced ν2+ = 809 ± 14 cm-1, and semi-empirical estimations of the adiabatic ionization energy IEad.(CF3•) are proposed in good agreement with most of previous works. A value of the vertical ionization potential, IEvert.(CF3•) = 11.02 eV, has been derived from the observation of a photoelectron spectrum recorded at a fixed photon energy of 12 eV.

  18. Morphological study and comprehensive cellular constituents of milky spots in the human omentum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiu-Yang; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Geng, Xia-Fei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze morphological features of omental milky spots (MS). Method: Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry technique were used to study the omental MS of gastric cancer (GC) patients and rectal cancer (RC) patients. We focused on morphological features of MS and conducted quantitative analysis on the cells number and cellular constituents. Differences in MS parameters between GC and RC were also analyzed. Results: Various shapes of MS were mainly round, oval, irregular form in the adipose and perivascular annular. The median MS perimeter was 2752 (range 817~7753) computer-based pixels. The median value of immune cells in one MS was 141 (43~650), comprising T lymphocytes (46.1%), B lymphocytes (28.4%), macrophages (12.4%) and other immune cells (13.1%). Relatively high density of vessels in MS could be calculated by micro-vessel density (MVD) as 4 (0~13). The median value of mesothelial cells loosely arranged in the surface layer was 5 (0~51). There were no significant differences in MS perimeter, MVD, the number of mesothelial cells, total immune cells, T lymphocytes and macrophages between GC and RC (P>0.05), while the number of MS B lymphocytes in RC was significantly higher than that in GC (P<0.001). Conclusion: MS are primary immune tissues in the omentum and structural bases for development and progression of peritoneal dissemination of GC and RC. Analyzing the morphology and cellular constituents could help understanding the mechanism of peritoneal metastasis. PMID:26722479

  19. Water speciation in sodium silicate glasses (quenched melts): A comprehensive NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X.; Kanzaki, M.; Eguchi, J.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolution mechanism of water is an important factor governing how the dissolved water affects the physical and thermodynamic properties of silicate melts and glasses. Our previous studies have demonstrated that 1H MAS NMR in combination with 29Si-1H and 27Al-1H double-resonance NMR experiments is an effective approach for unambiguously differentiating and quantifying different water species in quenched silicate melts (glasses). Several contrasting dissolution mechanisms have been revealed depending on the melt composition: for relatively polymerized melts, the formation of SiOH/AlOH species (plus molecular H2O) and depolymerization of the network structure dominate; whereas for depolymerized Ca-Mg silicate melts, free OH (e.g. MgOH) become increasingly important (cf. [1]). The proportion of free OH species has been shown to decrease with both increasing melt polymerization (silica content) and decreasing field strength of the network modifying cations (from Mg to Ca). Our previous 1H and 29Si MAS NMR results for hydrous Na silicate glasses of limited compositions (Na2Si4O9 and Na2Si2O5) were consistent with negligible free OH (NaOH) species and depolymerizing effect of water dissolution [2]. On the other hand, there were also other studies that proposed the presence of significant NaOH species in hydrous glasses near the Na2Si2O5 composition. The purpose of this study is apply the approach of combined 1H MAS NMR and double-resonance (29Si-1H and 23Na-1H) NMR to gain unambiguous evidence for the OH speciation in Na silicate glasses (melts) as a function of composition. Hydrous Na silicate glasses containing mostly ≤ 1 wt% H2O for a range of Na/Si ratios from 0.33 to 1.33 have been synthesized by rapidly quenching melts either at 0.2 GPa using an internally heated gas pressure vessel or at 1 GPa using a piston cylinder high-pressure apparatus. NMR spectra have been acquired using a 9.4 T Varian Unity-Inova spectrometer. The 29Si and 1H chemical shifts are

  20. A comprehensive ray tracing study on the impact of solar reflections from glass curtain walls.

    PubMed

    Wong, Justin S J

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the investigation of the impact of solar reflection from the façades of skyscrapers to surrounding environment, a comprehensive ray tracing model has been developed using the International Commerce Centre (ICC) in Hong Kong as an example. Taking into account the actual physical dimensions of buildings and meteorological data, the model simulates and traces the paths of solar reflections from ICC to the surrounding buildings, assessing the impact in terms of hit locations, light intensity and the hit time on each day throughout the year. Our analyses show that various design and architectural features of ICC have amplified the intensity of reflected solar rays and increased the hit rates of surrounding buildings. These factors include the high reflectivity of glass panels, their upward tilting angles, the concave profile of the 'Dragon Tail' (glass panels near the base), the particular location and orientation of ICC, as well as the immense height of ICC with its large reflective surfaces. The simulation results allow us to accurately map the date and time when the ray projections occur on each of the target buildings, rendering important information such as the number of converging (overlapping) projections, and the actual light intensity hitting each of the buildings at any given time. Comparisons with other skyscrapers such as Taipei 101 in Taiwan and 2-IFC (International Finance Centre) Hong Kong are made. Remedial actions for ICC and preventive measures are also discussed. PMID:26646546