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1

Plant Operation: Work Week, Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A four-day work week for maintenance workers in the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado, reduces absenteeism and increases productivity; a basic manual for physical plant directors is reviewed. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

2

A 4-Day Work Week That Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Navarro College's (Corsicana, TX) program to reduce kilowatt hour consumption through alternative energy sources and energy costs through transition to a four-day/40-hour work week. Presents results of studies of employee performance levels, community response, and the cost effectiveness of the program. Lists benefits for the student,…

Walker, Kenneth; Timmerman, Linda

1980-01-01

3

5 CFR 532.513 - Flexible and compressed work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flexible and compressed work schedules. 532...Pay and Differentials § 532.513 Flexible and compressed work schedules. Federal...System employees who are authorized to work flexible and compressed work schedules...

2010-01-01

4

2009 Summer 4-Day Work Week Evaluation Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the final evaluation of a condensed work schedule, the Summer 2009 4-Day Work Week (S4-DWW), adopted by The School Board of Broward County, Florida. The goal for the program was to close the entire district for 1 day each week to reduce utility costs. Except for a few cases, district schools and offices were closed on Fridays…

Geneivive, David V.; DeRose, Diego; Ligas, Maria

2011-01-01

5

Working characteristics of variable intake valve in compressed air engine.  

PubMed

A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536

Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin

2014-01-01

6

Irreversible compressible work and APE dissipation in turbulent stratified fluids  

E-print Network

Irreversible compressible work and APE dissipation in turbulent stratified fluids R´emi Tailleux potential energy (APE) dissipation has remained until now a rather mysterious quantity, owing to the lack with a nonlinear equation of state that the APE dissipation is an irreversible energy conversion that dissipates

Tailleux, Remi

7

5 CFR 610.406 - Holiday for employees on compressed work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 610.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.406 Holiday for employees on compressed work schedules. (a) If a...

2010-01-01

8

Formation of plasma working fluids for compression by liner implosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the formation of a hot hydrogen working fluid, which may be used in multiple concentric solid-density liner implosions, is reported. In such implosions, an axisymmetric outer liner is driven by a multi-megamp axial discharge, and a coaxial inner liner is driven by a working fluid contained between the liners. The fluid is shocklessly compressed to high pressure as the outer liner implodes around it. In the work reported here a 10 to 100 Torr pressure, hydrogen filled coaxial gun discharge was used to inject plasma into a diagnostic chamber simulating an interliner volume. Spectroscopically determined electron densities of between 1017 and 1018 cm-3 and electron temperatures in the 0.5-2.0 eV range were obtained with a fair degree of reproducibility and symmetry. Two-dimensional, time-dependent magnetohydrodyna- mic computer simulations of the working fluid formation experiment have been performed, and the computations suggest that the present experiment achieves electron number densities and temperatures at the lower extreme of these limits, and neutral densities ˜ 0.3-1.0 ×1019 cm-3. The simulations further suggest that the upper range, and beyond, can be achieved in a more energetic version of the present experiment.

Lehr, F. M.; Alaniz, A.; Beason, J. D.; Carswell, L. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Crawford, J. F.; Englert, S. E.; Englert, T. J.; Gahl, J. M.; Holmes, J. H.; Hussey, T. W.; Kiuttu, G. F.; Mullins, B. W.; Peterkin, R. E.; Roderick, N. F.; Turchi, P. J.; Graham, J. D.

1994-04-01

9

Time Allocated During the Working Week to Pursue Environmental Initiatives: a Utopian Dream or Potential Reality?   

E-print Network

This project investigates the opinions of members of staff at the University of Edinburgh concerning the role they believe environmental issues plays in their working week, and how this could be changed. Current relevant ...

Ridley, Lucy

10

Target compressions by working fluids driven with solid liner implosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compression by a spherical solid liner of a gold target surrounded by a hydrogen plasma is simulated. Two-dimensional simulations that treat only a subset of the physics included in the one-dimensional code were performed in an attempt to assess multidimensional effects. A one-dimensional numerical code has been developed to study the effects of thermal radiation and conduction. Results of pressure, density, and energy deposited for different initial plasma conditions are presented and discussed. Results from both one- and two-dimensional codes show that the average target density at peak compression is 39-43 g/cu cm, using the SHIVA Star facility at 90 kV discharge.

Chiang, P.-R.; Lewis, R. A.; Smith, G. A.; Dailey, J. M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Higman, K. I.; Bell, D.; Degnan, J. H.; Hussey, T. W.; Mullins, B. W.

1994-01-01

11

Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47?h) and junior (45–46?h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48?h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45?h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

2014-01-01

12

Fluctuations in Weekly Brief Measures of Quality of Working Life and Prediction of Quality of Working Life Systemic Inventory (QWLSI) Results After Four Months, Using the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the statistical validity that can be achieved with brief measures of psychosocial factors collected every week. For this research, 173 participants answered the Quality of Working Life Systemic Inventory (QWLSI) at the beginning and end of a 17-week research protocol. Every week, they spent about 2 minutes rating each of the 8 QWSLI subscales. Analysis showed

Christian Voirol; Gilles Dupuis

2010-01-01

13

Working fluids selection for fishing boats waste heat powered organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To utilize waste heat from fishing boats, an organic Rankine cycle/vapor compression cycle system was employed for ice making and a thermodynamic model was developed. Six working fluids were selected and compared in order to identify suitable working fluids which may yield high system efficiencies. The calculated results show that R600a is most suitable working fluid through comprehensive comparison of efficiency, size parameter, pressure ratio, coefficient of performance, system pressure and safety.

Bu, Xianbiao; Wang, Lingbao; Li, Huashan

2014-10-01

14

[Setting of compression therapy].  

PubMed

Compression therapy is the basic therapy in phlebology and lymphology. The pressure under the bandages has to exceed the intravenous pressure especially in standing position. Different compression materials such as short stretch systems, long stretch bandages and compression garments work differently on ambulatory venous hypertension, speed of reducing edema and arterial flow. Compression with high stiffness, inelastic materials is more effective than compression with low stiffness, elastic materials. These materials have to be placed correctly. Inelastic systems should be applied with high initial pressure because the pressure will loose at some time after walking. Even after one week of wearing, inelastic bandages keep higher resting and working pressure during walking than elastic bandages. However, more important is that they have lower resting pressure than elastic materials. Long stretch bandages and compression garments with great extensibility ensure low working pressure and higher resting pressure than short stretch systems. PMID:24371979

Planinsek Rucigaj, Tanja; Huljev, Dubravko

2013-10-01

15

Being engaged at work and detached at home: A week-level study on work engagement, psychological detachment, and affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although earlier research has shown that work engagement is associated with positive outcomes for the employee and the organization, this paper suggests that employees also need time periods for temporarily disengaging (i.e., psychological detaching) from work. We hypothesized that work engagement and psychological detachment from work during off-job time predict high positive affect and low negative affect and that psychological

Sabine Sonnentag; Eva J. Mojza; Carmen Binnewies; Annika Scholl

2008-01-01

16

Figure 3: Normal probability plot of home-to-work travel time observations for one subject during 13 weeks.  

E-print Network

Figure 3: Normal probability plot of home-to-work travel time observations for one subject during 13 weeks. Statistical test shows that travel time for the majority (77%) of all 95 subjects follow strategy for a rational traveler who cares about both journey time and lateness when facing stochastic

Levinson, David M.

17

Capitol Hill Recognizes National School Psychology Week and the Work of School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In honor of National School Psychology Week, the NASP Government and Professional Relations (GPR) and Communications committees and NASP staff joined forces on a campaign to help elected officials on Capitol Hill learn about the positive contributions of school psychologists and how their services impact student mental health and learning. This…

Communique, 2010

2010-01-01

18

Effect of Reducing Interns' Weekly Work Hours on Sleep and Attentional Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Knowledge of the physiological effects of extended (24 hours or more) work shifts in postgraduate medical training is limited. We aimed to quantify work hours, sleep, and attentional failures among first-year residents (postgraduate year 1) during a tradition- al rotation schedule that included extended work shifts and during an intervention schedule that limited scheduled work hours to 16 or

Steven W. Lockley; John W. Cronin; Erin E. Evans; Brian E. Cade; Clark J. Lee; Christopher P. Landrigan; Jeffrey M. Rothschild; Joel T. Katz; Craig M. Lilly; Peter H. Stone; Daniel Aeschbach; Charles A. Czeisler

2004-01-01

19

The Time Divide in Cross-National Perspective: The Work Week, Education and Institutions that Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior empirical studies have found that American workers report longer hours than do workers in other highly industrialized countries, and that the highly educated report the longest hours relative to other educational levels. This paper analyzes disparities in working hours by education levels in 17 high- and middle-income countries to assess…

Frase, Peter; Gornick, Janet C.

2013-01-01

20

Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

1977-01-01

21

An old integration scheme for compressible flows revisited, refurbished and put to work  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scheme for integrating the Euler equations of compressible flow in any hyperbolic case is presented. The scheme relies on the concept of characteristics but is strictly a finite difference scheme. Improvements in accuracy and physical consistence due to the scheme are discussed and results of its application to complex flows are shown.

Moretti, G.

1978-01-01

22

Survey of recent work on explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are five widely-used classes of explosive-driven flux compression generators. They are the spiral, coaxial, strip, plate and cylindrical implosion systems. The configurations are described and the characteristics of the various types are compared. There are a number of techniques for sharpening or impedance-matching the output pulse of the generators. The use of switching, fuses and transformers are discussed. Some

R. S. Caird; C. M. Fowler; D. J. Erickson; B. L. Freeman; W. B. Garn

1978-01-01

23

The Heart: See It, Feel It, Hear It, Work It! - PhUn Week Poster Session EB 2012  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three undergraduate students and one exercise physiology faculty member from California State University, Northridge visited Meadows Elementary School in Valencia California. Each of the undergraduate students and the faculty member chose a different topic related to the heart and worked independently to develop hands-on activities related to their topic. On the day of the PhUn week presentation, 90 fourth and fifth grade students and four teachers actively participated. The morning began with a short introduction about the function of the heart and its importance during exercise. The students then spilt up into four groups of 20-25 students each. The groups rotated through four different 15-minute hands-on activities. Activity one was Â?SeeÂ?, where the students learned about the anatomy of the heart. Students Â?sawÂ? a poster illustrating the entire circulatory system, a heart model, and a real sheep heart. Activity two was Â?FeelÂ?, where the students learned about the pulse and were challenged to find and Â?feelÂ? various pulses throughout their bodies. Activity three was Â?hearÂ?, where students learned about the stethoscope and had the opportunity to use real stethoscopes to Â?hearÂ? their hearts contracting. They also learned how to make a stethoscope at home. Activity four was Â?WorkÂ? where students learned about the heartÂ?s response to exercise. Students did various exercises and measured their heart rate response with heart rate monitors and by feeling their chests. We wrapped up the morning by bringing the entire group back together for a short discussion about schooling and careers in Physiology and Exercise Physiology.

Kim Henige (California State University, Northridge)

2012-04-25

24

Multistatic adaptive pulse compression  

E-print Network

A new technique denoted as multistatic adaptive pulse compression (MAPC) is introduced which exploits recent work on adaptive pulse compression (APC) in order to jointly separate and pulse compress the concurrently received return signals from K...

Blunt, Shannon David; Gerlach, K.

2006-07-01

25

Evaluation of compressed video-images for emergency telemedicine work with trauma patients.  

PubMed

Video-encoders in telemedicine systems need to adjust their coding methods for operation on heterogeneous networks on which bandwidth fluctuates. We evaluated MPEG-4 compressed video-pictures of three trauma patients. We compared the original video-frames with compressed video-frames in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). In a qualitative evaluation, three emergency specialists scored the quality of the video-images blind, on a five-point scale (1= bad to 5 = excellent). The PSNR increased as the bit rate increased from 0.2 to 6 Mbit/s. When the bit rate was fixed, in other words at a given network bandwidth, a higher PSNR was obtained at the expense of spatial resolution and frame rate. The video quality was highly affected by the amount of camera shake. Emergency telemedicine systems require a high bit rate, high spatial resolution and a high frame rate to achieve optimum video quality. However, if the bandwidth is limited (i.e. the bit rate is fixed), temporal resolution becomes more important than spatial resolution. PMID:15603613

Kim, Dong-Keun; Yoo, Sun K; Kang, Ho-Hyun; Park, In-Cheol; Youn, Yoo S; Kim, Seung H

2004-01-01

26

A week in the life of full-time office workers: work day and weekend light exposure in summer and winter.  

PubMed

Little is known about the light exposure in full-time office workers, who spend much of their workdays indoors. We examined the 24-h light exposure patterns of 14 full-time office workers during a week in summer, and assessed their dim light melatonin onset (DLMO, a marker of circadian timing) at the end of the working week. Six workers repeated the study in winter. Season had little impact on the workers' schedules, as the timing of sleep, commute, and work did not vary by more than 30 min in the summer and winter. In both seasons, workers received significantly more morning light on workdays than weekends, due to earlier wake times and the morning commute. Evening light in the two hours before bedtime was consistently dim. The timing of the DLMO did not vary between season, and by the end of the working week, the workers slept at a normal circadian phase. PMID:25172304

Crowley, Stephanie J; Molina, Thomas A; Burgess, Helen J

2015-01-01

27

Work distribution for the adiabatic compression of a dilute and interacting classical gas Gavin E. Crooks*  

E-print Network

find that the work performed during this process is described statistically by a gamma distribution, but not a prediction based on linear response theory. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.75.021116 PACS number s : 05.70.Ln, 05 whose work distribution is both easy to calculate and describe and which is distinctly non-Gaussian Eq

28

GERONTOLOGY AND SOCIAL WORK EXCHANGE PROGRAM The SSSW hosted a two week exchange for a group of faculty and students from  

E-print Network

GERONTOLOGY AND SOCIAL WORK EXCHANGE PROGRAM The SSSW hosted a two week exchange for a group of faculty and students from INACAP University in Chile. Photos courtesy of Jeanette Sucre Dr. Caroline by Graduate Center Social Welfare PhD candidates Sandra Castro and Jeannette Sucre. The content ranged from

Qiu, Weigang

29

A Poll about Children and Weight: Crunch Time during the American Work and School Week--3 P.M. to Bed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge today, with complex roots interwoven into nearly every facet of American life. This poll addresses one narrow slice of this web: the challenges that families face during the "crunch time" of the work and school week, between 3 pm and the time children go to bed. Compared to the school day, this…

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2013

2013-01-01

30

A Poll about Children and Weight: Crunch Time during the American Work and School Week--3 P.M. to Bed. Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge today, with complex roots interwoven into nearly every facet of American life. This poll addresses one narrow slice of this web: the challenges that families face during the "crunch time" of the work and school week, between 3 p.m. and the time children go to bed. Compared to the school day,…

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2013

2013-01-01

31

Update: These School Systems Swear by the Four-Day School Week because Students Work Harder and Face Fewer Distractions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dexter, Kansas, uses a four-day school week that is improving classroom instruction and cutting energy bills. There is evidence that four-day schedules improve student achievement, increase attendance, allow more class time, raise teacher morale, and provide more staff development time. (MD)

Blankenship, Ted

1984-01-01

32

Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities…

Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

2009-01-01

33

THE UNIVERISTY OF HONG KONG Five-day Work Week: Opening Hours of Faculties and Departments/Centres/Units  

E-print Network

teaching weeks 9:00 am ­ 1:00 pm Comparative Education Research Centre 9:00 am ­ 6:00 pm Closed Hong Kong Institute of Economics and Business Strategy 9:00 am ­ 5:45 pm 9:00 am ­ 6:00 pm Closed Dentistry, Faculty Education, Faculty of Education Faculty Office 9:00 am ­ 5:30 pm 9:00 am ­ 1:00 pm Division of Speech

Tam, Vincent W. L.

34

Work Experience: Marine Biology A group of 4 to 6 potential marine biology students will spend one week in the  

E-print Network

Work Experience: Marine Biology (ID:209) Outline A group of 4 to 6 potential marine biology of studying Marine Biology at Swansea University and develop a general understanding of the different subject will experience marine sampling techniques, both on board the university research vessel and from the shore

Harman, Neal.A.

35

faf1415004 Rev. 3/11/14 Student employees are allowed to work no more than 20 hours per week while enrolled in classes. For a student to be  

E-print Network

Overload Form Tech CWID#: First Name: Last Name: STUDENT INFORMATION (To be filled out by the student): Ifaf1415004 Rev. 3/11/14 Student employees are allowed to work no more than 20 hours per week while enrolled in classes. For a student to be permitted to work more than 20 hours per week due to special

Selmic, Sandra

36

faf1314004 Rev. 10/21/13 Student employees are allowed to work no more than 20 hours per week while enrolled in classes. For a student to be  

E-print Network

Overload Form Tech CWID#: First Name: Last Name: STUDENT INFORMATION (To be filled out by the student): Ifaf1314004 Rev. 10/21/13 Student employees are allowed to work no more than 20 hours per week while enrolled in classes. For a student to be permitted to work more than 20 hours per week due to special

Selmic, Sandra

37

Human structure in six and one-half weeks: One approach to providing foundational anatomical competency in an era of compressed medical school anatomy curricula.  

PubMed

The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine reduced gross anatomy from a full semester, 130-hour course to a six and one-half week, 105-hour course as part of a new integrated systems-based pre-clinical curriculum. In addition to the reduction in contact hours, content from embryology, histology, and radiology were added into the course. The new curriculum incorporated best practices in the area of regular assessments, feedback, clinical application, multiple teaching modalities, and professionalism. A comparison of the components of the traditional and integrated curriculum, along with end of course evaluations and student performance revealed that the new curriculum was just as effective, if not more effective. This article also provides important lessons learned. Anat Sci Educ 8: 149-157. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Association of Anatomists. PMID:24996159

Halliday, Nancy; O'Donoghue, Daniel; Klump, Kathryn E; Thompson, Britta

2015-03-01

38

Human Structure in Six and One-Half Weeks: One Approach to Providing Foundational Anatomical Competency in an Era of Compressed Medical School Anatomy curricula  

PubMed Central

The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine reduced gross anatomy from a full semester, 130-hour course to a six and one-half week, 105-hour course as part of a new integrated systems-based pre-clinical curriculum. In addition to the reduction in contact hours, content from embryology, histology, and radiology were added into the course. The new curriculum incorporated best practices in the area of regular assessments, feedback, clinical application, multiple teaching modalities, and professionalism. A comparison of the components of the traditional and integrated curriculum, along with end of course evaluations and student performance revealed that the new curriculum was just as effective, if not more effective. This article also provides important lessons learned. Anat Sci Educ 8: 149–157. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Association of Anatomists. PMID:24996159

Halliday, Nancy; O'Donoghue, Daniel; Klump, Kathryn E; Thompson, Britta

2015-01-01

39

Effects of recovery sleep after one work week of mild sleep restriction on interleukin-6 and cortisol secretion and daytime sleepiness and performance  

PubMed Central

One workweek of mild sleep restriction adversely impacts sleepiness, performance, and proinflammatory cytokines. Many individuals try to overcome these adverse effects by extending their sleep on weekends. To assess whether extended recovery sleep reverses the effects of mild sleep restriction on sleepiness/alertness, inflammation, and stress hormones, 30 healthy young men and women (mean age ± SD, 24.7 ± 3.5 yr; mean body mass index ± SD, 23.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2) participated in a sleep laboratory experiment of 13 nights [4 baseline nights (8 h/night), followed by 6 sleep restriction nights (6 h/night) and 3 recovery nights (10 h/night)]. Twenty-four-hour profiles of circulating IL-6 and cortisol, objective and subjective daytime sleepiness (Multiple Sleep Latency Test and Stanford Sleepiness Scale), and performance (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were assessed on days 4 (baseline), 10 (after 1 wk of sleep restriction), and 13 (after 2 nights of recovery sleep). Serial 24-h IL-6 plasma levels increased significantly during sleep restriction and returned to baseline after recovery sleep. Serial 24-h cortisol levels during restriction did not change compared with baseline, but after recovery they were significantly lower. Subjective and objective sleepiness increased significantly after restriction and returned to baseline after recovery. In contrast, performance deteriorated significantly after restriction and did not improve after recovery. Extended recovery sleep over the weekend reverses the impact of one work week of mild sleep restriction on daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and IL-6 levels, reduces cortisol levels, but does not correct performance deficits. The long-term effects of a repeated sleep restriction/sleep recovery weekly cycle in humans remain unknown. PMID:23941878

Pejovic, Slobodanka; Basta, Maria; Kritikou, Ilia; Shaffer, Michele L.; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Stiffler, David; Stefanakis, Zacharias; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P.

2013-01-01

40

Baseball Weekly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USA Today has recently made its Baseball Weekly newspaper available via the Web. Included are stories on major league, minor league, and college baseball, as well as feature articles. Baseball Weekly also presents weekly fantasy league reports, which analyze player statistics in the context of fans who might have the players in a fantasy league -- a league in which "owners" compile teams of major league players and receive points based on those players' ongoing statistics. The fantasy league reports are one of the newspaper's best resources.

41

A randomised controlled 8-week crossover clinical evaluation of the 3M Coban 2 Layer Compression System versus Profore to evaluate the product performance in patients with venous leg ulcers.  

PubMed

This study compared a two-layer (Coban 2 Layer) and a four-layer (Profore) compression bandage system in venous leg ulcer patients. Participants (n = 81) were enrolled into an 8-week, randomised, open-label, ten-centre, crossover clinical trial. The primary endpoint was bandage slippage measured at each dressing change. Secondary endpoints included wound healing, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and patient preference. Mean slippage estimated from a mixed analysis of variance model (697 visits) was 2.48 cm for the two-layer system and 4.17 cm for the four-layer system (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in percent of wounds that healed (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.30), in wound area reduction (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, P = 0.88) or in linear healing rate (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, P = 0.94). The HRQoL Physical Symptoms and Daily Living scores were significantly higher with the two-layer system (pooled two-sample t-test, P < 0.05). Patients had a strong preference for the two-layer system (72%) than the four-layer system (22%), with 6% having no preference. In conclusion, the two-layer system exhibited significantly less bandage slippage than the four-layer system. While less bandage slippage did not appear to impact wound healing, there was indication that it may have influenced patient preference in favour of the two-layer system and potentially impacted patients' HRQoL. PMID:18494632

Moffatt, Christine J; Edwards, Lynfa; Collier, Mark; Treadwell, Terry; Miller, Michael; Shafer, Laura; Sibbald, Gary; Brassard, Alain; McIntosh, Andrea; Reyzelman, Alex; Price, Patricia; Kraus, Stacia Merkel; Walters, Shelley-Ann; Harding, Keith

2008-06-01

42

Solar Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is intended to spark pre- and early teen girls' interest in pursuing careers in science through the study of recent solar physics discoveries. The set of daily activities is self-contained, so participation can be carried out on a day-to-day basis depending upon your schedule. One of the great strengths of this project is the interaction with real scientists who have first hand knowledge of the various topics which make up Solar Week. These activities will also be available after the period chosen for Solar Week, without real-time interaction with scientists. This website is designed as a week-long unit. Each day covers a different topic.

43

} Surgery 7 weeks } Medicine 7 weeks  

E-print Network

#12;} Surgery 7 weeks } Medicine 7 weeks } Pediatrics 7 weeks } OB-GYN 7 weeks } Psychiatry 7 weeks;} Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics 8 weeks } OB-GYN, Family Med, Psychiatry 6 weeks } Elective block 6 weeks;} Educational and LCME concerns } Student wish for longer Medicine and Surgery rotations } National norms

Myers, Lawrence C.

44

Week 8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At week 8, the impact of an earthworm on decomposition is obvious and the material in the worm container is beginning to appear as compost. Keep in mind that the material within the worm-free container will decompose due to oxygen and bacteria, but at a much slower rate than the container with earthworms.

Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

2007-07-08

45

Compressing Aviation Data in XML Format  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design, operations and maintenance activities in aviation involve analysis of variety of aviation data. This data is typically in disparate formats making it difficult to use with different software packages. Use of a self-describing and extensible standard called XML provides a solution to this interoperability problem. XML provides a standardized language for describing the contents of an information stream, performing the same kind of definitional role for Web content as a database schema performs for relational databases. XML data can be easily customized for display using Extensible Style Sheets (XSL). While self-describing nature of XML makes it easy to reuse, it also increases the size of data significantly. Therefore, transfemng a dataset in XML form can decrease throughput and increase data transfer time significantly. It also increases storage requirements significantly. A natural solution to the problem is to compress the data using suitable algorithm and transfer it in the compressed form. We found that XML-specific compressors such as Xmill and XMLPPM generally outperform traditional compressors. However, optimal use of Xmill requires of discovery of optimal options to use while running Xmill. This, in turn, depends on the nature of data used. Manual disc0ver.y of optimal setting can require an engineer to experiment for weeks. We have devised an XML compression advisory tool that can analyze sample data files and recommend what compression tool would work the best for this data and what are the optimal settings to be used with a XML compression tool.

Patel, Hemil; Lau, Derek; Kulkarni, Deepak

2003-01-01

46

Brain Week!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week-long exploration of brain structure and function through hands-on experiments and web Treasure Hunts ends with an open inquiry on the brain designed by students. Exploration topics include brain parts and their functions, surface area, optic nerve activity, touch receptors, muscle spindle fibers, motor learning, neuroscientists, and the effects of drugs on the brain. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2004 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Rachel Gillis (Arsenal Technical High School)

2005-05-01

47

Compressed Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which demonstrates a basic overview of compressed air for use in machines. Objective: Describe the different tools that can be used with compressed air. You can find the animation under the heading "Automation Technology."

48

Relief of Night-time Symptoms Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Following 4 Weeks of Treatment With Pantoprazole Magnesium: The Mexican Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Working Group  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of pantoprazole magnesium (pantoprazole-Mg) 40 mg in the relief of esophageal and extra-esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), particularly night-time symptoms. Methods Patients (aged 18-50 years) with 3-month history of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation plus at least one other symptom in the last week were enrolled in a nationwide, prospective and observational study in Mexico. Patients received pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily during 4 weeks. Symptoms were assessed through a physician-administered structured interview and the patient-completed ReQuest in Practice™ questionnaire. Night-time GERD was defined as arousal from sleep during the night due to GERD-associated symptoms. Results Out of 4,343 patients included at basal visit, 3,665 were considered for the effectiveness per protocol analysis. At baseline, patients had a median of 8 GERD related symptoms. Patients with night-time GERD symptoms (42.7%) were more likely to have extra-esophageal symptoms (P < 0.001) than other GERD patients. Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily for 4 weeks improved a broad range of GERD-associated symptoms from baseline (80% reduction on physicians assessments; 68-77% reduction on ReQuest in Practice™ dimensions), including both day- and night-time GERD symptoms; improvements were the greatest for extra-esophageal symptoms in patients with night-time symptoms. Pantoprazole-Mg was well tolerated. Conclusions Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg significantly improved a broad range of esophageal and extra-esophageal GERD related symptoms including sleep disturbances, as well as well-being, in patients with daytime or night-time GERD, making it a good option for patients with GERD, especially when extra-esophageal and night-time symptoms are present. PMID:24466446

Orr, William; Vargas-Romero, José Antonio; Remes-Troche, José María; Morales-Arámbula, Miguel; Soto-Pérez, Julio César; Mateos-Pérez, Gualberto; Sobrino-Cossío, Sergio; Teramoto-Matsubara, Oscar; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Orozco-Gamiz, Antonio; Saez-Ríos, Adolfo; Arellano-Plancarte, Araceli; Chiu-Ugalde, Jazmin; Tholen, Anne; Horbach, Silke; Lundberg, Lars; Fass, Ronnie

2014-01-01

49

Modeling Compressed Turbulence  

SciTech Connect

From ICE to ICF, the effect of mean compression or expansion is important for predicting the state of the turbulence. When developing combustion models, we would like to know the mix state of the reacting species. This involves density and concentration fluctuations. To date, research has focused on the effect of compression on the turbulent kinetic energy. The current work provides constraints to help development and calibration for models of species mixing effects in compressed turbulence. The Cambon, et al., re-scaling has been extended to buoyancy driven turbulence, including the fluctuating density, concentration, and temperature equations. The new scalings give us helpful constraints for developing and validating RANS turbulence models.

Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13

50

Signal Compression Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Signal Compression Lab (SCL) is a part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara. "Current research activities at SCL include low bit rate speech coding, wideband speech and audio compression, speech modeling and synthesis," and many more focus areas involving data compression of various forms of media. A large collection of informative demonstrations and slide presentations illustrate the group's work. Many of the SCL staff have publications available for downloading, which are divided into several categories for easy browsing.

51

Compression embedding  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.

Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

52

Compression embedding  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

1998-07-07

53

Working  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new special section in the New York Times, Working, features articles on the American worker. For example, the current issue contains stories on the contrast between the recent trend in layoffs and employers's complaints that they are unable to fill job openings; what is "retaining and motivating...the American worker"; and the shortage of qualified legal talent. The site also offers a great deal of career and job advice such as an article on non-traditional jobs, job forecasts, and office design. Interviews include an audio piece with Robert B. Reich, the former US Secretary of Labor. And of course, what would a newspaper section on work be without a link to the Dilbert comic strip?

54

Compression embedding  

DOEpatents

A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

1998-03-10

55

Compression embedding  

DOEpatents

A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.

Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

56

Work.  

PubMed

The very nature of work is changing because of rapid social change, a culture of abundance, and the ability to substitute information for equipment, inventory, and other material aspects of value creation. In America, we are experiencing an erosion of the concept of a "job," a dramatic shift to service and information as the basis for value added, market commercialism, and the importance of the self-managed career. In some of these areas, dentistry has been consistent with the patterns of innovation--even being a model in some cases. There are also areas where dentistry is moving in contrary directions. PMID:12602221

Chambers, David W

2002-01-01

57

National Engineers Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now an annual event, National Engineers Week was founded by the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1951. In 1988, the National Engineers Week consortium expanded and now includes "more than 100 engineering, scientific, and education societies and major corporations dedicated to enhancing the public understanding of the engineering profession and to promoting pre-college interest in math, science, and engineering as a career option." From this website, visitors can read suggestions for ways to get involved in National Engineers Week (National Engineers Week 2004 was held February 22-28) and learn about other competitions for young and upcoming engineers. Also available online is the first Connecting the World teleconference which featured Alan Boeckmann, Chairman and CEO of Fluor Corporation, speaking about Engineering in the 21st Century. The website currently promotes the "Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day," which was presented to the United Nations as part of an international briefing, Girls and Technology: New Educational Opportunities. Another feature of interest is the section highlighting the accomplishments of engineers and their inspirational stories about becoming "the engineer behind the sounds of Star Wars," for example. The New Faces of Engineering program highlights the work of young engineers. A discussion forum and various educational resources are also available from this website. Finally, a section on Engineer / Volunteer Kits suggests ways engineers, community members and teachers can get involved in supporting up-and-coming engineers.

58

National Engineers Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now an annual event, National Engineers Week was founded by the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1951. In 1988, the National Engineers Week consortium expanded and now includes more than 100 engineering, scientific, and education societies and major corporations dedicated to enhancing the public understanding of the engineering profession and to promoting pre-college interest in math, science, and engineering as a career option. From this website, visitors can read suggestions for ways to get involved in National Engineers Week (National Engineers Week 2004 was held February 22-28) and learn about other competitions for young and upcoming engineers. Also available online is the first Connecting the World teleconference which featured Alan Boeckmann, Chairman and CEO of Fluor Corporation, speaking about Engineering in the 21st Century. The website currently promotes the Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day, which was presented to the United Nations as part of an international briefing, Girls and Technology: New Educational Opportunities. Another feature of interest is the section highlighting the accomplishments of engineers and their inspirational stories about becoming the engineer behind the sounds of Star Wars, for example. The New Faces of Engineering program highlights the work of young engineers. A discussion forum and various educational resources are also available from this website. Finally, a section on Engineer / Volunteer Kits suggests ways engineers, community members and teachers can get involved in supporting up-and-coming engineers.

2007-12-12

59

BE(E) Amazing Race 2014! Heartowa Week 6-June 8-14-Welcome to Heartowa, Ontario! Where healthy living is heart work!  

E-print Network

- June 8-14- Welcome to Heartowa, Ontario! Where healthy living is heart work high incidence of heart disease and stroke in Canada. She linked the results. Heartwell took her research to heart and decided that something needed to be done

Seldin, Jonathan P.

60

Changing Hours of Work: A Review and Analysis of the Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature on the positive and negative effects of compressed work weeks and flextime on employee performance, satisfaction, absenteeism and tardiness, and turnover, as well as their effect on the quality of work done and the frequency of accidents. (IRT)

Glueck, William F.

1979-01-01

61

child's grade in Fall 2012 week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4 week 5 week 6 week 7 week 8 week 9  

E-print Network

Slugs Grades1-2 Only One Ocean Ocean Playground Grades2-3 Seaside Explorers* Ocean Explorers* Grades4-6 Snorkel Camp* Shark Encounters* Marine Biologist* Ocean Adventures* Grades7-9 Oceanographer* Surfing visits. SEA SLUGS $210 per week ($185 members) Explore the wonders found beneath the waves without

Hampton, Randy

62

Linearly Compressed Pages: A Main Memory  

E-print Network

computation? Solution: Linearly Compressed Pages (LCP): fixed-size cache line granularity compression 1 · LCP: Key Idea · LCP: Implementation · Evaluation · Conclusion and Future Work #12;Key Parameters Latency Complexity And Cost IBM MXT [IBM J.R.D. '01] Robust Main Memory Compression [ISCA'05] LCP

Mutlu, Onur

63

Geometry compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the concept of Geometry Compression, al- lowing 3D triangle data to be represented with a factor of 6 to 10 times fewer bits than conventional techniques, with only slight loss- es in object quality. The technique is amenable to rapid decompres- sion in both software and hardware implementations; if 3D render- ing hardware contains a geometry decompression

Michael Deering

1995-01-01

64

Story of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chronicling World War II, the African American experience, nature writing, and dozens of other areas is all in a day's work for the Library of America. Its volumes have received critical acclaim from readers and critics. For the past few years, the organization has been offering up selected stories and features from its pages on this site. Each story here is available in pdf format and contains links to other compelling content, including video clips, interviews, and image databases. Currently there are over 100 stories online, including P.T. Barnum's "In France" and H.P. Lovecraft's haunting "The Music of Erich Zann." Visitors can sign up to receive a new story each week or suggest stories for possible inclusion.

2013-09-27

65

Problem of the Week Blog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog posts a weekly free problem scenario from The Math Forum inspired by current PoWs, student work, or daily encounters. The bloggers goal is to have the public read the posts and use the Notice-Wonder strategy to identify the mathematics in the post. The blog also contains reader comments and feedback.

Annie Fetter at the Math Forum

2013-01-01

66

Banned Books Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Next week is Banned Books Week, and the American Library Association (ALA) offers this site giving background on Banned Books Week and censorship as well as resources to help teachers, librarians, and booksellers observe the week. Once again, the Harry Potter series tops this year's list of most challenged books. At the ALA site, users will find the complete list as well as the most challenged books of the past decade. In addition, the site hosts a press kit, resources for sale to celebrate the week, links to other banned books sites, and a page on book burning.

67

Working Women Working Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working Women Working Together, a site created by the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), focuses on the wag gap. On average, American working women make $0.74 for every dollar earned by men, meaning that working women make an average of $148 dollars a week less than men. Working Women Working Together contains several fact sheets and data tables which compare salaries between men and women, as well as project the impact that equal pay would have on American families. The site also contains annotated links, several email distribution lists, and fact sheets on related topics including the world wage gap, retirement, and flexible work schedules.

68

COMPRESSION WAVES AND PHASE PLOTS: SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Compression wave analysis started nearly 50 years ago with Fowles. Coperthwaite and Williams gave a method that helps identify simple and steady waves. We have been developing a method that gives describes the non-isentropic character of compression waves, in general. One result of that work is a simple analysis tool. Our method helps clearly identify when a compression wave is a simple wave, a steady wave (shock), and when the compression wave is in transition. This affects the analysis of compression wave experiments and the resulting extraction of the high-pressure equation of state.

Orlikowski, D; Minich, R

2011-08-01

69

Compressive sensing exploiting wavelet-domain dependencies for ECG compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging signal processing paradigm that enables sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse signals. Extensive previous work has exploited the sparse representation of ECG signals in compression applications. In this paper, we propose the use of wavelet domain dependencies to further reduce the number of samples in compressive sensing-based ECG compression while decreasing the computational complexity. R wave events manifest themselves as chains of large coefficients propagating across scales to form a connected subtree of the wavelet coefficient tree. We show that the incorporation of this connectedness as additional prior information into a modified version of the CoSaMP algorithm can significantly reduce the required number of samples to achieve good quality in the reconstruction. This approach also allows more control over the ECG signal reconstruction, in particular, the QRS complex, which is typically distorted when prior information is not included in the recovery. The compression algorithm was tested upon records selected from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm leads to high compression ratios associated with low distortion levels relative to state-of-the-art compression algorithms.

Polania, Luisa F.; Carrillo, Rafael E.; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E.

2012-06-01

70

FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.  

PubMed

In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware. PMID:24524158

Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

2013-01-01

71

Solar Week 2001 Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers a week of online curriculum with daily topics on the Sun, including Sun as a Star, the Sun Close Up, Solar Activity, Eclipses, and Careers organized for Solar Week 2011. Each day contains a game, an activity, topical questions, a related Life Science topic, teacher information, and an Ask the Scientist page.

72

Efficient Lossy Compression for Compressive Sensing Acquisition of Images in Compressive Sensing Imaging Systems  

PubMed Central

Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI) is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS) acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4?2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity. PMID:25490597

Li, Xiangwei; Lan, Xuguang; Yang, Meng; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning

2014-01-01

73

Efficient lossy compression for compressive sensing acquisition of images in compressive sensing imaging systems.  

PubMed

Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI) is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS) acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity. PMID:25490597

Li, Xiangwei; Lan, Xuguang; Yang, Meng; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning

2014-01-01

74

STOCHASTIC 2-D NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION WITH ARTIFICIAL COMPRESSIBILITY  

E-print Network

STOCHASTIC 2-D NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION WITH ARTIFICIAL COMPRESSIBILITY Navier-Stokes equation wi* *th artificial compressibility. The main results of this work operator and the nonlinearity. 1. Introduction The stochastic Navier-Stokes

Menaldi, Jose-Luis

75

Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work  

E-print Network

"Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total...

Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

76

Solar Week Friday: Blog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a blog entry about the process by which rocket payloads are assembled prior to launch. It was written by one of the female team members associated with a NASA sounding rocket launch program. The blog entry reading is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

77

MotorWeek  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2009-01-01

78

Weekly Epidemiological Record  

MedlinePLUS

... ??????? Español RSS Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) Menu WER ... Twitter WHO Facebook page WHO Google+ page WHO iTunes WHO Play Store © WHO 2015 Back to top ...

79

MotorWeek  

ScienceCinema

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2013-04-19

80

National Wildlife Week 2002  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

April 7-13, 2002, is Canada's National Wildlife Week. The week, a tribute to conservation pioneer Jack Miner, is an opportunity for citizens to "celebrate wildlife and take action to protect wild plants and animals." In addition to a calendar of events across Canada, the celebration's home page features 20 things that anyone can do to protect wildlife, as well as games, activities, and fact sheets focused on this year's theme -- Climate Change.

81

Weekly Digest Guide The Weekly Digest is YSM's weekly events newsletter, distributed early  

E-print Network

Weekly Digest Guide The Weekly Digest is YSM's weekly events newsletter, distributed early each Friday morning to 9,000+ email recipients on the Yale campus. The Weekly Digest includes approximately. Timeline The Weekly Digest is published on Fridays for events taking place the following week. Lead time

Lee, Daeyeol

82

Video Compressive Sensing Using Gaussian Mixture Models  

E-print Network

and segmentation [15, 16], as well as image denoising, inpainting and deblurring [17, 18]. Recent work has of temporal compression. Index Terms--Compressive sensing, Gaussian mixture model, online learning, coded- struct frames from a single coded exposure photograph. Reddy et al. [4] developed a programmable

Carin, Lawrence

83

Complex synthetic aperture radar data compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing compression algorithms, primarily designed for visible electro-optical (EO) imagery, do not work well for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The best compression ratios achieved to date are less than 10:1 with minimal degradation to the phase data. Previously, phase data has been discarded with only magnitude data saved for analysis. Now that the importance of phase has been recognized

Francis R. Cirillo; Paul L. Poehler; Debra S. Schwartz; Houra Rais

2002-01-01

84

Does Work Experience Actually Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As unemployment levels rise, so education and training move into the policy spotlight. For the government, this is a very uncomfortable place to be right now. A number of large companies have withdrawn from the flagship Work Programme--under which jobseekers are invited to take up unpaid work placements of between two and eight weeks--amid…

Field, John

2012-01-01

85

Atomic effect algebras with compression bases  

SciTech Connect

Compression base effect algebras were recently introduced by Gudder [Demonstr. Math. 39, 43 (2006)]. They generalize sequential effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 49, 87 (2002)] and compressible effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 54, 93 (2004)]. The present paper focuses on atomic compression base effect algebras and the consequences of atoms being foci (so-called projections) of the compressions in the compression base. Part of our work generalizes results obtained in atomic sequential effect algebras by Tkadlec [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 47, 185 (2008)]. The notion of projection-atomicity is introduced and studied, and several conditions that force a compression base effect algebra or the set of its projections to be Boolean are found. Finally, we apply some of these results to sequential effect algebras and strengthen a previously established result concerning a sufficient condition for them to be Boolean.

Caragheorgheopol, Dan [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Technical University of Civil Engineering in Bucharest, 124 Lacul Tei blv., RO-020396 and 'Ilie Murgulescu' Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Tkadlec, Josef [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic)

2011-01-15

86

Complex synthetic aperture radar data compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing compression algorithms, primarily designed for visible electro-optical (EO) imagery, do not work well for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The best compression ratios achieved to date are less than 10:1 with minimal degradation to the phase data. Previously, phase data has been discarded with only magnitude data saved for analysis. Now that the importance of phase has been recognized for Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR), Coherent Change Detection (CCD), and polarimetry, requirements exist to preserve, transmit, and archive the both components. Bandwidth and storage limitations on existing and future platforms make compression of this data a top priority. This paper presents results obtained using a new compression algorithm designed specifically to compress SAR imagery, while preserving both magnitude and phase information at compression ratios of 20:1 and better.

Cirillo, Francis R.; Poehler, Paul L.; Schwartz, Debra S.; Rais, Houra

2002-08-01

87

Research Week at a GlanceResearch Week at a GlanceResearch Week at a Glance Monday to Thursday  

E-print Network

and Well-being? Team session chaired by Dr. Fuschia Sirois featuring the work of Dr. Estelle Chamoux, DrWhyistheMindbodyConnectionImportantforHealthand Wellbeing?FeaturingDr.Sirois,Dr.Mitchell,Dr.Chamoux,Dr.Maskand studentEmiliePepin Tuesday 12:00p their work with the Bishop's community. Research Week presents an exciting array of activities

88

This program is an opportunity for Cal Teach undergraduates to work intensively in a team environment for one month in COSMOS, a four-week intensive science, math, and engineering  

E-print Network

on conducting the Scientific Communication Course and produce lesson plans based on the cluster materials environment for one month in COSMOS, a four-week intensive science, math, and engineering summer residential will be teaching STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) in K-12 settings, will · Gain first-hand experience

Wang, Deli

89

This program is an opportunity for Cal Teach undergraduates to work intensively in a team environment for one month in COSMOS, a four-week intensive science, math, and engineering  

E-print Network

on conducting the Scientific Communication Course and produce lesson plans based on the cluster materials environment for one month in COSMOS, a four-week intensive science, math, and engineering summer residential Teach Cluster Assistants, who will be teaching STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) in K-12

Kritsuk, Alexei

90

Median Nerve Trauma in a Rat Model of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder  

PubMed Central

Anatomical and physiological changes were evaluated in the median nerves of rats trained to perform repetitive reaching. Motor degradation was evident after 4 weeks. ED1-immunoreactive macrophages were seen in the transcarpal region of the median nerve of both forelimbs by 5–6 weeks. Fibrosis, characterized by increased immunoexpression of collagen type I by 8 weeks and connective tissue growth factor by 12 weeks, was evident. The conduction velocity (NCV) within the carpal tunnel showed a modest but significant decline after 9–12 weeks. The lowest NCV values were found in animals that refused to participate in the task for the full time available. Thus, both anatomical and physiological signs of progressive tissue damage were present in this model. These results, together with other recent findings indicate that work-related carpal tunnel syndrome develops through mechanisms that include injury, inflammation, fibrosis and subsequent nerve compression. PMID:12908929

CLARK, BRIAN D.; BARR, ANN E.; SAFADI, FAYEZ F.; BEITMAN, LISA; AL-SHATTI, TALAL; AMIN, MAMTA; GAUGHAN, JOHN P.; BARBE, MARY F.

2006-01-01

91

Comparison of the effectiveness of compression stockings and layer compression systems in venous ulceration treatment  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the research was to compare the dynamics of venous ulcer healing when treated with the use of compression stockings as well as original two- and four-layer bandage systems. Material and methods A group of 46 patients suffering from venous ulcers was studied. This group consisted of 36 (78.3%) women and 10 (21.70%) men aged between 41 and 88 years (the average age was 66.6 years and the median was 67). Patients were randomized into three groups, for treatment with the ProGuide two-layer system, Profore four-layer compression, and with the use of compression stockings class II. In the case of multi-layer compression, compression ensuring 40 mmHg blood pressure at ankle level was used. Results In all patients, independently of the type of compression therapy, a few significant statistical changes of ulceration area in time were observed (Student’s t test for matched pairs, p < 0.05). The largest loss of ulceration area in each of the successive measurements was observed in patients treated with the four-layer system – on average 0.63 cm2/per week. The smallest loss of ulceration area was observed in patients using compression stockings – on average 0.44 cm2/per week. However, the observed differences were not statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test H = 4.45, p > 0.05). Conclusions A systematic compression therapy, applied with preliminary blood pressure of 40 mmHg, is an effective method of conservative treatment of venous ulcers. Compression stockings and prepared systems of multi-layer compression were characterized by similar clinical effectiveness. PMID:22419941

Jawie?, Arkadiusz; Cierzniakowska, Katarzyna; Cwajda-Bia?asik, Justyna; Mo?cicka, Paulina

2010-01-01

92

This Week at USDA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's going on at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) you ask? It's a good question and each week the communications team at the USDA shares some of the key announcements, activities, and current events related to their ongoing projects. In any given week, visitors might learn about how they are making air travel safer by helping to reduce bird-aircraft collisions or read about preparation equipment that's being distributed to schools. Visitors can look over the latest News Releases and also sign up for specific topical email newsletters. Additionally, the Reports and Publications area contains direct links to complete agency reports and some of its data sets.

93

Extended testing of compression distillation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

1972-01-01

94

Highlights From PhUn Week 2009  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist highlighting Physiology Understanding (PhUn) Week 2009, which was held the first week of November and reached nearly 10,000 students from kindergarten through twelfth grade. "Forty events across the nation were coordinated by more than 250 APS members and scientists who volunteered their expertise and time to work with close to 170 teachers and science educators across 24 states and Puerto Rico."

2010-04-01

95

Arabic 12 Weeks Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volumes 1 and 2 (Lesson Units 1-55) of this beginning course in Arabic follow the Defense Language Institute format for intensive 12-week language courses, designed for native-speaker instructors using audiolingual methodology in the classroom. The third (and final) volume in this series constitutes a reference guide to pronunciation and grammar…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

96

A Week for Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Space Week focuses on concepts that enable students to make concrete observations in the early grades (K-2) and move to concepts that help students develop their internet research and writing skills in middle and upper grades (Grades 3-5), and culminates with the development of science investigation design skills (Grade 6). To help launch your…

Comstock, Diane

2008-01-01

97

Visible Embryo: 26 weeks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

a comprehensive resource of information on human development at 26 weeks of gestation, designed for both medical student and interested lay people. The Visible Embryo offers a detailed pictorial account of normal and abnormal development. This is a subset of a larger site.

Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

2006-11-01

98

Visible Embryo: 14 weeks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

a comprehensive resource of information on human development at 14 weeks of gestation (80-90mm, 25g), designed for both medical student and interested lay people. The Visible Embryo offers a detailed pictorial account of normal and abnormal development. This is a subset of a larger site.

Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

2006-10-31

99

Brain Awareness Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Awareness Week (BAW) is an inspirational global campaign that unites those who share an interest in elevating public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain and nervous system research. BAW focuses international attention on the field of neuroscience and offers opportunities for teachers and students to engage in fun educational activities.

Sf (Society for Neuroscience)

2005-05-01

100

A Week of Observations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even the most effective teachers have room to grow, but it's not always easy for principals to give adequate guidance through short observations. High school principal Jenne Colasacco decided to bring more depth to her observations by observing each of her teachers during one class for an entire week. The new observation structure, which included…

Colasacco, Jenne

2011-01-01

101

Phun Week: Understanding Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

2009-01-01

102

Earth Science Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the American Geological Institute, features information about Earth Science Week, which occurs October 8-14 in 2006. Discover ideas about how you and others can become scientifically literate citizens. The site features information for both teachers and students, as well as information about planning earth science events and classroom activities.

American Geological Institute

103

The Weekly Defense Monitor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new free electronic publication by the Center for Defense Information will bring readers a few short articles on various military and foreign affairs issues each week. Recent topics included an arms trade code of conduct introduced in the Senate, US base closures and the military force structure, and the cost of defending Western Europe.

104

Swahili 12 Weeks Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

105

Data compression using Chebyshev transform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a method, system, and computer program product for implementation of a capable, general purpose compression algorithm that can be engaged on the fly. This invention has particular practical application with time-series data, and more particularly, time-series data obtained form a spacecraft, or similar situations where cost, size and/or power limitations are prevalent, although it is not limited to such applications. It is also particularly applicable to the compression of serial data streams and works in one, two, or three dimensions. The original input data is approximated by Chebyshev polynomials, achieving very high compression ratios on serial data streams with minimal loss of scientific information.

Cheng, Andrew F. (Inventor); Hawkins, III, S. Edward (Inventor); Nguyen, Lillian (Inventor); Monaco, Christopher A. (Inventor); Seagrave, Gordon G. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

106

Expand Your Child's Vocabulary: A Twelve-Week Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet shows parents how to help their children develop a number of strategies for understanding words by working together on a methodical, 12-week program of word study. Sections of the booklet describe the program week by week. The techniques described are: Read and Use Context; Search for Synonyms, Antonyms, Homonyms; Learn Important…

Smith, Carl B.

107

75 FR 71523 - National Farm-City Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...November 19, 2010 National Farm-City Week, 2010 By the President...families, and work to ensure that farming remains an economically, socially...generations. During National Farm-City Week, we recognize the myriad...tables. During National Farm-City Week, as the bounty of...

2010-11-24

108

75 FR 10993 - Save Your Vision Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...8483 of March 5, 2010 Save Your Vision Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...treatment of eye conditions. Save Your Vision Week is a time for all Americans to take action...performing household chores and yard work. This week, I encourage all Americans to visit...

2010-03-10

109

75 FR 48853 - National Health Center Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8545--National Health Center Week, 2010 Presidential Documents Federal Register...August 5, 2010 National Health Center Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...preventive care. During National Health Center Week, we recognize the important work of...

2010-08-11

110

Compression in leg ulcer treatment: inelastic compression.  

PubMed

Compression therapy is extremely effective in promoting ulcer healing. Which material to use, if elastic or inelastic, is still a matter of debate. This paper will provide an overview on the recent findings in compression therapy mainly for venous or mixed ulcers which are the great majority of leg ulcers. In this paper it will be demonstrated that inelastic compression has been proved to be significantly more effective than elastic compression in reducing venous reflux, increasing venous pumping function and decreasing ambulatory venous hypertension. In addition it is comfortable, well accepted by patients and achieved an extremely high healing rate in venous ulcers. With reduced pressure inelastic compression is able to improve venous pumping function in patients with mixed ulcers without affecting but improving the arterial inflow. It will be also clearly shown that studies claiming a better effect of elastic compression compared to inelastic in favouring healing rate have significant methodological flaws making their conclusions at least doubtful. In conclusion inelastic- is significantly more effective than elastic compression in reducing ambulatory venous hypertension which is the main pathophysiological determinant of venous ulcers and demonstrated to be very effective in getting ulcer healing. New multicentric, randomized and controlled studies, without methodological flaws, will be necessary to prove that elastic- is at least as effective as inelastic compression or, maybe, more effective. PMID:24843101

Mosti, Giovanni

2014-05-19

111

Compressive sensing over networks  

E-print Network

In this paper, we demonstrate some applications of compressive sensing over networks. We make a connection between compressive sensing and traditional information theoretic techniques in source coding and channel coding. ...

Medard, Muriel

112

Network functional compression  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we consider different aspects of the functional compression problem. In functional compression, the computation of a function (or, some functions) of sources is desired at the receiver(s). The rate region ...

Feizi, Soheil (Feizi-Khankandi)

2010-01-01

113

Vertebral Compression Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

Living with OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures Compression fractures are a common, painful problem for children and adults who have OI. This occurs when an injury causes the spinal bone ...

114

Chemical of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri at the University of Wisconsin-Madison adds a new chemical to this page every week. The site was created for his general chemistry courses, Chem 103 and Chem 104, to increase students' knowledge about various chemicals and their use. Users can view featured chemicals from the currently updated fall course (103) or from the spring course (104). The chemicals featured thus far include: lime, methane, uranium, the chemistry of autumn colors, and gases that emit light.

Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

1997-01-01

115

Week Calendar 7  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Week Calendar is a great app that allows visitors to create a dynamic and collaborative calendar, allowing the user to elaborate on meetings, planning sessions, or busy activity schedules. One remarkable features is Travel Time which smartly acquires the time it will take to travel between calendar events with locations. The site contains a great FAQ area along with several tutorials. This version is compatible with iPhones running iOS 7.

2013-12-12

116

Prelude to compressed baryonic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why study compressed baryonic matter, or more generally strongly interacting matter at high densities and temperatures? Most obviously, because it's an important piece of Nature. The whole universe, in the early moments of the big bang, was filled with the stuff. Today, highly compressed baryonic matter occurs in neutron stars and during crucial moments in the development of supernovae. Also, working to understand compressed baryonic matter gives us new perspectives on ordinary baryonic matter, i.e. the matter in atomic nuclei. But perhaps the best answer is a variation on the one George Mallory gave, when asked why he sought to scale Mount Everest: Because, as a prominent feature in the landscape of physics, it's there. Compressed baryonic matter is a material we can produce in novel, challenging experiments that probe new extremes of temperature and density. On the theoretical side, it is a mathematically well-defined domain with a wealth of novel, challenging problems, as well as wide-ranging connections. Its challenges have already inspired a lot of very clever work, and revealed some wonderful surprises, as documented in this volume.

Wilczek, Frank

117

An overview of semantic compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and approaches are considered, ranging from low-level semantic compression for text and database compaction, to high-level semantic analysis of images or video in which objects of interest have been detected, segmented, and represented compactly to facilitate indexing. In particular, we overview previous work in semantic pattern recognition, and how this has been applied to object-based compression. Discussion centers on lossless versus lossy transformations, quality of service in lossy compression, and computational efficiency.

Schmalz, Mark S.

2010-08-01

118

Modeling and evaluation of advanced compression techniques for vapor compression equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the many air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heating applications that utilize vapor compression equipment, the vapor compression cycle has been the focus of significant research. The combination of rising energy costs and increasing environmental awareness motivates the development of more efficient cycle components, including higher performance compressors, heat exchangers, and expansion devices for recovering work. However, modifications to the basic

Margaret M Mathison

2011-01-01

119

Deformation: Nanocomposite Compression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about nanocomposites, compression and strain as they design and program robots that compress materials. Student groups conduct experiments to determine how many LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT motor rotations it takes to compress soft nanocomposites, including mini marshmallows, Play-Doh®, bread and foam. They measure the length and width of their nanocomposite objects before and after compression to determine the change in length and width as a function of motor rotation.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

120

Multichannel blind compressed sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed sensing successfully recovers a signal, which is sparse under some basis representation, from a small number of linear measurements. However, prior knowledge of the sparsity basis is essential for the recovery process. The purpose of blind compressed sensing is to avoid the need for this prior knowledge. We consider blind compressed sensing in multichannel systems, in which the sparsity

Sivan Gleichman; Yonina C. Eldar

2010-01-01

121

Compressed gas manifold  

DOEpatents

A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

2001-01-01

122

Compression Bases in Unital Groups  

E-print Network

We study unital groups with a distinguished family of compressions called a compression base. A motivating example is the partially ordered additive group of a von Neumann algebra with all Naimark compressions as the compression base.

D. J. Foulis

2005-04-17

123

Solid Iron Compressed Up to 560 GPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic compression by multiple shocks is used to compress iron up to 560 GPa (5.6 Mbar), the highest solid-state pressure yet attained for iron in the laboratory. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy offers simultaneous density, temperature, and local-structure measurements for the compressed iron. The data show that the close-packed structure of iron is stable up to 560 GPa, the temperature at peak compression is significantly higher than expected from pure compressive work, and the dynamic strength of iron is many times greater than the static strength based on lower pressure data. The results provide the first constraint on the melting line of iron above 400 GPa.

Ping, Y.; Coppari, F.; Hicks, D. G.; Yaakobi, B.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Hamel, S.; Eggert, J. H.; Rygg, J. R.; Smith, R. F.; Swift, D. C.; Braun, D. G.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, G. W.

2013-08-01

124

EarthWeek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the online version of the weekly syndicated newspaper feature that highlights natural phenomena and man-made events affecting the environment. Each feature consists of a world map marked with symbols to indicate the location and type of phenomenon being described; each symbol corresponds to a brief news article on the event. It is available in downloadable, black-and-white or color versions for printing and copying. Other materials available at the site include a list of newspapers that carry the feature, a set of links to sites with related information, and breaking news articles.

Steve Newman

125

BusinessWeek Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Business Week_, published by the McGraw Hill Companies, has recently made its web debut. The site is highlighted by the full text of articles from the print magazine. Also included are a selected browsable archive back to late 1995; a daily briefing section (frames based), with concise summaries of news and market information including performance information on new IPOs (initial public offerings); BW Plus, with topical information on such issues as the best business schools, mutual funds, and women in business; a computer buying guide; and an interactive portfolio manager. A complete five-year searchable archive (fee based) will soon be available.

126

Economic and Political Weekly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the Sameeksha Trust since 1966, Economic and Political Weekly is a social science journal that features research articles in economics, sociology, political science, and other disciplines; book reviews; commentary; columns by social scientists; statistical updates; and other content. The full text of the journal is available online dating back to January 1999, and article summaries are available for 1998. Issues appear to be placed online one month after print publication, as the November 11-17 issue was featured at the time of review.

127

Radiological Image Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The movement toward digital images in radiology presents the problem of how to conveniently and economically store, retrieve, and transmit the volume of digital images. Basic research into image data compression is necessary in order to move from a film-based department to an efficient digital -based department. Digital data compression technology consists of two types of compression technique: error-free and irreversible. Error -free image compression is desired; however, present techniques can only achieve compression ratio of from 1.5:1 to 3:1, depending upon the image characteristics. Irreversible image compression can achieve a much higher compression ratio; however, the image reconstructed from the compressed data shows some difference from the original image. This dissertation studies both error-free and irreversible image compression techniques. In particular, some modified error-free techniques have been tested and the recommended strategies for various radiological images are discussed. A full-frame bit-allocation irreversible compression technique has been derived. A total of 76 images which include CT head and body, and radiographs digitized to 2048 x 2048, 1024 x 1024, and 512 x 512 have been used to test this algorithm. The normalized mean -square-error (NMSE) on the difference image, defined as the difference between the original and the reconstructed image from a given compression ratio, is used as a global measurement on the quality of the reconstructed image. The NMSE's of total of 380 reconstructed and 380 difference images are measured and the results tabulated. Three complex compression methods are also suggested to compress images with special characteristics. Finally, various parameters which would effect the quality of the reconstructed images are discussed. A proposed hardware compression module is given in the last chapter.

Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict

128

Iran Weekly Press Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Iran Weekly Press Digest, a weekly review of the Iranian press in English, contains a number of articles on the summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and its significance for Iran in its archived and current issues. The eighth summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference was recently held in Tehran, Iran. Iran recently hosted representatives from 55 countries to a three-day Muslim summit in Tehran in a move which is being seen as a new phase in the country's re-emergence after years of relative isolation. The acceptance of Iran's invitations by senior figures from former enemies such as Saudi Arabia and Iraq has been portrayed by Iranian leaders and many others as a strong setback for US attempts to politically quarantine that country. Representatives considered 142 resolutions prepared by foreign ministers on issues including Middle East peace, regional conflicts, terrorism and human rights. However, perhaps the most significant outcome of the summit has been a reintroduction of Iran into the Muslim community of nations. Capitalizing on current anti-American sentiments and the recent election of a relatively moderate president, Iran hopes to rebuild its relationships with its neighbors and once again become a regional leader, a position it held for approximately 3000 years.

129

Plasma heating by electric field compression.  

PubMed

Plasma heating by compression of electric fields is proposed. It is shown that periodic cycles of external compression followed by the free expansion of electric fields in the plasma cause irreversible, collisionless plasma heating and corresponding entropy generation. As a demonstration of general ideas and scalings, the heating is shown in the case of a dusty plasma, where electric fields are created due to the presence of charged dust. The method is expected to work in the cases of compression of low frequency or dc electric fields created by other methods. Applications to high power laser heating of plasmas using this scheme are discussed. PMID:24856702

Avinash, K; Kaw, P K

2014-05-01

130

Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

Lee C. Cadwallader

2004-09-01

131

Plasma Heating by Electric Field Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma heating by compression of electric fields is proposed. It is shown that periodic cycles of external compression followed by the free expansion of electric fields in the plasma cause irreversible, collisionless plasma heating and corresponding entropy generation. As a demonstration of general ideas and scalings, the heating is shown in the case of a dusty plasma, where electric fields are created due to the presence of charged dust. The method is expected to work in the cases of compression of low frequency or dc electric fields created by other methods. Applications to high power laser heating of plasmas using this scheme are discussed.

Avinash, K.; Kaw, P. K.

2014-05-01

132

Efficacy of compression gloves in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Twenty-three patients with rheumatoid arthritis whose disease had become stabilized while receiving non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs and/or gold salt injections entered an 8 week crossover study in which the effect of a compression glove worn during sleep was compared to a loosely fitting glove made of the same material. Improvement in hand symptoms was greater with the compression glove than with the control glove as regards morning stiffness, pain, night time throbbing, numbness or heaviness and a subjective assessment of swelling (p = 0.01). In addition, swelling of the proximal interphalangeal joints was slightly reduced (p = 0.05). These data suggest that the night time use of compression gloves in patients with rheumatoid arthritis can improve hand symptoms and exert a mild, transiently beneficial effect upon the degree of hand swelling. PMID:517640

Culic, D D; Battaglia, M C; Wichman, C; Schmid, F R

1979-12-01

133

Papers of the Week Metabolic Monoubiquitination  

E-print Network

of a metabolic enzyme can also occur and that this modification influences its kinetic and regulatory properties enzyme? As shown by the novel work in this Paper of the Week by R. Glen Uhrig and colleagues, the an- swer appears to be "yes." The enzyme in question is phosphoenolpyruvate carbox- ylase (PEPC), which

Plaxton, William

134

Disintegration of ice under fast compressive loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the interaction of ice with ships or other offshore structures, a compressive zone develops in the ice. This is the\\u000a focus of the present work. An interpretation of field measurements shows that the compressive ice load is far from uniform;\\u000a indeed, most of the load is transmitted through small areas of intense pressure characterized by a highly damaged layer.

Ian J. Jordaan; Dmitri G. Matskevitch; Irene L. Meglis

1999-01-01

135

Motor Development International: Compressed Air Technology Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does a car that boasts "zero pollution" and even "cleans the air it uses" work? This website provides information on the air compression cars developed by Motor Development International. Aside from the general overview of the mechanics of air compression, the FAQ section provides additional information on the air tanks, filter system, body frame, electric system and MDI's business model. A key target for this website seems to be potential buyers and investors.

136

Effects of Sequence Partitioning on Compression Rate  

E-print Network

In the paper, a theoretical work is done for investigating effects of splitting data sequence into packs of data set. We proved that a partitioning of data sequence is possible to find such that the entropy rate at each subsequence is lower than entropy rate of the source. Effects of sequence partitioning on overall compression rate are argued on the bases of partitioning statistics, and then, an optimization problem for an optimal partition is defined to improve overall compression rate of a sequence.

Alagoz, B Baykant

2010-01-01

137

Engineers Week: Future City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Engineers Week Future City Competition provides â??a fun and exciting educational engineering program for seventh- and eighth-grade students that combines a stimulating engineering challenge with a â??hands-onâ?? application to present their vision of a city of the future.â? The competition is intended to foster engineering skills, such as teamwork, communication and problem solving skills, as well as to inspire students to explore future careers in engineering. Using the commercial software SIMCITY to design their ideal city, students interact with each other, and with teachers and engineer mentors and also learn about the multi-disciplines within the engineering profession. The website has more information about the competition, as well as a handbook providing helpful tips and techniques. Examples of accomplishments from previous competitions are posted and CD-ROM video is available from regional coordinators to give more background on the competition.

138

The First Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the first week of class, strive to create an atmosphere of mutual trust and respect. This gives the students a chance to get to know you as a person, and you will also get to know them in the process. A key challenge is to make students feel comfortable with science, which many view as difficult to understand and unimportant to their daily lives. The variety of inquiry-based writing assignments and activities described in this section will help students build confidence in their abilities and convince them of the relevance of science. This free selection from the series, How to... Write to Learn Science includes the Table of Contents and two bonus sections.

Bob Tierney

2004-01-01

139

LEADERSHIP WEEK APRIL 1119, 2012  

E-print Network

a LEADERSHIP WEEK APRIL 11­19, 2012 COMMEMORATING THE INAUGURATION OF PAUL W. FERGUSON #12;1 LEADERSHIP WEEK APRIL 11­19, 2012 President Paul W. Ferguson #12;3 A series of leadership events, academic of University of Maine President Paul W. Ferguson on April 19. Leadership Week, April 11­19, took its theme from

Thomas, Andrew

140

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy. PMID:23653867

Muqeetadnan, Mohammed; Amer, Syed; Rahman, Ambreen; Nusrat, Salman; Hassan, Syed

2013-01-01

141

10 Weeks of Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

11 June 2004 These four Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images show north polar sand dunes as they appeared on four different days over the past ten weeks. In summer, the dunes would be darker than the substrate on which they occur. However, it is currently spring in the northern hemisphere, and the dunes are still covered with frost from the previous winter. The MGS MOC has been busy over the past several months, documenting the changes in frost patterns that occur on dunes and interdune substrates all over the north polar region. The site shown here was imaged on 30 March, 23 April, 16 May, and 9 June 2004. The bright frost that covers the dunes progressively changes from one image to the next, as dark spots develop and frost sublimes away. This defrosting dune monitor site is located near 80.0oN, 237.5oW. Each strip is about 1.1 km (0.7 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2004-01-01

142

Aerodynamics inside a rapid compression machine  

SciTech Connect

The aerodynamics inside a rapid compression machine after the end of compression is investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone. To study the effect of reaction chamber configuration on the resulting aerodynamics and temperature field, experiments are conducted and compared using a creviced piston and a flat piston under varying conditions. Results show that the flat piston design leads to significant mixing of the cold vortex with the hot core region, which causes alternate hot and cold regions inside the combustion chamber. At higher pressures, the effect of the vortex is reduced. The creviced piston head configuration is demonstrated to result in drastic reduction of the effect of the vortex. Experimental conditions are also simulated using the Star-CD computational fluid dynamics package. Computed results closely match with experimental observation. Numerical results indicate that with a flat piston design, gas velocity after compression is very high and the core region shrinks quickly due to rapid entrainment of cold gases. Whereas, for a creviced piston head design, gas velocity after compression is significantly lower and the core region remains unaffected for a long duration. As a consequence, for the flat piston, adiabatic core assumption can significantly overpredict the maximum temperature after the end of compression. For the creviced piston, the adiabatic core assumption is found to be valid even up to 100 ms after compression. This work therefore experimentally and numerically substantiates the importance of piston head design for achieving a homogeneous core region inside a rapid compression machine. (author)

Mittal, Gaurav; Sung, Chih-Jen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

2006-04-15

143

This Week in the History of Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written and produced by Professor Christopher D. Green of York University, "This Week in the History of Psychology" is a delightful and engaging podcast series. Its intended audience is students in university level courses on the history of psychology, but a wide variety of persons will find the work here compelling. Each week Professor Green has an interview with an expert who talks about a key event from the annals of psychology. The interviews begin with a short overview of said event, along with a celebration of the week's birthdays and other related anniversaries from the world of psychology. Currently the site has several dozen interviews, including discussions on Freud's only trip to the United States and Emil Kraeplelin, the man behind the modern categories of mental illness.

Green, Christopher D.

144

Distributed Compressive Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed sensing is an emerging field based on the revelation that a small collection of linear projections of a sparse signal contains enough information for reconstruction. In this paper we introduce a new theory for distributed compressed sensing (DCS) that enables new distributed coding algorithms for multi-signal ensembles that exploit both intra- and inter-signal correlation structures. The DCS theory rests

Dror Baron; Marco F. Duarte; Michael B. Wakin; Shriram Sarvotham; Richard G. Baraniuk

2009-01-01

145

Ramp Compression Experiments - a Sensitivity Study  

SciTech Connect

We present the first sensitivity study of the material isentropes extracted from ramp compression experiments. We perform hydrodynamic simulations of representative experimental geometries associated with ramp compression experiments and discuss the major factors determining the accuracy of the equation of state information extracted from such data. In conclusion, we analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively the major experimental factors that determine the accuracy of equations of state extracted from ramp compression experiments. Since in actual experiments essentially all the effects discussed here will compound, factoring out individual signatures and magnitudes, as done in the present work, is especially important. This study should provide some guidance for the effective design and analysis of ramp compression experiments, as well as for further improvements of ramp generators performance.

Bastea, M; Reisman, D

2007-02-26

146

Pulse-compression optical time domain reflectometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a novel pulse-compression optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) by utilizing linear frequency modulation (LFM) pulse-compression technology. The working principle of the pulse-compression OTDR is demonstrated. The spatial resolution is determined by the sweeping range of the pulsed LFM instead of the pulse width, which solves the dilemma of spatial resolution and measurement range in the conventional OTDR. A preliminary experiment of the pulse-compression OTDR is performed, providing 55 cm spatial resolution and 5.4 km measurement range under 2 ?s pulse, 221 MHz LFM sweeping range, and 100 kHz linewidth laser diode. It is expectable to achieve a spatial resolution of less than 1 cm and dozens-kilometer measurement range by tens of GHz LFM sweeping ranges via microwave photonics.

Yang, Shuo; Zou, Weiwen; Long, Xin; Chen, Jianping

2014-05-01

147

Timesheet Quick Reference Time Worked Section  

E-print Network

Timesheet Quick Reference Time Worked Section Knight,Golden Record time worked for each week 1 section. Place this total in the Total Hours Worked Week 1 block. 4. Follow the same steps for Week 2. Signature Section 1. Employees who have worked their standard hours with no exceptions should

Wu, Shin-Tson

148

Solar Week: Learning from Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar Week is a week-long set of games and activities allowing students to interact directly with solar science and solar scientists. Solar Week was developed as a spin-off of the highly successful Yohkoh Public Outreach Project (YPOP). While YPOP provided access to solar images, movies and activities, the main goal of Solar Week was to enhance the participation of women, who are under-represented in the physical sciences. Solar Week achieves this by providing young women, primarily in grades 6-8, with access to role models in the sciences. The scientists participating in Solar Week are women from a variety of backgrounds and with a variety of scientific expertise. In this paper, our aim is to provide some insight into developing activity-based space science for the web and to discuss the lessons-learned from tailoring to a specific group of participants.

Alexander, D.; Hauck, K.

2003-12-01

149

Micromechanics of composite laminate compression failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this annual progress report is to summarize the work effort and results accomplished from July 1987 through July 1988 on NASA Research Grant NAG1-659 entitled Micromechanics of Composite Laminate Compressive Failure. The report contains: (1) the objective of the proposed research, (2) the summary of accomplishments, (3) a more extensive review of compression literature, (4) the planned material (and corresponding properties) received to date, (5) the results for three possible specimen geometries, experimental procedures planned, and current status of the experiments, and (6) the work planned for the next contract year.

Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.

1988-01-01

150

Solar Week Wednesday: Scavenger Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online game associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a scavenger hunt game to allow learners to review science concepts covered in previous activities. This game is scheduled to occur during Wednesday of Solar Week.

2012-08-03

151

Improved Compression-Based Acceleration of Edit-Distance Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We focus on accelerating the known solutions for the classical edit-distance problem via compression techniques. Using straight-line programs we show a single edit-distance algorithm that works for strings which compress well under many popular compression schemes including the LZ- family, Run-Length Encoding, Byte-Pair Encoding, and dictionary methods. For two strings of total length N having straight-line program representations of total

Danny Hermelin; Gad M. Landau; Shir Landau; Oren Weimann

152

Weekly Schedule Week Lecture Topic In Class Clinical  

E-print Network

Weekly Schedule Week Lecture Topic In Class Clinical Portfolio Activity Clinical Portfolio Topic virtual family Basic Clinical Skills 1: Reflection None 3- Apr 18 Nurse-Family Partnership Role play and Reframing None 5- May 2 MTFC & KEEP: interventions for child welfare and juvenile justice system children

Lockery, Shawn

153

Compressibility Effects in Aeronautical Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compressible-flow research, while a relatively new field in aeronautics, is very old, dating back almost to the development of the first firearm. Over the last hundred years, researches have been conducted in the ballistics field, but these results have been of practically no use in aeronautical engineering because the phenomena that have been studied have been the more or less steady supersonic condition of flow. Some work that has been done in connection with steam turbines, particularly nozzle studies, has been of value, In general, however, understanding of compressible-flow phenomena has been very incomplete and permitted no real basis for the solution of aeronautical engineering problems in which.the flow is likely to be unsteady because regions of both subsonic and supersonic speeds may occur. In the early phases of the development of the airplane, speeds were so low that the effects of compressibility could be justifiably ignored. During the last war and immediately after, however, propellers exhibited losses in efficiency as the tip speeds approached the speed of sound, and the first experiments of an aeronautical nature were therefore conducted with propellers. Results of these experiments indicated serious losses of efficiency, but aeronautical engineers were not seriously concerned at the time became it was generally possible. to design propellers with quite low tip. speeds. With the development of new engines having increased power and rotational speeds, however, the problems became of increasing importance.

Stack, John

1941-01-01

154

EEG data compression techniques.  

PubMed

In this paper, electroencephalograph (EEG) and Holter EEG data compression techniques which allow perfect reconstruction of the recorded waveform from the compressed one are presented and discussed. Data compression permits one to achieve significant reduction in the space required to store signals and in transmission time. The Huffman coding technique in conjunction with derivative computation reaches high compression ratios (on average 49% on Holter and 58% on EEG signals) with low computational complexity. By exploiting this result a simple and fast encoder/decoder scheme capable of real-time performance on a PC was implemented. This simple technique is compared with other predictive transformations, vector quantization, discrete cosine transform (DCT), and repetition count compression methods. Finally, it is shown that the adoption of a collapsed Huffman tree for the encoding/decoding operations allows one to choose the maximum codeword length without significantly affecting the compression ratio. Therefore, low cost commercial microcontrollers and storage devices can be effectively used to store long Holter EEG's in a compressed format. PMID:9214790

Antoniol, G; Tonella, P

1997-02-01

155

75 FR 20885 - National Park Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8498--National Park Week, 2010 Proclamation 8499--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 Proclamation 8500--National Volunteer Week, 2010 Proclamation 8501--National Day of Service and...

2010-04-21

156

SCHOOL WEEKLY MILEAGE LOG Team _____________________________ Mileage Log  

E-print Network

SCHOOL WEEKLY MILEAGE LOG Team _____________________________ Mileage Log (team name) Directions for you on the website. Week number Estimated number of children walking Number of days walked this week

157

Data-Compression.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data compression is an important tool that minimizes the size of digital data. Without it, many features of Internet would not be practical, or even possible. This site discusses "the principles and practice of data compression," and examines common techniques for different types of information. The author considers some algorithms and coding methods, such as Huffman coding and the Blahut algorithm. JPEG, one of the most popular image compression formats, is demonstrated as well. A few programs, source code examples, and papers are available for download. Pop-up windows and advertisements are an annoyance on this site, but they are not overly noticeable.

158

Bloomberg Business Week: Small Business  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Business Week magazine, Business Week Frontier is a new resource center for small business owners. The News Center covers current issues from the perspective of small business owners and an array of columns provide advice, website recommendations, and book excerpts. Other resources include financial calculators, a glossary of terms, and market research links.

1999-01-01

159

ENERGY RECOVERY COUNCIL WEEKLY UPDATE  

E-print Network

ENERGY RECOVERY COUNCIL WEEKLY UPDATE April 10, 2009 WTE DEVELOPMENTS This week marked the launch of the Energy Recovery Council, its new logo, and its new website. After many years, the Integrated Waste Services Association changed its name to the "Energy Recovery Council". Our new tagline succinctly

160

SPAIN PROGRAM Madrid Four Week /  

E-print Network

SPAIN PROGRAM Madrid Four Week / Madrid and Málaga Six Week 2014 Summer Program APPLICATION FORM face to scapobia@binghamton.edu. It will be used to make a photo ID card for you to use in Spain. 7 and the full refund and cancellation policy on the Spain program website pages. 8. Submit all materials to the

Suzuki, Masatsugu

161

Lossless compression of instrumentation data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is our final report on Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory- Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 3517.070. Its purpose has been to investigate lossless compression of digital waveform and image data, particularly the types of instrumentation data generated and processed at Sandia Labs. The three-year project period ran from October 1992 through September 1995. This report begins with a descriptive overview of data compression, with and without loss, followed by a summary of the activities on the Sandia project, including research at several universities and the development of waveform compression software. Persons who participated in the project are also listed. The next part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles of lossless compression. Two basic compression stages, decorrelation and entropy coding, are described and discussed. An example of seismic data compression is included. Finally, there is a bibliography of published research. Taken together, the published papers contain the details of most of the work and accomplishments on the project. This final report is primarily an overview, without the technical details and results found in the publications listed in the bibliography.

Stearns, S.D.

1995-11-01

162

76 FR 58711 - National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...generated by our agricultural sector are vital to America's 21st-century economy. Farmers represent the best of the American dream-- passing on proud traditions of hard work and commitment to their children. This week, we celebrate farmers'...

2011-09-21

163

77 FR 58297 - National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...producers who rise before the dawn, entrepreneurs who bring ideas to market, and working men and women who build the American dream with their bare hands. This week, we honor their tireless efforts and rededicate ourselves to equipping our next...

2012-09-19

164

Hybrid LZW compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Science Data Management and Science Payload Operations subpanel reports from the NASA Conference on Scientific Data Compression (Snowbird, Utah in 1988) indicate the need for both lossless and lossy image data compression systems. The ranges developed by the subpanel suggest ratios of 2:1 to 4:1 for lossless coding and 2:1 to 6:1 for lossy predictive coding. For the NASA Freedom Science Video Processing Facility it would be highly desirable to implement one baseline compression system which would meet both of these criteria. Presented here is such a system, utilizing an LZW hybrid coding scheme which is adaptable to either type of compression. Simulation results are presented with the hybrid LZW algorithm operating in each of its modes.

Lewis, H. Garton, Jr.; Forsyth, William B.

1989-01-01

165

Padding with Compressed Air  

E-print Network

We commonly find plants using padding to transport liquids or light solids short distances from tankers into storage tanks. Padding can wreck havoc in compressed air systems with limited storage, undersized cleanup equipment (dryers and filters...

Beals, C.

2004-01-01

166

Focus on Compression Stockings  

MedlinePLUS

... soap. Do not use Woolite™ detergent. Use warm water and wash by hand or in the gentle cycle in the washing machine. After rinsing the compression stocking completely, remove excess water by rolling it in a towel. The Vascular ...

167

Tension and Compression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students experience the forces of tension and compression by manipulating objects that are strong in each but not in both and then take what they have learned and apply it to the construction of various structures.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2004-02-20

168

High-performance compression of astronomical images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomical images have some rather unusual characteristics that make many existing image compression techniques either ineffective or inapplicable. A typical image consists of a nearly flat background sprinkled with point sources and occasional extended sources. The images are often noisy, so that lossless compression does not work very well; furthermore, the images are usually subjected to stringent quantitative analysis, so any lossy compression method must be proven not to discard useful information, but must instead discard only the noise. Finally, the images can be extremely large. For example, the Space Telescope Science Institute has digitized photographic plates covering the entire sky, generating 1500 images each having 14000 x 14000 16-bit pixels. Several astronomical groups are now constructing cameras with mosaics of large CCD's (each 2048 x 2048 or larger); these instruments will be used in projects that generate data at a rate exceeding 100 MBytes every 5 minutes for many years. An effective technique for image compression may be based on the H-transform (Fritze et al. 1977). The method that we have developed can be used for either lossless or lossy compression. The digitized sky survey images can be compressed by at least a factor of 10 with no noticeable losses in the astrometric and photometric properties of the compressed images. The method has been designed to be computationally efficient: compression or decompression of a 512 x 512 image requires only 4 seconds on a Sun SPARCstation 1. The algorithm uses only integer arithmetic, so it is completely reversible in its lossless mode, and it could easily be implemented in hardware for space applications.

White, Richard L.

1993-01-01

169

Consider Compressed Combustion  

E-print Network

configuration. In Table I, combustion gases are directed across tube banks in a manner that is roughly comparable to flue gas flow in a conventional heater. There are actually two important concepts under test in these preliminary design estimates.... The first is emphasis on convective heat transfer as opposed to radiant heat transfer in conventional heaters, even when combustion gases flow so slowly that no significant compression is needed. The convective ver sus radiant aspect of compressed...

Crowther, R. H.

1982-01-01

170

LZW Based Compressed Pattern Matching Tao Tao, Amar Mukherjee  

E-print Network

with minimal (or no) decompression. In this paper, we report our work on compressed pattern matching in LZW initial decompression. Another fundamental problem is to develop search-aware compression algorithms) S and a pattern string (or a sub-image) P, report the occurrences of P in S with minimal (or no) decompression

Mukherjee, Amar

171

Cold compressive dressing after total knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

The efficacy of a cold compressive dressing after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was prospectively studied in 105 knees in 76 patients. All components were cemented. All patients were placed in continuous passive motion machines after operation. A cold compressive Cryocuff dressing was applied to 50 knees after operation. An ACE wrap and ice pack were applied to the knees of 55 control patients after operation. Postoperative range of motion was recorded as maximum active flexion at two to four days (interval one), at seven to 14 days (interval two), and four to six weeks (interval three). Swelling was measured at the same time intervals by circumference at the midpatella and circumference at the distal thigh one inch proximal to the superior pole of the patella. Use of postoperative narcotics was calculated for postoperative days zero to three and for postoperative days four to seven. Wound drainage was recorded for all knees. The use of a cold compressive dressing after TKA was not associated with an increase in range of motion at any point after the operation. The Cryocuff dressing did not appreciably reduce swelling around the knee after TKA. No significant difference was found in the amount of postoperative wound drainage between the two groups of patients. In patients undergoing unilateral TKA, no significant difference existed between the narcotic requirements of control patients and patients wearing the cold compressive dressing. PMID:7907012

Healy, W L; Seidman, J; Pfeifer, B A; Brown, D G

1994-02-01

172

Alternative Compression Garments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

2011-01-01

173

Image compression technique  

DOEpatents

An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

Fu, Chi-Yung (San Francisco, CA); Petrich, Loren I. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

174

Image compression technique  

DOEpatents

An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

1997-03-25

175

Physical Property Measurements: Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, by the Colorado School of Mines, addresses the properties of a measurement technique called unconfined compression strength (UCS). Along with defining the technique, the website shows different experiments, pictures and diagrams associated with UCS. This well organized work will be a valuable asset for any geology or engineering classroom.

Ozdemir, Levent

176

Compressibility variations of JPEG2000 compressed computed tomography.  

PubMed

Compression is increasingly used in medical applications to enable efficient and universally accessible electronic health records. However, lossy compression introduces artifacts that can alter diagnostic accuracy, interfere with image processing algorithms and cause liability issues in cases of diagnostic errors. Compression guidelines were introduced to mitigate these issues and foster the use of modern compression algorithms with diagnostic imaging. However, these guidelines are usually defined as maximum compression ratios for each imaging protocol and do not take compressibility variations due to image content into account. In this paper we have evaluated the compressibility of thousands of computed tomography slices of an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom acquired with different parameters. We have shown that exposure, slice thickness and reconstruction filters have a significant impact on compressibility suggesting that guidelines based solely on compression ratios may be inadequate. PMID:24110452

Pambrun, Jean-François; Noumeir, Rita

2013-01-01

177

Math Problems of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math Problems of the Week are activities, with student handouts, that can be used to help students develop, formalize, and reflect on their problem-solving strategies. Membership subscription is required to access most resources.

178

SCIENCE-WEEK Focus Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SCIENCE-WEEK (described in the June 27, 1997 Scout Report) is an online weekly digest of the news of science, now published by Spectrum Press Inc. Formerly a completely free service, SCIENCE-WEEK now charges a nominal fee for its current awareness services. However, several Focus Reports are currently available on-site for free (visitors may also wish to browse the table of contents for past SCIENCE-WEEK issues). Focus Reports explain and summarize (in clear language!) cutting-edge science and provide syntheses of current research, including the date and source of recent publication. Publication sources generally include Science, Nature, Scientific American, and Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., among other reputable journals. Current Focus Reports cover topics as varied as Astrophysics, Evolution, and the Biology of Cancer. For those with a strong interest in scientific advances or for those seeking examples of clear but uncompromised scientific explanations, this is an excellent resource.

179

Low-complexity video compression for capsule endoscope based on compressed sensing theory.  

PubMed

Recently, the notions of Compressed Sensing (CS) have attracted attention as an innovative concept in signal processing. In this exploratory paper, a CS-based video compression approach suitable for wireless capsule endoscopy is proposed. In general, the amount of video data generated by capsule endoscopy is so large that video compression is the best way to lower the communication bandwidth and save the RF transmitting power. However, due to power limitation and small size conditions, traditional video compression techniques are not appropriate. Applying state-of-the-art CS theory may significantly reduce power consumption and memory of video compressor, thanks to its low computational complexity. The proposed approach is based on YUV color space conversion, blocking, zigzag scan and CS measuring. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed idea and that future improving works are necessary. PMID:19965013

Wu, Jing; Li, Ye

2009-01-01

180

Cool Robot of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

File this one under "super neat." Anyone with even the slightest interest in robots and robotics should enjoy this page, produced by the NASA Space Telerobotics Program. Each week, Cool Robot adds a new link with a short description of the featured site or a news story concerning a breakthrough in robotic technology or an innovative solution to robotics problems. Archives dating back to May 1996 are included at the site. Bookmark this one, and pay a weekly visit; I know I will.

Lavery, Dave.

181

Unsteady Aerodynamics - Subsonic Compressible Inviscid Case  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new analytical treatment of Unsteady Aerodynamics - the linear theory covering the subsonic compressible (inviscid) case - drawing on some recent work in Operator Theory and Functional Analysis. The specific new results are: (a) An existence and uniqueness proof for the Laplace transform version of the Possio integral equation as well as a new closed form solution approximation thereof. (b) A new representation for the time-domain solution of the subsonic compressible aerodynamic equations emphasizing in particular the role of the initial conditions.

Balakrishnan, A. V.

1999-01-01

182

Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

1981-01-01

183

Code Attestation with Compressed Instruction Code  

E-print Network

Available purely software based code attestation protocols have recently been shown to be cheatable. In this work we propose to upload compressed instruction code to make the code attestation protocol robust against a so called compresssion attack. The described secure code attestation protocol makes use of recently proposed microcontroller architectures for reading out compressed instruction code. We point out that the proposed concept only makes sense if the provided cost/benefit ratio for the aforementioned microcontroller is higher than an alternative hardware based solution requiring a tamperresistant hardware module.

Vetter, Benjamin

2011-01-01

184

Curriculum Characteristics of Time-Compressed Course in a U.S. Higher Education Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explored characteristics of the curriculum practice of higher education faculty in the context of time-compressed (e.g., 5-6 weeks) courses as compared with regular term (15-16 weeks) courses. The researchers used open-ended questions on a web-based survey at a large doctoral-extensive university in a Midwestern state in the United…

Hyun, Eunsook; Kretovics, Mark; Crowe, Alicia

2006-01-01

185

The Effects of Intersegmental Compression on the 3-D Correction of Idiopathic Scoliosis Using Thoracoscopic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To investigate whether intersegmental compression can affect the results of threedimensional correction for idiopathic scoliosis. Overview of Literature Intersegmental compression is usually performed to increase the correction rate and enhance kyphosis restoration. However, it is presumed that the risk of decompensation is increased. Methods Twenty-seven patients with idiopathic scoliosis who were corrected thoracoscopically were divided into two groups: a compression group and a non-compression group. Thoracic and lumbar scoliotic Cobb angles were measured pre-operatively, one week postoperatively, and at last follow-up. Changes in thoracic kyphosis and in sagittal and coronal balance were compared. Results The average correction rates for thoracic scoliotic curves were 70.3% and 58.8% in the compression and non-compression groups, respectively (p=0.023), at 1 week postoperatively. However, these changed to 62.6% and 58.1% at the final follow-up visit (p=0.381). Thoracic kyphosis increased by 37.4% in the compression group and 20.9% in the non-compression group at 1 week postoperatively (p=0.435). Finally, thoracic kyphosis increased by 59.9% and 42.6%(p=0.473), respectively, at final follow-up. Axial rotation was corrected by 45.3% and 24.7% in the compression and non-compression groups, respectively (p=0.214). There were no significant differences in postoperative changes in coronal and sagittal balance between the two groups. Conclusions Three-dimensional correction by intersegmental compression tended to produce better results, especially during the early postoperative period. However, at final follow-up, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of three-dimensional correction. Thus, we conclude that intersegmental compression is not always necessary for thoracoscopic scoliosis correction. PMID:20411142

Oh, Sung Kyun; Chung, Sung Soo

2008-01-01

186

Detection of small targets in compressed imagery: I. Performance of edge detectors over VQ- and VPIC-compressed imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost of processing imagery that exhibits a large data burden can be reduced by compressive processing, which computes over a compressed image versus the corresponding (uncompressed) source image. When the compressive result is decompressed, one obtains an approximation to the corresponding operation over uncompressed imagery. In previous publications, we have shown that compressive processing can lead to computational efficiency (e.g., a sequential speedup) that approaches the compression ratio. In certain cases, computational speedup that exceeds the compression ratio can be achieved with sufficient parallelism. We have also derived techniques for computing pointwise arithmetic operations, global reduce operations such as image sum or image maximum, and selected image- template operations over imagery compressed by several blockwise transformations. In particular, our previous research has emphasized the processing of imagery compressed by block truncation coding, vector quantization (VQ), and visual pattern image coding (VPIC). In this paper, we extend our previous work by deriving algorithms that more accurately simulate the operations of Prewitt, Sobel, and Kirsch edge detection over imagery compressed by VQ and VPIC transforms. We also derive morphological operations of erosion and dilation with the von Neumann template over VQ- and VPIC-compressed Boolean imagery. Analysis of each operation includes a model of computational complexity and theoretical/experimental assessment of information loss incurred by computing over a lossy compressed image representation. We show that edge detection over VPIC- compressed imagery can be implemented in terms of a simple codebook transformation. Thus, if an uncompressed (source) image has N pixels and the compression ratio is denoted by CR, approximately O(N/CR) substitutions of exemplars from the transformed codebook are required. This technique is extensible to certain morphological operations with the von Neumann template and can be implemented in SIMD-parallel fashion.

Schmalz, Mark S.

1997-07-01

187

Effects of compression on the sound absorption of porous materials with an elastic frame  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption characteristics of a porous material are well known to vary during compression. The transfer matrix method is applied with an elastic frame to explore the effect of compression on absorption properties. In this work, the materials are treated as elastic rather than being made of rigid models. The absorption coefficients of the uncompressed and compressed porous material are

Chao-Nan Wang; Yan-Min Kuo; Shih-Kai Chen

2008-01-01

188

On dynamic subgrid-scale modeling for large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, through the advent of the dynamic subgrid-scale model, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) has shown great promise towards the accurate simulation of complex turbulent flows. The main objective of this work is to advance the LES method for analysis of compressible turbulent flows.^ The model is employed in simulations of compressible decaying isotropic turbulence, compressible homogeneous turbulent shear flow and of

Evangelos T Spyropoulos

1996-01-01

189

Extracting Constitutive Stress-Strain Behavior of Microscopic Phases by Micropillar Compression  

SciTech Connect

The manuscript describes how micropillar compression technique can be used to perform uniaxial compression tests within individual grains so as to generate local-scale constitutive behavior which, otherwise cannot be ascertained from the conventional macroscale compression test techniques. The manuscript uses steel and magnesium alloys as an example. A portion of the magnesium work was performed at PNNL.

Williams, J. J.; Walters, Jennifer; Wang, Mingyue; Chawla, N.; Rohatgi, Aashish

2013-02-01

190

Redetermination of the Relative Compressions of the Cell Edges of Olivine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell edge compressions of a peridot were measured by using a recently developed high-pressure X ray diffraction technique. The results are in disagreement with earlier work utilizing other high-pressure X ray techniques, but the results agree quantitatively with the cell edge compression calculated by Graham and Barsch from elastic constant data for forsteritc. The compressions of the cell edges

Bart Olinger; P. M. Halleck

1974-01-01

191

Compressible Flow Toolbox  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Compressible Flow Toolbox is primarily a MATLAB-language implementation of a set of algorithms that solve approximately 280 linear and nonlinear classical equations for compressible flow. The toolbox is useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with either constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or Mach number greater than 1. The toolbox also contains algorithms for comparing and validating the equation-solving algorithms against solutions previously published in open literature. The classical equations solved by the Compressible Flow Toolbox are as follows: The isentropic-flow equations, The Fanno flow equations (pertaining to flow of an ideal gas in a pipe with friction), The Rayleigh flow equations (pertaining to frictionless flow of an ideal gas, with heat transfer, in a pipe of constant cross section), The normal-shock equations, The oblique-shock equations, and The expansion equations.

Melcher, Kevin J.

2006-01-01

192

Celiac artery compression syndrome.  

PubMed

Celiac artery compression syndrome occurs when the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm causes extrinsic compression of the celiac trunk. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with a three-month history of postprandial abdominal pain, nausea and some emesis, without weight loss. There was a bruit in the upper mid-epigastrium and the lateral aortic arteriography revealed a significant stenosis of the celiac artery. At operation, the celiac axis was found to be severely compressed anteriorly by fibers forming the inferior margin of the arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. The ligament was cut and a vein by-pass from the supraceliac aorta to the distal celiac artery was performed. The patient remains well and free of symptoms two and a half years since operation.In this report we discuss the indications and the therapeutic options of this syndrome as well as a review of the literature is being given. PMID:10799832

Kokotsakis, J N; Lambidis, C D; Lioulias, A G; Skouteli, E T; Bastounis, E A; Livesay, J J

2000-04-01

193

Microseismic source imaging in a compressed domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microseismic monitoring is an essential tool for the characterization of hydraulic fractures. Fast estimation of the parameters that define a microseismic event is relevant to understand and control fracture development. The amount of data contained in the microseismic records however, poses a challenge for fast continuous detection and evaluation of the microseismic source parameters. Work inspired by the emerging field of Compressive Sensing has showed that it is possible to evaluate source parameters in a compressed domain, thereby reducing processing time. This technique performs well in scenarios where the amplitudes of the signal are above the noise level, as is often the case in microseismic monitoring using downhole tools. This paper extends the idea of the compressed domain processing to scenarios of microseismic monitoring using surface arrays, where the signal amplitudes are commonly at the same level as, or below, the noise amplitudes. To achieve this, we resort to the use of an imaging operator, which has previously been found to produce better results in detection and location of microseismic events from surface arrays. The operator in our method is formed by full-waveform elastodynamic Green's functions that are band-limited by a source time function and represented in the frequency domain. Where full-waveform Green's functions are not available, ray tracing can also be used to compute the required Green's functions. Additionally, we introduce the concept of the compressed inverse, which derives directly from the compression of the migration operator using a random matrix. The described methodology reduces processing time at a cost of introducing distortions into the results. However, the amount of distortion can be managed by controlling the level of compression applied to the operator. Numerical experiments using synthetic and real data demonstrate the reductions in processing time that can be achieved and exemplify the process of selecting the compression rate that produces a tolerable amount of distortion into the results.

Vera Rodriguez, Ismael; Sacchi, Mauricio D.

2014-08-01

194

Electromyographic signal compression based on preprocessing techniques.  

PubMed

Recently, electromyographic records have been rearranged into two-dimensional arrays and encoded with image compressors, in the same way as image data. However, as a consequence of this reshaping, the correlation among signal segments is generally lost, which reduces the compression efficiency. In the present work, new preprocessing techniques for encoding electromyographic signals as two-dimensional matrices are presented, namely percentage difference sorting and relative complexity sorting, which have the potential to favor the exploitation of the intersegment dependencies. The experiments were carried out with real isometric records acquired in laboratory, that were first preprocessed and then compressed with a JPEG2000 encoder, showing that the proposed framework is effective and outperforms even state-of-the-art schemes present in the literature, in terms of PRD × Compression Ratio. PMID:23367151

Melo, Wheidima C; Filho, Eddie B L; Júnior, Waldir S S

2012-01-01

195

PDF approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the present work is to develop a probability density function (pdf) turbulence model for compressible reacting flows for use with a CFD flow solver. The probability density function of the species mass fraction and enthalpy are obtained by solving a pdf evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The pdf solution procedure is coupled with a compressible CFD flow solver which provides the velocity and pressure fields. A modeled pdf equation for compressible flows, capable of capturing shock waves and suitable to the present coupling scheme, is proposed and tested. Convergence of the combined finite-volume Monte Carlo solution procedure is discussed, and an averaging procedure is developed to provide smooth Monte-Carlo solutions to ensure convergence. Two supersonic diffusion flames are studied using the proposed pdf model and the results are compared with experimental data; marked improvements over CFD solutions without pdf are observed. Preliminary applications of pdf to 3D flows are also reported.

Hsu, A. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Raju, M. S.

1993-01-01

196

Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine  

SciTech Connect

Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

Charles Mendler

2011-03-15

197

Experimental observation of nonlinear pulse compression in nonuniform Bragg gratings.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a scheme for optical pulse compression by cross-phase modulation that utilizes a nonuniform Bragg grating to work in reflection. Our scheme is similar to the conventional optical pushbroom, which works in transmission. This reflection geometry has the advantage of allowing the compressed signal to be observed easily, as it is spatially separate from the pump. This is to our knowledge the first nonlinear effect to be observed that requires a nonuniform grating. PMID:18188380

Broderick, N G; Taverner, D; Richardson, D J; Ibsen, M; Laming, R I

1997-12-15

198

The New CCSDS Image Compression Recommendation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) data compression working group has recently adopted a recommendation for image data compression, with a final release expected in 2005. The algorithm adopted in the recommendation consists of a two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform of the image, followed by progressive bit-plane coding of the transformed data. The algorithm can provide both lossless and lossy compression, and allows a user to directly control the compressed data volume or the fidelity with which the wavelet-transformed data can be reconstructed. The algorithm is suitable for both frame-based image data and scan-based sensor data, and has applications for near-Earth and deep-space missions. The standard will be accompanied by free software sources on a future web site. An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) implementation of the compressor is currently under development. This paper describes the compression algorithm along with the requirements that drove the selection of the algorithm. Performance results and comparisons with other compressors are given for a test set of space images.

Yeh, Pen-Shu; Armbruster, Philippe; Kiely, Aaron; Masschelein, Bart; Moury, Gilles; Schaefer, Christoph

2005-01-01

199

Image and video compression for HDR content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Dynamic Range (HDR) technology can offer high levels of immersion with a dynamic range meeting and exceeding that of the Human Visual System (HVS). A primary drawback with HDR images and video is that memory and bandwidth requirements are significantly higher than for conventional images and video. Many bits can be wasted coding redundant imperceptible information. The challenge is therefore to develop means for efficiently compressing HDR imagery to a manageable bit rate without compromising perceptual quality. In this paper, we build on previous work of ours and propose a compression method for both HDR images and video, based on an HVS optimised wavelet subband weighting method. The method has been fully integrated into a JPEG 2000 codec for HDR image compression and implemented as a pre-processing step for HDR video coding (an H.264 codec is used as the host codec for video compression). Experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperforms previous approaches and operates in accordance with characteristics of the HVS, tested objectively using a HDR Visible Difference Predictor (VDP). Aiming to further improve the compression performance of our method, we additionally present the results of a psychophysical experiment, carried out with the aid of a high dynamic range display, to determine the difference in the noise visibility threshold between HDR and Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) luminance edge masking. Our findings show that noise has increased visibility on the bright side of a luminance edge. Masking is more consistent on the darker side of the edge.

Zhang, Yang; Reinhard, Erik; Agrafiotis, Dimitris; Bull, David R.

2012-10-01

200

Bilateral contusion-compression model of incomplete traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing incidence and prevalence of cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI), we lack clinically relevant animal models that can be used to study the pathomechanisms of this injury and test new therapies. Here, we characterize a moderate cervical contusion-compression model in rats that is similar to incomplete traumatic cSCI in humans. We characterized the effects of 18-g clip-compression injury at cervical level C6 over an 8-week recovery period. Using Luxol fast blue/hematoxylin-eosin staining in combination with quantitative stereology, we determined that 18-g injury results in loss of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), as well as in cavity formation. Magnetization transfer and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were used to analyze lesion dynamics in vivo. This analysis demonstrated that both techniques are able to differentiate between the injury epicenter, subpial rim, and WM distal to the injury. Neurobehavioral assessment of locomotor function using Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring and CatWalk revealed limited recovery from clip-compression injury at C6. Testing of forelimb function using grip strength demonstrated significant forelimb dysfunction, similar to the loss of upper-limb motor function observed in human cSCI. Sensory-evoked potentials recorded from the forelimb and Hoffman reflex recorded from the hindlimb confirmed the fore- and hindlimb deficits observed in our neurobehavioral analysis. Here, we have characterized a clip-compression model of incomplete cSCI that closely models this condition in humans. This work directly addresses the current lack of clinically relevant models of cSCI and will thus contribute to improved success in the translation of putative therapies into the clinic. PMID:24949719

Forgione, Nicole; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Foltz, Warren D; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Lip, Alyssa; Fehlings, Michael G

2014-11-01

201

Bilateral Contusion-Compression Model of Incomplete Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Despite the increasing incidence and prevalence of cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI), we lack clinically relevant animal models that can be used to study the pathomechanisms of this injury and test new therapies. Here, we characterize a moderate cervical contusion-compression model in rats that is similar to incomplete traumatic cSCI in humans. We characterized the effects of 18-g clip-compression injury at cervical level C6 over an 8-week recovery period. Using Luxol fast blue/hematoxylin-eosin staining in combination with quantitative stereology, we determined that 18-g injury results in loss of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), as well as in cavity formation. Magnetization transfer and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were used to analyze lesion dynamics in vivo. This analysis demonstrated that both techniques are able to differentiate between the injury epicenter, subpial rim, and WM distal to the injury. Neurobehavioral assessment of locomotor function using Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring and CatWalk revealed limited recovery from clip-compression injury at C6. Testing of forelimb function using grip strength demonstrated significant forelimb dysfunction, similar to the loss of upper-limb motor function observed in human cSCI. Sensory-evoked potentials recorded from the forelimb and Hoffman reflex recorded from the hindlimb confirmed the fore- and hindlimb deficits observed in our neurobehavioral analysis. Here, we have characterized a clip-compression model of incomplete cSCI that closely models this condition in humans. This work directly addresses the current lack of clinically relevant models of cSCI and will thus contribute to improved success in the translation of putative therapies into the clinic. PMID:24949719

Forgione, Nicole; Karadimas, Spyridon K.; Foltz, Warren D.; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Lip, Alyssa

2014-01-01

202

Learning random networks for compression of still and moving images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image compression for both still and moving images is an extremely important area of investigation, with numerous applications to videoconferencing, interactive education, home entertainment, and potential applications to earth observations, medical imaging, digital libraries, and many other areas. We describe work on a neural network methodology to compress/decompress still and moving images. We use the 'point-process' type neural network model which is closer to biophysical reality than standard models, and yet is mathematically much more tractable. We currently achieve compression ratios of the order of 120:1 for moving grey-level images, based on a combination of motion detection and compression. The observed signal-to-noise ratio varies from values above 25 to more than 35. The method is computationally fast so that compression and decompression can be carried out in real-time. It uses the adaptive capabilities of a set of neural networks so as to select varying compression ratios in real-time as a function of quality achieved. It also uses a motion detector which will avoid retransmitting portions of the image which have varied little from the previous frame. Further improvements can be achieved by using on-line learning during compression, and by appropriate compensation of nonlinearities in the compression/decompression scheme. We expect to go well beyond the 250:1 compression level for color images with good quality levels.

Gelenbe, Erol; Sungur, Mert; Cramer, Christopher

1994-01-01

203

In Vivo Remodeling of Intervertebral Discs in Response to Short- and Long-Term Dynamic Compression  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated how dynamic compression induced changes in gene expression, tissue composition, and structural properties of the intervertebral disc using a rat tail model. We hypothesized that daily exposure to dynamic compression for short durations would result in anabolic remodeling with increased matrix protein expression and proteoglycan content, and that increased daily load exposure time and experiment duration would retain these changes but also accumulate changes representative of mild degeneration. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 100) were instrumented with an Ilizarov-type device and divided into three dynamic compression (2 week-1.5 h/day, 2 week-8 h/day, 8 week-8 h/day at 1 MPa and 1 Hz) and two sham (2 week, 8 week) groups. Dynamic compression resulted in anabolic remodeling with increased matrix mRNA expression, minimal changes in catabolic genes or disc structure and stiffness, and increased glysosaminoglycans (GAG) content in the nucleus pulposus. Some accumulation of mild degeneration with 8 week-8 h included loss of annulus fibrosus GAG and disc height although 8-week shams also had loss of disc height, water content, and minor structural alterations. We conclude that dynamic compression is consistent with a notion of “healthy” loading that is able to maintain or promote matrix biosynthesis without substantially disrupting disc structural integrity. A slow accumulation of changes similar to human disc degeneration occurred when dynamic compression was applied for excessive durations, but this degenerative shift was mild when compared to static compression, bending, or other interventions that create greater structural disruption. PMID:19274755

Wuertz, Karin; Godburn, Karolyn; MacLean, Jeffrey J.; Barbir, Ana; Donnelly, Justin Stinnett; Roughley, Peter J.; Alini, Mauro; Iatridis, James C.

2009-01-01

204

[Evaluation of irreversible compressed images in computed radiography using physical image quality measures].  

PubMed

Joint photographic experts group(JPEG)and JPEG2000 are widely used as image compression algorithms in medical image database systems. Compressed images have been mainly evaluated by visual assessment on acceptable compression levels in clinical studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, little work has been done to clarify image properties based on physical analysis. In this work, investigations were made to clarify image properties based on physical analysis and to discuss the major causes of degradation related to compression ratios. The physical properties of JPEG2000-compressed and JPEG-compressed images in computed radiography(CR)were compared by measuring the characteristic curve, modulation transfer function(MTF), noise power spectrum(NPS), peak signal-to-noise ratio(PSNR), contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR), and noise equivalent quanta(NEQ). In the MTF measurement, the MTFs of JPEG at high compression ratio showed pronounced degradation at all frequencies. The NPS values of JPEG2000 tend to decrease considerably compared to that of the JPEG at all frequencies with the increase of compression ratio. Furthermore, JPEG2000 images showed higher PSNR, CNR, and NEQ values than JPEG images in the same compression ratio. In these signal-to-noise ratio measurements, good reproducibility of JPEG2000 images was achieved. Overall, JPEG2000 compressed images were far superior to JPEG compressed images. In the physical properties measured, these physical analyses are useful to comprehend physical properties for each irreversible compressed image related to compression ratios in CR. PMID:20124739

Watanabe, Haruyuki; Tsai, Du-Yih; Lee, Yongbum; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Kuramochi, Yoshio; Kojima, Katsuyuki

2009-12-20

205

Effect of ambient conditions and fuel properties on homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation  

E-print Network

Practical application of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion must demonstrate robust responses to variations in environmental conditions. This work examines the impact of ambient conditions and fuel ...

Andreae, Morgan M. (Morgan MacKenzie)

2006-01-01

206

Compressed bloom filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bloom filter is a simple space-efficient randomized data structure for representing a set in order to support membership queries. Although Bloom filters allow false positives, for many applications the space savings outweigh this draw-back when the probability of an error is sufficiently low. We introduce compressed Bloom filters, which improve performance when the Bloom filter is passed as a

Michael Mitzenmacher

2001-01-01

207

Procedure based program compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost and power consumption are two of the most important design factors for many embedded systems, particularly consumer devices. Products such as personal digital assistants, pagers with integrated data services and smart phones have fixed performance requirements but unlimited appetites for reduced cost and increased battery life. Program compression is one technique that can be used to attack both of

Darko Kirovski; Johnson Kin; William H. Mangione-Smith

1997-01-01

208

Compress Your Files  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

File compression enables data to be squeezed together, greatly reducing file size. Why would someone want to do this? Reducing file size enables the sending and receiving of files over the Internet more quickly, the ability to store more files on the hard drive, and the ability pack many related files into one archive (for example, all files…

Branzburg, Jeffrey

2005-01-01

209

Compression of aerogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an aerogel is pressurized in a mercury porosimeter, the network is compressed, but no mercury enters the pores. Therefore, porosimetry cannot be used to measure the pore size distribution in an aerogel, but it does provide a measure of the bulk modulus of the network. For silica aerogels, the network is linearly elastic under small strains, then exhibits yield

George W. Scherer; Douglas M. Smith; Xiaomei Qiu; Julie M. Anderson

1995-01-01

210

Nonlinear Frequency Compression  

PubMed Central

Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

2013-01-01

211

The Compressed Video Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall semester 1995, Southern Arkansas University- Magnolia (SAU-M) began a two semester trial delivering college classes via a compressed video link between SAU-M and its sister school Southern Arkansas University Tech (SAU-T) in Camden. As soon as the University began broadcasting and receiving classes, it was discovered that using the…

Weber, John

212

Tension and Compression Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page presents activities related to tension and compression from the Science & Engineering in the Lives of Students project. Activities include Bridge Building, Construction Beams, Hoover Dam Bypass, and Tug of War. Each activity includes a detailed description, list of the materials needed, science concepts covered, and reflection questions.

213

Data Compression introduction  

E-print Network

a central role in communications technology, · Braille. · Morse code. · Telephone system. and is part-length encoding Use different number of bits to encode different characters. Ex. Morse code. Issue: ambiguity1 Data Compression introduction basic coding schemes an application entropy LZW codes References

Sedgewick, Robert

214

Compressed Synthetic Aperture Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging modality which can provide a high-resolution map of the spatial distribution of targets and terrain using a significantly reduced number of needed transmitted and\\/or received electromagnetic waveforms. This new imaging scheme, requires no new hardware components and allows the aperture to be compressed. It also presents many new

Vishal M. Patel; Glenn R. Easley; Dennis M. Healy; Jr.

2010-01-01

215

K.CC Color Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: This game can be set up two ways. Version 1 Set up one week as “color week” and send home a notice to parents laying out each color day. Example: Monda...

216

Functional Compression Through Graph Coloring  

E-print Network

Motivated by applications to sensor networks and privacy preserving databases, we consider the problem of functional compression. The objective is to separately compress possibly correlated discrete sources such that an ...

Doshi, Vishal

217

Functional compression : theory and application  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of functional compression. The objective is to separately compress possibly correlated discrete sources such that an arbitrary deterministic function of those sources can be computed given the ...

Doshi, Vishal D. (Vishal Devendra)

2008-01-01

218

Compression fractures of the back  

MedlinePLUS

Compression fractures of the back are broken vertebrae. Vertebrae are the bones of the spine. ... acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (Vertos II): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet . 2010 Sep 25;376(9746):1085-92. ...

219

Arithmetic coding for data compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art in data compression is arithmetic coding, not the better-known Huffman method. Arithmetic coding gives greater compression, is faster for adaptive models, and clearly separates the model from the channel encoding.

Ian H. witten; Radford M. Neal; John Gerald Cleary

1987-01-01

220

The inductance of compressed plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental results of ATC (Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor) are re-analysed with magnetic-compression theory for clarifying the inductance of compressed plasma. Its time-varying nature during compression is revealed, as there has been uncertainty since 1977 (Daughney et al 1977 Nucl. Fusion 17 2). During compression in the major radius, the plasma inductance decreases quasi-linearly with the major radius, and its magnetic energy increases quasi-linearly with the major radius.

Li, Ge

2015-03-01

221

Contributions to brittle compressive failure of ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis is dedicated to the understanding and characterization of brittle compressive fracture of columnar S2 ice. The work quantifies the strength of fresh-water S2 ice and investigates its characteristic brittle failure modes under biaxial proportional across-column loading. All experiments were conducted at -10° +/- 0.2°C on sets of microsimilar plate specimens. The load was applied biaxially, perpendicular to the axis of the columns. The minor compressive stress was proportional at all times to the major compressive stress by a pre-set fraction R, termed confinement ratio, which varied between 0.0 and 1.0. In the first stage, the brittle compressive failure envelope of fresh-water S2 ice under biaxial compression was constructed. The failure envelope is convex about the origin and exhibits an ascending branch followed by a descending one. The ascending branch represents clear evidence in support of the Coulombic character of S2 ice. Six distinct faulting patterns were observed. In the direction of increasing confinement ratio these faulting patterns are: axial splitting, shear faulting, shear faulting with in-plane cracking, spalling, spalling accompanied by horizontal faulting, and spalling accompanied by shear faults inclined at 25°--30° with respect to the direction of the pre-set minor compressive axis. Associated with these faulting patterns are the three fundamental brittle failure modes of S2 ice under across-column compression (axial splitting, shear faulting, and spalling) and three shear faulting and/or spalling-based variations or combinations. Two new wing-crack based failure mechanisms are proposed for shear faulting and spalling brittle failure modes. In the case of shear faulting, the orientation of faults is strongly influenced by the type of end conditions applied. Following the initial findings of Gupta et al. (1998), the work investigates the conditions under which step-loading (incremental loading) increases the brittle compressive strength of fresh-water S2 ice and quantifies the magnitude of the increase as a function of the applied average stress increment. It is also demonstrated that step-loading does not change the overall brittle failure mode compared to monotonic loading.

Iliescu, Daniel

222

77 FR 22177 - National Volunteer Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8797--National Volunteer Week, 2012 Proclamation 8798--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012 Proclamation 8799--National Former...8797 of April 9, 2012 National Volunteer Week, 2012 By the President of the United...

2012-04-12

223

78 FR 44867 - Captive Nations Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2013-07-24

224

76 FR 43107 - Captive Nations Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2011-07-19

225

76 FR 72601 - National Family Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2011-11-23

226

78 FR 71431 - National Family Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2013-11-27

227

78 FR 69749 - American Education Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2013-11-20

228

76 FR 71445 - American Education Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8753--American Education Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...of November 14, 2011 American Education Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...thriving democracy. During American Education Week, we acknowledge the central role...

2011-11-17

229

76 FR 63801 - Fire Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8732--Fire Prevention Week, 2011 Proclamation 8733--National School Lunch Week, 2011 Proclamation 8734--Leif Erikson...Proclamation 8732 of October 7, 2011 Fire Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United...

2011-10-13

230

Progressive transmission and compression images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an image data compression strategy featuring progressive transmission. The method exploits subband coding and arithmetic coding for compression. We analyze the Laplacian probability density, which closely approximates the statistics of individual subbands, to determine a strategy for ordering the compressed subband data in a way that improves rate-distortion performance. Results are presented for a test image.

Kiely, A. B.

1996-01-01

231

Compression of Embedded System Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded systems are often sensitive to space, weight, and cost considerations. Reducing the size of stored programs can significantly improve these factors. This paper discusses a program compression methodology based on existing processor architectures. The authors examine practical and theoretical measures for the maximum compression rate of a suite of programs across six modern architectures. The theoretical compression rate is

Michael Kozuch; Andrew Wolfe

1994-01-01

232

HAPPENING THIS WEEK NECO MEETING  

E-print Network

INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE BY CALLING (406)994-2121. MSU FOOTBALL GAME BOBCAT BIKE CHECK - SATURDAY SEPT 6TH BOBCAT STADIUM BIKE TO THE GAME THIS SATURDAY, AND WE'LL TAKE CARE OF YOUR BIKE FOR THE ENTIRETY TO OFFER BOBCATS THIS FREE SERVICE. SEE YOU, AND YOUR BIKE, AT THE GAME! GO CATS! HAPPENING THIS WEEK

Maxwell, Bruce D.

233

Micron Confidential Condor Week 2008  

E-print Network

Micron Confidential 7/14/10 Condor Week 2008 Grid Computing at Micron: Then and Now ©2008 Micron Confidential 2 Condor & Semiconductor Mfg About Micron and our Grid Then and Now Cool apps Take-aways #12;©2008 Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. 7/14/10 Micron Confidential 3 Condor & Semiconductor Mfg

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

234

11 September 2000 Weekly Essentials  

E-print Network

implementation.", The Journal of Finance, Aug. 2000 Fundamental analysis vs. technical analysis Can trend11 September 2000 Weekly Essentials Technicals ­ Special: Does technical analysis really have and market participants who follow technical analysis never goes out of style. The (narrow-minded) technical

Fulmek, Markus

235

Interactive Biomaterials REU Program Week 1 Schedule  

E-print Network

Interactive Biomaterials REU Program Week 1 Schedule Syracuse Biomaterials Institute Syracuse and Challenge Course #12;Interactive Biomaterials REU Program Week 1 Schedule Syracuse Biomaterials Institute

Mather, Patrick T.

236

Uterine Compression Sutures as an Effective Treatment for Postpartum Hemorrhage: Case Series  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the role of uterine compression sutures as a conservative treatment for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) after failed medical treatment. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients who delivered between 2003 and 2009 at a single tertiary care center and who underwent uterine compression sutures for PPH. Twelve women had uterine compression sutures for PPH. The mean age of the patients was 36.3 ± 5.2 years. The mean gestational age at delivery was 37.7 ± 2.0 weeks, and the average estimated blood loss was 2.1 ± 1.1 L. The mean procedure time to perform the uterine compression sutures was 9.3 ± 2.8 minutes. The success rate of compression sutures was 92% with only one failure resulting in a hysterectomy. Uterine compression sutures are an effective method for the treatment of PPH, thus avoiding hysterectomy and preserving potential fertility. PMID:23705085

Al Riyami, Nihal; Hui, Dini; Herer, Elaine; Nevo, Ori

2011-01-01

237

Digital mammography, cancer screening: Factors important for image compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital mammography for breast cancer screening poses several novel problems such as development of digital sensors, computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) methods for image noise suppression, enhancement, and pattern recognition, compression algorithms for image storage, transmission, and remote diagnosis. X-ray digital mammography using novel direct digital detection schemes or film digitizers results in large data sets and, therefore, image compression methods will play a significant role in the image processing and analysis by CAD techniques. In view of the extensive compression required, the relative merit of 'virtually lossless' versus lossy methods should be determined. A brief overview is presented here of the developments of digital sensors, CAD, and compression methods currently proposed and tested for mammography. The objective of the NCI/NASA Working Group on Digital Mammography is to stimulate the interest of the image processing and compression scientific community for this medical application and identify possible dual use technologies within the NASA centers.

Clarke, Laurence P.; Blaine, G. James; Doi, Kunio; Yaffe, Martin J.; Shtern, Faina; Brown, G. Stephen; Winfield, Daniel L.; Kallergi, Maria

1993-01-01

238

3 CFR 8382 - Proclamation 8382 of May 15, 2009. Small Business Week, 2009  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...May 15, 2009. Small Business Week, 2009 8382 ...Proc. 8382 Small Business Week, 2009By the President...work hard, put their plan to the test, and...During National Small Business Week, we honor the entrepreneurs...created 70 percent of new jobs, and they...

2010-01-01

239

[Electrocution accident with three-week survival].  

PubMed

A 55-year-old man was found unconscious with ventricular fibrillations at his working place near a power press. CPR was successful. After three weeks of intensive care the patient died of ischemic brain damage. The first suspected diagnosis of myocardial infarction was revised when typical current marks were detected on both palms. At the working place the top of a lubricating grease container was found to be energized due to a technical damage: There is a round, multiple-pole plug mounted upon the container top the proper orientation of which is coded by a set of five plastic nipples. All the nipples had been abraded by longlasting mechanical stress, so that the plug could be connected in a variety of possible orientations. In actual fact, the incorrect orientation caused a voltage of up to 240 V to the container top. PMID:1482231

Pedal, I; Graf, W

1992-01-01

240

Vented compression molding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new process, vented compression molding, is developed for molding low density particulates, such as ablative materials used in the Space Shuttle. This process is a modification of standard compression molding that uses a perforated surface as the molding surface. An excess of material is used to fill the mold cavity and this material is forced through the openings in the surface of the mold as the mold closes. This process creates frictional forces, which can be determined approximately by Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion, generating the pressure that compacts the material. The pressure in the mold is shown to be governed by the geometry of the openings and the mechanical properties of the particulate, and not by the displacement or the volume of the mold. It is determined that this uncoupling of the pressure-displacement relationship allows uniform material distribution and compaction without requiring large-scale flow of the particulates.

Mccree, J. O.; Erwin, L.

1982-01-01

241

Compression and entrapment neuropathies.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve entrapments are frequent. They usually appear in anatomical tunnels such as the carpal tunnel. Nerve compressions may be due to external pressure such as the fibular nerve at the fibular head. Malignant or benign tumors may also damage the nerve. For each nerve from the upper and lower limbs, detailed clinical, electrophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic aspects are described. In the upper limbs, carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow are the most frequent manifestations; the radial nerve is less frequently involved. Other nerves may occasionally be damaged and these are described also. In the lower limbs, the fibular nerve is most frequently involved, usually at the fibular head by external compression. Other nerves may also be involved and are therefore described. The clinical and electrophysiological examination are very important for the diagnosis, but imaging is also of great use. Treatments available for each nerve disease are discussed. PMID:23931789

Bouche, P

2013-01-01

242

Random Operator Compressions  

E-print Network

Let $A$ be a Hermitian operator of order $n$. We show that for $k\\leq n$ sufficiently large, the eigenvalues of a compression of $A$ to a $k$-dimensional subspace are almost the same for all subspaces. We prove this result using the methods introduced in a paper by Chatterjee and Ledoux on eigenvalues of principle submatrices. We show that by choosing an appropriate Markov chain, the methods of Chatterjee and Ledoux can be applied to give a more general result on operator compressions. As an additional application of this method, we prove concentration of measure of the length of the longest increasing subsequence of a random walk distributed under the invariant measure for the asymmetric exclusion process.

Stephen Ng; Meg Walters

2014-09-19

243

The quest for 'diagnostically lossless' medical image compression: a comparative study of objective quality metrics for compressed medical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study, involving a collaboration with radiologists (DK,NSK) as well as a leading international developer of medical imaging software (AGFA), is primarily concerned with improved methods of assessing the diagnostic quality of compressed medical images and the investigation of compression artifacts resulting from JPEG and JPEG2000. In this work, we compare the performances of the Structural Similarity quality measure (SSIM), MSE/PSNR, compression ratio CR and JPEG quality factor Q, based on experimental data collected in two experiments involving radiologists. An ROC and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis indicates that compression ratio is not always a good indicator of visual quality. Moreover, SSIM demonstrates the best performance, i.e., it provides the closest match to the radiologists' assessments. We also show that a weighted Youden index1 and curve tting method can provide SSIM and MSE thresholds for acceptable compression ratios.

Kowalik-Urbaniak, Ilona; Brunet, Dominique; Wang, Jiheng; Koff, David; Smolarski-Koff, Nadine; Vrscay, Edward R.; Wallace, Bill; Wang, Zhou

2014-03-01

244

Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

2012-05-01

245

Observation of the Week Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its early years NASA's Observatorium (described in the January 10, 1997 Scout Report) posted an "observation of the week" in one of the following broad categories: earth sciences, sun and the solar system, stars, galaxies, the universe, education, human spaceflight, space technology, or space history. These weekly observations (such as the recent Leonid Meteor storm) are described in general terms and are accompanied by color images and links to recommended sites. Interested viewers may browse the archive (1995 to 1999) for events by subject or date. The simplicity of the site allows for easy access to a wide range of interesting and current information -- whether radar images of Mount Vesuvius, an understanding of Tsunamis, or Galactic Cannibalism.

246

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Weekly Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the use of weekly reports as an assessment tool for student learning. It is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. Weekly reports provide rapid feedback about what students think they are learning and what conceptual difficulties they are experiencing. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique including information about how to use it. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Eugenia Etkina

247

Content-based image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First generation image compression methods using block-based DCT or wavelet transforms compressed all image blocks with a uniform compression ratio. Consequently, any regions of special interest were degraded along with the remainder of the image. Second generation image compression methods apply object-based compression techniques in which each object is first segmented and then encoded separately. Content-based compression further improves on object-based compression by applying image understanding techniques. First, each object is recognized or classified, and then different objects are compressed at different compression rates according to their priorities. Regions with higher priorities (such as objects of interest) receive more encoding bits as compared to less important regions, such as the background. The major difference between a content-based compression algorithm and conventional block-based or object-based compression algorithms is that content-based compression replaces the quantizer with a more sophisticated classifier. In this paper we describe a technique in which the image is first segmented into regions by texture and color. These regions are then classified and merged into different objects by means of a classifier based on its color, texture and shape features. Each object is then transformed by either DCT or Wavelets. The resulting coefficients are encoded to an accuracy that minimizes recognition error and satisfies alternative requirements. We employ the Chernoff bound to compute the cost function of the recognition error. Compared to the conventional image compression methods, our results show that content-based compression is able to achieve more efficient image coding by suppressing the background while leaving the objects of interest virtually intact.

Du, Xun; Li, Honglin; Ahalt, Stanley C.

2001-08-01

248

Open Access Week Planning Materials  

E-print Network

in Set up by requested time. Learning & Outreach Librarian Program Coordinator tableclothes bring to business office to dry clean afterwards Lecturer/Ask Us Services Program Coordinator Learning & Outreach Librarian Program Coordinator... for onsite OA week Project Coordinator O&M Building - OK; also send their webservices people any marketing for display and advertising Discuss programing and presentations DSSC Head and Project Coordinator e-science; presentations Convey OA updates...

249

Upcoming musical events..... Second Week  

E-print Network

Third Week: Sunday 6th May at 9pm Platnauer Concert - Heath Quartet and James Baillieu The Heath Quartet on the Quad Tuesday May 8th, 8pm - Open Mic Night (LRXI) Wednesday 9th May 9th, 1pm - Lunchtime Concert Friday May 11th, 1pm - Lunchtime Concert Saturday 12th May from 10am to 1pm - Choral Workshop ­ open to all

Oxford, University of

250

Compressibility effects in shaped charge jet penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among other hypotheses, the classical theory of high-speed penetration assumes the incompressibility of both the projectile and target. Employing a simple Murnaghan equation of state, we show here that direct compressibility effects (pv-work) on penetration depth are at most on the order of 10–15% for projectile speeds as high as 104 ms?1. Our results agree closely with similar results by

B. S. Haugstad

1981-01-01

251

The JPEG still picture compression standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past few years, a joint ISO\\/CCITT committee known as JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) has been working to establish the first international compression standard for continuous-tone still images, both grayscale and color. JPEG's proposed standard aims to be generic, to support a wide variety of applications for continuous-tone images. To meet the differing needs of many applications, the

Gregory K. Wallace

1991-01-01

252

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

Mark J. Bergander

2005-08-29

253

Vocal therapy with larynx compression after partial laryngectomy.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to establish the effects of the vocal therapy by manual compression of the larynx on dysphonia due to a partial laryngectomy and compare them with the effects of the standard vocal therapy. The prospective study included 66 patients submitted to any partial laryngectomy type. The patients were randomly classified into two groups: Group I (33) receiving the standard vocal therapy, and Group II (33) submitted to larynx compression vocal therapy. The 6-week vocal treatment was performed. The treatment effects were evaluated by subjective and objective voice analysis methods. The subjective and objective acoustic voice analysis revealed a significant influence (p < 0.05) of either of the two vocal therapy modes on initial dysphonia. The larynx compression vocal therapy had better effects on the acoustic parameters: habitual fundamental frequency, mean fundamental frequency, standard deviation of fundamental frequency, maximal fundamental frequency, harmonics-to-noise ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:21970061

Mumovi?, Gordana M

2011-01-01

254

Comparative data compression techniques and multi-compression results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data compression is very necessary in business data processing, because of the cost savings that it offers and the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. It is a method or system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication, we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise freely. This paper will provide some compression techniques for lossless text type data compression and comparative result of multiple and single compression, that will help to find out better compression output and to develop compression algorithms.

Hasan, M. R.; Ibrahimy, M. I.; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ferdaus, M. M.; Khan, M. N. H.

2013-12-01

255

Image compression in local helioseismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Several upcoming helioseismology space missions are very limited in telemetry and will have to perform extensive data compression. This requires the development of new methods of data compression. Aims: We give an overview of the influence of lossy data compression on local helioseismology. We investigate the effects of several lossy compression methods (quantization, JPEG compression, and smoothing and subsampling) on power spectra and time-distance measurements of supergranulation flows at disk center. Methods: We applied different compression methods to tracked and remapped Dopplergrams obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We determined the signal-to-noise ratio of the travel times computed from the compressed data as a function of the compression efficiency. Results: The basic helioseismic measurements that we consider are very robust to lossy data compression. Even if only the sign of the velocity is used, time-distance helioseismology is still possible. We achieve the best results by applying JPEG compression on spatially subsampled data. However, our conclusions are only valid for supergranulation flows at disk center and may not be valid for all helioseismology applications.

Löptien, B.; Birch, A. C.; Gizon, L.; Schou, J.

2014-11-01

256

Ultrasound beamforming using compressed data.  

PubMed

The rapid advancements in electronics technologies have made software-based beamformers for ultrasound array imaging feasible, thus facilitating the rapid development of high-performance and potentially low-cost systems. However, one challenge to realizing a fully software-based system is transferring data from the analog front end to the software back end at rates of up to a few gigabits per second. This study investigated the use of data compression to reduce the data transfer requirements and optimize the associated trade-off with beamforming quality. JPEG and JPEG2000 compression techniques were adopted. The acoustic data of a line phantom were acquired with a 128-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.5 MHz, and the acoustic data of a cyst phantom were acquired with a 64-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.33 MHz. The receive-channel data associated with each transmit event are separated into 8 × 8 blocks and several tiles before JPEG and JPEG2000 data compression is applied, respectively. In one scheme, the compression was applied to raw RF data, while in another only the amplitude of baseband data was compressed. The maximum compression ratio of RF data compression to produce an average error of lower than 5 dB was 15 with JPEG compression and 20 with JPEG2000 compression. The image quality is higher with baseband amplitude data compression than with RF data compression; although the maximum overall compression ratio (compared with the original RF data size), which was limited by the data size of uncompressed phase data, was lower than 12, the average error in this case was lower than 1 dB when the compression ratio was lower than 8. PMID:22434817

Li, Yen-Feng; Li, Pai-Chi

2012-05-01

257

The Four Day School Week. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can four-day school weeks help districts save money? How do districts overcome the barriers of moving to a four-day week? What is the effect of a four-day week on students, staff and the community? This paper enumerates the benefits for students and teachers of four-day school weeks. Recommendations for implementation of a four-day week are also…

Muir, Mike

2013-01-01

258

A new method for compression-rebuilding of IR spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a new spectral data compression-rebuilding technique to translate the full IR spectral data into compact\\u000a codes based on the analysis and comprehension encoding approach. This method has been successfully applied to a sample set\\u000a of 505 IR spectra randomly picked from 100 000 spectra. The results show that the compression ratio reaches 12.7:1 under a\\u000a very weak

Shiwei Luo; Xicheng Dong; Shuwen Yao; Jianhua Yao; Shengang Yuan; Chongzhi Zheng

2000-01-01

259

Bilateral hip arthroplasty: is 1-week staging the optimum strategy?  

PubMed

Seventy-nine patients underwent bilateral hip arthroplasty staged either at 1 week (Group 1) or after greater intervals (as suggested by the patients, mean 44 weeks, range 16-88 weeks) (Group 2), over a five year period at one Institution. Sixty-eight patients (29 bilateral hip resurfacings and 39 total hip replacements) completed questionnaires regarding their post-operative recovery, complications and overall satisfaction with the staging of their surgery.There was no significant age or ASA grade difference between the patient groups. Complication rates in the two groups were similar and overall satisfaction rates were 84% in Group 1 (n = 32) and 89% in Group 2 (n = 36). Cumulative hospital lengths of stay were significantly longer in Group 1 patients (11.9 days vs 9.1 days)(p < 0.01); this was true for both hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty patients, however resurfacing patients stays were significantly shorter in both groups (p < 0.01). Postoperative pain resolved earlier in Group 1 patients at a mean of 20.9 weeks compared with a cumulative 28.9 weeks (15.8 and 13.1 weeks) for Group 2 patients (p = 0.03).The mean time to return to part-time work was 16.4 weeks for Group 1, and a cumulative 17.2 weeks (8.8 and 8.4 weeks) for Group 2. The time to return to full-time work was significantly shorter for Group 1 patients (21.0 weeks, compared with a cumulative 29.7 weeks for Group 2)(p < 0.05). The time to return to both full and part-time work was significantly shorter in total hip replacement patients with 1-week staging compared with delayed staging (22.0 vs 35.8 weeks (p = 0.02), and 13.8 vs 19.3 weeks (p = 0.03) respectively).Hip resurfacing patients in Group 2 had significantly shorter durations of postoperative pain and were able to return to part-time and full time work sooner than total hip arthroplasty patients. There was a general trend towards a faster recovery and resumption of normal activities following the second operation in Group 2 patients, compared with the first operation.Bilateral hip arthroplasty staged at a 1-week interval resulted in an earlier resolution of hip pain, and an earlier return to full-time work (particularly following total hip replacement surgery), with high levels of patient satisfaction and no increased risk in complications; however the hospital length of stay was significantly longer. The decision for the timing of staged bilateral surgery should be made in conjunction with the patient, making adjustments to accommodate their occupational needs and functional demands. PMID:21054889

Atkinson, Henry D; Bailey, Christopher A; Willis-Owen, Charles A; Oakeshott, Roger D

2010-01-01

260

International magnetic pulse compression  

SciTech Connect

Although pulsed-power engineering traditionally has been practiced by a fairly small, close community in the areas of defense and energy research, it is becoming more common in high-power, high-energy commercial pursuits such as material processing and lasers. This paper is a synopsis of the Feb. 12--14, 1990 workshop on magnetic switching as it applies primarily to pulse compression (power transformation). During the course of the Workshop at Granlibakken, a great deal of information was amassed and a keen insight into both the problems and opportunities as to the use of this switching approach was developed. The segmented workshop format proved ideal for identifying key aspects affecting optimum performance in a variety of applications. Individual groups of experts addressed network and system modeling, magnetic materials, power conditioning, core cooling and dielectrics, and finally circuits and application. At the end, they came together to consolidate their input and formulate the workshop's conclusions, identifying roadblocks or suggesting research projects, particularly as they apply to magnetic switching's trump card -- its high-average-power-handling capability (at least on a burst-mode basis). The workshop was especially productive both in the quality and quantity of information transfer in an environment conducive to a free and open exchange of ideas. We will not delve into the organization proper of this meeting, rather we wish to commend to the interested reader this volume, which provides the definitive and most up-to-date compilation on the subject of magnetic pulse compression from underlying principles to current state of the art as well as the prognosis for the future of magnetic pulse compression as a consensus of the workshop's organizers and participants.

Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.; Siemens, P.D.

1991-04-01

261

Sampling video compression system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for transmitting video signal of compressed bandwidth is described. The transmitting station is provided with circuitry for dividing a picture to be transmitted into a plurality of blocks containing a checkerboard pattern of picture elements. Video signals along corresponding diagonal rows of picture elements in the respective blocks are regularly sampled. A transmitter responsive to the output of the sampling circuitry is included for transmitting the sampled video signals of one frame at a reduced bandwidth over a communication channel. The receiving station is provided with a frame memory for temporarily storing transmitted video signals of one frame at the original high bandwidth frequency.

Matsumoto, Y.; Lum, H. (inventors)

1977-01-01

262

Beamforming using compressive sensing.  

PubMed

Compressive sensing (CS) is compared with conventional beamforming using horizontal beamforming of at-sea, towed-array data. They are compared qualitatively using bearing time records and quantitatively using signal-to-interference ratio. Qualitatively, CS exhibits lower levels of background interference than conventional beamforming. Furthermore, bearing time records show increasing, but tolerable, levels of background interference when the number of elements is decreased. For the full array, CS generates signal-to-interference ratio of 12 dB, but conventional beamforming only 8 dB. The superiority of CS over conventional beamforming is much more pronounced with undersampling. PMID:21974497

Edelmann, Geoffrey F; Gaumond, Charles F

2011-10-01

263

GRADUATE STUDENT COURSE ASSIGNMENTS Block 0 Analysis ---Fefferman Week 1  

E-print Network

) (weeks 1­8) Chakraborty, Ganapathy, Raghunathan, Purdy, Schedler Block 2a (Abert) (weeks 1­4) Balduzzi weeks --- Murali Ganapathy 1 8 weeks --- Nanda Raghunathan 1 8 weeks --- Eric Purdy (UG) 1 8 weeks

May, J. Peter

264

Energy transfer in compressible turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This letter investigates the compressible energy transfer process. We extend a methodology developed originally for incompressible turbulence and use databases from numerical simulations of a weak compressible turbulence based on Eddy-Damped-Quasi-Normal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure. In order to analyze the compressible mode directly, the well known Helmholtz decomposition is used. While the compressible component has very little influence on the solenoidal part, we found that almost all of the compressible turbulence energy is received from its solenoidal counterpart. We focus on the most fundamental building block of the energy transfer process, the triadic interactions. This analysis leads us to conclude that, at low turbulent Mach number, the compressible energy transfer process is dominated by a local radiative transfer (absorption) in both inertial and energy containing ranges.

Bataille, Francoise; Zhou, YE; Bertoglio, Jean-Pierre

1995-01-01

265

Effects of Compression on Speech Acoustics, Intelligibility, and Sound Quality  

PubMed Central

The topic of compression has been discussed quite extensively in the last 20 years (eg, Braida et al., 1982; Dillon, 1996, 2000; Dreschler, 1992; Hickson, 1994; Kuk, 2000 and 2002; Kuk and Ludvigsen, 1999; Moore, 1990; Van Tasell, 1993; Venema, 2000; Verschuure et al., 1996; Walker and Dillon, 1982). However, the latest comprehensive update by this journal was published in 1996 (Kuk, 1996). Since that time, use of compression hearing aids has increased dramatically, from half of hearing aids dispensed only 5 years ago to four out of five hearing aids dispensed today (Strom, 2002b). Most of today's digital and digitally programmable hearing aids are compression devices (Strom, 2002a). It is probable that within a few years, very few patients will be fit with linear hearing aids. Furthermore, compression has increased in complexity, with greater numbers of parameters under the clinician's control. Ideally, these changes will translate to greater flexibility and precision in fitting and selection. However, they also increase the need for information about the effects of compression amplification on speech perception and speech quality. As evidenced by the large number of sessions at professional conferences on fitting compression hearing aids, clinicians continue to have questions about compression technology and when and how it should be used. How does compression work? Who are the best candidates for this technology? How should adjustable parameters be set to provide optimal speech recognition? What effect will compression have on speech quality? These and other questions continue to drive our interest in this technology. This article reviews the effects of compression on the speech signal and the implications for speech intelligibility, quality, and design of clinical procedures. PMID:25425919

Souza, Pamela E.

2002-01-01

266

Chiropractic management of a patient with ulnar nerve compression symptoms: a case report  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic management of a patient with arm and hand numbness and who was suspected to have ulnar nerve compression. Clinical Features A 41-year-old woman presented with hand weakness and numbness along the medial aspect of her right forearm and the 3 most medial fingers. The onset of symptoms presented suddenly, 3 weeks prior, when she woke up in the morning and assumed she had “slept wrong.” The patient’s posture showed protracted shoulders and moderate forward head carriage. Orthopedic assessment revealed symptomatic right elevated arm stress test, grip strength asymmetry, and a Tinel sign at the right cubital tunnel. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated using chiropractic care, which consisted of manipulative therapy, myofascial therapy, and elastic therapeutic taping. Active home care included performing postural exercises and education about workstation ergonomics. She demonstrated immediate subjective improvement of her numbness and weakness after the first treatment. Over a series of 11 treatments, her symptoms resolved completely; and she was able to perform work tasks without dysfunction. Conclusion Chiropractic treatment consisting of manipulation, soft tissue mobilizations, exercise, and education of workstation ergonomics appeared to reduce the symptoms of ulnar nerve compression symptoms for this patient. PMID:24294148

Illes, Jennifer D.; Johnson, Theodore L.

2013-01-01

267

ECG data compression by modeling.  

PubMed

The paper presents a novel algorithm for data compression of single lead electrocardiogram (ECG) data. The method is based on parametric modeling of the discrete cosine transformed ECG signal. Improved high frequency reconstruction is achieved by separately modeling the low and the high frequency regions of the transformed signal. Differential pulse code modulation is applied on the model parameters to obtain a further increase in the compression. Compression ratios up to 1:40 were achieved without significant distortion. PMID:8325008

Madhukar, B; Murthy, I S

1993-06-01

268

Shock compression of precompressed deuterium  

SciTech Connect

Here we report quasi-isentropic dynamic compression and thermodynamic characterization of solid, precompressed deuterium over an ultrafast time scale (< 100 ps) and a microscopic length scale (< 1 {micro}m). We further report a fast transition in shock wave compressed solid deuterium that is consistent with the ramp to shock transition, with a time scale of less than 10 ps. These results suggest that high-density dynamic compression of hydrogen may be possible on microscopic length scales.

Armstrong, M R; Crowhurst, J C; Zaug, J M; Bastea, S; Goncharov, A F; Militzer, B

2011-07-31

269

ECG data compression by modeling.  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel algorithm for data compression of single lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) data. The method is based on Parametric modeling of the Discrete Cosine Transformed ECG signal. Improved high frequency reconstruction is achieved by separately modeling the low and the high frequency regions of the transformed signal. Differential Pulse Code Modulation is applied on the model parameters to obtain a further increase in the compression. Compression ratios up to 1:40 were achieved without significant distortion. PMID:1482940

Madhukar, B.; Murthy, I. S.

1992-01-01

270

Magnetic compression laser driving circuit  

DOEpatents

A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.; Cook, E.G.

1993-01-05

271

COMPRESSION Software for Astronomical Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical images are usually very noisy and don't shrink well with the typical lossless compression algorithms. COMPFITS is a utility program which analyses and pre-processes the images before sending them to the lossless compression program of your choice. The compression is still lossless (i.e. the reverse process gives a file exactly identical to the original) but the compression ratio achieved is usually much better. This allows fast, simple compression programs to achieve almost the same performance as time consuming, more sophisticated ones. Therefore COMPFITS is very efficient whenever computing time (for compression and/or decompression) is a critical parameter. Test charts are given to show how COMPFITS compares with other programs compressing unprocessed datas. Tests were also carried out on medical images, which are noisy too, but the results are quite different. This stresses the fact that compression of astronomical images is a specific problem. Options are available to perform lossy compression as well. COMPFITS is freely available and can be retrieved via anonymous ftp.

Veran, J. P.; Wright, J.

272

Free compression tube. Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

Rusu, Ioan

2012-11-01

273

Perceptually Lossless Wavelet Compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter, which we call DWT uniform quantization noise. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2(exp -1), where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and L is the wavelet level. Amplitude thresholds increase rapidly with spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from low-pass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We propose a mathematical model for DWT noise detection thresholds that is a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a 'perceptually lossless' quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.

Watson, Andrew B.; Yang, Gloria Y.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Villasenor, John

1996-01-01

274

Approximation and compression with sparse orthonormal transforms.  

PubMed

We propose a new transform design method that targets the generation of compression-optimized transforms for next-generation multimedia applications. The fundamental idea behind transform compression is to exploit regularity within signals such that redundancy is minimized subject to a fidelity cost. Multimedia signals, in particular images and video, are well known to contain a diverse set of localized structures, leading to many different types of regularity and to nonstationary signal statistics. The proposed method designs sparse orthonormal transforms (SOTs) that automatically exploit regularity over different signal structures and provides an adaptation method that determines the best representation over localized regions. Unlike earlier work that is motivated by linear approximation constructs and model-based designs that are limited to specific types of signal regularity, our work uses general nonlinear approximation ideas and a data-driven setup to significantly broaden its reach. We show that our SOT designs provide a safe and principled extension of the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) by reducing to the KLT on Gaussian processes and by automatically exploiting non-Gaussian statistics to significantly improve over the KLT on more general processes. We provide an algebraic optimization framework that generates optimized designs for any desired transform structure (multiresolution, block, lapped, and so on) with significantly better n -term approximation performance. For each structure, we propose a new prototype codec and test over a database of images. Simulation results show consistent increase in compression and approximation performance compared with conventional methods. PMID:25823033

Sezer, Osman Gokhan; Guleryuz, Onur G; Altunbasak, Yucel

2015-08-01

275

Mediastinal mass causing spinal cord compression.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old Cambodian male presented to the emergency room with 2 weeks of gradually increasing leg weakness until he could no longer stand. He was also reported to have a deformity on his back, intermittent fevers and cough. His physical exam was notable for a 2 cm × 1 cm bony protrusion at his T4 vertebrae, and 2/5 strength and positive Babinski reflexes in his lower extremities. A chest x-ray showed a 3.2 cm × 2.9 cm mass in the middle mediastinum extending to the posterior mediastinum. A purified protein derivative test was positive. A computed tomography scan showed findings consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis and a paravertebral mass with amorphous calcifications, which involved destruction of the T4-T5 vertebrae and evidence of cord compression. These findings were all consistent with tuberculous spondylitis (Pott's disease). PMID:24598764

Merali, Hasan S; Sing, Heng

2014-03-01

276

Recap Compression Term statistics Dictionary compression Postings compression Web Search and Text Mining  

E-print Network

d3 with d4 brutus d2 caesar d1 julius d1 killed d2 postings to be merged brutus d2 brutus d3 caesar d1 caesar d4 julius d1 killed d2 noble d3 with d4 merged postings disk Gray: Index Compression 4 statistics Dictionary compression Postings compression Blocked Sort-Based Indexing brutus d3 caesar d4 noble

Gray, Alexander

277

Compressive line sensing underwater imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressive sensing (CS) theory has drawn great interest and led to new imaging techniques in many different fields. In recent years, the FAU/HBOI OVOL has conducted extensive research to study the CS based active electro-optical imaging system in the scattering medium such as the underwater environment. The unique features of such system in comparison with the traditional underwater electro-optical imaging system are discussed. Building upon the knowledge from the previous work on a frame based CS underwater laser imager concept, more advantageous for hover-capable platforms such as the Hovering Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (HAUV), a compressive line sensing underwater imaging (CLSUI) system that is more compatible with the conventional underwater platforms where images are formed in whiskbroom fashion, is proposed in this paper. Simulation results are discussed.

Ouyang, B.; Dalgleish, F. R.; Vuorenkoski, A. K.; Caimi, F. M.; Britton, W.

2013-05-01

278

Structured Compressed Sensing: From Theory to Applications  

E-print Network

Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging field that has attracted considerable research interest over the past few years. Previous review articles in CS limit their scope to standard discrete-to-discrete measurement architectures using matrices of randomized nature and signal models based on standard sparsity. In recent years, CS has worked its way into several new application areas. This, in turn, necessitates a fresh look on many of the basics of CS. The random matrix measurement operator must be replaced by more structured sensing architectures that correspond to the characteristics of feasible acquisition hardware. The standard sparsity prior has to be extended to include a much richer class of signals and to encode broader data models, including continuous-time signals. In our overview, the theme is exploiting signal and measurement structure in compressive sensing. The prime focus is bridging theory and practice; that is, to pinpoint the potential of structured CS strategies to emerge from the math to the...

Duarte, Marco F

2011-01-01

279

Coil Compression for Accelerated Imaging with Cartesian Sampling  

PubMed Central

MRI using receiver arrays with many coil elements can provide high signal-to-noise ratio and increase parallel imaging acceleration. At the same time, the growing number of elements results in larger datasets and more computation in the reconstruction. This is of particular concern in 3D acquisitions and in iterative reconstructions. Coil compression algorithms are effective in mitigating this problem by compressing data from many channels into fewer virtual coils. In Cartesian sampling there often are fully sampled k-space dimensions. In this work, a new coil compression technique for Cartesian sampling is presented that exploits the spatially varying coil sensitivities in these non-subsampled dimensions for better compression and computation reduction. Instead of directly compressing in k-space, coil compression is performed separately for each spatial location along the fully-sampled directions, followed by an additional alignment process that guarantees the smoothness of the virtual coil sensitivities. This important step provides compatibility with autocalibrating parallel imaging techniques. Its performance is not susceptible to artifacts caused by a tight imaging fieldof-view. High quality compression of in-vivo 3D data from a 32 channel pediatric coil into 6 virtual coils is demonstrated. PMID:22488589

Zhang, Tao; Pauly, John M.; Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Lustig, Michael

2012-01-01

280

Evaluation study of compressed sensing for neural spike recordings.  

PubMed

In this paper, an evaluation study of compressed sensing (CS) for neural action potential (spike) signals in MATLAB is presented. State-of-the-art neural recorders use 100 or more parallel channels to measure neural activity resulting in a data rate of 16 - 20 Mbit/s. Since a low-power design is required for an implanted neural recorder, it seems advantageous to compress the neural data prior to the wireless transmission. The continuous neural spike signals are compressed and transmitted to facilitate the possibility of an unrestricted data analysis at the receiver. Synthesized and recorded neural data sets are used to test the performance of CS. The 6-level Daubechies-8 wavelet decomposition matrix and two learned dictionary matrices are utilized as dictionaries for CS. The compression results are evaluated with the spike sorting program OSort. CS is shown to work for the compression of low-noise synthesized neural spike signals with a compression rate of 2.05, but cannot be recommended for the compression of neural spike signals in general. PMID:23366683

Bulach, Christoph; Bihr, Ulrich; Ortmanns, Maurits

2012-01-01

281

Multivariate curve resolution of wavelet and Fourier compressed spectra.  

PubMed

The multivariate curve resolution method SIMPLe to use Interactive Self-Modeling Mixture Analysis (SIMPLISMA) was applied to Fourier and wavelet compressed ion-mobility spectra. The spectra obtained from the SIMPLISMA model were transformed back to their original representation, that is, uncompressed format. SIMPULSMA was able to model the same pure variables for the partial wavelet transform, although for the Fourier and complete wavelet transforms, satisfactory pure variables and models were not obtained. Data were acquired from two samples and two different ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) sensors. The first sample was thermally desorbed sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and the second sample was a liquid mixture of dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) and diethylmethylphosphonate (DEMP). The spectra were compressed to 6.3% of their original size. SIMPLISMA was applied to the compressed data in the Fourier and wavelet domains. An alternative method of normalizing SIMPLISMA spectra was devised that removes variation in scale between SIMPLISMA results obtained from uncompressed and compressed data. SIMPLISMA was able to accurately extract the spectral features and concentration profiles directly from daublet compressed IMS data at a compression ratio of 93.7% with root-mean-square errors of reconstruction < 3%. The daublet wavelet filters were selected, because they worked well when compared to coiflet and symmlet. The effects of the daublet filter width and compression ratio were evaluated with respect to reconstruction errors of the data sets and SIMPLISMA spectra. For these experiments, the daublet 14 filter performed well for the two data sets. PMID:11476222

Harrington, P B; Rauch, P J; Cai, C

2001-07-15

282

Influence of static compression on mechanical parameters of acoustic foams.  

PubMed

The modification of elastic properties of compressed acoustic foams is investigated. The porous sample is first submitted to a static compression and then to a dynamic excitation of smaller amplitude, corresponding to acoustical applications. The static compression induces the modification of the dynamic elastic parameters of the material. This work focuses on Young's modulus. The variation is measured with two different experimental methods: The classical rigidimeter and an absorption measurement. The effective Young's modulus is directly measured with the first method and is indirectly determined through the quarter-wave length resonance of the frame with the second one. The results of the two measurements are compared and give similar tendencies. The variation of the dynamic Young's modulus as a function of the degree of compression of the sample is shown to be separated in several zones. In the zones associated with weak compression (those usually zones encountered in practice), the variation of the effective Young's modulus can be approximated by a simple affine function. The results are compared for different foams. A simple model of the dependency of the Young's modulus with respect to the static degree of compression is finally proposed for weak compressions. PMID:21877797

Geslain, A; Dazel, O; Groby, J-P; Sahraoui, S; Lauriks, W

2011-08-01

283

Compressed-format compared to regular-format in a first-year university physics course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare student performance in two sessions of a large first-year university physics course, one with a normal 12-week term and the other with a compressed 6-week term. Student performance is measured by the normalized gain on the Force Concept Inventory. We find that the gains for the regular-format course are better than the gains for the compressed-format course, and while the differences in gains are small they are statistically significant. Not accounted for are the differences in effectiveness of the different instructors in the two versions of the course.

Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Honig, Eli

2015-03-01

284

Image compression through wavelet transform coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel theory is introduced for analyzing image compression methods that are based on compression of wavelet decompositions. This theory precisely relates (a) the rate of decay in the error between the original image and the compressed image as the size of the compressed image representation increases (i.e., as the amount of compression decreases) to (b) the smoothness of the

Ronald A. Devore; Björn D. Jawerth; Bradley J. Lucier

1992-01-01

285

A Tutorial on MPEG\\/Audio Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This tutorial covers the theory behind MPEG\\/audio compression This algorithm was developed by the Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG), as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard for the high fidelity compression of digital audio The MPEG\\/audio compression standard is one part of a multiple part standard that addresses the compression of video - 2), the compression of audio

Davis Pan

1995-01-01

286

Digital compression algorithms for HDTV transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital compression of video images is a possible avenue for high definition television (HDTV) transmission. Compression needs to be optimized while picture quality remains high. Two techniques for compression the digital images are explained and comparisons are drawn between the human vision system and artificial compression techniques. Suggestions for improving compression algorithms through the use of neural and analog circuitry are given.

Adkins, Kenneth C.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Bibyk, Steven B.

1990-01-01

287

Survey of Header Compression Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides a summary of several different header compression techniques. The different techniques included are: (1) Van Jacobson's header compression (RFC 1144); (2) SCPS (Space Communications Protocol Standards) header compression (SCPS-TP, SCPS-NP); (3) Robust header compression (ROHC); and (4) The header compression techniques in RFC2507 and RFC2508. The methodology for compression and error correction for these schemes are described in the remainder of this document. All of the header compression schemes support compression over simplex links, provided that the end receiver has some means of sending data back to the sender. However, if that return path does not exist, then neither Van Jacobson's nor SCPS can be used, since both rely on TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). In addition, under link conditions of low delay and low error, all of the schemes perform as expected. However, based on the methodology of the schemes, each scheme is likely to behave differently as conditions degrade. Van Jacobson's header compression relies heavily on the TCP retransmission timer and would suffer an increase in loss propagation should the link possess a high delay and/or bit error rate (BER). The SCPS header compression scheme protects against high delay environments by avoiding delta encoding between packets. Thus, loss propagation is avoided. However, SCPS is still affected by an increased BER (bit-error-rate) since the lack of delta encoding results in larger header sizes. Next, the schemes found in RFC2507 and RFC2508 perform well for non-TCP connections in poor conditions. RFC2507 performance with TCP connections is improved by various techniques over Van Jacobson's, but still suffers a performance hit with poor link properties. Also, RFC2507 offers the ability to send TCP data without delta encoding, similar to what SCPS offers. ROHC is similar to the previous two schemes, but adds additional CRCs (cyclic redundancy check) into headers and improves compression schemes which provide better tolerances in conditions with a high BER.

Ishac, Joseph

2001-01-01

288

78 FR 30727 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...our country, emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners are hard at work delivering...weeks, we have again seen the critical role EMS professionals play in times of crisis...explosives went off at the Boston Marathon, EMS personnel rushed toward the blasts...

2013-05-22

289

InhonorofNationalEatingDisordersAwarenessWeek Sponsoredand  

E-print Network

InhonorofNationalEatingDisordersAwarenessWeek Sponsoredand hostedby: Body Acceptance Movement. From overcoming an eating disorder to winning three National Dance Championships, Ragen's journeyWithFat.org, and is an o cial blogger for NBC's iVillage on topics of body image, beauty and women's health. Her work has

Watson, Craig A.

290

POLYA PROBLEM-SOLVING SEMINAR WEEK 4: COMPLEX NUMBERS  

E-print Network

effective nota- tion. Look for symmetry. Divide into cases. Work backwards. Argue by contradiction. Consider't be afraid of a little algebra. Sleep on it if need be. Ask. The Problems. Sample 1. Show that if a, b, n in the masterclass.) Problem of the Week: the "Lights-out" game. Suppose n 2 light bulbs are arranged in a row

Vakil, Ravi

291

76 FR 4338 - Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Workshops  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Compressed & Cryo- Compressed Hydrogen Storage Workshops AGENCY: Fuel Cell...Laboratory, in conjunction with the Hydrogen Storage team of the EERE Fuel Cell Technologies...compressed and cryo-compressed hydrogen storage in the Washington, DC...

2011-01-25

292

The Guardian's Science Weekly Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Would you like to go around the world on a hunt for a lost rubber duck? How does learning about language sound? These are but a few of the topics covered in the Guardian's Science weekly podcast. Visitors will be delighted to learn that they can explore this vast buffet of science topics at their leisure. New visitors to the site can look through the Recent Shows area or move on down to the subject headings, which include climate change, energy, and space exploration. The site also features a lively blog that is updated frequently, and visitors are encouraged to leave comments. Some podcasts that shouldn't be missed are "The Joy of Science Demonstrations" and "The Festival of the Spoken Nerd." Also, visitors can learn more about the host of the program, the funny and interesting Alok Jha, by clicking on the link to his profile included in each podcast summary.

293

MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT (MMWR)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is used to disseminate weekly provisional data on nationally notifiable infectious diseases. These provisional data are used for program planning and evaluation, monitoring trends in incidence, and detecting disease outbreaks....

294

75 FR 42279 - Captive Nations Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...proclamation designating the third week of July of each year as ``Captive Nations Week.'' NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim July 18 through July 24, 2010, as Captive Nations...

2010-07-21

295

Analysis of clay layer compression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze time series data for long-term ground subsidence in response to dewatering. From this analysis, the students can back-figure the compressibility of a clay lens that is compressing, and the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the clay. The data may be downloaded from the book web site and imported into a spreadsheet for analysis.

Charlie Fitts

296

Quality of compressed medical images.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) 2000 compression is better than JPEG at higher compression ratio levels. However, some findings revealed that this is not valid at lower levels. In this study, the qualities of compressed medical images in these ratio areas ( approximately 20), including computed radiography, computed tomography head and body, mammographic, and magnetic resonance T1 and T2 images, were estimated using both a pixel-based (peak signal to noise ratio) and two 8 x 8 window-based [Q index and Moran peak ratio (MPR)] metrics. To diminish the effects of blocking artifacts from JPEG, jump windows were used in both window-based metrics. Comparing the image quality indices between jump and sliding windows, the results showed that blocking artifacts were produced from JPEG compression, even at low compression ratios. However, even after the blocking artifacts were omitted in JPEG compressed images, JPEG2000 outperformed JPEG at low compression levels. We found in this study that the image contrast and the average gray level play important roles in image compression and quality evaluation. There were drawbacks in all metrics that we used. In the future, the image gray level and contrast effect should be considered in developing new objective metrics. PMID:17318703

Shiao, Ya-Hui; Chen, Tzong-Jer; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Lin, Cheng-Hsun; Chuang, Chun-Chao

2007-06-01

297

Application specific compression : final report.  

SciTech Connect

With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

2008-12-01

298

Axisymmetric compression of solid cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analytical and experimental methods of determining the compressive yield stress of materials have been reviewed briefly. Using aluminium, EN 24 steel, lead and a tin-lead eutectic alloy, the areas of applicability of the Cook and Larke method (including its modified form for strain-rate sensitive materials) and the ring compression test have been delineated. Under conditions of sliding friction, both

A. P. Singh; K. A. Padmanabhan

1991-01-01

299

Code compression for embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is one of the most restricted resources in many modern embedded systems. Code compression can provide substantial savings in terms of size. In a compressed code CPU, a cache miss triggers the decompression of a main memory block, before it gets transferred to the cache. Because the code must be decompressible starting from any point (or at least at

Haris Lekatsas; Wayne Wolf

1998-01-01

300

Data compression by wavelet transforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wavelet transform algorithm is applied to image compression. It is observed that the algorithm does not suffer from the blockiness characteristic of the DCT-based algorithms at compression ratios exceeding 25:1, but the edges do not appear as sharp as they do with the latter method. Some suggestions for the improved performance of the wavelet transform method are presented.

Shahshahani, M.

1992-01-01

301

Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

2010-02-03

302

Data compression on the sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large data-sets defined on the sphere arise in many fields. In particular, recent and forthcoming observations of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) made on the celestial sphere contain approximately three and fifty mega-pixels respectively. The compression of such data is therefore becoming increasingly important. We develop algorithms to compress data defined on the sphere. A Haar wavelet transform on the sphere is used as an energy compression stage to reduce the entropy of the data, followed by Huffman and run-length encoding stages. Lossless and lossy compression algorithms are developed. We evaluate compression performance on simulated CMB data, Earth topography data and environmental illumination maps used in computer graphics. The CMB data can be compressed to approximately 40% of its original size for essentially no loss to the cosmological information content of the data, and to approximately 20% if a small cosmological information loss is tolerated. For the topographic and illumination data compression ratios of approximately 40:1 can be achieved when a small degradation in quality is allowed. We make our SZIP program that implements these compression algorithms available publicly.

McEwen, J. D.; Wiaux, Y.; Eyers, D. M.

2011-07-01

303

Compressed sensing for face recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new approach to build a more robust and efficient face recognition system. The idea is to fit the face recognition task into the new mathematical theory and algorithm of compressed sensing framework. With its beautiful theoretical results from compressed sensing, the new face recognition framework stably gives a better performance with some advantages compared

Nhat Vo; Duc Vo; Subhash Challa; Bill Moran

2009-01-01

304

Adaptive compression of animated sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsupervised artificial neural learning algorithms have clearly demonstrated their practical value for vector quantization of speech and stationary images. We examine competitive learning as an adaptive compression algorithm for highly repetitious video signals such as those found in animated cartoons. The characteristics of animated video are presented and their suitability for compression are examined. An artificial neural network system based

D. K. McNeill; H. C. Card

1995-01-01

305

Pressure Oscillations in Adiabatic Compression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After finding Moloney and McGarvey's modified adiabatic compression apparatus, I decided to insert this experiment into my physical chemistry laboratory at the last minute, replacing a problematic experiment. With insufficient time to build the apparatus, we placed a bottle between two thick textbooks and compressed it with a third textbook forced…

Stout, Roland

2011-01-01

306

Data Compression with Prime Numbers  

E-print Network

A compression algorithm is presented that uses the set of prime numbers. Sequences of numbers are correlated with the prime numbers, and labeled with the integers. The algorithm can be iterated on data sets, generating factors of doubles on the compression.

Gordon Chalmers

2005-11-16

307

Edge compression manifold apparatus  

DOEpatents

A manifold for connecting external capillaries to the inlet and/or outlet ports of a microfluidic device for high pressure applications is provided. The fluid connector for coupling at least one fluid conduit to a corresponding port of a substrate that includes: (i) a manifold comprising one or more channels extending therethrough wherein each channel is at least partially threaded, (ii) one or more threaded ferrules each defining a bore extending therethrough with each ferrule supporting a fluid conduit wherein each ferrule is threaded into a channel of the manifold, (iii) a substrate having one or more ports on its upper surface wherein the substrate is positioned below the manifold so that the one or more ports is aligned with the one or more channels of the manifold, and (iv) device to apply an axial compressive force to the substrate to couple the one or more ports of the substrate to a corresponding proximal end of a fluid conduit.

Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2007-02-27

308

Population attribute compression  

DOEpatents

An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

White, James M. (Los Alamos, NM); Faber, Vance (Los Alamos, NM); Saltzman, Jeffrey S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

309

Compressed quantum simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, I summarize the results presented in B. Kraus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 250503 (2011). Recently, it has been shown that certain circuits, the so-called match gate circuits, can be compressed to an exponentially smaller universal quantum computation. We use this result to demonstrate that the simulation of a 1-D Ising chain consisting of n qubits can be performed on a universal quantum computer running on only log(n) qubits. We show how the adiabatic evolution can be simulated on this exponentially smaller system and how the magnetization can be measured. Since the Ising model displays a quantum phase transition, this result implies that a quantum phase transition of a very large system can be observed with current technology.

Kraus, B.

2014-12-01

310

Compressive Network Analysis  

PubMed Central

Modern data acquisition routinely produces massive amounts of network data. Though many methods and models have been proposed to analyze such data, the research of network data is largely disconnected with the classical theory of statistical learning and signal processing. In this paper, we present a new framework for modeling network data, which connects two seemingly different areas: network data analysis and compressed sensing. From a nonparametric perspective, we model an observed network using a large dictionary. In particular, we consider the network clique detection problem and show connections between our formulation with a new algebraic tool, namely Randon basis pursuit in homogeneous spaces. Such a connection allows us to identify rigorous recovery conditions for clique detection problems. Though this paper is mainly conceptual, we also develop practical approximation algorithms for solving empirical problems and demonstrate their usefulness on real-world datasets. PMID:25620806

Jiang, Xiaoye; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Han; Guibas, Leonidas

2014-01-01

311

Vapor compression distillation module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

Nuccio, P. P.

1975-01-01

312

Compressed Wavefront Sensing  

PubMed Central

We report on an algorithm for fast wavefront sensing that incorporates sparse representation for the first time in practice. The partial derivatives of optical wavefronts were sampled sparsely with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) by randomly subsampling the original SHWFS data to as little as 5%. Reconstruction was performed by a sparse representation algorithm that utilized the Zernike basis. We name this method SPARZER. Experiments on real and simulated data attest to the accuracy of the proposed techniques as compared to traditional sampling and reconstruction methods. We have made the corresponding data set and software freely available online. Compressed wavefront sensing offers the potential to increase the speed of wavefront acquisition and to defray the cost of SHWFS devices. PMID:24690703

Polans, James; McNabb, Ryan P.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

2014-01-01

313

CCD noise influence on JPEG2000 compression of astronomical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compression of astronomical images is still current task. In most applications, lossless approaches are used that do no damage to the compressed data. These algorithms, however, have lower compression ratios and are not as effective. It is therefore important to deal with more efficient lossy compression techniques. For them it is necessary to define quality criteria and level of acceptable distortion of image data. The usual multimedia approach is not possible to use for the scientific image data. They are optimized for human vision. This work deals with the influence of noise generated in the CCD structure to the defined quality criteria. It will also be shown the impact of the lossy standard JPEG2000 on quality of image data in astronomy.

Páta, Petr

2012-02-01

314

CCD noise influence on JPEG2000 compression of astronomical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compression of astronomical images is still current task. In most applications, lossless approaches are used that do no damage to the compressed data. These algorithms, however, have lower compression ratios and are not as effective. It is therefore important to deal with more efficient lossy compression techniques. For them it is necessary to define quality criteria and level of acceptable distortion of image data. The usual multimedia approach is not possible to use for the scientific image data. They are optimized for human vision. This work deals with the influence of noise generated in the CCD structure to the defined quality criteria. It will also be shown the impact of the lossy standard JPEG2000 on quality of image data in astronomy.

Páta, Petr

2011-09-01

315

Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.  

PubMed

Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving. PMID:14727304

Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

2004-03-01

316

NEW WAVELET COEFFICIENT RASTER SCANNINGS FOR COMPRESSIVE IMAGING  

E-print Network

The Delsarte-Goethals frame has been proposed for deterministic compressive sensing of sparse and compressible signals. Its performance in compressive imaging applications falls short of that obtained for arbitrary sparse vectors. Prior work has proposed specially tailored signal recovery algorithms that partition the recovery of the input vector into clustered and unclustered portions. In this paper we present a formal analysis of the Delsarte-Goethals frame that shows that its hampered performance in compressive imaging is due to the presence of clustered sparse vectors in its null space. Such a clustered structure is characteristic in commonly-used raster scanning of 2-D wavelet representations. We also show that a simple randomized raster scanning of the wavelet coefficient vector can remedy these shortcomings, allowing the use of standard recovery algorithms. Additionally, we propose an alternative deterministic raster scanning that achieves similar recovery performance. Experimental results confirm the improvements in recovery performance for both the noiseless and noisy measurement regimes.

Marco F. Duarte; Sina Jafarpour; Robert Calderbank

317

Studies on image compression and image reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During this six month period our works concentrated on three, somewhat different areas. We looked at and developed a number of error concealment schemes for use in a variety of video coding environments. This work is described in an accompanying (draft) Masters thesis. In the thesis we describe application of this techniques to the MPEG video coding scheme. We felt that the unique frame ordering approach used in the MPEG scheme would be a challenge to any error concealment/error recovery technique. We continued with our work in the vector quantization area. We have also developed a new type of vector quantizer, which we call a scan predictive vector quantization. The scan predictive VQ was tested on data processed at Goddard to approximate Landsat 7 HRMSI resolution and compared favorably with existing VQ techniques. A paper describing this work is included. The third area is concerned more with reconstruction than compression. While there is a variety of efficient lossless image compression schemes, they all have a common property that they use past data to encode future data. This is done either via taking differences, context modeling, or by building dictionaries. When encoding large images, this common property becomes a common flaw. When the user wishes to decode just a portion of the image, the requirement that the past history be available forces the decoding of a significantly larger portion of the image than desired by the user. Even with intelligent partitioning of the image dataset, the number of pixels decoded may be four times the number of pixels requested. We have developed an adaptive scanning strategy which can be used with any lossless compression scheme and which lowers the additional number of pixels to be decoded to about 7 percent of the number of pixels requested! A paper describing these results is included.

Sayood, Khalid; Nori, Sekhar; Araj, A.

1994-01-01

318

ATLAS Upgrade Week 1 November 11, 2009  

E-print Network

ATLAS Upgrade Week 1 November 11, 2009 Proposal to Develop On-Detector Array-based Optical Link A. Maettig Universität Wuppertal K.K. Gan A. Pellegrino, T. Sluijk NIKHEF (LHCb) #12;ATLAS Upgrade Week 2;ATLAS Upgrade Week 3 Introduction VCSEL and PIN are available in three forms: single channel or 4

Gan, K. K.

319

Understanding Infidelity: An Interview with Gerald Weeks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this interview, Gerald Weeks shares his expertise on the topic of infidelity and couples counseling. Dr. Weeks defines infidelity, presents assessment strategies for treating the issue of infidelity, and discusses an intersystemic model for infidelity treatment when counseling couples. Dr. Weeks also provides insight into common mistakes made…

Smith, Travis

2011-01-01

320

77 FR 42941 - Captive Nations Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8841--Captive Nations Week, 2012 Memorandum of July 11, 2012...8841 of July 16, 2012 Captive Nations Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...Eisenhower first proclaimed Captive Nations Week amidst an escalating Cold War, he...

2012-07-20

321

78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...to be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to...summon us to experience it firsthand. This week, the National Park Service will make...

2013-04-24

322

77 FR 62133 - Fire Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...8881 of October 5, 2012 Fire Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...heartbreaking. During Fire Prevention Week, we resolve to protect ourselves, our...immediately. As we mark Fire Prevention Week by recommitting to preparedness, we...

2012-10-12

323

77 FR 31151 - World Trade Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...8827 of May 21, 2012 World Trade Week, 2012 By the...by Americans. During World Trade Week, we reaffirm...growing our economy. Two years ago, my Administration...through May 26, 2012, as World Trade Week. I encourage...in the year of our Lord two thousand twelve,...

2012-05-24

324

An efficient and extensible approach for compressing phylogenetic trees  

PubMed Central

Background Biologists require new algorithms to efficiently compress and store their large collections of phylogenetic trees. Our previous work showed that TreeZip is a promising approach for compressing phylogenetic trees. In this paper, we extend our TreeZip algorithm by handling trees with weighted branches. Furthermore, by using the compressed TreeZip file as input, we have designed an extensible decompressor that can extract subcollections of trees, compute majority and strict consensus trees, and merge tree collections using set operations such as union, intersection, and set difference. Results On unweighted phylogenetic trees, TreeZip is able to compress Newick files in excess of 98%. On weighted phylogenetic trees, TreeZip is able to compress a Newick file by at least 73%. TreeZip can be combined with 7zip with little overhead, allowing space savings in excess of 99% (unweighted) and 92%(weighted). Unlike TreeZip, 7zip is not immune to branch rotations, and performs worse as the level of variability in the Newick string representation increases. Finally, since the TreeZip compressed text (TRZ) file contains all the semantic information in a collection of trees, we can easily filter and decompress a subset of trees of interest (such as the set of unique trees), or build the resulting consensus tree in a matter of seconds. We also show the ease of which set operations can be performed on TRZ files, at speeds quicker than those performed on Newick or 7zip compressed Newick files, and without loss of space savings. Conclusions TreeZip is an efficient approach for compressing large collections of phylogenetic trees. The semantic and compact nature of the TRZ file allow it to be operated upon directly and quickly, without a need to decompress the original Newick file. We believe that TreeZip will be vital for compressing and archiving trees in the biological community. PMID:22165819

2011-01-01

325

Changing the Way We Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 21-hour working week is a long way from today's standard of 40 hours or more, but not so far-fetched when people consider the infinitely varied ways in which they actually spend their time. On average, people of working age spend 19.6 hours a week in paid employment and 20.4 hours in unpaid housework and childcare. These averages mask huge…

Coote, Anna

2010-01-01

326

Hyperelastic Material Properties of Mouse Skin under Compression  

PubMed Central

The skin is a dynamic organ whose complex material properties are capable of withstanding continuous mechanical stress while accommodating insults and organism growth. Moreover, synchronized hair cycles, comprising waves of hair growth, regression and rest, are accompanied by dramatic fluctuations in skin thickness in mice. Whether such structural changes alter skin mechanics is unknown. Mouse models are extensively used to study skin biology and pathophysiology, including aging, UV-induced skin damage and somatosensory signaling. As the skin serves a pivotal role in the transfer function from sensory stimuli to neuronal signaling, we sought to define the mechanical properties of mouse skin over a range of normal physiological states. Skin thickness, stiffness and modulus were quantitatively surveyed in adult, female mice (Mus musculus). These measures were analyzed under uniaxial compression, which is relevant for touch reception and compression injuries, rather than tension, which is typically used to analyze skin mechanics. Compression tests were performed with 105 full-thickness, freshly isolated specimens from the hairy skin of the hind limb. Physiological variables included body weight, hair-cycle stage, maturity level, skin site and individual animal differences. Skin thickness and stiffness were dominated by hair-cycle stage at young (6–10 weeks) and intermediate (13–19 weeks) adult ages but by body weight in mature mice (26–34 weeks). Interestingly, stiffness varied inversely with thickness so that hyperelastic modulus was consistent across hair-cycle stages and body weights. By contrast, the mechanics of hairy skin differs markedly with anatomical location. In particular, skin containing fascial structures such as nerves and blood vessels showed significantly greater modulus than adjacent sites. Collectively, this systematic survey indicates that, although its structure changes dramatically throughout adult life, mouse skin at a given location maintains a constant elastic modulus to compression throughout normal physiological stages. PMID:23825661

Wang, Yuxiang; Marshall, Kara L.; Baba, Yoshichika; Gerling, Gregory J.; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

2013-01-01

327

Manipulating lossless video in the compressed domain  

E-print Network

A compressed-domain transformation is one that operates directly on the compressed format, rather than requiring conversion to an uncompressed format prior to processing. Performing operations in the compressed domain ...

Thies, William

328

Compressive Sensing for Quantum Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes the application of compressive sensing to several challenging problems in quantum imaging with practical and fundamental implications. Compressive sensing is a measurement technique that compresses a signal during measurement such that it can be dramatically undersampled. Compressive sensing has been shown to be an extremely efficient measurement technique for imaging, particularly when detector arrays are not available. The thesis first reviews compressive sensing through the lens of quantum imaging and quantum measurement. Four important applications and their corresponding experiments are then described in detail. The first application is a compressive sensing, photon-counting lidar system. A novel depth mapping technique that uses standard, linear compressive sensing is described. Depth maps up to 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution are recovered with depth resolution less than 2.54 cm. The first three-dimensional, photon counting video is recorded at 32 x 32 pixel resolution and 14 frames-per-second. The second application is the use of compressive sensing for complementary imaging---simultaneously imaging the transverse-position and transverse-momentum distributions of optical photons. This is accomplished by taking random, partial projections of position followed by imaging the momentum distribution on a cooled CCD camera. The projections are shown to not significantly perturb the photons' momenta while allowing high resolution position images to be reconstructed using compressive sensing. A variety of objects and their diffraction patterns are imaged including the double slit, triple slit, alphanumeric characters, and the University of Rochester logo. The third application is the use of compressive sensing to characterize spatial entanglement of photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric downconversion. The technique gives a theoretical speedup N2/log N for N-dimensional entanglement over the standard raster scanning technique. Entanglement imaging is demonstrated at 1024 dimensions-per-photon with channel capacities exceeding 8.4 bits-per-photon. In practice, the measurement time is reduced from 310 days for the standard technique to 8 hours for the compressive technique. An entropic steering inequality is violated to witness entanglement. The final application is a compressive wavefront sensor that unites compressive sensing with weak measurement. We show how a twisted-nematic spatial light modulator can be be used to weakly couple an optical field's position and polarization degrees of freedom. The complex nature of the weak value is used to directly measure random projections of the real and imaginary parts of the optical field, where polarization serves as an ancillary meter. We obtain 256 x 256 pixel wavefronts from only 10,000 random projections. Photon-counting detectors provide sub-picowatt sensitivity.

Howland, Gregory A.

329

Evolution of some Los Alamos flux compression programs  

SciTech Connect

When we were approached to give a general discussion of some aspects of the Los Alamos flux compression program, we decided to present historical backgrounds of a few topics that have some relevance to programs that we very much In the forefront of activities going on today. Of some thirty abstracts collected at Los Alamos for this conference, ten of them dealt with electromagnetic acceleration of materials, notably the compression of heavy liners, and five dealt with plasma compression. Both of these topics have been under investigation, off and on, from the time a formal flux compression program was organized at Los Alamos. We decided that a short overview of work done In these areas would be of some interest. Some of the work described below has been discussed in Laboratory reports that, while referenced and available, are not readily accessible. For completeness, some previously published, accessible work Is also discussed but much more briefly. Perhaps the most striking thing about the early work In these two areas is how primitive much of it was when compared to the far more sophisticated, related activities of today. Another feature of these programs, actually for most programs, Is their cyclic nature. Their relevance and/or funding seems to come land go. Eventually, many of the older programs come back into favor. Activities Involving the dense plasma focus (DPF), about which some discussions will be given later, furnish a classic example of this kind, coming Into and then out of periods of heightened interest. We devote the next two sections of this paper to a review of our work In magnetic acceleration of solids and of plasma compression. A final section gives a survey of our work In which thin foils are imploded to produce intense quantities of son x-rays. The authors are well aware of much excellent work done elsewhere In all of these topics, but partly because of space limitations, have confined this discussion to work done at Los Alamos.

Fowler, C.M.; Goforth, J.H.

1996-12-31

330

Streaming Compression of Tetrahedral Volume Meshes  

SciTech Connect

Geometry processing algorithms have traditionally assumed that the input data is entirely in main memory and available for random access. This assumption does not scale to large data sets, as exhausting the physical memory typically leads to IO-inefficient thrashing. Recent works advocate processing geometry in a 'streaming' manner, where computation and output begin as soon as possible. Streaming is suitable for tasks that require only local neighbor information and batch process an entire data set. We describe a streaming compression scheme for tetrahedral volume meshes that encodes vertices and tetrahedra in the order they are written. To keep the memory footprint low, the compressor is informed when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. are finalized). The compression achieved depends on how coherent the input order is and how many tetrahedra are buffered for local reordering. For reasonably coherent orderings and a buffer of 10,000 tetrahedra, we achieve compression rates that are only 25 to 40 percent above the state-of-the-art, while requiring drastically less memory resources and less than half the processing time.

Isenburg, M; Lindstrom, P; Gumhold, S; Shewchuk, J

2005-11-21

331

Multi-shot compressed coded aperture imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical methods of compressed coded aperture (CCA) still require an optical sensor with high resolution, although the sampling rate has broken the Nyquist sampling rate already. A novel architecture of multi-shot compressed coded aperture imaging (MCCAI) using a low resolution optical sensor is proposed, which is mainly based on the 4-f imaging system, combining with two spatial light modulators (SLM) to achieve the compressive imaging goal. The first SLM employed for random convolution is placed at the frequency spectrum plane of the 4-f imaging system, while the second SLM worked as a selecting filter is positioned in front of the optical sensor. By altering the random coded pattern of the second SLM and sampling, a couple of observations can be obtained by a low resolution optical sensor easily, and these observations will be combined mathematically and used to reconstruct the high resolution image. That is to say, MCCAI aims at realizing the super resolution imaging with multiple random samplings by using a low resolution optical sensor. To improve the computational imaging performance, total variation (TV) regularization is introduced into the super resolution reconstruction model to get rid of the artifacts, and alternating direction method of multipliers (ADM) is utilized to solve the optimal result efficiently. The results show that the MCCAI architecture is suitable for super resolution computational imaging using a much lower resolution optical sensor than traditional CCA imaging methods by capturing multiple frame images.

Shao, Xiaopeng; Du, Juan; Wu, Tengfei; Jin, Zhenhua

2013-09-01

332

M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Tutorial 3 1 ENSC 461 Tutorial, Week#4 IC Engines  

E-print Network

M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Tutorial 3 1 ENSC 461 Tutorial, Week#4 ­ IC Engines The compression temperature of 3500 K and a heat sink temperature of 250 K #12;M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Tutorial 3 2 Step 3. #12;M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Tutorial 3 3 ][9.251110][100 4.1 2 1 12 kPakPa v v PP k P2

Bahrami, Majid

333

Best compression: Reciprocating or rotary?  

SciTech Connect

A compressor is a device used to increase the pressure of a compressible fluid. The inlet pressure can vary from a deep vacuum to a high positive pressure. The discharge pressure can range from subatmospheric levels to tens of thousands of pounds per square inch. Compressors come in numerous forms, but for oilfield applications there are two primary types, reciprocating and rotary. Both reciprocating and rotary compressors are grouped in the intermittent mode of compression. Intermittent is cyclic in nature, in that a specific quantity of gas is ingested by the compressor, acted upon and discharged before the cycle is repeated. Reciprocating compression is the most common form of compression used for oilfield applications. Rotary screw compressors have a long history but are relative newcomers to oilfield applications. The rotary screw compressor-technically a helical rotor compressor-dates back to 1878. That was when the first rotary screw was manufactured for the purpose of compressing air. Today thousands of rotary screw compression packages are being used throughout the world to compress natural gas.

Cahill, C.

1997-07-01

334

Advances in compressible turbulent mixing  

SciTech Connect

This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.

1992-01-01

335

Educators' Guide to Ally Week  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ally is an individual who speaks out and stands up for a person or group that is targeted and/or discriminated against. An ally works to end oppression by supporting and advocating for people who are stigmatized, or treated unfairly because of who they are. In this context, Allies are referred to as people who do not identify as LGBT (lesbian,…

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2010

2010-01-01

336

Estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics using Benford's Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the tremendous growth and usage of digital images nowadays, the integrity and authenticity of digital content is becoming increasingly important, and a growing concern to many government and commercial sectors. Image Forensics, based on a passive statistical analysis of the image data only, is an alternative approach to the active embedding of data associated with Digital Watermarking. Benford's Law was first introduced to analyse the probability distribution of the 1st digit (1-9) numbers of natural data, and has since been applied to Accounting Forensics for detecting fraudulent income tax returns [9]. More recently, Benford's Law has been further applied to image processing and image forensics. For example, Fu et al. [5] proposed a Generalised Benford's Law technique for estimating the Quality Factor (QF) of JPEG compressed images. In our previous work, we proposed a framework incorporating the Generalised Benford's Law to accurately detect unknown JPEG compression rates of watermarked images in semi-fragile watermarking schemes. JPEG2000 (a relatively new image compression standard) offers higher compression rates and better image quality as compared to JPEG compression. In this paper, we propose the novel use of Benford's Law for estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics applications. By analysing the DWT coefficients and JPEG2000 compression on 1338 test images, the initial results indicate that the 1st digit probability of DWT coefficients follow the Benford's Law. The unknown JPEG2000 compression rates of the image can also be derived, and proved with the help of a divergence factor, which shows the deviation between the probabilities and Benford's Law. Based on 1338 test images, the mean divergence for DWT coefficients is approximately 0.0016, which is lower than DCT coefficients at 0.0034. However, the mean divergence for JPEG2000 images compression rate at 0.1 is 0.0108, which is much higher than uncompressed DWT coefficients. This result clearly indicates a presence of compression in the image. Moreover, we compare the results of 1st digit probability and divergence among JPEG2000 compression rates at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.9. The initial results show that the expected difference among them could be used for further analysis to estimate the unknown JPEG2000 compression rates.

Qadir, Ghulam; Zhao, Xi; Ho, Anthony T. S.

2010-05-01

337

An Evaluation of a Two Week Teaching Trial Using Interactive Video Technology: Perceptions of Students and Staff.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is concerned with an evaluation of a 2-week teaching trial in 1989 that utilized compressed data--interactive video technology. The trial was a collaborative venture of the University of New England (UNE), TELECOM, the Department of Education, Employment and Training (DEET), and SONY. In general, the University of New England supplied…

Baker, R. A.; Hansford, B. C.

338

Non-observation RINEX compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RINEX format is a result of an effort to standardize exchanging GNSS related data in human readable receiver independent format. Besides observation data, RINEX is also de facto standard for exchanging navigation message or meteorological data. The paper describes simple compression methods for navigation messages and meteorological data files. Both formats have their specific features, therefore different methods were used. Followed by standard compression the algorithms reduce the file size by more than 20 percent compared to standard compression. Thanks to the properties of weather and regular parameter observations it allows to reduce the file size of meteorological RINEX to a mere fraction of its original size.

Bezru?ka, Juraj

2013-12-01

339

Seasonal and weekly pattern of ozone over the OTAG region  

SciTech Connect

Human activities follow a pronounced weekly and seasonal cycle which results in cyclic emissions of man-made ozone precursors. The results of this work confirm that April-September is the proper time window for the ozone season. About 95% of the OTAG-wide exceedances occur during this warm part of the year. This holds for both the 120 ppb and the proposed 80 ppb standard. The weekly emission cycle results in a weekly ozone cycle. Over the entire OTAG region, the 90th percentile ozone is reduced from 87 to 81 ppb from Friday to Sunday. The daily exceedances (>120 ppb) are reduced on Sundays to one third of the exceedances on Fridays. This analysis indicates that if the OTAG-wide weekday emissions would be reduced to the current weekend levels, then ozone exceedances would decline by at least factor of three.

Husar, R.B. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Air Pollution Impact and Trend Analysis

1998-12-31

340

Inflammatory cascades mediate synapse elimination in spinal cord compression  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM) is caused by chronic spinal cord compression due to spondylosis, a degenerative disc disease, and ossification of the ligaments. Tip-toe walking Yoshimura (twy) mice are reported to be an ideal animal model for CCM-related neuronal dysfunction, because they develop spontaneous spinal cord compression without any artificial manipulation. Previous histological studies showed that neurons are lost due to apoptosis in CCM, but the mechanism underlying this neurodegeneration was not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology of CCM by evaluating the global gene expression of the compressed spinal cord and comparing the transcriptome analysis with the physical and histological findings in twy mice. Methods Twenty-week-old twy mice were divided into two groups according to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings: a severe compression (S) group and a mild compression (M) group. The transcriptome was analyzed by microarray and RT-PCR. The cellular pathophysiology was examined by immunohistological analysis and immuno-electron microscopy. Motor function was assessed by Rotarod treadmill latency and stride-length tests. Results Severe cervical calcification caused spinal canal stenosis and low functional capacity in twy mice. The microarray analysis revealed 215 genes that showed significantly different expression levels between the S and the M groups. Pathway analysis revealed that genes expressed at higher levels in the S group were enriched for terms related to the regulation of inflammation in the compressed spinal cord. M1 macrophage-dominant inflammation was present in the S group, and cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61), an inducer of M1 macrophages, was markedly upregulated in these spinal cords. Furthermore, C1q, which initiates the classical complement cascade, was more upregulated in the S group than in the M group. The confocal and electron microscopy observations indicated that classically activated microglia/macrophages had migrated to the compressed spinal cord and eliminated synaptic terminals. Conclusions We revealed the detailed pathophysiology of the inflammatory response in an animal model of chronic spinal cord compression. Our findings suggest that complement-mediated synapse elimination is a central mechanism underlying the neurodegeneration in CCM. PMID:24589419

2014-01-01

341

Impact of lossy compression on diagnostic accuracy of radiographs for periapical lesions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group compression for endodontic pretreatment digital radiographs. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty clinical charge-coupled device-based, digital radiographs depicting periapical areas were selected. Each image was compressed at 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48, and 64 compression ratios. One root per image was marked for examination. Images were randomized and viewed by four clinical observers under standardized viewing conditions. Each observer read the image set three times, with at least two weeks between each reading. Three pre-selected sites per image (mesial, distal, apical) were scored on a five-scale score confidence scale. A panel of three examiners scored the uncompressed images, with a consensus score for each site. The consensus score was used as the baseline for assessing the impact of lossy compression on the diagnostic values of images. The mean absolute error between consensus and observer scores was computed for each observer, site, and reading session. RESULTS: Balanced one-way analysis of variance for all observers indicated that for compression ratios 48 and 64, there was significant difference between mean absolute error of uncompressed and compressed images (P <.05). After converting the five-scale score to two-level diagnostic values, the diagnostic accuracy was strongly correlated (R (2) = 0.91) with the compression ratio. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that high compression ratios can have a severe impact on the diagnostic quality of the digital radiographs for detection of periapical lesions.

Eraso, Francisco E.; Analoui, Mostafa; Watson, Andrew B.; Rebeschini, Regina

2002-01-01

342

Working with compressed gas Canadian Centre for Occupational  

E-print Network

cylinder valves, fittings, regulator threads, or apply jointing compounds and tape. Use only lubricants to temperatures high enough to burn out the regulator and valve seats · Close cylinder valve when not in use. Do;Cylinder safety devices · Safety or Pressurerelief valves ­ Part of cylinder. Valve opens if cylinder

Cohen, Robert E.

343

Trapezoidal Gravity Dams Working in a State of Pure Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gravity dam with a trapezoidal cross section is subjected to its own weight and hydrostatic pressure. The resulting elastic field, assumed to be plane strain, is studied by determining the minimum value of the angular opening of the dam above which the principal stresses are negative on the side under hydrostatic pressure and nonpositive on the other side. The

S. Bennati; A. M. Gennai; C. Padovani

1990-01-01

344

Performance Enhancement Technology for the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High efficiency refrigerator have been developed. For energy saving that is concerned with against global warming, performance enhancement of vapor compression refrigerator is required in field of air condition and refrigeration facility. In this paper, a review of recent performance enhancement technologies for the vapor compression refrigeration cycle is presented. This review contains high performance cycles of large sized centrifugal chiller, small to middle sized chiller and packaged air conditioner. Moreover, researches and developments of the refrigeration cycle recovering throttling loss, applications of ejector to boost in compressor suction pressure and to recirculate vapor refrigerant in the evaporator for heat transfer enhancement, and applications of expander to employ expansion work for compression work, are reviewed.

Man'o, Tatsunori

345

A new compression format for fiber tracking datasets.  

PubMed

A single diffusion MRI streamline fiber tracking dataset may contain hundreds of thousands, and often millions of streamlines and can take up to several gigabytes of memory. This amount of data is not only heavy to compute, but also difficult to visualize and hard to store on disk (especially when dealing with a collection of brains). These problems call for a fiber-specific compression format that simplifies its manipulation. As of today, no fiber compression format has yet been adopted and the need for it is now becoming an issue for future connectomics research. In this work, we propose a new compression format, .zfib, for streamline tractography datasets reconstructed from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). Tracts contain a large amount of redundant information and are relatively smooth. Hence, they are highly compressible. The proposed method is a processing pipeline containing a linearization, a quantization and an encoding step. Our pipeline is tested and validated under a wide range of DTI and HARDI tractography configurations (step size, streamline number, deterministic and probabilistic tracking) and compression options. Similar to JPEG, the user has one parameter to select: a worst-case maximum tolerance error in millimeter (mm). Overall, we find a compression factor of more than 96% for a maximum error of 0.1mm without any perceptual change or change of diffusion statistics (mean fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) along bundles. This opens new opportunities for connectomics and tractometry applications. PMID:25592997

Presseau, Caroline; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Houde, Jean-Christophe; Descoteaux, Maxime

2015-04-01

346

SCADA Protocol Anomaly Detection Utilizing Compression (SPADUC) 2013  

SciTech Connect

There is a significant need to protect the nation’s energy infrastructures from malicious actors using cyber methods. Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems may be vulnerable due to the insufficient security implemented during the design and deployment of these control systems. This is particularly true in older legacy SCADA systems that are still commonly in use. The purpose of INL’s research on the SCADA Protocol Anomaly Detection Utilizing Compression (SPADUC) project was to determine if and how data compression techniques could be used to identify and protect SCADA systems from cyber attacks. Initially, the concept was centered on how to train a compression algorithm to recognize normal control system traffic versus hostile network traffic. Because large portions of the TCP/IP message traffic (called packets) are repetitive, the concept of using compression techniques to differentiate “non-normal” traffic was proposed. In this manner, malicious SCADA traffic could be identified at the packet level prior to completing its payload. Previous research has shown that SCADA network traffic has traits desirable for compression analysis. This work investigated three different approaches to identify malicious SCADA network traffic using compression techniques. The preliminary analyses and results presented herein are clearly able to differentiate normal from malicious network traffic at the packet level at a very high confidence level for the conditions tested. Additionally, the master dictionary approach used in this research appears to initially provide a meaningful way to categorize and compare packets within a communication channel.

Gordon Rueff; Lyle Roybal; Denis Vollmer

2013-01-01

347

Gradient Compression Stockings may Prevent Recovery after Bed Rest Deconditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: Astronauts continue to wear a compression garment during and immediately after landing to prevent orthostatic intolerance (OI). We recently developed a custom-fitted, 3-piece garment that consists of thigh-high stockings with biker-style shorts that provides continuous, gradient compression: 55 mmHg at the ankle that decreases to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and 15 mmHg over the abdomen. This garment has been shown to be effective in preventing symptoms of OI during a short stand test after Space Shuttle missions, but symptoms may persist for several days after a long-duration mission in some astronauts. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of wearing these elastic, gradient compression garments during orthostatic testing after 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of spaceflight and to determine whether they would impact recovery after bed rest. Methods: Eight (5 treatment, 3 control) of 16 subjects have completed this study to-date. All subjects wore the 3-piece garment from waking until tilt testing (3 h) as a simulation of the timeline for astronauts on landing day (BR+0). Control subjects removed the garment after the tilt test. Treatment subjects wore the garment for the remainder of the day and wore lower compression thigh-high only garments on the day after bed rest (BR+1). Blood pressure, heart rate, and stroke volume responses to a 15-min 80 degree head-up tilt test were determined before 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt, and on BR+0 and BR+1. Plasma volume (PV) was measured before each of these test sessions. Data are mean SE. Results: Compression garments prevented signs of OI on BR+0; all subjects in both groups completed the full 15-min test. Heart rate responses to tilt were lower on BR+0 than all other test days. Control subjects demonstrated a marginal PV decrease after bed rest, but showed typical recovery the day after bed rest (BR+0: 2.32 plus or minus 0.15 L to BR+1: 2.79 plus or minus 0.15 L). Treatment subjects did not recover PV the day after bed rest (BR+0: 2.61 plus or minus 0.23 L to BR+1: 2.61 plus or minus 0.23 L). Conclusion: Abdomen-high compression garments, which are effective in preventing post-bed rest orthostatic intolerance, may slow recovery of PV. Modified garments with reduced compression may be necessary to prevent prolonging recovery.

Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.; Westby, Christian M.; Willig, Michael C.; Platts, Steven H.

2011-01-01

348

Compressibility of electrospun fiber mats  

E-print Network

Compressive properties of electrospun fiber mats are reported for the first time. Mats of bisphenol-A polysulfone (PSU) and of poly(trimethyl hexamethylene terephthalamide) [PA 6(3)T] were electrospun and annealed over a ...

Choong, Looh Tchuin

349

Electrical conductivity of compressed argon  

SciTech Connect

The authors report calculations of the electrical conductivity of solid argon as a function of compression within the density functional local density approximation formulation for a norm-conserving pseudopotential using both electron-phonon coupling and molecular dynamics techniques.

Bauer, R. [Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Windl, W.; Collins, L.; Kress, J.; Kwon, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-10-01

350

Compressed gas fuel storage system  

DOEpatents

A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

2001-01-01

351

Compressed Air Audits using AIRMaster  

E-print Network

Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user and therefore a prime target for industrial energy audits. The project goal was to develop a software tool, AIRMaster, and supporting methodology for performing compressed air system audits...

Wheeler, G. M.; McGill, R. D.; Bessey, E. G.; Vischer, K.

352

Compressed Sensing David L. Donoho  

E-print Network

that x is compressible by transform coding with a known transform, and we are allowed to acquire data a sparse rep- resentation in some orthonormal basis (eg. wavelet, Fourier) or tight frame (eg curvelet

Kazhdan, Michael

353

Efficient Decoding of Compressed Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problem of enhancing the speed of Huffman decoding of compressed data. Topics addressed include the Huffman decoding tree; multibit decoding; binary string mapping problems; and algorithms for solving mapping problems. (22 references) (LRW)

Bassiouni, Mostafa A.; Mukherjee, Amar

1995-01-01

354

High compression rate text summarization  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

2008-01-01

355

Bridge Types: Tensile & Compressive Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore how tension and compression forces act on three different bridge types. Using sponges, cardboard and string, they create models of beam, arch and suspension bridges and apply forces to understand how they disperse or transfer these loads.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

356

Axisymmetric compression of solid cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analytical and experimental methods of determining the compressive yield stress of materials have been reviewed briefly.\\u000a Using aluminium, EN 24 steel, lead and a tin-lead eutectic alloy, the areas of applicability of the Cook and Larke method\\u000a (including its modified form for strain-rate sensitive materials) and the ring compression test have been delineated. Under\\u000a conditions of sliding friction, both

A. P. Singh; K. A. Padmanabhan

1991-01-01

357

Image Compression with Anisotropic Diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compression is an important field of digital image processing where well-engineered methods with high performance exist. Partial\\u000a differential equations (PDEs), however, have not much been explored in this context so far. In our paper we introduce a novel\\u000a framework for image compression that makes use of the interpolation qualities of edge-enhancing diffusion. Although this anisotropic\\u000a diffusion equation with a diffusion

Irena Galic; Joachim Weickert; Martin Welk; Andrés Bruhn; Alexander G. Belyaev; Hans-Peter Seidel

2008-01-01

358

Compressive properties of aramid fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-point bending beam method has been employed in order to study the compressive properties of a number of well-characterized aromatic polyamide (aramid) fibres using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy. Raman spectroscopy has been used to follow the molecular deformation of the aramid fibres in both tension and compression, from which the stress\\/strain data have been derived.

M. C. Andrews; D. Lu; R. J. Young

1997-01-01

359

Prelude to compressed baryonic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Why study compressed baryonic matter, or more generally strongly interacting matter at high densities and temperatures? Most\\u000a obviously, because it’s an important piece of Nature. The whole universe, in the early moments of the big bang, was filled\\u000a with the stuff. Today, highly compressed baryonic matter occurs in neutron stars and during crucial moments in the development\\u000a of supernovae. Also,

Frank Wilczek

2011-01-01

360

Performance evaluation of functional medical imaging compression via optimal sampling schedule designs and cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work we have described a technique for the compression of positron emission tomography (PET) image data in the spatial and temporal domains based on optimal sampling schedule designs (OSS) and cluster analysis. It can potentially achieve a high data compression ratio greater than 80:1. However, the number of distinguishable cluster groups in dynamic PET image data is a

Zhe Chen; David Dagan Feng; Weidong Cai; Roger Fulton

2005-01-01

361

Effect of compression on liquid water transport and microstructure of PEMFC gas diffusion layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores how the degradation of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) under compression contributes to the formation of preferential pathways for water transport. Fluorescence microscopy is used to provide ex situ visualization of liquid water transport through the GDL placed beneath an optically transparent clamping plate. Transient image data obtained with a CCD camera indicates that areas of compression

A. Bazylak; D. Sinton; Z.-S. Liu; N. Djilali

2007-01-01

362

Solar Week Tuesday: Meet Today's Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of readings associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Female scientists with different perspectives about the Sun are highlighted in the online readings. This activity is scheduled to occur during Tuesday of Solar Week.

363

Solar Week Monday: Play the Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a game associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. During this game, learners use clues to find out the color, average size, temperature, and location of the Sun. This activity is scheduled to occur during Monday of Solar Week.

2012-08-03

364

Solar Week Friday: Learn about Solar Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a set of biographical readings by which learners can find out more about female solar scientists. This reading activity is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

365

Solar Week Wednesday: The Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short online reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Learners will read about how Earth is protected from the harmful effects of solar radiation. This activity is scheduled to occur during Wednesday of Solar Week.

366

Solar Week Friday: Research Jobs & Salaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading and research activity associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. During this activity, learners research different science jobs and salary ranges in several online employment databases and answer related questions. This activity is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

2012-08-03

367

Solar Week Friday: Women in Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a list of online resources associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is set of online resources related to women in science careers. Investigating these resources is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

368

Effective compression bandage for repair of a complicated radial artery pseudoaneurysm.  

PubMed

We describe a 10-week-old hemophilic infant who developed a large-sized pseudoaneurysm of the radial artery after arterial puncture. Based on our previous experience, compression bandage was elected as first-line treatment. The clinical course was complicated by skin ulceration. However, compression bandage was continued, and complete thrombosis of the pseudoaneurysm occurred after 4 weeks of treatment, preserving arterial patency. Bedside clot evacuation and enzymatic debridement promoted rapid wound healing with negligible scar formation. Compression bandage is a safe and valuable measure for repair of radial artery pseudoaneurysm, even in patients with clotting disorders. Professionals are encouraged to consider the benefit of such an artery-sparing treatment option. PMID:24456862

Ceccanti, Silvia; Frediani, Simone; Andreoli, Gian Marco; Giannini, Luigi; Ferro, Rosalia; Cozzi, Denis A

2014-07-01

369

Real time compression of triangle mesh connectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a new compressed representation for the connectivity of a triangle mesh. We present local compression and decompression algorithms which are fast enough for real time ap- plications. The achieved space compression rates keep pace with the best rates reported for any known global compression algorithm. These nice properties have great benefits for several important ap-

Stefan Gumhold; Wolfgang Straßer

1998-01-01

370

The implementation and performance of compressed databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show how compression can be integrated into a relational database system. Specifically, we describe how the storage manager, the query execution engine, and the query optimizer of a database system can be extended to deal with compressed data. Our main result is that compression can significantly improve the response time of queries if very light-weight compression

Till Westmann; Donald Kossmann; Sven Helmer; Guido Moerkotte

2000-01-01

371

Restructuring Compressed Texts without Explicit Decompression  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of {\\em restructuring} compressed texts without explicit decompression. We present algorithms which allow conversions from compressed representations of a string $T$ produced by any grammar-based compression algorithm, to representations produced by several specific compression algorithms including LZ77, LZ78, run length encoding, and some grammar based compression algorithms. These are the first algorithms that achieve running times polynomial in the size of the compressed input and output representations of $T$. Since most of the representations we consider can achieve exponential compression, our algorithms are theoretically faster in the worst case, than any algorithm which first decompresses the string for the conversion.

Goto, Keisuke; Inenaga, Shunsuke; Bannai, Hideo; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Takeda, Masayuki

2011-01-01

372

Reversible Integer KLT for Progressive-to-Lossless Compression of  

E-print Network

1 Reversible Integer KLT for Progressive-to-Lossless Compression of Multiple Component Images of London, UK In Memory of Prof Qingyun Shi August 14, 1936 - December 9, 2002 Integer Reversible Data JPEG 2000 Our work Integer Reversible Mapping Integer numbers to integer numbers For integer

Hao, Pengwei

373

Scalable Video Compression via Overcomplete Motion Compensated Wavelet Coding  

E-print Network

by spatial transform) and overcomplete motion compensated wavelet coding (OMCWC) [14, 17, 20, 31, 38Scalable Video Compression via Overcomplete Motion Compensated Wavelet Coding Xin Li Lane Dept Abstract Recently, there have been a flurry of works on overcomplete motion compensated wavelet coding

Li, Xin

374

The enhancement of compressible turbulent mixing via streamwise vorticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressible turbulent mixing layers have been studied in great detail in an attempt to understand and control the mechanisms governing them. Although much has been learned from these studies, attempts to significantly increase the mixing of the two component streams have been largely unsuccessful. Based upon promising results from subsonic swirling-jet studies, the present work was initiated to demonstrate conclusively

Jonathan Wayne Naughton

1993-01-01

375

Novel Compression and Fueling Apparatus to Meet Hydrogen  

E-print Network

First pass ­ Water-based with pump and eductor set ­ Separation and surge volumes ­ Issues · Hydrogen solubility · High pressure water lubricity Further work - Other fluids #12;9 Cooler Refill Tank FC Conceptual PFD Vent H2 supply H2 Suction Surge Bottle De-gas Tank #12;10 H2disch Sep Pad Compression Cylinder

376

Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

2011-01-01

377

Lossless compression of JPEG2000 whole slide images is not required for diagnostic virtual microscopy.  

PubMed

The use of lossy compression in medical imaging is controversial, although it is inevitable to reduce large data amounts. In contrast with lossy compression, lossless compression does not impair image quality. In addition to our previous studies, we evaluated virtual 3-dimensional microscopy using JPEG2000 whole slide images of gastric biopsy specimens with or without Helicobacter pylori gastritis using lossless compression (1:1) or lossy compression with different compression levels: 5:1, 10:1, and 20:1. The virtual slides were diagnosed in a blinded manner by 3 pathologists using the updated Sydney classification. The results showed no significant differences in the diagnosis of H pylori between the different levels of compression in virtual microscopy. We assume that lossless compression is not required for diagnostic virtual microscopy. The limits of lossy compression in virtual microscopy without a loss of diagnostic quality still need to be determined. Analogous to the processes in radiology, recommendations for the use of lossy compression in diagnostic virtual microscopy have to be worked out by pathology societies. PMID:22095374

Kalinski, Thomas; Zwönitzer, Ralf; Grabellus, Florian; Sheu, Sien-Yi; Sel, Saadettin; Hofmann, Harald; Roessner, Albert

2011-12-01

378

Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

None

2012-01-04

379

Mechanics of the Compression Wood Response: II. On the Location, Action, and Distribution of Compression Wood Formation.  

PubMed

A new method for simulation of cross-sectional growth provided detailed information on the location of normal wood and compression wood increments in two tilted white pine (Pinus strobus L.) leaders. These data were combined with data on stiffness, slope, and curvature changes over a 16-week period to make the mechanical analysis. The location of compression wood changed from the under side to a flank side and then to the upper side of the leader as the geotropic stimulus decreased, owing to compression wood action. Its location shifted back to a flank side when the direction of movement of the leader reversed. A model for this action, based on elongation strains, was developed and predicted the observed curvature changes with elongation strains of 0.3 to 0.5%, or a maximal compressive stress of 60 to 300 kilograms per square centimeter. After tilting, new wood formation was distributed so as to maintain consistent strain levels along the leaders in bending under gravitational loads. The computed effective elastic moduli were about the same for the two leaders throughout the season. PMID:16658408

Archer, R R; Wilson, B F

1973-04-01

380

Conductivity enhancement of multiwalled carbon nanotube thin film via thermal compression method  

PubMed Central

For the first time, the thermal compression method is applied to effectively enhance the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube thin films (CNTFs). With the assistance of heat and pressure on the CNTFs, the neighbor multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) start to link with each other, and then these separated CNTs are twined into a continuous film while the compression force, duration, and temperature are quite enough for the reaction. Under the compression temperature of 400°C and the compression force of 100 N for 50 min, the sheet resistance can be reduced from 17 to 0.9 k ?/sq for the CNTFs with a thickness of 230 nm. Moreover, the effects of compression temperature and the duration of thermal compression on the conductivity of CNTF are also discussed in this work. PMID:25232300

2014-01-01

381

Linearly Compressed Pages: A Main Memory Compression Framework with Low Complexity and Low Latency  

E-print Network

>on: Linearly Compressed Pages (LCP): fixed-size cache line granularity compression Compression Linearly Compressed Pages (LCP): Key Idea LCP Overview Key Results.5 Compression Ra>o GeoMean Zero Page FPC LCP (BDI) LCP (BDI+FPC-fixed) MXT LZ

Mutlu, Onur

382

Expanding Window Compressed Sensing for Non-Uniform Compressible Signals  

PubMed Central

Many practical compressible signals like image signals or the networked data in wireless sensor networks have non-uniform support distribution in their sparse representation domain. Utilizing this prior information, a novel compressed sensing (CS) scheme with unequal protection capability is proposed in this paper by introducing a windowing strategy called expanding window compressed sensing (EW-CS). According to the importance of different parts of the signal, the signal is divided into several nested subsets, i.e., the expanding windows. Each window generates its own measurements using a random sensing matrix. The more significant elements are contained by more windows, so they are captured by more measurements. This design makes the EW-CS scheme have more convenient implementation and better overall recovery quality for non-uniform compressible signals than ordinary CS schemes. These advantages are theoretically analyzed and experimentally confirmed. Moreover, the EW-CS scheme is applied to the compressed acquisition of image signals and networked data where it also has superior performance than ordinary CS and the existing unequal protection CS schemes. PMID:23201984

Liu, Yu; Zhu, Xuqi; Zhang, Lin; Cho, Sung Ho

2012-01-01

383

78 FR 30723 - National Safe Boating Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8981--National Safe Boating Week, 2013 Proclamation 8982--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2013 Proclamation 8983--World Trade Week, 2013 Proclamation 8984--Armed Forces Day, 2013 Memorandum...

2013-05-22

384

Perceptual Image Compression in Telemedicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next era of space exploration, especially the "Mission to Planet Earth" will generate immense quantities of image data. For example, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is expected to generate in excess of one terabyte/day. NASA confronts a major technical challenge in managing this great flow of imagery: in collection, pre-processing, transmission to earth, archiving, and distribution to scientists at remote locations. Expected requirements in most of these areas clearly exceed current technology. Part of the solution to this problem lies in efficient image compression techniques. For much of this imagery, the ultimate consumer is the human eye. In this case image compression should be designed to match the visual capacities of the human observer. We have developed three techniques for optimizing image compression for the human viewer. The first consists of a formula, developed jointly with IBM and based on psychophysical measurements, that computes a DCT quantization matrix for any specified combination of viewing distance, display resolution, and display brightness. This DCT quantization matrix is used in most recent standards for digital image compression (JPEG, MPEG, CCITT H.261). The second technique optimizes the DCT quantization matrix for each individual image, based on the contents of the image. This is accomplished by means of a model of visual sensitivity to compression artifacts. The third technique extends the first two techniques to the realm of wavelet compression. Together these two techniques will allow systematic perceptual optimization of image compression in NASA imaging systems. Many of the image management challenges faced by NASA are mirrored in the field of telemedicine. Here too there are severe demands for transmission and archiving of large image databases, and the imagery is ultimately used primarily by human observers, such as radiologists. In this presentation I will describe some of our preliminary explorations of the applications of our technology to the special problems of telemedicine.

Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Eckstein, Miguel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

385

Crucial Week for Northern Ireland Peace Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) leader and First Minister of the currently-suspended Northern Irish government David Trimble announced that he would rejoin the power-sharing executive alongside Sinn Fein, provided he receives majority support at the May 27 meeting of the 860-member Ulster Unionist Council. Events in Northern Ireland have taken on a new momentum since the May 6 announcement by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) that they would place their arms "beyond use" by sealing them in bunkers which would be periodically inspected by foreign arms inspectors. At first, this statement was met with considerable enthusiasm in the UK and Ireland, and the British government took steps to reinstate the home rule government in Northern Ireland that had been suspended in February because of a deadlock over arms decommissioning. The target date was set for May 22, and a meeting of the Ulster Unionist Council was scheduled for May 20. In the past week and a half, however, a number of difficulties have arisen, particularly Unionist opposition to a number of proposed changes to the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), Northern Ireland's police force, to make it more acceptable to all sections of the community, including a proposed name change to the Northern Ireland Police Service. British officials, especially Northern Ireland Secretary Peter Mandelson, have been working to address the Unionists's concerns without angering the Catholic and Nationalist communities by diluting what they regard as essential reforms. While it appears that David Trimble is now ready to reenter the government, the majority of his party clearly was not, and it was almost certain he would have lost the (now rescheduled) vote on May 20. He will now use this next week to privately and publicly lobby his party to take the risk with him and rejoin Sinn Fein in the power-sharing government. If he is successful, it may very well mark a new departure in Unionist politics; should he lose the vote, he would most probably lose the leadership of the party, gravely jeopardizing the immediate future of the peace process.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

386

Banned Books Week: Just the Beginning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Founded in 1982, Banned Books Week is celebrated annually during the last week in September and will be observed from September 26-October 3 in 2009. The event acknowledges Americans' right to read the books of their choice regardless of whether the ideas, language, or images are controversial. This annual observance of banned books is a good…

Adams, Helen R.

2009-01-01

387

8, 521548, 2008 Weekly patterns of  

E-print Network

Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA 4 significant weekly cycle in fine particle sulfate de- spite a 10 to 15% weekly cycle in power plant SO2 should look for causes more in light-absorbing particles and dust rather than sulfate or total aerosol

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling General Compression: A River of Wind  

ScienceCinema

The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are David Marcus, Founder of General Compression, and Eric Ingersoll, CEO of General Compression. General Compression, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has created an advanced air compression process which can store and release more than a weeks worth of the energy generated by wind turbines.

Marcus, David; Ingersoll, Eric

2012-03-21

389

2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling General Compression: A River of Wind  

SciTech Connect

The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are David Marcus, Founder of General Compression, and Eric Ingersoll, CEO of General Compression. General Compression, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has created an advanced air compression process which can store and release more than a weeks worth of the energy generated by wind turbines.

Marcus, David; Ingersoll, Eric

2012-02-29

390

Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome due to Bladder Distention Caused by Urethral Calculi  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of iliac vein compression syndrome caused by urethral calculus. A 71-year-old man had a history of urethral stenosis. He complained of bilateral leg edema and dysuria for 1 week. Physical examination revealed bilateral distention of the superficial epigastric veins, so obstruction of both common iliac veins or the inferior vena cava was suspected. Plain abdominal computed tomography showed a calculus in the pendulous urethra, distention of the bladder (as well as the right renal pelvis and ureter), and compression of the bilateral common iliac veins by the distended bladder. Iliac vein compression syndrome was diagnosed. Bilateral iliac vein compression due to bladder distention (secondary to neurogenic bladder, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or urethral calculus as in this case) is an infrequent cause of acute bilateral leg edema. Detecting distention of the superficial epigastric veins provides a clue for diagnosis of this syndrome. PMID:25802794

Ikegami, Akiko; Kondo, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Tomoko; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi

2015-01-01

391

Ambient Compression-Compression Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Single Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnesium single crystal sample with a near orientation was tested at room temperature under compression-compression cyclic loading, and the microstructure was characterized to disclose the involved deformation mechanisms. No plastic deformation region appeared on the stress-strain curve during the cyclic loading. The stress-strain curve stabilized at the first cycle, the strain range for each cycle fluctuated slightly around a constant value, and the mean strain for each cycle was in a narrow range from 0.0846 to 0.0863 during the whole test. The ratcheting strain rate decreased exponentially from ~0.0003, and reached a relatively small and stable value of about zero. The observed deformation mechanisms were prismatic slip, compression twinning, and tension twinning. The prismatic dislocation slip roughened the cylindrical sample surface by forming extrusions and intrusions, and small cracks were also observed on the surface.

Li, Qizhen

2014-01-01

392

Comparison on accuracy of image matching between lossy JPEG compression and lossy JPEG 2000 compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports an experiment conducted in order to compare lossy JPEG compression and lossy JPEG 2000 compression on the accuracy of image matching. The experiment has been conducted by using 54 color images of diverse textures and diverse tones of color on the assumption that image matching utilizes a pair of images reconstructed from image data which are lossily compressed in an ordinary digital camera. Lossy JPEG compression has been executed with a set of compression parameters utilized in a digital camera Canon EOS 20D, while lossy JPEG 2000 compression has been executed in the way as the file size of a piece of JPEG 2000 compressed image data is the same file size of the corresponding JPEG compressed image data. Moreover, we have prepared another set of JPEG and JPEG 2000 compressed image data which are lossily compressed with the compression ratio expected for an ordinary color image when it is compressed in the EOS 20D. When the file size of a piece of JPEG 2000 compressed image data is the same as that of a piece of JPEG compressed image data, the experiment results clearly show that the compression performance of JPEG 2000 compression would be superior to that of JPEG compression on image quality as to pixel value in RGB color space. On the contrary, the results do not necessarily indicate that JPEG 2000 compression would be able to provide more accurate matching results than JPEG compression.

Matsuoka, Ryuji; Sone, Mitsuo; Sudo, Noboru; Yokotsuka, Hideyo; Shirai, Naoki

2013-10-01

393

URe{sub 2}-A compressibility study of allotropic phases  

SciTech Connect

URe{sub 2} compound exists in two phases- orthorhombic and hexagonal. The hexagonal phase has been prepared using arc melting and annealingat 500°C for one week, whereas the orthorhombic phase was achieved by annealing the arc melted sample at a temperature 150°C for the same period. High pressure x-ray diffraction studies on these two allotropic forms of URe{sub 2} have been carried out up to ?15GPa using a diamond anvil cell. Normal compression was observed without any kind of phase transformation; although there is a probability of transformation from the metastable hexagonal to itsstable orthorhombicphase under pressure.

Shukla, B., E-mail: bshukla@igcar.gov.in; Shekar, N. V. Chandra, E-mail: bshukla@igcar.gov.in; Sahu, P. Ch., E-mail: bshukla@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India)

2014-04-24

394

Studies of fiber-matrix adhesion on compression strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was initiated on the effect of the matrix polymer and the fiber matrix bond strength of carbon fiber polymer matrix composites. The work includes tests with micro-composites, single ply composites, laminates, and multi-axial loaded cylinders. The results obtained thus far indicate that weak fiber-matrix adhesion dramatically reduces 0 degree compression strength. Evidence is also presented that the flaws in the carbon fiber that govern compression strength differ from those that determine fiber tensile strength. Examination of post-failure damage in the single ply tests indicates kink banding at the crack tip.

Bascom, Willard D.; Nairn, John A.; Boll, D. J.

1991-01-01

395

A PDF closure model for compressible turbulent chemically reacting flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the proposed research project was the analysis of single point closures based on probability density function (pdf) and characteristic functions and the development of a prediction method for the joint velocity-scalar pdf in turbulent reacting flows. Turbulent flows of boundary layer type and stagnation point flows with and without chemical reactions were be calculated as principal applications. Pdf methods for compressible reacting flows were developed and tested in comparison with available experimental data. The research work carried in this project was concentrated on the closure of pdf equations for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows with and without chemical reactions.

Kollmann, W.

1992-01-01

396

Conceptual design of a packed bed for thermal-energy storage. [In compressed air energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design approach, conceptual design, and basic cost estimates for a packed bed for thermal-energy storage in an underground compressed-air-storage system are presented. The conceptual designs considered are a 200-MW(e) system operating on a weekly cycle, and a combined solar-thermal\\/compressed-air-storage system capable of delivering 100 MW(e) to the generator on discharge. Geological stresses in the thermal-energy storage cavity are examined,

1978-01-01

397

3 CFR 8865 - Proclamation 8865 of September 14, 2012. National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2012  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...producers who rise before the dawn, entrepreneurs who bring ideas to market, and working men and women who build the American dream with their bare hands. This week, we honor their tireless efforts and rededicate ourselves to equipping our next...

2013-01-01

398

The United States celebrates National Library Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ALA Report: Poor Middle, High School Libraries Suffer the Most Budget Cutshttp://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/slj/home/890148-312/ala_report_poor_middle_high.html.cspClosing most Cobb libraries not realistichttp://www.ajc.com/opinion/closing-most-cobb-libraries-906121.htmlALA: 2011 State of America's Libraries Report [pdf]http://ala.org/ala/newspresscenter/mediapresscenter/americaslibraries2011/index.cfmThe Most Criticized Books! A Handy List From Your Libraryhttp://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/04/11/135316133/the-most-criticized-books-a-handy-list-from-your-library@Your Libraryhttp://www.atyourlibrary.org/It's National Library Week, and libraries around the United States have much to celebrate. More and more patrons are coming in to their area libraries to check out e-books, read the newspapers, search for jobs online, and to take advantage of unique programs, such as special presentations and concerts. Flush times indeed, but along with rising patronage, public libraries are also facing major cutbacks in terms of funding. This week, the American Library Association (ALA) released its annual "State of America's Libraries" report, and there were a number of troubling signs within its pages. Perhaps the most troubling revelation was that middle and high school libraries in high poverty areas of the US suffered average spending cuts on information resources and collection size of 25.5 percent. The report also noted that total library staff hours declined across the United States, but there was an average increase of 0.8 hours per week among certified school librarians. While most observers tend to agree that libraries will continue to serve as important community gathering centers in the future, it remains to be seen what will be contained within their walls 10 or 20 years in the future.The first link will take visitors to a recent piece of reporting from National Public Radio (NPR) about the future of libraries, with specific reference to the growing popularity of e-books. The second link leads to a piece from the School Library Journal about the budgets cuts among libraries in high poverty areas. Moving on, the third link will whisk users away to an opinion piece by writer Margaret Johnson-Hodge about the importance of libraries in Cobb County, Georgia. The fourth link leads to the full text of the 2011 State of America's Libraries Report from the ALA. The fifth link leads to a report from NPR on the most frequently challenged books of 2010. This list includes titles such as "Brave New World" by Aldous Huxley and "Crank" by Ellen Hopkins. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the Campaign for America's Libraries, which provides information on local libraries, recommended books and music, and information on their mission and work.

Grinnell, Max

2011-04-15

399

Linearly Compressed Pages: A Main Memory Compression Framework with Low Complexity and Low Latency  

E-print Network

call Linearly Compressed Pages (LCP). The key idea of LCP is that if all the cache lines within a page (Frequent Pattern Compression [2] and Base- Delta-Immediate Compression [6]) to fit the requirements of LCP

400

Working on What Works: Working with Teachers to Improve Classroom Behaviour and Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Working on What Works (WOWW) approach, which is based upon Solution-focused Brief Therapy, was implemented in a mainstream primary classroom over a 10-week period. The focus was on improving behaviour and relationships in class. Results demonstrated an improvement in teacher ratings for targets set by the class teacher compared with baseline.…

Brown, Emma L.; Powell, Emma; Clark, Adele

2012-01-01

401

Restoring a Master Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does it take to restore a 350 year old painting? This site shows you! For ten weeks, conservators Joan Gorman and David Marquis worked on a painting by Italian painter Guercino during museum hours. That way, visitors got to see each stage in the restoration process. Click here to see for yourself.Please note: as of 07/06/2012, not all the links at this site were available.

Joan Gorman

402

ForPeerReview Ice age True Polar wander in a compressible and non  

E-print Network

ForPeerReview Ice age True Polar wander in a compressible and non hydrostatic Earth Journal Ice age (TPW), have continuously been debated, after the pioneering works of the sixties. We show ice age TPW

403

Local existence and uniqueness of solutions for non stationary compressible viscoelastic fluid of Oldroyd type  

E-print Network

This work is devoted to the study of a compressible viscoelastic fluids satisfying the Oldroyd-B model in a regular bounded domain. We prove the local existence of solutions and uniqueness of flows by a classical fixed point argument.

Salloum, Zaynab

2011-01-01

404

Compression therapy for chronic venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

Compression therapy provides a means to treat venous stasis, venous hypertension, and venous edema. Different methods of compression therapy have been described periodically over the last 2,000 years. In addition to static compression, specialized compression pumps have been developed and a technique of massage called manual lymphatic drainage has emerged to treat primary and secondary lymphedema. Objectives of compression therapy are to reduce the swollen limb to minimum size, maintain that size, and allow the patient to participate in the care of his limb whenever possible. Reduction therapy is achieved by limb elevation, compression pumps as necessary, and compression wraps. Maintenance therapy largely consists of compression wraps or compression stockings. Nonelastic devices have found a place in treating severe lymphedema but it should be emphasized that periodic follow-up must be done during maintenance therapy so that adjunctive maintenance measures can be added as needed. PMID:15791552

Felty, Cindy L; Rooke, Thom W

2005-03-01

405

Experimental compressive phase space tomography  

PubMed Central

Phase space tomography estimates correlation functions entirely from snapshots in the evolution of the wave function along a time or space variable. In contrast, traditional interferometric methods require measurement of multiple two–point correlations. However, as in every tomographic formulation, undersampling poses a severe limitation. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, experimental demonstration of compressive reconstruction of the classical optical correlation function, i.e. the mutual intensity function. Our compressive algorithm makes explicit use of the physically justifiable assumption of a low–entropy source (or state.) Since the source was directly accessible in our classical experiment, we were able to compare the compressive estimate of the mutual intensity to an independent ground–truth estimate from the van Cittert–Zernike theorem and verify substantial quantitative improvements in the reconstruction. PMID:22513541

Tian, Lei; Lee, Justin; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George

2012-01-01

406

Efficient access of compressed data  

SciTech Connect

A compression technique is presented that allows a high degree of compression but requires only logarithmic access time. The technique is a constant suppression scheme, and is most applicable to stable databases whose distribution of constants is fairly clustered. Furthermore, the repeated use of the technique permits the suppression of a multiple number of different constants. Of particular interest is the application of the constant suppression technique to databases the composite key of which is made up of an incomplete cross product of several attribute domains. The scheme for compressing the full cross product composite key is well known. This paper, however, also handles the general, incomplete case by applying the constant suppression technique in conjunction with a composite key suppression scheme.

Eggers, S.J.; Shoshani, A.

1980-06-01

407

Weekly Vineyard IPM Scouting Summary Report for the week of May 17 2007  

E-print Network

Weekly Vineyard IPM Scouting Summary Report for the week of May 17 2007 Southwest Michigan Grape 0 0 0 Grape Flea Beetle (Steely Beetle): Leafhoppers: Other Insects: Other Notes: ** Grape below for more information on potato leafhoppers. Upcoming Grape IPM Meetings: This week Thursday! May

Isaacs, Rufus

408

Thermoacoustic compression based on alternating to direct gas flow conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a remarkable thermoacoustically driven compression effect based on the conversion of gas flow from an alternating state to a direct state. The alternating gas flow is generated by the thermoacoustic effect in thermoacoustic engines, whereas direct gas flow is achieved by means of the flow rectification effect of check valves. A demonstrative thermoacoustic compressor consisting of two standing-wave thermoacoustic engines, two reservoirs, and three check valves is constructed for experimental investigation. With nitrogen as a working gas and an initial pressure of 2.4 MPa in all components, a usable pressure difference of 0.4 MPa is achieved, with the average gas pumping rate reaching 2.85 Nm3/h during the first 3 s of the compression process. The simple mechanical structure and thermally driven nature of the compressor show potential in gas compression, power generation, and refrigeration applications.

Sun, D. M.; Wang, K.; Xu, Y.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, X. J.; Qiu, L. M.

2012-05-01

409

Phase transition during uniaxial compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the possibility of a first-order isostructural phase transition during the uniaxial compression of single crystals of Sm(1-x)Gd(x)S solid solutions (x = 0.15). The compression of the samples was carried out along the longest dimension corresponding to the 100 crystallographic direction. A change in the color of samples from black to golden yellow and a discontinuity in electrical conductivity were observed. When the pressure was removed the inverse transition did not occur.

Kaminskii, V. V.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Stepanov, N. N.; Smirnov, I. A.

1983-05-01

410

Data compression in digitized lines  

SciTech Connect

The problem of data compression is very important in digital photogrammetry, computer assisted cartography, and GIS/LIS. In addition, it is also applicable in many other fields such as computer vision, image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. Consequently, there are many algorithms available to solve this problem but none of them are considered to be satisfactory. In this paper, a new method of finding critical points in a digitized curve is explained. This technique, based on the normalized symmetric scattered matrix, is good for both critical points detection and data compression. In addition, the critical points detected by this algorithm are compared with those by zero-crossings. 8 refs.

Thapa, K. (Ferris State Univ., Big Rapids, MI (USA))

1990-04-01

411

Workdays, Workhours, and Work Schedules: Evidence for the United States and Germany.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book studies work in the United States and Germany from two new viewpoints: (1) the division of work time into hours per day and days per week (as opposed to the standard analysis of weekly hours of work); and (2) the patterns of the particular times of the day and week when people are working, a focus on instantaneous time use. Information…

Hamermesh, Daniel S.

412

Solar Week Monday: The Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a short reading about factors that contribute to the ability of life to exist on Earth and the possibility of life on planets around other stars. This activity is scheduled to occur during Monday of Solar Week.

2012-08-03

413

Solar Week Thursday: Ice Cube Meltdown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about energy absorption and reflection. In this hands-on activity, learners will experiment with ways of making ice cubes melt at different rates by choosing and testing various materials with different color and reflective properties. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week, and it requires use of a sunny outdoor location for an extended period of time.

2013-02-15

414

Solar Week Thursday: Funnel the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about reflection. Learners will create a foil funnel to focus light that can be detected by various means. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week. An optional part of this activity recommends use of a digital multimeter, an amp meter, and/or a solar cell.

415

Solar Week Tuesday: The Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short online reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Learners will read about how the vision of dogs, bees, and humans differs and how the electromagnetic spectrum plays a role in those differences. This activity is scheduled to occur during Tuesday of Solar Week.

2012-08-03

416

NJ Teachers Back to Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Middletown, New Jersey schoolteachers went back to work today after a labor dispute that landed a quarter of the teaching work force in jail. The teachers had staged a walk-out because they refused to continue working without a new contract (the old one had expired on June 30), and they resisted proposed increases in their health insurance premiums. Last week, Judge Clarkson S. Fisher Jr. issued a back-to-work order, and when the striking teachers failed to follow the order, he began jailing them, working his way through the alphabet day by day. By yesterday, more than 225 teachers were in jail. Today, the teachers agreed to go back to work next week, and the union and the school district will enter non-binding mediation.

Koplow, Travis.

2001-01-01

417

Lightning Safety Awareness Week 2012 Page 1 Social Media Tools  

E-print Network

Lightning Safety Awareness Week 2012 Page 1 Social Media Tools LIGHTNING SAFETY AWARNESS WEEK: June as the platform to promote Lightning Safety Awareness Week. This can be done in a variety of ways, beginning throughout the week. Hashtag: #ImAForce Sunday June 24: Intro to week It's Lightning Safety Awareness Week

418

Formulation development of metoprolol succinate and hydrochlorothiazide compression coated tablets.  

PubMed

The purpose of present research work was to design and optimize compression coated tablet to provide an immediate release of hydrochlorothiazide in stomach and extended release of metoprolol succinate in intestine. Compression coated tablet was prepared by direct compression method which consisted of metoprolol succinate extended release core tablet and hydrochlorothiazide immediate release coat layer. Barrier coating of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) E15LV was applied onto the core tablets to prevent burst release of metoprolol succinate in acidic medium. A 32 full factorial design was employed for optimization of the amount of polymers required to achieve extended release of drug. The percentage drug release at given time Q3, Q6, Q10, Q22; were selected as dependent variables. Core and compression coated tablets were evaluated for pharmaco-technical parameters. In vitro drug release of optimized batch was found to comply with Pharmacopoeial specifications. Desired release of metoprolol succinate was obtained by suitable combination of HPMC having high gelling capacity and polyethylene oxide having quick gelling capacity. The mechanism of release of metoprolol succinate from all batches was anomalous diffusion. Optimised batch was stable at accelerated conditions up to 3 months. Thus, compression coated tablet of metoprolol succinate and hydrochlorothiazide was successfully formulated. PMID:23017092

Shah, Ritesh; Parmar, Swatil; Patel, Hetal; Pandey, Sonia; Shah, Dinesh

2013-12-01

419

Radio-Frequency Pulse Compression for Linear Accelerators.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent efforts to develop plans for an electron -positron linear collider with center-of-mass energy approaching a TeV have highlighted the need for sources capable of delivering hundreds of megawatts of peak rf drive power at X-band frequencies. This need has driven work in the area of rf pulse compression, which enhances the peak power available from pulsed rf tubes by compressing their output pulses in time, accumulating the available energy into shorter pulses. The classic means of rf pulse compression for linear accelerators is SLED. This technique is described, and the problem it presents for multibunch acceleration explained. Other pulse compression schemes, capable of producing suitable output pulses are explored, both theoretically and experimentally, in particular Binary Pulse Compression and SLED-II. The merits of each are considered with regard to gain, efficiency, complexity, size and cost. The development of some novel system components, along with the theory behind their design, is also discussed. The need to minimize copper losses in long waveguide runs led to the use of the circular TE_{01} propagation mode in over-moded guide, requiring much attention to mechanisms of coupling power between modes. The construction and commissioning of complete, high-power pulse compression systems is reported on, as well as their use in the testing of X-band accelerating structures, which, along with the X-band klystrons used, were developed at SLAC in parallel with the pulse compression work. The focus of the dissertation is on SLED-II, the favored scheme in some current linear accelerator designs. In addition to our experimental results, practical implementation considerations and design improvements are presented. The work to date has led to detailed plans for SLED-II systems to be used in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator, now under construction at SLAC. The prototype of the upgraded system is near completion. Descriptions of various rf pulse-compression techniques besides the aforementioned three, including those pursued at institutions other than SLAC, are included to give a broad taste for the field and a sense of future possibilities.

Nantista, Christopher Dennis

420

Compressive Viscoelasticity of Freshly Excised Mouse Skin Is Dependent on Specimen Thickness, Strain Level and Rate  

PubMed Central

Although the skin’s mechanical properties are well characterized in tension, little work has been done in compression. Here, the viscoelastic properties of a population of mouse skin specimens (139 samples from 36 mice, aged 5 to 34 weeks) were characterized upon varying specimen thickness, as well as strain level and rate. Over the population, we observed the skin’s viscoelasticity to be quite variable, yet found systematic correlation of residual stress ratio with skin thickness and strain, and of relaxation time constants with strain rates. In particular, as specimen thickness ranged from 211 to 671 ?m, we observed significant variation in both quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) parameters, the relaxation time constant (?1 = 0.19 ± 0.10 s) and steady-state residual stress ratio (G? = 0.28 ± 0.13). Moreover, when ?1 was decoupled and fixed, we observed that G? positively correlated with skin thickness. Second, as steady-state stretch was increased (?? from 0.22 to 0.81), we observed significant variation in both QLV parameters (?1 = 0.26 ± 0.14 s, G? = 0.47 ± 0.17), and when ?1 was fixed, G? positively correlated with stretch level. Third, as strain rate was increased from 0.06 to 22.88 s?1, the median time constant ?1 varied from 1.90 to 0.31 s, and thereby negatively correlated with strain rate. These findings indicate that the natural range of specimen thickness, as well as experimental controls of compression level and rate, significantly influence measurements of skin viscoelasticity. PMID:25803703

Wang, Yuxiang; Marshall, Kara L.; Baba, Yoshichika; Lumpkin, Ellen A.; Gerling, Gregory J.

2015-01-01

421

Mayor Barrett to Demonstrate Emerald Ash Borer Treatment Demonstration Occurs During National Public Works Week & Emerald Ash Borer Week  

Microsoft Academic Search

th at 11:00 a.m. Location to be determine. Milwaukee is moving forward with plans to chemically treat all City-owned ash in an effort to moderate\\/mitigate the impact of EAB. In previous summers, time studies were conducted to compare efficiencies between a number of chemical delivery systems. They determined that pairing a hydraulic injection system from Arbor-Jet with the chemical Tree-age

Mayor Tom Barrett

2009-01-01

422

A Novel ECG Data Compression Method Using Adaptive Fourier Decomposition with Security Guarantee in e-Health Applications.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel electrocardiogram (ECG) compression method for e-health applications by adapting adaptive Fourier decomposition (AFD) algorithm hybridized with symbol substitution (SS) technique. The compression consists of two stages: 1st stage AFD executes efficient lossy compression with high fidelity; 2nd stage SS performs lossless compression enhancement and built-in data encryption which is pivotal for e-health. Validated with 48 ECG records from MIT-BIH arrhythmia benchmark database, the proposed method achieves averaged compression ratio (CR) of 17.6 to 44.5 and percentage root mean square difference (PRD) of 0.8% to 2.0% with a highly linear and robust PRD-CR relationship, pushing forward the compression performance to an unexploited region. As such, this work provides an attractive candidate of ECG compression method for pervasive e-health applications. PMID:25222961

Ma, Jiali; Zhang, TanTan; Dong, MingChui

2014-09-12

423

An evaluation of short-stretch compression systems for chronic lower-limb leg ulcers.  

PubMed

An evaluation of a new short-stretch compression system (CoFlex UBZ, TLC and TLC Lite, Aspen Medical Europe Ltd) was undertaken in four leg ulcer clinics. A total of 19 patients aged 42-93 years were treated for up to 4 weeks, or until healed. Collated data included age, underlying diseases, leg ulcer type, ulcer duration and current treatment. The evaluation included quality of life measurements, wear time, slippage, exudate strikethrough and pain using a numerical pain score. Patients were asked to document sleep patterns. Compression was applied according to clinical need. Inclusion criteria were non-healing wounds on the lower limb existing for more than 6 weeks that were suitable for compression. Exclusion criteria included patients with untreated peripheral disease, ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI)<0.5 or those unable to consent. Staff were asked to rate performance, wear time, fluid handling and conformability. Wound tissue types improved significantly for n=16 (84%) patients. Pain scores reduced significantly by week 2, n=11 (58%) patient leg ulcers had improved, n=2 (11%) patients in standard compression noted a marked reduction in malodour and sloughy tissue. n=16 (84%) rated the overall performance as 'very good' or 'good'. A detailed cost analysis was undertaken on one patient, suggesting a potential cost saving of £186.92 per month and a cost efficiency saving of 43.4%. PMID:25757382

Carr, Caryn; Shadwell, Janice; Regan, Pip; Hammett, Susan

2015-03-01

424

One Week Training Course Engine Emission Formation  

E-print Network

One Week Training Course On Engine Emission Formation and Control June 28- July 3, 2011 Organized regeneration · NOx control using exhaust after-treatment such as selective catalyst reduction and NOx storage

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

425

Weekly Reports: Student Reflections on Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weekly reports, a structured journal form of formative assessment, allow instructors to receive information from the students, to address students' difficulties in a timely manner, and to alter their instruction based on the students' needs. In addition,

Eugenia Etkina

2002-05-01

426

Visible Embryo: 12 weeks post ovulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

a comprehensive resource of information on human development at 12 weeks from ovulation, designed for both medical student and interested lay people. The Visible Embryo offers a detailed pictorial account of normal and abnormal development.

Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

2006-10-19

427

Solar Week Thursday: Solar Shadow Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about telling time using the Sun. Learners will create a solar shadow tool and use it to chart changes in the Sun's altitude through the seasons. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week. The activity requires access to a sunny outdoor location over the course of several days, weeks, or months, as well as materials and equipment such as pine board, dowel rod piece, drill and drill bit, saw, bulls-eye level, small nails, and either wood glue or hot glue.

428

Solar Week Thursday: Shoebox Solar Water Heater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about reflection. In this hands-on activity, learners will build a solar water heater by lining a box with reflective material, adding a translucent cover, and adding water-filled cans that are painted black. The temperature of the water is taken and recorded every fifteen minutes. This activity can use the same solar cooker built for the Solar Week Thursday: Solar Pizza Box Cooker activity. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week, and it requires use of a sunny outdoor location for an extended period of time.

2013-02-18

429

Once-weekly treatment for osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Daily oral bisphosphonates are a well-established treatment option for osteoporosis. However, many patients find the daily dosing regimen inconvenient. Once-weekly alendronate offers greater convenience to patients while providing equal efficacy. PMID:11995275

Stone, Mike

2002-04-01

430

75 FR 20891 - National Volunteer Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...national challenges. We are also investing in social innovation and volunteer management to give community groups the capacity to tackle local concerns. During National Volunteer Week, we honor the ordinary people who give of themselves to accomplish...

2010-04-21

431

Highlights From PhUn Week 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. "More than 100 APS physiologists volunteered their time in reaching out to more than 3000 students last November during Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn Week), the APS member-based annual outreach program to local area K-12 schools (http://www.PhUnWeek.org). APS members partnered with more than 70 teachers and science educators from across the nation to develop engaging classroom or campus presentations for students at all grade levels, from day care through twelfth grades. The following vignettes are only a few samples of the excitement and fun generated by the focus on the physiology of health and exercise during the first week in November. All events with the primary APS member and lead teacher coordinators are listed in Table 1.".

2008-02-01

432

Compact wavefunctions from compressed imaginary time evolution  

E-print Network

Simulation of quantum systems promises to deliver physical and chemical predictions for the frontiers of technology. Unfortunately, the exact representation of these systems is plagued by the exponential growth of dimension with the number of particles, or colloquially, the curse of dimensionality. The success of approximation methods has hinged on the relative simplicity of physical systems with respect to the exponentially complex worst case. Exploiting this relative simplicity has required detailed knowledge of the physical system under study. In this work, we introduce a general and efficient black box method for many-body quantum systems that utilizes technology from compressed sensing to find the most compact wavefunction possible without detailed knowledge of the system. It is a Multicomponent Adaptive Greedy Iterative Compression (MAGIC) scheme. No knowledge is assumed in the structure of the problem other than correct particle statistics. This method can be applied to many quantum systems such as spins, qubits, oscillators, or electronic systems. As an application, we use this technique to compute ground state electronic wavefunctions of hydrogen fluoride and recover 98% of the basis set correlation energy or equivalently 99.996% of the total energy with $50$ configurations out of a possible $10^7$. Building from this compactness, we introduce the idea of nuclear union configuration interaction for improving the description of reaction coordinates and use it to study the dissociation of hydrogen fluoride and the helium dimer.

Jarrod R. McClean; Alán Aspuru-Guzik

2014-09-25

433

Frequency extrapolation by nonconvex compressive sensing  

SciTech Connect

Tomographic imaging modalities sample subjects with a discrete, finite set of measurements, while the underlying object function is continuous. Because of this, inversion of the imaging model, even under ideal conditions, necessarily entails approximation. The error incurred by this approximation can be important when there is rapid variation in the object function or when the objects of interest are small. In this work, we investigate this issue with the Fourier transform (FT), which can be taken as the imaging model for magnetic resonance imaging (MRl) or some forms of wave imaging. Compressive sensing has been successful for inverting this data model when only a sparse set of samples are available. We apply the compressive sensing principle to a somewhat related problem of frequency extrapolation, where the object function is represented by a super-resolution grid with many more pixels than FT measurements. The image on the super-resolution grid is obtained through nonconvex minimization. The method fully utilizes the available FT samples, while controlling aliasing and ringing. The algorithm is demonstrated with continuous FT samples of the Shepp-Logan phantom with additional small, high-contrast objects.

Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sidky, Emil Y [UNIV OF CHICAGO; Pan, Xiaochaun [UNIV OF CHICAGO

2010-12-03

434

Disruption of a compressed vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation and breakdown of a tumbling motion are measured with particle image velocimetry in a model compression machine. The tumbling motion is a rotating flow which axis is perpendicular to the cylinder axis. The experimental set-up and the measurement procedure are described. The analysis of intake and compression strokes is presented. We first analyze the data by using phase averaging. Balances of mean and turbulent kinetic energy, of mean vorticity are presented. Effects of curvature and flow separation are clear during intake. The disruption of the vortex during the compression is a gradual process. Two three-dimensional separated regions appear first and are due to adverse pressure gradients induced by the vortex. Beyond a volumetric ratio of order two, the mean kinetic energy is transferred to turbulence within a short time scale, which is of the order of the vortex turnover time scale. The turbulence then decreases at the beginning of the expansion stroke. By analyzing instantaneous flow fields and by using proper orthogonal decomposition, we identify the fluctuations of the vortex correlated at a large scale. These fluctuations are amplified during the compression stroke. During the breakdown, they are correlated with fluid ejection from the vortex to the separated regions. We thus show that the vortex breakdown may involve several types of instability (elliptical instability but also centrifugal instability).

Boree, J.; Maurel, S.; Bazile, R.

2002-07-01

435

Compression needs change with market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas movement has changed. Gathering has changed. Operators concentrate their best resources on the core business of producing natural gas. These factors have created changes in the way compression affects production. From the 1960s into the early 1990s, Knox Western, Ariel and Gemini left their imprints on the industry. They filled that significant market for small, multistage reciprocating compressors that

Lyle

1997-01-01

436

COMPRESSED KERNEL PERCEPTRONS Slobodan Vucetic*  

E-print Network

COMPRESSED KERNEL PERCEPTRONS Slobodan Vucetic* Vladimir Coric Zhuang Wang Department of Computer accuracies on many real-life classification problems. Kernel perceptrons are among the most popular online to provide a single classification scale as O(B). A problem with kernel perceptrons is that the number

Vucetic, Slobodan

437

Purdue University Multiscale Document Compression  

E-print Network

Image 8x8 Block Segmentation One-color Coder Two-color Coder Other Coder Picture Coder Arithmetic Coder Compressed Document Image JPEG 8x8 Block Segmentation Other Block Block Seg- mentation Map Extract Mean Colors Arithmetic Coder Two-color Block JBIG2 Coder Bilevel Thresholding Arithmetic Coder Arithmetic

438

A programmable image compression system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A programmable image compression system which has the necessary flexibility to address diverse imaging needs is described. It can compress and expand single frame video images (monochrome or color) as well as documents and graphics (black and white or color) for archival or transmission applications. Through software control, the compression mode can be set for lossless or controlled quality coding; the image size and bit depth can be varied; and the image source and destination devices can be readily changed. Despite the large combination of image data types, image sources, and algorithms, the system provides a simple consistent interface to the programmer. This system (OPTIPAC) is based on the TITMS320C25 digital signal processing (DSP) chip and has been implemented as a co-processor board for an IBM PC-AT compatible computer. The underlying philosophy can readily be applied to different hardware platforms. By using multiple DSP chips or incorporating algorithm specific chips, the compression and expansion times can be significantly reduced to meet performance requirements.

Farrelle, Paul M.

1989-01-01

439

Culture: Copying, Compression, and Conventionality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, 2008; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, 2013). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning…

Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon

2015-01-01

440

[Compression method throughout the ages].  

PubMed

The compressive method was practiced instinctively in farthest antiquity. Its development in Western Europe over the past two centuries may be artificially divided into 3 phases. The first phase, which belongs to the prehistory of Phlebology, includes two notable facts: the start of ambulatory compression in London around 1800, and the interest that the French school immediately showed in this discovery. However, this measure was soon abandoned, since around 1880, in the Paris hospitals, ulcers of the leg were being treated by mercury plasters and rest in bed. The second phase--1900 to about 1950--is marked by the empirical development of the compressive method, mainly in chronic phlebopathies. The synergic effect of walking is definitively established; the treatment of deep-set phlebites by ambulatory compression is discovered by H. Fischer in Germany and then in France by L. Nard. Beginning in 1950, this empirical data is both spread by the new Phleboloby Societies, and submitted to rigorous scientific study. Clinicians (especially H. R. Van der Mollen), assisted by physicists, physiologists and biologists, establish the laws of "therapeutic counter-pressure" and transpose them in the textile industry. New materials facilitate the use of elastic pressure. Underestimated or little known by most physicians, ambulatory elastocompression remains for Phlobologists a fundamental therapy. At a time when sedentary living and excess use of drugs are being widely denounced, it still has a promising future. PMID:384412

Marmasse, J

1979-01-01

441

COMPRESSIBLE FLOW, ENTRAINMENT, AND MEGAPLUME  

EPA Science Inventory

It is generally believed that low Mach number, i.e., low-velocity, flow may be assumed to be incompressible flow. Under steady-state conditions, an exact equation of continuity may then be used to show that such flow is non-divergent. However, a rigorous, compressible fluid-dynam...

442

NEUTRALIZED DRIFT COMPRESSION EXPERIMENTS (NDCX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intense ion beams offer an attractive approach to heating dense matter uniformly to extreme conditions, because their energy deposition is nearly classical and volumetric. Simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression in a neutralizing plasma medium, along with rapid beam acceleration, are being studied as a means of generating such beams for warm dense matter (WDM) and high energy density physics

P. K. Roy; W. L. Waldron; S. S. Yu; P. A. Seidl; E. Henestroza; A. Anders; D. Baca; J. Barnard; F. M. Bieniosek; R. J. Briggs; C. Celata; J. Coleman; R. C. Davidson; P. C. Efthimion; S. Eylon; A. Friedman; E. P. Gilson; W. G. Greenway; D. P. Grote; I. Kaganovich; M. Leitner; B. G. Logan; H. Qin; L. L. Reginato; A. B. Sefkow; W. M. Sharp; C. Thoma; D. R. Welch

443

Teaching Time-Space Compression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Time-space compression shows students that geographies are plastic, mutable and forever changing. This paper justifies the need to teach this topic, which is rarely found in undergraduate course syllabi. It addresses the impacts of transportation and communications technologies to explicate its dynamics. In summarizing various conceptual…

Warf, Barney

2011-01-01

444

Data compression preserving statistical independence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum points of evaluation of data compressed by means of polynomial smoothing. It is shown that a set y of m statistically independent observations Y(t sub 1), Y(t sub 2), ... Y(t sub m) of a quantity X(t), which can be described by a (n-1)th degree polynomial in time, may be represented by a set Z of n statistically independent compressed observations Z (tau sub 1), Z (tau sub 2),...Z (tau sub n), such that The compressed set Z has the same information content as the observed set Y. the times tau sub 1, tau sub 2,.. tau sub n are the zeros of an nth degree polynomial P sub n, to whose definition and properties the bulk of this report is devoted. The polynomials P sub n are defined as functions of the observation times t sub 1, t sub 2,.. t sub n, and it is interesting to note that if the observation times are continuously distributed the polynomials P sub n degenerate to legendre polynomials. The proposed data compression scheme is a little more complex than those usually employed, but has the advantage of preserving all the information content of the original observations.

Morduch, G. E.; Rice, W. M.

1973-01-01

445

Intraspinal neuroblastoma: Treatment options and neurological outcome of spinal cord compression  

PubMed Central

Malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a common complication of cancer. Paraspinal neuroblastoma (NB) in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic regions may extend into the neural foramina causing compression of nerve roots and even the spinal cord. The prompt initiation of specific treatment can improve the neurological outcome. The aim of the present study was to review the clinical features, the management received and the factors that may affect the outcome of patients with MSCC caused by paraspinal NB. During a period between July 2007 and December 2012, a total of 576 NB patients were treated at the Children’s Cancer Hospital (Cairo, Egypt). Intraspinal disease extension was present in 51 patients (9%). The children with intraspinal disease extension were reviewed for disease pattern, neurological manifestations and treatment outcome. Children with intraspinal disease extension had an equal male to female ratio (1:1), and approximately two-thirds of patients (34/51) had a clinically manifested cord compression. The duration of neurological manifestations was >4 weeks in 58.8% (20/34) of symptomatic patients and ?4 weeks in 41.2% (14/34). Subsequent to starting treatment, neurological manifestations showed a complete recovery in 16 patients (47.1%), partial in 11 (32.4%), and stationary course was found in 7 (20.6%). Manifestations of ?4 weeks in duration carried an improved outcome compared with longer time compression, with a complete recovery in 78.6%, versus 25% for patients with a longer symptom duration (P=0.008). The upfront treatment, patient age and site of the primary tumor did not significantly affect the neurological outcome. Spinal cord compression in NB can be effectively managed with upfront chemotherapy. Initial surgical decompression should be reserved for benign variants only, including ganglioneuroma. Neurological manifestations of <4 weeks duration upon presentation are usually reversible. PMID:25624912

FAWZY, MOHAMED; EL-BELTAGY, MOHAMED; SHAFEI, MAGED EL; ZAGHLOUL, MOHAMED SAAD; KINAAI, NAGLAA AL; REFAAT, AMAL; AZMY, SARAH

2015-01-01

446

Compressive multi-mode superresolution display  

E-print Network

Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and ...

Heide, Felix

447

COMPRESSION, ESTIMATION, AND ANALYSIS OF ULTRASONIC SIGNALS  

E-print Network

COMPRESSION, ESTIMATION, AND ANALYSIS OF ULTRASONIC SIGNALS BY GUILHERME CARDOSO DE CARDOSO .................................................................. 5 2.2 Ultrasonic Imaging ................................................................ 7 2. THRESHOLDING TECHNIQUES FOR DENOISING AND COMPRESSING ULTRASONIC SIGNALS ........................... 19 3

Saniie, Jafar

448

Fast and Efficient Lossless Image Compression  

E-print Network

We present a new method for lossless image compression that gives compression comparable to JPEG lossless mode with about ve times the speed. Our method, called FELICS, is based on a novel use of two neighboring pixels ...

Howard, Paul G.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1993-01-01

449

Multi-Functional Compression with Side Information  

E-print Network

In this paper, we consider the problem of multifunctional compression with side information. The problem is how we can compress a source X so that the receiver is able to compute some deterministic functions f[subscript ...

Feizi- Khankandi, Soheil

450

Stream programming for image and video compression  

E-print Network

Video playback devices rely on compression algorithms to minimize storage, transmission bandwidth, and overall cost. Compression techniques have high realtime and sustained throughput requirements, and the end of CPU clock ...

Drake, Matthew Henry

2006-01-01

451

Technical Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage  

E-print Network

Technical Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage for Vehicular Applications October 30, 2006 .....................................................................................................................................................................8 APPENDIX A: Review of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems ......................................................................................18 APPENDIX C: Presentation to the FreedomCAR & Fuel Hydrogen Storage Technical Team

452

Infraspinatus muscle atrophy from suprascapular nerve compression.  

PubMed

Muscle weakness without pain may signal a nerve compression injury. Because these injuries should be identified and treated early to prevent permanent muscle weakness and atrophy, providers should consider suprascapular nerve compression in patients with shoulder muscle weakness. PMID:24463748

Cordova, Christopher B; Owens, Brett D

2014-02-01

453

Volatile emissions from compressed tissue.  

PubMed

Since almost every fifth patient treated in hospital care develops pressure ulcers, early identification of risk is important. A non-invasive method for the elucidation of endogenous biomarkers related to pressure ulcers could be an excellent tool for this purpose. We therefore found it of interest to determine if there is a difference in the emissions of volatiles from compressed and uncompressed tissue. The ultimate goal is to find a non-invasive method to obtain an early warning for the risk of developing pressure ulcers for bed-ridden persons. Chemical analysis of the emissions, collected in compresses, was made with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry and with a chemical sensor array, the so called electronic nose. It was found that the emissions from healthy and hospitalized persons differed significantly irrespective of the site. Within each group there was a clear difference between the compressed and uncompressed site. Peaks that could be certainly deemed as markers of the compression were, however, not identified. Nonetheless, different compounds connected to the application of local mechanical pressure were found. The results obtained with GC-MS reveal the complexity of VOC composition, thus an array of non-selective chemical sensors seems to be a suitable choice for the analysis of skin emission from compressed tissues; it may represent a practical instrument for bed side diagnostics. Results show that the adopted electronic noses are likely sensitive to the total amount of the emission rather than to its composition. The development of a gas sensor-based device requires then the design of sensor receptors adequate to detect the VOCs bouquet typical of pressure. This preliminary experiment evidences the necessity of studies where each given person is followed for a long time in a ward in order to detect the insurgence of specific VOCs pattern changes signalling the occurrence of ulcers. PMID:23874929

Dini, Francesca; Capuano, Rosamaria; Strand, Tillan; Ek, Anna-Christina; Lindgren, Margareta; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; Lundström, Ingemar

2013-01-01

454

Coronal heating by Alfven waves dissipation in compressible nonuniform media  

SciTech Connect

The possibility to produce small scales and then to efficiently dissipate energy has been studied by Malara et al. [1992b] in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an weakly dissipative incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly 2D geometry. We extend this work to include both compressibility and the third component for vector quantities. Numerical simulations show that, when an Alfven wave propagates in a compressible nonuniform medium, the two dynamical effects responsible for the small scales formation in the incompressible case are still at work: energy pinching and phase-mixing. These effects give rise to the formation of compressible perturbations (fast and slow waves or a static entropy wave). Some of these compressive fluctuations are subject to the steepening of the wave front and become shock waves, which are extremely efficient in dissipating their energy, their dissipation being independent of the Reynolds number. Rough estimates of the typical times the various dynamical processes take to produce small scales show that these times are consistent with those required to dissipate inside the solar corona the energy of Alfven waves of photospheric origin.

Malara, Francesco; Primavera, Leonardo; Veltri, Pierluigi [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, 87030 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

1996-07-20

455

Euclid: image compression activities for the VIS instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Euclid is a space mission dedicated to the high-precision study of dark energy and dark matter. Its visible instrument (VIS) will acquire wide field images by means of an array of 36 CCD focal plane detectors. Considering that each acquired full frame produces a huge amount of data (~1.2GByte), an overall daily production of ~120 GByte is expected, which must be compressed to fit the 520 Gbit VIS daily telemetry. Due to the highly demanding science requirements such compression must be rigorously lossless. This software requirement is very hard to meet because of the following constraints: i) the average Compression Ratio (CR) must be greater than 2.8; ii) the activities of data compression inside the Control Data Processing Unit and transmission towards the satellite shall complete in less than 369s, that fits to the acquisition time of the near-infrared instrument; and iii) the compressors parameters as well as the transmission packet size must be tuned to ensure minimal data loss in case of transmission errors. The results obtained with 1D and 2D compression algorithms based on the CCSDS 121 and CCSDS 122 recommended standards, fed with improved focal plane simulations, have been compared to each other. Moreover, a set of various reordering and pre-processing procedures has been applied to the read-out data stream, considering different sizes of the input data segments. The overall scope of these comparative works has been not only to maximize the compression ratio and to minimize the compression time, but also to provide a trade-off between the input data size and the minimum output compressed data segment in order to minimize the data loss due to transmission errors propagation. From our test we found that performing a full (at CCD level) reordering of the read-out data-stream leads to a better compression ratio with both algorithms. The CCSDS 121, however, gives the best results in terms of CR. Finally we found that, for the considered simulated images, the standard pre-processing activities like bias subtraction, bitshift and windowing do not affect the CR significantly. Analogously an additional analysis of the effect of the expected source crowding showed that it is also not important.

Giusi, Giovanni; Liu, Scige J.; Li Causi, Gianluca; Niemi, Sami M.; Di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Galli, Emanuele; Farina, Maria

2014-08-01

456

Compression of multispectral image using HEVC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictive Lossy Compression has been found to be an interesting alternative to conventional transform coding techniques in multispectral image compression. Recently, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard has shown significant improvement over state of the art transformation based still-image coding standard. In this paper we study the properties of multispectral image and propose a predictive lossy compression scheme based on HEVC. Empirical analysis shows that our proposed method is superior to the existing state of the art predictive lossy compression schemes.

Gao, Feiyu; Ji, Xiangyang; Yan, Chenggang; Dai, Qionghai

2014-10-01

457

Simultaneous denoising and compression of multispectral images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for denoising and compression of multispectral satellite images to remove the effect of noise on the compression process is presented. One type of multispectral images has been considered: Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the dual-tree DWT, and a simple Huffman coder are used in the compression process. Simulation results show that the proposed technique is more effective than other traditional compression-only techniques.

Hagag, Ahmed; Amin, Mohamed; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

2013-01-01

458

Global nonlinear compression of natural luminances in painted art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past quarter century, measures of statistical regularities of natural scenes have emerged as important tools in explaining the coding properties of the mammalian visual system. Such measures have recently been extended to the study of art. Our own work has shown that a log nonlinearity is a reasonable first approximation of the type of luminance compression that artists perform when they create images. But how does this nonlinearity compare to those that artists actually use? In this paper, we propose a model of the global luminance compression strategy used by one artist. We also compare the curves required to transform natural scenes so that the scene luminance histograms matched the histograms of a number of collections of art, and we tested the response of observers to those scenes. The collections included a group of Hudson River School paintings; a group of works deemed to be "abstract" works in a forced-choice paradigm; collections of paintings from the Eastern and Western hemispheres; and other classes. If a single transform were sufficient to compress images in the way artists do, we would expect these transforms all to be log-like and on average, there should be little or no difference in observer preference for the collection of natural scenes when they are compressed according to these transforms. We find instead that these groupings of art have distinct transforms and that Western observers prefer many of these transforms over a log transform. Together these findings offer evidence that a painter's global luminance compression strategy-or "artist's look-up table"-may be a fundamental property of a given painter or grouping of paintings, though further study is needed to establish what factors determine the shape of this transform. We discuss a number of possible factors.

Graham, Daniel J.; Field, David J.

2008-02-01

459

Optical diagnostics on helical flux compression generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosively driven magnetic flux compression (MFC) has been object of research for more than three decades. Actual interest in the basic physical picture of flux compression has been heightened by a newly started Department of Defense (DoD) Multi-University Research Initiative. The emphasis is on helical flux compression generators comprising a hollow cylindrical metal liner filled with high explosives and at

Andreas A. Neuber; James C. Dickens; H. Krompholz; Mark F. C. Schmidt; Jason Baird; Paul N. Worsey; Magne Kristiansen

2000-01-01

460

Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air Systems  

E-print Network

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS ANIL HINGORANI ALEXANDER PAVLOV VP MARKETING EAST PRODUCT MARKETING MANAGER ATLAS COPCO AIRPOWER OIL...Alexander Pavlov IETC, New Orleans, 20-21/05/10 Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air Systems 2 Atlas Copco in a Snapshot ? A world-leading provider of industrial productivity solutions. ? Products and services range from compressed air and gas...

Hingorani, A.; Pavlov, A.

2010-01-01

461

Compressibility effects in free shear layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Reynolds number compressible free shear layers were studied experimentally to explore the effects of compressibility on the turbulence field. Previous preliminary results reported by the authors showed that the level and the lateral extent of turbulence fluctuations are reduced as the compressibility, which is characterized by a convective Mach number, is increased. The two convective Mach numbers used in

G. S. Elliott; M. Samimy

1990-01-01

462

Recent Advances in Tailored Dynamic Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, the functionally graded density impactor has been used in dynamic compression experiments that are tailored to reach previously inaccessible dynamic thermodynamic states beyond the principal Hugoniot and isentrope. These experiments demonstrated complex loading paths that included a combination of shocks, quasi-isentropic compressions, and controlled releases. The quasi-isentropic compression experiments last microseconds, and are capable of

Jeffrey H. Nguyen; Jeremy R. Patterson; Daniel Orlikowski; Louis P. Martin; P. Asoka-Kumar; Klaus Widmann; Neil C. Holmes

2006-01-01

463

A Compression Algorithm for DNA Sequences  

E-print Network

A Compression Algorithm for DNA Sequences Using Approximate Matching for Better Compression Ratio: it is well known that DNA sequences, especially in higher eukaryotes, contain many (approx- imate) tandem more concrete support that the DNA sequences should be reasonably compressible. However

Chen, Xin

464

Curvelet Transform Based Embedded Lossy Image Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curvelet transform is one of the recently developed multiscale transform, which possess directional features and provides optimally sparse representation of objects with edges. In this paper an algorithm for lossy image compression based on the second generation digital curvelet transform is proposed. The results are compared with the results obtained from wavelet based image compression methods. Compression ratio and PSNR

M. Manikandan; A. Saravanan; K. B. Bagan

2007-01-01

465

Nucleus Implant Parameters Significantly Change the Compressive  

E-print Network

.1115/1.1894369 Keywords: Lumbar Spine, Intervertebral Disc, Nucleus Pulposus, Hydrogel Nucleus Implant, CompressiveNucleus Implant Parameters Significantly Change the Compressive Stiffness of the Human Lumbar- eter. Human lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) were tested in compression for intact, denucleated

Karduna, Andrew

466

General-Purpose Compression for Efficient Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses compression of databases that reduces space requirements and retrieval times; considers compression of documents in text databases based on semistatic modeling with words; and proposes a scheme for general purpose compression that can be applied to all types of data stored in large collections. (Author/LRW)

Cannane, Adam; Williams, Hugh E.

2001-01-01

467

Radiological Follow-up of New Compression Fractures Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present study was to ascertain chronological changes in the analgesic effects of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) on osteoporotic vertebral compression factures and to radiologically follow new compression fractures after PVP. Seventy-six patients (206 vertebral bodies) were followed radiologically for a mean of 11.5 months. A visual analog scale (VAS; 0-10) was used to assess pain severity, and frontal and lateral plain radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae were taken 1-3 days and 1, 4, 10, and 22 months after PVP.The average VAS score was 7.2 {+-} 2.0 (mean pain score {+-} standard deviation) before PVP, 2.5 {+-} 2.3 at 1-3 days after PVP, 2.2 {+-} 2.3 at 1 month, 1.9 {+-} 2.2 at 4 months, 1.8 {+-} 2.4 at 10 months, and 1.0 {+-} 0.2 at 22 months. A new compression fracture was confirmed in 56 vertebral bodies in 28 patients (36.8%), affecting 38 adjacent vertebral bodies (67.8%), 17 nonadjacent vertebral bodies (30.4%), and 1 treated vertebral body (1.8%). A new compression fracture occurred within 1 week of PVP in 2 vertebral bodies (3.6%), between 1 week and 1 month after PVP in 22 (39.3%), between 1 and 3 months in 12 (21.4%), between 3 and 6 months in 12 (21.4%), and after more than 6 months in 8 (14.3%). PVP was highly effective in relieving the pain associated with osteoporosis-induced vertebral compression fractures, and this analgesia was long lasting. Radiological follow-up observation revealed new compression fractures in about one-third of patients. More than half of these new compression fractures occurred in adjacent vertebral bodies within 3 months of PVP.

Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2006-02-15

468

Tensile, Compression, Open-Hole Compression and Double Cantilever Beam Fracture Toughness Testing of Multiple NASA Langley Research Center Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attached data summarizes the work performed by the Composite Materials Research Group at the University of Wyoming funded by the NASA LaRC Research Grant NAG-1-1294. The work consisted primarily of tension, compression, open-hole compression and double cantilever beam fracture toughness testing performed an a variety of NASA LaRC composite materials. Tests were performed at various environmental conditions and pre-conditioning requirements. The primary purpose of this work was to support the LaRC material development efforts. The data summaries are arranged in chronological order from oldest to newest.

Adams, Donald F.

1999-01-01

469

Detecting very long-lived gravitational-wave transients lasting hours to weeks  

E-print Network

We explore the possibility of very long-lived gravitational-wave transients (and detector artifacts) lasting hours to weeks. Such very long signals are both interesting in their own right and as a potential source of systematic error in searches for persistent signals, e.g., from a stochastic gravitational-wave background. We review possible mechanisms for emission on these time scales and discuss computational challenges associated with their detection: namely, the substantial volume of data involved in a search for very long transients can require vast computer memory and processing time. These computational difficulties can be addressed through a form of data compression known as coarse-graining, in which information about short time spans is discarded in order to reduce the computational requirements of a search. Using data compression, we demonstrate an efficient radiometer (cross-correlation) algorithm for the detection of very long transients. In the process, we identify features of a very long transie...

Thrane, Eric; Christensen, Nelson

2015-01-01

470

Finite scale equations for compressible fluid flow  

SciTech Connect

Finite-scale equations (FSE) describe the evolution of finite volumes of fluid over time. We discuss the FSE for a one-dimensional compressible fluid, whose every point is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The FSE contain new momentum and internal energy transport terms. These are similar to terms added in numerical simulation for high-speed flows (e.g. artificial viscosity) and for turbulent flows (e.g. subgrid scale models). These similarities suggest that the FSE may provide new insight as a basis for computational fluid dynamics. Our analysis of the FS continuity equation leads to a physical interpretation of the new transport terms, and indicates the need to carefully distinguish between volume-averaged and mass-averaged velocities in numerical simulation. We make preliminary connections to the other recent work reformulating Navier-Stokes equations.

Margolin, Len G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

471

Quantum Bootstrapping via Compressed Quantum Hamiltonian Learning  

E-print Network

Recent work has shown that quantum simulation is a valuable tool for learning empirical models for quantum systems. We build upon these results by showing that a small quantum simulators can be used to characterize and learn control models for larger devices for wide classes of physically realistic Hamiltonians. This leads to a new application for small quantum computers: characterizing and controlling larger quantum computers. Our protocol achieves this by using Bayesian inference in concert with Lieb-Robinson bounds and interactive quantum learning methods to achieve compressed simulations for characterization. Whereas Fisher information analysis shows that current methods which employ short-time evolution are suboptimal, interactive quantum learning allows us to overcome this limitation. We illustrate the efficiency of our bootstrapping protocol by showing numerically that an 8-qubit Ising model simulator can be used to calibrate and control a 50 qubit Ising simulator while using only about 750 kilobits of experimental data.

Nathan Wiebe; Christopher Granade; David G. Cory

2015-03-30

472

Quantum Bootstrapping via Compressed Quantum Hamiltonian Learning  

E-print Network

Recent work has shown that quantum simulation is a valuable tool for learning empirical models for quantum systems. We build upon these results by showing that a small quantum simulators can be used to characterize and learn control models for larger devices for wide classes of physically realistic Hamiltonians. This leads to a new application for small quantum computers: characterizing and controlling larger quantum computers. Our protocol achieves this by using Bayesian inference in concert with Lieb-Robinson bounds and interactive quantum learning methods to achieve compressed simulations for characterization. Whereas Fisher information analysis shows that current methods which employ short-time evolution are suboptimal, interactive quantum learning allows us to overcome this limitation. We illustrate the efficiency of our bootstrapping protocol by showing numerically that an 8-qubit Ising model simulator can be used to calibrate and control a 50 qubit Ising simulator while using only about 750 kilobits of experimental data.

Nathan Wiebe; Christopher Granade; David G. Cory

2014-09-08

473

A compressed sensing perspective of hippocampal function  

PubMed Central

Hippocampus is one of the most important information processing units in the brain. Input from the cortex passes through convergent axon pathways to the downstream hippocampal subregions and, after being appropriately processed, is fanned out back to the cortex. Here, we review evidence of the hypothesis that information flow and processing in the hippocampus complies with the principles of Compressed Sensing (CS). The CS theory comprises a mathematical framework that describes how and under which conditions, restricted sampling of information (data set) can lead to condensed, yet concise, forms of the initial, subsampled information entity (i.e., of the original data set). In this work, hippocampus related regions and their respective circuitry are presented as a CS-based system whose different components collaborate to realize efficient memory encoding and decoding processes. This proposition introduces a unifying mathematical framework for hippocampal function and opens new avenues for exploring coding and decoding strategies in the brain. PMID:25152718

Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C.; Poirazi, Panayiota

2014-01-01

474

ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity. Retrofit technologies that address the challenges of slow-speed integral compression are: (1) optimum turndown using a combination of speed and clearance with single-acting operation as a last resort; (2) if single-acting is required, implement infinite length nozzles to address nozzle pulsation and tunable side branch absorbers for 1x lateral pulsations; and (3) advanced valves, either the semi-active plate valve or the passive rotary valve, to extend valve life to three years with half the pressure drop. This next generation of slow-speed compression should attain 95% efficiency, a three-year valve life, and expanded turndown. New equipment technologies that address the challenges of large-horsepower, high-speed compression are: (1) optimum turndown with unit speed; (2) tapered nozzles to effectively reduce nozzle pulsation with half the pressure drop and minimization of mechanical cylinder stretch induced vibrations; (3) tunable side branch absorber or higher-order filter bottle to address lateral piping pulsations over the entire extended speed range with minimal pressure drop; and (4) semi-active plate valves or passive rotary valves to extend valve life with half the pressure drop. This next generation of large-horsepower, high-speed compression should attain 90% efficiency, a two-year valve life, 50% turndown, and less than 0.75 IPS vibration. This program has generated proof-of-concept technologies with the potential to meet these ambitious goals. Full development of these identified technologies is underway. The GMRC has committed to pursue the most promising enabling technologies for their industry.

Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

2005-12-01

475

5 CFR 610.405 - Holiday for part-time employees on flexible work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Holiday for part-time employees on flexible work schedules. 610.405 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.405 Holiday for part-time employees on flexible work schedules. If a...

2010-01-01

476

Cluster compression algorithm: A joint clustering/data compression concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cluster Compression Algorithm (CCA), which was developed to reduce costs associated with transmitting, storing, distributing, and interpreting LANDSAT multispectral image data is described. The CCA is a preprocessing algorithm that uses feature extraction and data compression to more efficiently represent the information in the image data. The format of the preprocessed data enables simply a look-up table decoding and direct use of the extracted features to reduce user computation for either image reconstruction, or computer interpretation of the image data. Basically, the CCA uses spatially local clustering to extract features from the image data to describe spectral characteristics of the data set. In addition, the features may be used to form a sequence of scalar numbers that define each picture element in terms of the cluster features. This sequence, called the feature map, is then efficiently represented by using source encoding concepts. Various forms of the CCA are defined and experimental results are presented to show trade-offs and characteristics of the various implementations. Examples are provided that demonstrate the application of the cluster compression concept to multi-spectral images from LANDSAT and other sources.

Hilbert, E. E.

1977-01-01

477

Swelling archives warrant closer look at compression.  

PubMed

Image compression is broadly categorized as lossless or lossy. With lossless compression, a compressed image can be decompressed and displayed as an exact digital replica of the original. With lossy compression, redundant pixel data are discarded during the compression process so that the compressed image is only an approximation of the original, therefore it cannot be returned to an original state. Although both types of compression are commonly used within the medical imaging community, institutions are much more likely to depend upon lossless compression for diagnostic purposes, even though lossy images, saved as a fraction of the original file size, are often diagnostically equivalent. With more and more digital modalities coming online and image studies growing ever larger, institutions failing to take full advantage of lossy compression are missing an opportunity to slow the growth of their image archives and IT infrastructure costs. Today, most PACS vendors include some form of image compression technology within their product offerings. Of 13 vendors sampled during an informal survey in June 2003, eight employ JPEG 2000 compression, which was incorporated into the DICOM standard in 2001, while the remainder use wavelet compression, which is the underlying methodology used in JPEG 2000. JPEG 2000 is an industry standard that enables image sharing across platforms and product lines. It also provides a single mechanism for creating lossless and lossy images, and gives institutions the flexibility to apply unique rates of compression to individual images based on modality, patient history, image size or other factors. Although it can be used judificiously to great advantage, compression is most often applied in an "across the board" manner to all images. The incorporation of JPEG 2000 within the DICOM standard does little to guarantee its longevity, or the quality of every JPEG 2000 implementation. At some point in time, especially as the demand for more compact, higher-quality lossy images grows, institutions will begin experimenting with and employing more advanced compression methods. PMID:14603591

Schreiber, David

2003-01-01

478

Parental Myopia, Near Work, School Achievement, and Children's Refractive Error  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To quantify the degree of association between juve- nile myopia and parental myopia, near work, and school achievement. METHODS. Refractive error, parental refractive status, current level of near activities (assumed working distance-weighted hours per week spent studying, reading for pleasure, watching television, playing video games or working on the computer), hours per week spent playing sports, and level of

Donald O. Mutti; G. Lynn Mitchell; Melvin L. Moeschberger; Lisa A. Jones; Karla Zadnik

479

Scaffold degradation elevates the collagen content and dynamic compressive modulus in engineered articular cartilage  

PubMed Central

Objective It was hypothesized that controlled, scaffold removal in engineered cartilage constructs would improve the tissue collagen content over time in culture. Design Preliminary experiments characterized the effects of agarase on cell-free agarose disks and cartilage explants. Immature bovine chondrocytes were encapsulated in agarose, cultured to day 42, and then incubated with 100 u/mL agarase for 48 h. After treatment, constructs were cultured to day 91. The compressive Young's modulus and dynamic modulus of the constructs were determined every 2 weeks and immediately after agarase treatment. Post-mechanical testing, constructs were processed for biochemistry and histology. Results Agarase treatment on explants had no detrimental effect on the cartilage matrix. Treatment applied to engineered cartilage constructs on day 42 did not affect DNA or collagen content. However, agarase treatment decreased tissue GAG content (via GAG loss to the media) and Young's modulus, both of which recovered to control values over time in culture. By day 91 agarase-treated constructs possessed ?25% more DNA, ?60% more collagen, and ?40% higher dynamic modulus compared to untreated controls. Conclusions Scaffold degradation increased construct collagen content and dynamic mechanical properties, affirming the experimental hypothesis. The mechanism may lie in increased nutrient diffusion or space for collagen fibril formation due to scaffold removal. The results highlight the role of the scaffold in retaining synthesized matrix during initial tissue formation. This work also shows promise in developing an engineered tissue that may be completely free of scaffold material for clinical implantation. PMID:18801665

Ng, Kenneth W.; Kugler, Lindsay E.; Doty, Stephen B.; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Hung, Clark T.

2009-01-01

480

Future Prospects of Low Compression Ignition Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a review and analysis of the effects of compression ratio and inlet air preheating on engine performance in order to assess the future prospects of low compression ignition engines. Regulation of the inlet air preheating allows some control over the combustion process in compression ignition engines. Literature shows that low compression ratio and inlet air preheating are more beneficial to internal combustion engines than detrimental. Even the disadvantages due to low compression ratio are outweighed by the advantages due to inlet air preheating and vice versa.

Azim, M. A.

2014-01-01

481

Compressed-domain document retrieval and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we first describe a structural compression technique which has been designed to facilitate document text image storage, retrieval, and processing. This technique provides an efficient representation of textural images and lends itself to lossy compression, progressive transmission, direct access to sub-regions of the document and document processing in the compressed domain. We describe a data structure which can be used to efficiently store the compressed information, provide algorithms for creating and manipulating it, and present results of document processing on images compressed form the University of Washington database.

Kia, Omid E.; Doermann, David S.; Chellappa, Rama

1996-11-01

482

Video compressive sensing using Gaussian mixture models.  

PubMed

A Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based algorithm is proposed for video reconstruction from temporally compressed video measurements. The GMM is used to model spatio-temporal video patches, and the reconstruction can be efficiently computed based on analytic expressions. The GMM-based inversion method benefits from online adaptive learning and parallel computation. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed inversion method with videos reconstructed from simulated compressive video measurements, and from a real compressive video camera. We also use the GMM as a tool to investigate adaptive video compressive sensing, i.e., adaptive rate of temporal compression. PMID:25095253

Yang, Jianbo; Yuan, Xin; Liao, Xuejun; Llull, Patrick; Brady, David J; Sapiro, Guillermo; Carin, Lawrence

2014-11-01

483

FRC Adiabatic Compression Heating Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AFRL and LANL are developing Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF). This will use the Shiva Star capacitor bank at AFRL to implode an Al solid liner containing the target plasma to raise density and temperature. The Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) has been chosen for the target because of its stability, translatability, and divertor-like field configuration. The FRX-L experiments at LANL explore FRC formation and translation into the liner. 2D-MHD calculations with MACH2 look at translation, capturing and compressing the FRC. Extended MHD examines FRC rotation. The aforementioned guide the design of the experiment at AFRL, which called FRCHX. Formation and translation tests at AFRL are underway before the first compression heating experiment. Supported by DOE-OFES.

Degnan, J. H.; Frese, M. H.; Amdahl, D. J.; Babineau, M.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Domonkos, M.; Frese, S. D.; Gale, D.; Grabowski, C.; Parker, J. V.; Ralph, D.; Ruden, E. L.; Sommars, W.; Intrator, T. P.; Wurden, G. A.; Sieck, P.; Turchi, P. J.; Waganaar, W. J.; Siemon, R. E.; Awe, T. J.; Bauer, B. S.; Oxner, A.; Lynn, A. G.; Roderick, N. F.

2007-11-01

484

Culture: copying, compression, and conventionality.  

PubMed

Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, ; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, ). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning (storing patterns in memory) and reproducing (producing the patterns again). This paper manipulates the presence of learning in a simple iterated drawing design experiment. We find that learning seems to be the causal factor behind the increase in compressibility observed in the transmitted information, while reproducing is a source of random heritable innovations. Only a theory invoking these two aspects of cultural learning will be able to explain human culture's fundamental balance between stability and innovation. PMID:25039798

Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon

2015-01-01

485

Compressive wideband microwave radar holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressive sensing has emerged as a topic of great interest for radar applications requiring large amounts of data storage. Typically, full sets of data are collected at the Nyquist rate only to be compressed at some later point, where information-bearing data are retained and inconsequential data are discarded. However, under sparse conditions, it is possible to collect data at random sampling intervals less than the Nyquist rate and still gather enough meaningful data for accurate signal reconstruction. In this paper, we employ sparse sampling techniques in the recording of digital microwave holograms over a two-dimensional scanning aperture. Using a simple and fast non-linear interpolation scheme prior to image reconstruction, we show that the reconstituted image quality is well-retained with limited perceptual loss.

Wilson, Scott A.; Narayanan, Ram M.

2014-05-01

486

Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012  

SciTech Connect

Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

2013-02-01

487

STAR WEEK: A Successful Campaign in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A campaign of the Star Week, set as August 1 - 7, has been started in 1995 throughout various life-learning facilities. Astronomical facilities including planetariums, science museums, and public observatories has been participating in this campaign, together with amateur astronomers clubs or private observatories. More than 300 astronomical events such as star watching parties were coordinated for general public every year. The Star Week has been grown up to one of the most successful campaigns not only for for astronomy but also for basic sciences in Japan over this 15 years. In this paper, a brief history and the present status of the Star Week are introduced together with the with some statistics.

Watanabe, Junichi

2011-06-01

488

On-line data compression  

SciTech Connect

Text compression problems are considered where substrings are substituted by code-words according to a static dictionary such that the original text is encoded by shorter code sequence. In the first part we give sharp worst-case ratios for the longest matching and the (Differential) Greedy Algorithm in case of certain dictionaries. We define a new type algorithm, the Fractional Greedy Algorithm, and we investigate its worst-case behaviour. Finally, we mention some open problems.

Galambos, G.; Bekesi, J.; Pferschy, U.; Woginger, G.

1994-12-31

489

Making Compressed Air System Decisions  

E-print Network

. Today, modern, high quality manufacturing facilities require a more scientific approach. Many manufacturing processes require strict controls over compressed air pressure, temperature and purity levels. Competitive pressures also force manufacturers... Department ofEnergy study revealed that approximately 70 percent of the electrical energy consumed by industry is through the use of electric motors. Compressors therefore represent a large percentage of total industrial electrical consumption...

Porri, R. E.

490

LFSRs Do Not Provide Compression  

SciTech Connect

We show that for general input sets linear feedback shift registers (LFSRS) do not provide compression comparable to current, standard algorithms, at least not on the current, standard input files. Rather, LFSRS provide performance on a par with simple, run-length encoding schemes. We exercised three different ways of using LFSRS on the Canterbury, Canterbury Oarge set, the Calgory Corpora, and on three, large graphics files of our own.

CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.

1999-11-09

491

Geometric compression through topological surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and importance of complex 3-D data bases in major industry segments, the affordability of interactive 3-D rendering for office and consumer use, and the exploitation of the Internet to distribute and share 3-D data have intensified the need for an effective 3-D geometric compression technique that would significantly reduce the time required to transmit 3-D models over digital

Gabriel Taubin; Jarek Rossignac

1998-01-01

492

Measurement kernel design for compressive imaging under device constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We look at the design of projective measurements for compressive imaging based upon image priors and device constraints. If one assumes that image patches from natural imagery can be modeled as a low rank manifold, we develop an optimality criterion for a measurement matrix based upon separating the canonical elements of the manifold prior. We then describe a stochastic search algorithm for finding the optimal measurements under device constraints based upon a subspace mismatch algorithm. The algorithm is then tested on a prototype compressive imaging device designed to collect an 8x4 array of projective measurements simultaneously. This work is based upon work supported by DARPA and the SPAWAR System Center Pacific under Contract No. N66001-11-C-4092. The views expressed are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.

Shilling, Richard; Muise, Robert

2013-05-01

493

Brazil Week 2014Brazil Week 2014MONDAYMONDAY SEPT. 29SEPT. 29 Brazil Week is sponsored by: And co-sponsored by  

E-print Network

Brazil Week 2014Brazil Week 2014MONDAYMONDAY SEPT. 29SEPT. 29 Brazil Week is sponsored by: And co and the Brazil Week 2014 Student Committee. WEDNESDAYWEDNESDAY Oct. 1Oct. 1 THURSDAYTHURSDAY Oct. 2Oct. 2 by Professor Jay Coakley "Winners & LosersJay Coakley "Winners & Losers in Brazil: World Cupin Brazil: World

Bordenstein, Seth

494

Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol  

SciTech Connect

Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

Benton, N.

2014-11-01

495

Modeling of compressible cake filtration  

SciTech Connect

The transport of suspended solid particles in a liquid through porous media has importance from the viewpoint of engineering practice and industrial applications. Deposition of solid particles on a filter cloth or on a pervious porous medium forms the filter cakes. Following a literature survey, a governing equation for the cake thickness is obtained by considering an instantaneous material balance. In addition to the conservation of mass equations for the liquid, and for suspended and captured solid particles, functional relations among porosity, permeability, and pressure are obtained from literature and solved simultaneously. Later, numerical solutions for cake porosity, pore pressure, cake permeability, velocity of solid particles, concentration of suspended solid particles, and net rate of deposition are obtained. At each instant of time, the porosity decreases throughout the cake from the surface to the filter septum where it has the smallest value. As the cake thickness increases, the trends in pressure variation are similar to data obtained by other researchers. This comparison shows the validity of the theory and the associated solution presented. A sensitivity analysis shows higher pressure values at the filter septum for a less pervious membrane. Finally, a reduction in compressibility parameter provides a thicker cake, causes more particles to be captured inside the cake, and reduces the volumetric filtrate rate. The increase of solid velocity with the reduction in compressibility parameter shows that more rigid cakes compress less.

Abbound, N.M. (Univ. of Connecticut, Waterbury, CT (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Corapcioglu, M.Y. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1993-10-15

496

Math Forum Technology Problems of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Technology Problems of the Week (tPoWs) are freely accessible problem-solving challenges, modeled on the Math Forum’s Problems of the Week, that take advantage of interactive mathematics tools such as Java applets, TI-Nspire™, The Geometer's Sketchpad®, Fathom™, or spreadsheets. A login is required. Teachers may choose a free class membership, providing the ability to create classes, create student logins, and use the Math Forum’s online mentoring and feedback system or choose a free individual membership, providing individual access to view the problems as well as any available teacher resources. Free student memberships are also available. Problems include hints and answer checks.

2011-01-01

497

Open Access Week: It Takes a Village  

E-print Network

.lib.ku.edu 8 2013: Six events, 270 attendees • Former KU Provost David Shulenberger: Federal Funding Agencies Push Toward Open Access: FASTR, the White House Directive, and KU • Nick Shockey (SPARC) returned to speak at our graduate student pizza lunch... Access • Broad spectrum of ideas • Connections with campus and beyond Guide, don’t direct • “Tell me more about how this idea relates to this year’s Open Access Week theme” www.lib.ku.edu 12 Open Access Week committee For those who aren’t comfortable...

Reed, Marianne A.

2014-05-19

498

Quality analysis in N-dimensional lossy compression of multispectral remote sensing time series images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims to determine an efficient procedure (balanced between quality and compression ratio) for compressing multispectral remote sensing time series images in a 4-dimensional domain (2 spatial, 1 spectral and 1 temporal dimension). The main factors studied were: spectral and temporal aggregation, landscape type, compression ratio, cloud cover, thermal segregation and nodata regions. In this study, the authors used three-dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform (3d-DWT) as the compression methodology, implemented in the Kakadu software with the JPEG2000 standard. This methodology was applied to a series of 2008 Landsat-5 TM images that covered three different landscapes, and to one scene (19-06-2007) from a hyperspectral CASI sensor. The results show that 3d-DWT significantly improves the quality of the results for the hyperspectral images; for example, it obtains the same quality as independently compressed ima