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1

A 4-Day Work Week That Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Navarro College's (Corsicana, TX) program to reduce kilowatt hour consumption through alternative energy sources and energy costs through transition to a four-day/40-hour work week. Presents results of studies of employee performance levels, community response, and the cost effectiveness of the program. Lists benefits for the student,…

Walker, Kenneth; Timmerman, Linda

1980-01-01

2

A Revised Work-Week for Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a rotating schedule for day care teachers that reduces the number of working days, thus avoiding the built-up stress that appears to result from working too many days a year with young children. (SB)

Hatch, Nan

1977-01-01

3

Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work  

E-print Network

benefits of reliable compressed air. Compressed air management systems, including a system approach to managing demand, stabilizing pressure, reducing leaks and compressor controls, can allow the industrial end user to save 20% - 50% of their air compressor...

Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

4

Working Characteristics of Variable Intake Valve in Compressed Air Engine  

PubMed Central

A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500?rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536

Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin

2014-01-01

5

World Breastfeeding Week 1994: making the Code work.  

PubMed

WHO adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in 1981, with the US being the only member voting against it. US abandoned its opposition and voted for the International Code at the World Health Assembly in May 1994. The US was also part of a unanimous vote to promote a resolution that clearly proclaims breast milk to be better than breast milk substitutes and the best food for infants. World Breastfeeding Week 1994 began more efforts to promote the International Code. In 1994, through its Making the Code Work campaign, the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) will work on increasing awareness about the mission and promise of the International Code, notify governments of the Innocenti target date, call for governments to introduce rules and regulations based on the International Code, and encourage public interest groups, professional organizations, and the general public to monitor enforcement of the Code. So far, 11 countries have passed legislation including all or almost all provisions of the International Code. Governments of 36 countries have passed legislation including only some provisions of the International Code. The International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN), a coalition of more than 140 breastfeeding promotion groups, monitors implementation of the Code worldwide. IBFAN substantiates 1000s of violations of the Code in its report, Breaking the Rules 1994. The violations consist of promoting breast milk substitutes to health workers, using labels describing a brand of formula in idealizing terms, or using labels that do not have warnings in the local language. We should familiarize ourselves with the provisions of the International Code and the status of the Code in our country. WABA provides an action folder which contains basic background information on the code and action ideas. PMID:12288380

1994-01-01

6

Solid liner compresses working fluid to megabar range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

12 MA axial discharges were used to implode tapered thickness spherical aluminum shells, achieving implosion velocities at the inner surface above 20 km/s. These implosions were used to compress hydrogen plasmas with initial pressures > 100 atm and initial temperature > 1 eV. The plasmas were preinjected using 1 MA, 100 kJ range coaxial gun discharges through a circular array of vanes to strip away magnetic field. The imploding shell and the compressed working fluid's effect on a diagnostic compression target were observed radiographically. Magnetic probes on auxiliary shots indicate that there is negligible magnetic field interior to the Al shell. The target's radius vs. time indicates that the fluid pressure exceeds 1 Mbar approximately 0.1 ?s prior to liner-target contact.

Degnan, J. H.; Coffey, S. K.; Gale, D. G.; Graham, J. D.; Hussey, T. W.; Kiuttu, G. F.; Kreh, B. B.; Lehr, F. M.; Morgan, D.; Peterkin, R. E.; Platts, D.; Ruden, E. L.; Sommars, W. E.; Turchi, P. J.

1997-11-01

7

Giving 110%: A Portrait of a Michigan Teacher's Work Week. Policy Report Number 22  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of Michigan's teachers work above and beyond their required work week; the average teacher works more than 45 hours per week. The time teachers spend outside regular school hours is often ignored by critics who deride the "short hours and long vacations" enjoyed by teachers. When discussing compensation policies and changes to…

Burian-Fitzgerald, Marisa; Harris, Debbi

2004-01-01

8

How To Work A Room A week before, Darling researches the event on  

E-print Network

How To Work A Room A week before, Darling researches the event on the Web to get a sense can about the crowd before going." Don't go in cold1 Travel light2 Darling wears a tasteful red jacket a good time." Approach VIPs first6 Darling darts over to one of the morning's guest speakers, a Harvard

9

Administrative Task Force on the Four Day Work Week. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Administrative Task Force on a 4-day work week at California State University in Los Angeles was charged with the following responsibilities: (1) To make an indepth study of the "literature" of experience of other universities, a survey of staff, faculty, and students if required, and other activities that will result in setting up a list of…

California State Univ., Los Angeles.

10

Mesoscopic Physics SK2700 Home work assignments will be handed out every week, due the following week.  

E-print Network

the following week. Activity Description Reading Lecture 1 Introduction and Overview Install MATLAB, start "Help for demonstration Lecture 6 S- Matrix 1D scattering, order to disorder Datta Chapter 3, Own notes Lecture 7 Weak

Haviland, David

11

Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work-home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47?h) and junior (45–46?h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48?h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45?h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

2014-01-01

12

Numerical simulations of plasma working fluid compression of a cylindrical copper target liner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. Experiments performed by Degnan et al. Have been carried out to study the compression of a cylindrical copper target with a hydrogen working fluid. The working fluid is produced by a 350 kJ electrical discharge through a hydrogen gas that is initially at room temperature and 40 torr in a coaxial plasma gun. This

N. F. Roderick

1999-01-01

13

Working fluids selection for fishing boats waste heat powered organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To utilize waste heat from fishing boats, an organic Rankine cycle/vapor compression cycle system was employed for ice making and a thermodynamic model was developed. Six working fluids were selected and compared in order to identify suitable working fluids which may yield high system efficiencies. The calculated results show that R600a is most suitable working fluid through comprehensive comparison of efficiency, size parameter, pressure ratio, coefficient of performance, system pressure and safety.

Bu, Xianbiao; Wang, Lingbao; Li, Huashan

2014-10-01

14

[Medical aspects of the environmental sanitation of workplaces in compressed air work in Japan].  

PubMed

Actual follow-up investigations were made for a period of 5 yr and 10 months since February 1980 on 55 places of caisson and shield work. The maximum bottom pressure in caisson work was 3.6 kg/cm2 (4.6 ATA) and that of shield work was 1.6 kg/cm2. The number of exposures of workers was 23,737 in caisson work and 75,244 in shield work. The items of geomedical measurements were temperature (degrees C), humidity, dust, illumination, noise, oxygen, carbonic acid gas and others. In compressed air work, it is most important to prevent decompression sickness (bends) from the view of occupational health. The incidence of bends has decreased in recent years because of strict control by regulations. Environmental hygiene, however, has seldom been discussed in this field and little geomedical control has been made on compressed air work. In view of this situation, we have, therefore, studied, observed, and measured the hygienic factors of this work during the past five years. This investigation is without doubt the first of its kind in Japan and the areas covered most of the regions where compressed air works have been made in the past. From these results, it can be concluded as follows: The working temperature was controlled, but humidity was too high (nearly 90%). Illumination was insufficient. Dust was a problem, but high humidity played an important role in decreasing the volume. The environment was noisy. It is therefore natural that environmental studies should be continued and hygienic consideration be further emphasized in compressed air work. PMID:3613254

Mano, Y; Shibayama, M

1987-01-01

15

High temperature compression testing and determination of warm working temperature for commercial purity aluminium  

Microsoft Academic Search

CP aluminium was subjected to axysymmetric compression testing at 303, 373, 473, 573 and 673 K. Strength coefficient and strain\\u000a hardening exponent were determined from log-log plot of true stress and true strain at different temperatures. True stress\\u000a vs temperature at different strains indicated that dynamic strain ageing (DSA) occurred between 473 and 673 K. Warm working\\u000a is to be

B K Rao; M S A Khadar; K Srinivasan

1999-01-01

16

The impact of a week of simulated night work on sleep, circadian phase, and performance  

PubMed Central

Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects participated in an adaptation and baseline night sleep, directly followed by seven simulated eight-hour night shifts (2300 to 0700 hours). At the end of each shift they were taken outside and exposed to natural light for 20 minutes. They then slept from approximately 0800 hours until they naturally awoke. Results: There was a significant increase in mean performance on a visual psychomotor vigilance task across the week. Daytime sleep quality and quantity were not negatively affected. Total sleep time (TST) for each of the daytime sleeps was reduced, resulting in an average cumulative sleep debt of 3.53 hours prior to the final night shift. TST for each of the daytime sleep periods did not significantly differ from the baseline night, nor did TST significantly vary across the week. There was a significant decrease in wake time after sleep onset and sleep onset latency across the week; sleep efficiency showed a trend towards greater efficiency across the consecutive daytime sleeps. Hours of wakefulness prior to each simulated night shift significantly varied across the week. The melatonin profile significantly shifted across the week. Conclusions: Results suggest that under optimal conditions, the sleep debt that accumulates during consecutive night shifts is relatively small and does not exacerbate decrements in night-time performance resulting from other factors. When sleep loss is minimised, adaptation of performance during consecutive night shifts can occur in conjunction with circadian adaptation. PMID:14573724

Lamond, N; Dorrian, J; Roach, G; McCulloch, K; Holmes, A; Burgess, H; Fletcher, A; Dawson, D

2003-01-01

17

Recovery of aluminium cold-worked by compression at 78 °K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Zone-refined Al and 99.995% purity Al samples have been cold-worked by compression at liquid-nitrogen temperature and the\\u000a recovery of electrical resistivity has been investigated in the temperature range from -190 °C to 340 °C. Three stages of\\u000a recovery, indicated asH-1,H-2 andE-3, can be envisaged in zone-refined Al. StageH-1 occurs just above liquid-nitrogen temperature and shows a tail till —110 °C;

C. Panseri; S. Ceresara; T. Federighi

1963-01-01

18

Capitol Hill Recognizes National School Psychology Week and the Work of School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In honor of National School Psychology Week, the NASP Government and Professional Relations (GPR) and Communications committees and NASP staff joined forces on a campaign to help elected officials on Capitol Hill learn about the positive contributions of school psychologists and how their services impact student mental health and learning. This…

Communique, 2010

2010-01-01

19

The Time Divide in Cross-National Perspective: The Work Week, Education and Institutions that Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior empirical studies have found that American workers report longer hours than do workers in other highly industrialized countries, and that the highly educated report the longest hours relative to other educational levels. This paper analyzes disparities in working hours by education levels in 17 high- and middle-income countries to assess…

Frase, Peter; Gornick, Janet C.

2013-01-01

20

Day of the week lost time occupational injury trends in the US by gender and industry and their implications for work scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is a growing body of research on the impact of work schedules on the risk of occupational injuries, there has been little investigation into the impact that the day of the week might have. The present research was completed to explore day of the week trends, reasons for such trends and the corresponding implications for work scheduling. Data

G. E. Brogmus

2007-01-01

21

29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...under compressed air. (a) Detonators and explosives shall not be...tunnels, shafts, or caissons. Detonators and explosives for each round...zone and immediately loaded. Detonators and explosives left over...

2010-07-01

22

An old integration scheme for compressible flows revisited, refurbished and put to work  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scheme for integrating the Euler equations of compressible flow in any hyperbolic case is presented. The scheme relies on the concept of characteristics but is strictly a finite difference scheme. Improvements in accuracy and physical consistence due to the scheme are discussed and results of its application to complex flows are shown.

Moretti, G.

1978-01-01

23

CS120 Fall 2013 --Lab, Week of November 10th Some basic input and output this week, a little bit of C hacking, and some work with arrays.  

E-print Network

of C hacking, and some work with arrays. Connect your Arduino, and hook up one of the speakers in lab it on to your Arduino, to make sure the speaker is connected correctly. 1) Look at the memory array -- this has in the array (the Arduino has an oscillator, with higher numbers oscillating faster, and producing a higher

Madden, Patrick H.

24

Multistatic adaptive pulse compression  

E-print Network

A new technique denoted as multistatic adaptive pulse compression (MAPC) is introduced which exploits recent work on adaptive pulse compression (APC) in order to jointly separate and pulse compress the concurrently received ...

Blunt, Shannon David; Gerlach, K.

2006-07-01

25

Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

1977-01-01

26

A week in the life of full-time office workers: Work day and weekend light exposure in summer and winter.  

PubMed

Little is known about the light exposure in full-time office workers, who spend much of their workdays indoors. We examined the 24-h light exposure patterns of 14 full-time office workers during a week in summer, and assessed their dim light melatonin onset (DLMO, a marker of circadian timing) at the end of the working week. Six workers repeated the study in winter. Season had little impact on the workers' schedules, as the timing of sleep, commute, and work did not vary by more than 30 min in the summer and winter. In both seasons, workers received significantly more morning light on workdays than weekends, due to earlier wake times and the morning commute. Evening light in the two hours before bedtime was consistently dim. The timing of the DLMO did not vary between season, and by the end of the working week, the workers slept at a normal circadian phase. PMID:25172304

Crowley, Stephanie J; Molina, Thomas A; Burgess, Helen J

2015-01-01

27

Marigat, Kenya In May of 2010, I was fortunate enough to travel to Marigat, Kenya for six weeks to work  

E-print Network

clinic. #12;My main responsibilities at the clinic were to give immunizations, weigh babies, give. The other two days a week we traveled to remote villages in the Baringo district, providing immunizations on my journey to becoming a physician. A group of mothers and children about to receive immunizations

28

Update: These School Systems Swear by the Four-Day School Week because Students Work Harder and Face Fewer Distractions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dexter, Kansas, uses a four-day school week that is improving classroom instruction and cutting energy bills. There is evidence that four-day schedules improve student achievement, increase attendance, allow more class time, raise teacher morale, and provide more staff development time. (MD)

Blankenship, Ted

1984-01-01

29

Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities…

Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

2009-01-01

30

Publishers Weekly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you interested in learning what forays university presses are making into the world of electronic publishing? Perhaps you'd like a selection of thoughtful weblogs on new literary works? The Publishers Weekly website has all of that covered, and a great deal more. Designed to complement their print publication, the site has a "Latest Stories" section front and center on their homepage. Checking this area out (and perhaps signing up for their RSS feed) is a good way to stay abreast of important developments in the world of publishing. Also on the homepage visitors will find four sections of primary interest: "Blogs", "Talkback", "Podcasts", and "Photos". The "Talkback" frequently features well-reasoned commentary from readers on recent stories and the "Blogs" area includes links to weblogs maintained by Publishers Weekly staff members. Further down the homepage, visitors can expect to find new book reviews and sections dedicated to children's literature, comics, and independent news.

31

A Poll about Children and Weight: Crunch Time during the American Work and School Week--3 P.M. to Bed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge today, with complex roots interwoven into nearly every facet of American life. This poll addresses one narrow slice of this web: the challenges that families face during the "crunch time" of the work and school week, between 3 pm and the time children go to bed. Compared to the school day, this…

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2013

2013-01-01

32

The Effect of Cold Work on the Thermal Stability of Residual Compression in Surface Enhanced IN718  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface enhancement, the creation of a layer of residual compression at the surface of a component, is widely used to improve the fatigue life in the automotive and aerospace industries. The compressive layer delays fatigue crack initiation and retards small crack propagation. The benefits of surface enhancement are lost if the compressive layer relaxes at the operating temperature of the

Paul S. Prevéy

33

Staying engaged during the week: the effect of off-job activities on next day work engagement.  

PubMed

Although studies on employee recovery accumulate at a stunning pace, the commonly used theory (Effort-Recovery model) that explains how recovery occurs has not been explicitly tested. We aimed to unravel the recovery process by examining whether off-job activities enhance next morning vigor to the extent that they enable employees to relax and detach from work. In addition, we investigated whether adequate recovery also helps employees to work with more enthusiasm and vigor on the next workday. On five consecutive days, a total of 74 employees (356 data points) reported the hours they spent on various off-job activities, their feelings of psychological detachment, and feelings of relaxation before going to sleep. Feelings of vigor were reported on the next morning, and day-levels of work engagement were reported after work. As predicted, leisure activities (social, low-effort, and physical activities) increased next morning vigor through enhanced psychological detachment and relaxation. High-duty off-job activities (work and household tasks) reduced vigor because these activities diminished psychological detachment and relaxation. Moreover, off-job activities significantly affected next day work engagement. Our results support the assumption that recovery occurs when employees engage in off-job activities that allow for relaxation and psychological detachment. The findings also underscore the significance of recovery after work: Adequate recovery not only enhances vigor in the morning, but also helps employees to stay engaged during the next workday. PMID:22799771

ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L; Bakker, Arnold B

2012-10-01

34

Age and individual differences in prospective memory during a "Virtual Week": the roles of working memory, vigilance, task regularity, and cue focality.  

PubMed

Young (ages 18-22 years) and older (ages 61-87 years) adults (N = 106) played the Virtual Week board game, which involves simulating common prospective memory (PM) tasks of everyday life (e.g., taking medication), and performed working memory (WM) and vigilance tasks. The Virtual Week game includes regular (repeated) and irregular (nonrepeated) PM tasks with cues that are either more or less focal to other ongoing activities. Age differences in PM were reduced for repeated tasks, and performance improved over the course of the week, suggesting retrieval was more spontaneous or habitual. Correlations with WM within each age group were reduced for PM tasks that had more regular or focal cues. WM (but not vigilance) ability was a strong predictor of irregular PM tasks with less focal cues. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that habitual and focally cued PM tasks are less demanding of attentional resources (specifically, WM), whereas tasks that are more demanding of controlled attentional processes produce larger age differences, which may be attributable to individual differences in WM. PMID:20853967

Rose, Nathan S; Rendell, Peter G; McDaniel, Mark A; Aberle, Ingo; Kliegel, Matthias

2010-09-01

35

Solar Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar Week is a week of online curriculum with daily topics on the Sun, including Sun as a Star, the Sun Close Up, Solar Activity, Eclipses, and Careers. Each day contains a game, an activity, topical questions, a related Life Science topic, teacher information, and an Ask the Scientist page.

2010-12-06

36

Clustering by compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method for clustering based on compression. The method does not use subject-specific features or background knowl- edge, and works as follows: First, we determine a parameter-free, universal, similarity distance, the normalized compression distance or NCD, com- puted from the lengths of compressed data files (singly and in pairwise con- catenation). Second, we apply a hierarchical clustering

Rudi Cilibrasi; Paul M. B. Vitányi; Xin Li; Bin Ma

2003-01-01

37

Effects of recovery sleep after one work week of mild sleep restriction on interleukin-6 and cortisol secretion and daytime sleepiness and performance  

PubMed Central

One workweek of mild sleep restriction adversely impacts sleepiness, performance, and proinflammatory cytokines. Many individuals try to overcome these adverse effects by extending their sleep on weekends. To assess whether extended recovery sleep reverses the effects of mild sleep restriction on sleepiness/alertness, inflammation, and stress hormones, 30 healthy young men and women (mean age ± SD, 24.7 ± 3.5 yr; mean body mass index ± SD, 23.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2) participated in a sleep laboratory experiment of 13 nights [4 baseline nights (8 h/night), followed by 6 sleep restriction nights (6 h/night) and 3 recovery nights (10 h/night)]. Twenty-four-hour profiles of circulating IL-6 and cortisol, objective and subjective daytime sleepiness (Multiple Sleep Latency Test and Stanford Sleepiness Scale), and performance (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were assessed on days 4 (baseline), 10 (after 1 wk of sleep restriction), and 13 (after 2 nights of recovery sleep). Serial 24-h IL-6 plasma levels increased significantly during sleep restriction and returned to baseline after recovery sleep. Serial 24-h cortisol levels during restriction did not change compared with baseline, but after recovery they were significantly lower. Subjective and objective sleepiness increased significantly after restriction and returned to baseline after recovery. In contrast, performance deteriorated significantly after restriction and did not improve after recovery. Extended recovery sleep over the weekend reverses the impact of one work week of mild sleep restriction on daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and IL-6 levels, reduces cortisol levels, but does not correct performance deficits. The long-term effects of a repeated sleep restriction/sleep recovery weekly cycle in humans remain unknown. PMID:23941878

Pejovic, Slobodanka; Basta, Maria; Kritikou, Ilia; Shaffer, Michele L.; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Stiffler, David; Stefanakis, Zacharias; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P.

2013-01-01

38

Weekly Reflections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About once a week, which approximately corresponds to each chapter covered, students are required to write a 2-3 paragraph reflection on the material covered in class. They may use information found in the book, or their experiences during lecture and lab, but they need to discuss their thoughts on the material. This written assignment encourages students to think more deeply about the material discussed, as well as to become more comfortable with the writing process.

Rutzky, Sara M.

39

Prom week  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prom Week places players in a typical high-school, abuzz with excitement over the upcoming prom. Players indirectly sculpt the social landscape by having these hapless highschoolers engage in social exchanges with each other. The results of these social exchanges are many and varied---ranging from mild fluctuations in respect to characters professing their eternal love for one another---and are informed by

Josh McCoy; Mike Treanor; Ben Samuel; Aaron A. Reed; Noah Wardrip-Fruin; Michael Mateas

2012-01-01

40

} Surgery 7 weeks } Medicine 7 weeks  

E-print Network

#12;} Surgery 7 weeks } Medicine 7 weeks } Pediatrics 7 weeks } OB-GYN 7 weeks } Psychiatry 7 weeks;} Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics 8 weeks } OB-GYN, Family Med, Psychiatry 6 weeks } Elective block 6 weeks;} Educational and LCME concerns } Student wish for longer Medicine and Surgery rotations } National norms

Myers, Lawrence C.

41

Patterns of external chest compression.  

PubMed

We studied the performance of external chest compression by 20 fourth year medical students on 2 study days, separated by 5-7 weeks, 4-8 months after they had been initially trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Our hypotheses were (1) that a given individual would perform external chest compressions in the same manner each time CPR was performed and (2) that the pattern of performance of chest compressions would be determined, in part, by the anthropometric characteristics of the rescuer. A Laerdal Skillmeter Resusci-Anne CPR manikin chest compression transducer was interfaced with an analogue-to-digital conversion board in a Macintosh LC III computer. Each subject on each study day performed four cycles of 15 compressions and two ventilations twice, once on a table (which raised the surface of the manikin sternum to 95 cm) and once on the floor. For each individual, on each attempt, we calculated the depth and rate of compressions, duty cycle, peak compression velocity, time to peak compression velocity and time to peak compression depth. In addition, we calculated the regression slope of compression depth versus compression number for each cycle of 15 chest compressions and over four cycles of compressions. Statistically significant correlations were observed between the first and second study days in each of the variables of chest compression measured, indicating that the performance of chest compressions was constant over time for a given individual. We observed that the depth of compression, duty cycle, time to peak compression, time to peak velocity and regression slope of depth of compressions versus compression number were significantly related to the height and weight of the rescuer. PMID:12062844

Larsen, P D; Perrin, K; Galletly, D C

2002-06-01

42

Extensions of compressed sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the notion of Compressed Sensing (CS) as put forward in (14) and related work (20, 3, 4). The basic idea behind CS is that a signal or image, unknown but supposed to be compressible by a known transform, (eg. wavelet or Fourier), can be subjected to fewer measurements than the nominal number of pixels, and yet be accurately

Yaakov Tsaig; David L. Donoho

2006-01-01

43

Collaborative work on evaluation of ovarian toxicity. 11) Two- or four-week repeated-dose studies and fertility study of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in female rats.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the optimal period of administration for detection of ovarian toxicity in rat repeated-dose toxicity studies. A well-known ovarian toxicant, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), was administered to female rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg for 2 or 4 weeks (repeated-dose toxicity studies). The same doses were administered to female rats for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and until Day 6 of pregnancy (fertility study). In the repeated-dose toxicity studies, continuous diestrus was observed at > or = 100 mg/kg regardless of period of administration. The alterations of ovarian morphology observed at > or = 100 mg/kg after 2 or 4 weeks of administration were characterized by hypertrophy of the corpora lutea with decreased cellular debris indicating apoptosis, and increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-negative large atretic follicles. The finding that newly-formed basophilic corpora lutea were scarce in affected animals exhibiting continuous diestrus suggested suppression of ovulation due to hypertrophic corpora lutea. In the fertility study, irregular estrous cycles, prolonged mating periods, lower pregnancy rates and decreased corpora lutea of pregnancy were observed at > or = 100 mg/kg. The irregularities of estrous cycle observed in some animals at 30 mg/kg were minimal. The ovarian histopathological changes in repeated-dose toxicity studies correlated well with impairment of female fertility found in the fertility study. It is concluded that a repeated-dose toxicity study with a treatment period for 2 weeks or longer is sufficient for evaluation of ovarian toxicity induced by EGME. PMID:19265278

Dodo, Tetsushi; Taketa, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Mayumi; Inomata, Akira; Sonoda, Jiro; Okuda, Yasuyuki; Mineshima, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Satoru; Aoki, Toyohiko

2009-01-01

44

Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. Methods: The study follows a cohort of 5357 working employees and 106 long-term sickness absent employees in Denmark. They were interviewed in

Merete Labriola; Thomas Lund; Karl B. Christensen; Karen Albertsen; Jette N. Jensen; Ebbe Villadsen

45

Compressing Aviation Data in XML Format  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design, operations and maintenance activities in aviation involve analysis of variety of aviation data. This data is typically in disparate formats making it difficult to use with different software packages. Use of a self-describing and extensible standard called XML provides a solution to this interoperability problem. XML provides a standardized language for describing the contents of an information stream, performing the same kind of definitional role for Web content as a database schema performs for relational databases. XML data can be easily customized for display using Extensible Style Sheets (XSL). While self-describing nature of XML makes it easy to reuse, it also increases the size of data significantly. Therefore, transfemng a dataset in XML form can decrease throughput and increase data transfer time significantly. It also increases storage requirements significantly. A natural solution to the problem is to compress the data using suitable algorithm and transfer it in the compressed form. We found that XML-specific compressors such as Xmill and XMLPPM generally outperform traditional compressors. However, optimal use of Xmill requires of discovery of optimal options to use while running Xmill. This, in turn, depends on the nature of data used. Manual disc0ver.y of optimal setting can require an engineer to experiment for weeks. We have devised an XML compression advisory tool that can analyze sample data files and recommend what compression tool would work the best for this data and what are the optimal settings to be used with a XML compression tool.

Patel, Hemil; Lau, Derek; Kulkarni, Deepak

2003-01-01

46

Relief of Night-time Symptoms Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Following 4 Weeks of Treatment With Pantoprazole Magnesium: The Mexican Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Working Group  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of pantoprazole magnesium (pantoprazole-Mg) 40 mg in the relief of esophageal and extra-esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), particularly night-time symptoms. Methods Patients (aged 18-50 years) with 3-month history of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation plus at least one other symptom in the last week were enrolled in a nationwide, prospective and observational study in Mexico. Patients received pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily during 4 weeks. Symptoms were assessed through a physician-administered structured interview and the patient-completed ReQuest in Practice™ questionnaire. Night-time GERD was defined as arousal from sleep during the night due to GERD-associated symptoms. Results Out of 4,343 patients included at basal visit, 3,665 were considered for the effectiveness per protocol analysis. At baseline, patients had a median of 8 GERD related symptoms. Patients with night-time GERD symptoms (42.7%) were more likely to have extra-esophageal symptoms (P < 0.001) than other GERD patients. Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily for 4 weeks improved a broad range of GERD-associated symptoms from baseline (80% reduction on physicians assessments; 68-77% reduction on ReQuest in Practice™ dimensions), including both day- and night-time GERD symptoms; improvements were the greatest for extra-esophageal symptoms in patients with night-time symptoms. Pantoprazole-Mg was well tolerated. Conclusions Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg significantly improved a broad range of esophageal and extra-esophageal GERD related symptoms including sleep disturbances, as well as well-being, in patients with daytime or night-time GERD, making it a good option for patients with GERD, especially when extra-esophageal and night-time symptoms are present. PMID:24466446

Orr, William; Vargas-Romero, Jose Antonio; Remes-Troche, Jose Maria; Morales-Arambula, Miguel; Soto-Perez, Julio Cesar; Mateos-Perez, Gualberto; Sobrino-Cossio, Sergio; Teramoto-Matsubara, Oscar; Lopez-Colombo, Aurelio; Orozco-Gamiz, Antonio; Saez-Rios, Adolfo; Arellano-Plancarte, Araceli; Chiu-Ugalde, Jazmin; Tholen, Anne; Horbach, Silke; Lundberg, Lars; Fass, Ronnie

2014-01-01

47

Electrical stimulation for chronic non-specific low back pain in a working-age population: a 12-week double blinded randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Non-invasive electrotherapy is commonly used for treatment of chronic low back pain. Evidence for efficacy of most electrotherapy modalities is weak or lacking. This study aims to execute a high-quality, double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial comparing 1) H-Wave® Device stimulation plus usual care with 2) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) plus usual care, and 3) Sham electrotherapy plus usual care to determine comparative efficacy for treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain patients. Methods/Design Patients- Chronic non-specific low back pain patients between ages of 18–65 years, with pain of at least 3 months duration and minimal current 5/10 VAS pain. Patients will have no significant signs or symptoms of lumbosacral nerve impingement, malignancy, spinal stenosis, or mood disorders. Study design- Double blind RCT with 3 arms and 38 subjects per arm. Randomization by permuted blocks of random length, stratified by Workers Compensation claim (yes vs. no), and use of opioids. The null hypothesis of this study is that there are no statistically significant differences in functional improvement between treatment types during and at the end of a 12-week week treatment period. Data collection- Subjective data will be collected using Filemaker Pro™ database management collection tools. Objective data will be obtained through functional assessments. Data will be collected at enrollment and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks for each participant by a blinded assessor. Interventions- H-Wave® device stimulation (Intervention A) plus usual care, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) (Intervention B) plus usual care, and sham electrotherapy plus usual care (control). Each treatment arm will have identical numbers of visits (4) and researcher contact time (approximately 15 hours). Outcomes- Primary outcome measure: Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary measures include: Rowland Morris Instrument, VAS pain score, functional evaluation including strength when pushing and pulling, pain free range of motion in flexion and extension. Outcome measures assessed at baseline, 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Treatment failure will be defined if patient terminates assigned treatment arm for non-efficacy or undergoes invasive procedure or other excluded cointerventions. Data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis and adjusted for covariates related to LBP (e.g. age) as needed. Discussion Study strengths include complex randomization, treatment group allocation concealment, double blinding, controlling for co-interventions, rigorous inclusion criteria, assessment of compliance, plans for limiting dropout, identical assessment methods and timing for each treatment arm, and planned intention-to-treat analyses. PMID:23537462

2013-01-01

48

Compression embedding  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.

Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

49

Compression embedding  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

1998-07-07

50

BE(E) Amazing Race 2014! Heartowa Week 6-June 8-14-Welcome to Heartowa, Ontario! Where healthy living is heart work!  

E-print Network

- June 8-14- Welcome to Heartowa, Ontario! Where healthy living is heart work. She and several colleagues and friends started a healthy community, and called it Heartowa. Word spread quickly about the healthy community and how great

Seldin, Jonathan P.

51

Compression embedding  

DOEpatents

A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.

Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

52

Compression embedding  

DOEpatents

A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

1998-03-10

53

Modeling Compressed Turbulence  

SciTech Connect

From ICE to ICF, the effect of mean compression or expansion is important for predicting the state of the turbulence. When developing combustion models, we would like to know the mix state of the reacting species. This involves density and concentration fluctuations. To date, research has focused on the effect of compression on the turbulent kinetic energy. The current work provides constraints to help development and calibration for models of species mixing effects in compressed turbulence. The Cambon, et al., re-scaling has been extended to buoyancy driven turbulence, including the fluctuating density, concentration, and temperature equations. The new scalings give us helpful constraints for developing and validating RANS turbulence models.

Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13

54

Signal Compression Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Signal Compression Lab (SCL) is a part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara. "Current research activities at SCL include low bit rate speech coding, wideband speech and audio compression, speech modeling and synthesis," and many more focus areas involving data compression of various forms of media. A large collection of informative demonstrations and slide presentations illustrate the group's work. Many of the SCL staff have publications available for downloading, which are divided into several categories for easy browsing.

2001-01-01

55

Week 42, My Work Ignore the red circle; my office is in the upper left-hand corner of the building.  

E-print Network

, experimenting and testing on the computer, writing up the results. Although my work is applicable to "real world and I it. It's a strange pursuit: following my esoteric interests, coming up with new ideas are ultimately social animals, love to share and compete, and need a diverse community within which to thrive

Bardsley, John

56

National Engineers Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now an annual event, National Engineers Week was founded by the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1951. In 1988, the National Engineers Week consortium expanded and now includes more than 100 engineering, scientific, and education societies and major corporations dedicated to enhancing the public understanding of the engineering profession and to promoting pre-college interest in math, science, and engineering as a career option. From this website, visitors can read suggestions for ways to get involved in National Engineers Week (National Engineers Week 2004 was held February 22-28) and learn about other competitions for young and upcoming engineers. Also available online is the first Connecting the World teleconference which featured Alan Boeckmann, Chairman and CEO of Fluor Corporation, speaking about Engineering in the 21st Century. The website currently promotes the Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day, which was presented to the United Nations as part of an international briefing, Girls and Technology: New Educational Opportunities. Another feature of interest is the section highlighting the accomplishments of engineers and their inspirational stories about becoming the engineer behind the sounds of Star Wars, for example. The New Faces of Engineering program highlights the work of young engineers. A discussion forum and various educational resources are also available from this website. Finally, a section on Engineer / Volunteer Kits suggests ways engineers, community members and teachers can get involved in supporting up-and-coming engineers.

2007-12-12

57

National Engineers Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now an annual event, National Engineers Week was founded by the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1951. In 1988, the National Engineers Week consortium expanded and now includes "more than 100 engineering, scientific, and education societies and major corporations dedicated to enhancing the public understanding of the engineering profession and to promoting pre-college interest in math, science, and engineering as a career option." From this website, visitors can read suggestions for ways to get involved in National Engineers Week (National Engineers Week 2004 was held February 22-28) and learn about other competitions for young and upcoming engineers. Also available online is the first Connecting the World teleconference which featured Alan Boeckmann, Chairman and CEO of Fluor Corporation, speaking about Engineering in the 21st Century. The website currently promotes the "Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day," which was presented to the United Nations as part of an international briefing, Girls and Technology: New Educational Opportunities. Another feature of interest is the section highlighting the accomplishments of engineers and their inspirational stories about becoming "the engineer behind the sounds of Star Wars," for example. The New Faces of Engineering program highlights the work of young engineers. A discussion forum and various educational resources are also available from this website. Finally, a section on Engineer / Volunteer Kits suggests ways engineers, community members and teachers can get involved in supporting up-and-coming engineers.

2005-11-06

58

Working  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new special section in the New York Times, Working, features articles on the American worker. For example, the current issue contains stories on the contrast between the recent trend in layoffs and employers's complaints that they are unable to fill job openings; what is "retaining and motivating...the American worker"; and the shortage of qualified legal talent. The site also offers a great deal of career and job advice such as an article on non-traditional jobs, job forecasts, and office design. Interviews include an audio piece with Robert B. Reich, the former US Secretary of Labor. And of course, what would a newspaper section on work be without a link to the Dilbert comic strip?

59

Modeling of compressible turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work is directed toward understanding and modeling compressibility effects in turbulent flows. The primary objective is to investigate how compressibility influences the basic turbulence processes such as turbulence production and dissipation, length scale modification, spectral energy transfer, etc. The second objective is to develop parameterization schemes and models to incorporate compressibility into one-point closure models and into the subgrid scale models for LES techniques. The ultimate purpose of this research is to develop compressible turbulence models which are capable of handling the hypersonic regime. Specifically, the emphasis will be on the model capability of predicting: (1) heat and momentum transfer in hypersonic boundary layers; and (2) mixing and growth of high Mach number shear layers, jet and wakes.

Zeman, O.

1990-01-01

60

Work.  

PubMed

The very nature of work is changing because of rapid social change, a culture of abundance, and the ability to substitute information for equipment, inventory, and other material aspects of value creation. In America, we are experiencing an erosion of the concept of a "job," a dramatic shift to service and information as the basis for value added, market commercialism, and the importance of the self-managed career. In some of these areas, dentistry has been consistent with the patterns of innovation--even being a model in some cases. There are also areas where dentistry is moving in contrary directions. PMID:12602221

Chambers, David W

2002-01-01

61

Contact Hours/ Days/ Credits week 1 week 2 weeks 4 weeks 5 weeks 6 weeks 8 weeks 12 weeks 16 weeks  

E-print Network

16 weeks 800 min/1 credit 5 160 min/day 80 min/day ** ** ** ** ** ** 4 200 min/day 100 min/day 50 min/day ** ** ** ** ** 3 ** 135 min/day 70 min/day 55 min/day ** ** ** ** 2 ** 200 min/day 100 min/day 80 min/day 70 min/day 50 min/day ** ** 1 ** ** 200 min/day 160 min/day 135 min/day 100 min/day 70 min/day 50 min/day 1600

62

CSE week wants you  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Science Education Week (CSEdWeek) is rapidly approaching - December 4--10 2011 - held during the week of Grace Hopper's birthday, December 9, 1906. CSEdWeek is a call to action to raise awareness about computing's societal impact, the richness of computing careers, and the critical need for computer science education. CSEdWeek's goal is to inspire students about this important field,

Debra Richardson; Ruthe Farmer; Cameron Wilson

2011-01-01

63

Video Compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optivision developed two PC-compatible boards and associated software under a Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research grant for NASA applications in areas such as telerobotics, telesciences and spaceborne experimentation. From this technology, the company used its own funds to develop commercial products, the OPTIVideo MPEG Encoder and Decoder, which are used for realtime video compression and decompression. They are used in commercial applications including interactive video databases and video transmission. The encoder converts video source material to a compressed digital form that can be stored or transmitted, and the decoder decompresses bit streams to provide high quality playback.

1996-01-01

64

SCHOLARLY CONCENTRATIONS 8 Weeks 6 Weeks 4 Weeks Selectives Electives  

E-print Network

Obstetrics & Family Medicine Ambulatory Practice (8 weeks) Pediatrics Gynecology Psychiatry Subinternship Surgery Neurology Critical Care Year3,4,[5] Autumn FOUNDATIONS OF MEDICINE I Winter Year2Year1 ·Applied Biochemistry · Genetics · Development & Disease Mechanisms · Basic Cardiac Life Support Gross

Puglisi, Joseph

65

Magnetic flux compression  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic Flux Compression, as treated in this paper, is accomplished by high explosives. Flux is first captured in a closed conducting circuit, of which some or all of the conducting elements are overlaid with high explosives. Upon detonation of the explosives, these elements are driven in such a fashion as to compress the flux into regions of smaller areas or, in engineering terminology, into regions of lower inductance. The magnetic energy associated with the flux is increased by the flux compression. The additional energy is ultimately supplied by the explosive as it drives the conductors against the magnetic field pressure, which in some cases may be in the megabar range. Various names in common use for flux compression devices are flux compression generators (FCG), magneto-cumulative generators (MCG), particularly in the USSR, or simply, flux compressors. FCGs are generally used in two broadly defined categories: as compact, high-power sources to drive various loads: and as generators of very large magnetic fields. In this talk, general principles of flux compression are first discussed. This is followed by a description of several applications in which different types of FCGs are used to supply pulsed power to various devices. The talk closes with a discussion of results obtained from a number of experiments done to explore the properties of materials in very large magnetic fields or under nearly isentropic compression. As requested, the work reported here surveys the Los Alamos program. However, sources cited in the bibliography contain much of the extensive literature in the field. Individual papers cited have been selected partly to highlight other groups that have been active in the field. 25 refs., 15 figs.

Fowler, C.M.

1989-01-01

66

Workplace Flexibility Arrangements A flexible work arrangement can be a useful tool for managers and for exempt and non-exempt employees. It  

E-print Network

PPSM 31 Exhibit A 8/25/08 1 of 1 Workplace Flexibility Arrangements A flexible work arrangement can jams. Some common types of flexible work arrangements are: Compressed Work Week. Fewer work days per, but the start and end times are flexible. There are core hours during which the employee must be present

Leistikow, Bruce N.

67

Compressed Genotyping  

PubMed Central

Over the past three decades we have steadily increased our knowledge on the genetic basis of many severe disorders. Nevertheless, there are still great challenges in applying this knowledge routinely in the clinic, mainly due to the relatively tedious and expensive process of genotyping. Since the genetic variations that underlie the disorders are relatively rare in the population, they can be thought of as a sparse signal. Using methods and ideas from compressed sensing and group testing, we have developed a cost-effective genotyping protocol to detect carriers for severe genetic disorders. In particular, we have adapted our scheme to a recently developed class of high throughput DNA sequencing technologies. The mathematical framework presented here has some important distinctions from the ’traditional’ compressed sensing and group testing frameworks in order to address biological and technical constraints of our setting. PMID:21451737

Erlich, Yaniv; Gordon, Assaf; Brand, Michael; Hannon, Gregory J.; Mitra, Partha P.

2011-01-01

68

Compressive acoustic imaging with metamaterials.  

PubMed

Compressive imaging has brought revolutionary design methodologies to imaging systems. By shuffling and multiplexing the object information space, the imaging system compresses data on the physical layer and enables employing fewer sensors and acquiring less data than traditional isomorphic mapping imaging systems. Recently metamaterials have been investigated for designing compressive imager. Metamaterials are engineered materials with properties that are usually unattainable in nature. Acoustic metamaterials can possess highly anisotropy, strongly dispersion, negative dynamic density, or bulk modulus, and they open up new possibilities of wave-matter interaction and signal modulation. In this work, we designed, fabricated, and tested a metamaterial-based single detector, 360 degree field of view compressive acoustic imager. Local resonator arrays are design to resonate randomly in both spatial and spectrum dimensions to favor compressive imaging task. The presented experimental results show that with only about 60 measured values, the imager is able to reconstruct a scene of more than 1000 sampling points in space, achieving a compression ratio of about 20:1. Multiple static and moving target imaging task were performed with this low cost, single detector, non-mechanical scanning compressive imager. Our work paves the way for designing metamaterials based compressive acoustic imaging system. PMID:25235981

Xie, Yangbo; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Brady, David J; Cummer, Steven A

2014-04-01

69

Banned Books Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Next week is Banned Books Week, and the American Library Association (ALA) offers this site giving background on Banned Books Week and censorship as well as resources to help teachers, librarians, and booksellers observe the week. Once again, the Harry Potter series tops this year's list of most challenged books. At the ALA site, users will find the complete list as well as the most challenged books of the past decade. In addition, the site hosts a press kit, resources for sale to celebrate the week, links to other banned books sites, and a page on book burning.

2000-01-01

70

This program is an opportunity for Cal Teach undergraduates to work intensively in a team environment for one month in COSMOS, a four-week intensive science, math, and engineering  

E-print Network

environment for one month in COSMOS, a four-week intensive science, math, and engineering summer residential hours a week for four weeks. This internship is a special opportunity for Cal Teach students. The Cal Teach Cluster Assistants, who will be teaching STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) in K-12

Kritsuk, Alexei

71

Problem of the Week Blog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog posts a weekly free problem scenario from The Math Forum inspired by current PoWs, student work, or daily encounters. The bloggers goal is to have the public read the posts and use the Notice-Wonder strategy to identify the mathematics in the post. The blog also contains reader comments and feedback.

Forum, Annie F.; Forum, Max R.

2013-01-01

72

Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats 8). Effects of daily subcutaneous administration of reserpine on spermatogenesis for 2 and 4 weeks.  

PubMed

To obtain information on the validity and the limitations of 2-weeks repeated-dose toxicity studies to detect effects on the male genital organs of rats, reserpine was administered daily at 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection to Crj:CD(SD)IGS male rats for 2 and 4 weeks (2-weeks and 4-weeks studies). In the 2-weeks study, suppression of body weight gain was observed in the reserpine 0.1 mg/kg group. In the 4-weeks study, suppression of body weight gain and a decrease in prostate weight were observed in the reserpine 0.1 mg/kg group. Slight to moderate retention of step 19 spermatids in the seminiferous tubules (stages IX-XI) was observed in a few animals of both the reserpine 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg groups in both the 2- and 4-weeks studies. However, seminiferous tubule atrophy with degeneration of germ sells was observed sporadically not only in the reserpine groups but also in the control group, and this change might have been the cause of the spermatid retention. Therefore, we were unable to reach a clear conclusion with regard to whether it is possible to detect reserpine toxicity on spermatogenesis in rats after 2-weeks administration. PMID:11349459

Kawamura, N; Tsutsumi, S; Takeshita, S

2000-10-01

73

COMPRESSION WAVES AND PHASE PLOTS: SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Compression wave analysis started nearly 50 years ago with Fowles. Coperthwaite and Williams gave a method that helps identify simple and steady waves. We have been developing a method that gives describes the non-isentropic character of compression waves, in general. One result of that work is a simple analysis tool. Our method helps clearly identify when a compression wave is a simple wave, a steady wave (shock), and when the compression wave is in transition. This affects the analysis of compression wave experiments and the resulting extraction of the high-pressure equation of state.

Orlikowski, D; Minich, R

2011-08-01

74

Progressive compressive imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and built a working automatic progressive sampling imaging system based on the vector sensor concept, which utilizes a unique sampling scheme of Radon projections. This sampling scheme makes it possible to progressively add information resulting in tradeoff between compression and the quality of reconstruction. The uniqueness of our sampling is that in any moment of the acquisition process the reconstruction can produce a reasonable version of the image. The advantage of the gradual addition of the samples is seen when the sparsity rate of the object is unknown, and thus the number of needed measurements. We have developed the iterative algorithm OSO (Ordered Sets Optimization) which employs our sampling scheme for creation of nearly uniform distributed sets of samples, which allows the reconstruction of Mega-Pixel images. We present the good quality reconstruction from compressed data ratios of 1:20.

Evladov, Sergei; Levi, Ofer; Stern, Adrian

2012-06-01

75

Solar Week Friday: Blog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a blog entry about the process by which rocket payloads are assembled prior to launch. It was written by one of the female team members associated with a NASA sounding rocket launch program. The blog entry reading is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

76

this work, we examine acoustic feature changes in time-compressed speech processed using synchronized overlap-add SOLA method. Also,  

E-print Network

-recognition with cochlear implants. Work supported by NIDCD Grant DC03808. 4aPP12. Effects of short-term training. Correlation of speech recognition by cochlear implant users with metrics based on thresholds and loudness is a persistent character- istic of cochlear implant users, despite significant improvements in aver- age

Russell, Daniel A.

77

Weekly Epidemiological Record  

MedlinePLUS

... Français ??????? Español RSS Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) Menu WER Home ... Follow WHO on Twitter WHO Facebook page WHO Google+ page WHO iTunes © WHO 2014 Back to top

78

MotorWeek  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2009-01-01

79

MotorWeek  

ScienceCinema

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2013-04-19

80

National Wildlife Week 2002  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

April 7-13, 2002, is Canada's National Wildlife Week. The week, a tribute to conservation pioneer Jack Miner, is an opportunity for citizens to "celebrate wildlife and take action to protect wild plants and animals." In addition to a calendar of events across Canada, the celebration's home page features 20 things that anyone can do to protect wildlife, as well as games, activities, and fact sheets focused on this year's theme -- Climate Change.

2001-01-01

81

FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.  

PubMed

In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware. PMID:24524158

Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

2013-01-01

82

Compression of Cake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fall university physics class, at McMurry University, created a compression modulus experiment that even high school students could do. The class came up with this idea after a Young's modulus experiment which involved stretching wire. A question was raised of what would happen if we compressed something else? We created our own Young's modulus experiment, but in a more entertaining way. The experiment involves measuring the height of a cake both before and after a weight has been applied to the cake. We worked to derive the compression modulus by applying weight to a cake. In the end, we had our experimental cake and, ate it too! To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.TSS.B1.1

83

Working Women Working Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working Women Working Together, a site created by the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), focuses on the wag gap. On average, American working women make $0.74 for every dollar earned by men, meaning that working women make an average of $148 dollars a week less than men. Working Women Working Together contains several fact sheets and data tables which compare salaries between men and women, as well as project the impact that equal pay would have on American families. The site also contains annotated links, several email distribution lists, and fact sheets on related topics including the world wage gap, retirement, and flexible work schedules.

84

Conductor For The Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now that you are enrolled in seminary, it\\'s time to learn how to lead music! You\\'re assignment for the next trimester is to lead the music for one week. You will receive a handout designating which week. Imagine you have been selected by the Boston Pops orchestra to be the guest conductor for one song at the performance tomorrow night. They arent sure which song theyll have you conduct. You must prepare yourself to lead by becoming familiar with the time signature, the beat and ...

Iii, Professor E.

2005-11-28

85

Generic Quantum Block Compression  

E-print Network

A generic approach for compiling any classical block compression algorithm into a quantum block compression algorithm is presented. Using this technique, compression asymptoticaly approaching the von Neumann entropy of a qubit source can be achieved. The automatically compiled algorithms are competitive (in time and space complexity) with hand constructed quantum block compression algorithms.

John Langford

2001-09-17

86

Turbulence in Compressible Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.

1997-01-01

87

Earth Science Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the American Geological Institute, features information about Earth Science Week, which occurs October 8-14 in 2006. Discover ideas about how you and others can become scientifically literate citizens. The site features information for both teachers and students, as well as information about planning earth science events and classroom activities.

Institute, American G.

88

The Weekly Defense Monitor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new free electronic publication by the Center for Defense Information will bring readers a few short articles on various military and foreign affairs issues each week. Recent topics included an arms trade code of conduct introduced in the Senate, US base closures and the military force structure, and the cost of defending Western Europe.

1997-01-01

89

Brain Awareness Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Awareness Week (BAW) is an inspirational global campaign that unites those who share an interest in elevating public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain and nervous system research. BAW focuses international attention on the field of neuroscience and offers opportunities for teachers and students to engage in fun educational activities.

Sf (Society for Neuroscience)

2005-05-01

90

Visible Embryo: 26 weeks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

a comprehensive resource of information on human development at 26 weeks of gestation, designed for both medical student and interested lay people. The Visible Embryo offers a detailed pictorial account of normal and abnormal development. This is a subset of a larger site.

Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

2006-11-01

91

Visible Embryo: 14 weeks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

a comprehensive resource of information on human development at 14 weeks of gestation (80-90mm, 25g), designed for both medical student and interested lay people. The Visible Embryo offers a detailed pictorial account of normal and abnormal development. This is a subset of a larger site.

Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

2006-10-31

92

Phun Week: Understanding Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

2009-01-01

93

A Week of Observations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even the most effective teachers have room to grow, but it's not always easy for principals to give adequate guidance through short observations. High school principal Jenne Colasacco decided to bring more depth to her observations by observing each of her teachers during one class for an entire week. The new observation structure, which included…

Colasacco, Jenne

2011-01-01

94

A Week for Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Space Week focuses on concepts that enable students to make concrete observations in the early grades (K-2) and move to concepts that help students develop their internet research and writing skills in middle and upper grades (Grades 3-5), and culminates with the development of science investigation design skills (Grade 6). To help launch your…

Comstock, Diane

2008-01-01

95

30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.  

...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

2014-07-01

96

30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

2010-07-01

97

PDF approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present work is to develop a probability density function (pdf) turbulence model for compressible reacting flows for use with a CFD flow solver. The probability density function of the species mass fraction and enthalpy are obtained by solving a pdf evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The pdf solution procedure is coupled with a compressible

A. T. Hsu; Y.-L. P. Tsai; M. S. Raju

1993-01-01

98

Week Calendar 7  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Week Calendar is a great app that allows visitors to create a dynamic and collaborative calendar, allowing the user to elaborate on meetings, planning sessions, or busy activity schedules. One remarkable features is Travel Time which smartly acquires the time it will take to travel between calendar events with locations. The site contains a great FAQ area along with several tutorials. This version is compatible with iPhones running iOS 7.

2013-12-12

99

Chemical of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri at the University of Wisconsin-Madison adds a new chemical to this page every week. The site was created for his general chemistry courses, Chem 103 and Chem 104, to increase students' knowledge about various chemicals and their use. Users can view featured chemicals from the currently updated fall course (103) or from the spring course (104). The chemicals featured thus far include: lime, methane, uranium, the chemistry of autumn colors, and gases that emit light.

Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

2007-05-30

100

Weekly Current Event  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This link provides resources to facilitate students finding current events using multimedia. It provides the questions to be answered for the weekly assignment and provides appropriate links to resources providing current events from around the world. Current Event Questions to Respond to: 1. What is the \\"event\\"? 2. Where did your event take place? city/town: longitude and latitude: hemisphere: continent: country: one country that borders the country: language(s) spoken: 3. How did ...

Valdez, Mrs.

2007-06-12

101

Microfabricated Optical Compressive Load Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate novel optically-addressable compressive load sensors consisting of bulk micromachined single-crystal silicon transducers integrated with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing elements. These devices constitute a new class of compact optical sensors realized through the integration of mechanical components constructed via microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication technologies and strain sensitive elements based on FBGs. In this work we present experimental results

Garrett D. Cole; Jack Kotovsky; Kevin L. Lin; Holly E. Petersen

2007-01-01

102

Achondroplasia and Cervicomedullary Compression: Prospective Evaluation and Surgical Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between sudden death and cervicomedullary compression in infants with achondroplasia has been well described. Prospective clinical and imaging evaluations have been recommended to identify those infants with achondroplasia who are at risk of dying suddenly from respiratory arrest secondary to unrecognized cervicomedullary compression. Since 1988, we have prospectively evaluated 11 infants (average age 13 weeks) with achondroplasia who

Glenn L. Keiper Jr.; Bernadette Koch; Kerry R. Crone

1999-01-01

103

Futures Week. Middle School Program. Instructor's Guidebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide outlines a model program designed to provide middle school students with an opportunity to participate in exploratory activities regarding the world of work and to understand the relationships between education and work. Described in the first part of the manual are the following futures week activities: a job interviewing…

Smith, Armenia

104

Optimizing XML Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) provides a powerful and flexible means of encoding and exchanging data. As it turns out, its main advantage as an encoding format (namely, its requirement that all open and close markup tags are present and properly balanced) yields also one of its main disadvantages: verbosity. XML-conscious compression techniques seek to overcome this drawback. Many of these techniques first separate XML structure from the document content, and then compress each independently. Further compression gains can be realized by identifying and compressing together document content that is highly similar, thereby amortizing the storage costs of auxiliary information required by the chosen compression algorithm. Additionally, the proper choice of compression algorithm is an important factor not only for the achievable compression gain, but also for access performance. Hence, choosing a compression configuration that optimizes compression gain requires one to determine (1) a partitioning strategy for document content, and (2) the best available compression algorithm to apply to each set within this partition. In this paper, we show that finding an optimal compression configuration with respect to compression gain is an NP-hard optimization problem. This problem remains intractable even if one considers a single compression algorithm for all content. We also describe an approximation algorithm for selecting a partitioning strategy for document content based on the branch-and-bound paradigm.

Leighton, Gregory; Barbosa, Denilson

105

Population dynamics in compressible flows  

E-print Network

Organisms often grow, migrate and compete in liquid environments, as well as on solid surfaces. However, relatively little is known about what happens when competing species are mixed and compressed by fluid turbulence. In these lectures we review our recent work on population dynamics and population genetics in compressible velocity fields of one and two dimensions. We discuss why compressible turbulence is relevant for population dynamics in the ocean and we consider cases both where the velocity field is turbulent and when it is static. Furthermore, we investigate populations in terms of a continuos density field and when the populations are treated via discrete particles. In the last case we focus on the competition and fixation of one species compared to another

Roberto Benzi; Mogens H. Jensen; David R. Nelson; Prasad Perlekar; Simone Pigolotti; Federico Toschi

2012-03-28

106

Highlights From PhUn Week 2009  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist highlighting Physiology Understanding (PhUn) Week 2009, which was held the first week of November and reached nearly 10,000 students from kindergarten through twelfth grade. "Forty events across the nation were coordinated by more than 250 APS members and scientists who volunteered their expertise and time to work with close to 170 teachers and science educators across 24 states and Puerto Rico."

2010-04-01

107

Solar Week: Learning from Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Week is a week-long set of games and activities allowing students to interact directly with solar science and solar scientists. Solar Week was developed as a spin-off of the highly successful Yohkoh Public Outreach Project (YPOP). While YPOP provided access to solar images, movies and activities, the main goal of Solar Week was to enhance the participation of women,

D. Alexander; K. Hauck

2003-01-01

108

Vertebral Compression Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

Living with OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures Compression fractures are a common, painful problem for children and adults who have OI. This occurs when an injury causes the spinal bone ...

109

Collaborative work on evaluation of ovarian toxicity. 13) Two- or four-week repeated dose studies and fertility study of PPAR alpha/gamma dual agonist in female rats.  

PubMed

The main focus of this study was to determine the optimal dosing period in a repeated dose toxicity study based on toxic effects as assessed by ovarian morphological changes. To assess morphological and functional changes induced in the ovary by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha/gamma dual agonist, the compound was administered to female rats at dose levels of 0, 4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day in a repeated dose toxicity study for 2 or 4 weeks, and from 2 weeks prior to mating to Day 7 of pregnancy in a female fertility study. In the repeated dose toxicity study, an increase in atresia of large follicles, a decrease in corpora lutea, and an increase in stromal cells were observed in the treated groups. In addition, the granulosa cell exfoliations into antrum of large follicles and corpora lutea with retained oocyte are morphological characteristics induced by this compound, and they might be related with abnormal condition of ovulation. In the female fertility study, the pregnancy rate tended to decrease in the 100 mg/kg/day group. At necropsy, decreases in the number of corpora lutea, implantations and live embryos were noted in the 20 and 100 mg/kg/day group. No changes were observed in animals given 4 mg/kg/day. These findings indicated that histopathological changes in the ovary are important endpoints for evaluation of drugs inducing ovarian damage. In conclusion, a 2-week administration period is sufficient to detect ovarian toxicity of this test compound in the repeated dose toxicity study. PMID:19265280

Sato, Norihiro; Uchida, Keisuke; Nakajima, Mikio; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kohira, Terutomo

2009-01-01

110

Comparison of the effectiveness of compression stockings and layer compression systems in venous ulceration treatment  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the research was to compare the dynamics of venous ulcer healing when treated with the use of compression stockings as well as original two- and four-layer bandage systems. Material and methods A group of 46 patients suffering from venous ulcers was studied. This group consisted of 36 (78.3%) women and 10 (21.70%) men aged between 41 and 88 years (the average age was 66.6 years and the median was 67). Patients were randomized into three groups, for treatment with the ProGuide two-layer system, Profore four-layer compression, and with the use of compression stockings class II. In the case of multi-layer compression, compression ensuring 40 mmHg blood pressure at ankle level was used. Results In all patients, independently of the type of compression therapy, a few significant statistical changes of ulceration area in time were observed (Student’s t test for matched pairs, p < 0.05). The largest loss of ulceration area in each of the successive measurements was observed in patients treated with the four-layer system – on average 0.63 cm2/per week. The smallest loss of ulceration area was observed in patients using compression stockings – on average 0.44 cm2/per week. However, the observed differences were not statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test H = 4.45, p > 0.05). Conclusions A systematic compression therapy, applied with preliminary blood pressure of 40 mmHg, is an effective method of conservative treatment of venous ulcers. Compression stockings and prepared systems of multi-layer compression were characterized by similar clinical effectiveness. PMID:22419941

Jawien, Arkadiusz; Cierzniakowska, Katarzyna; Cwajda-Bialasik, Justyna; Moscicka, Paulina

2010-01-01

111

Microbunching and RF Compression  

SciTech Connect

Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

2010-05-23

112

Compressed Air Supply Efficiency  

E-print Network

COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY EFFICENCY Babu Joseph, Ph.D., P.E. Engineer Southern California Edison Irwindale, CA ABSTRACT This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency...COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY EFFICENCY Babu Joseph, Ph.D., P.E. Engineer Southern California Edison Irwindale, CA ABSTRACT This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency...

Joseph, B.

2004-01-01

113

Compressed gas manifold  

DOEpatents

A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

2001-01-01

114

Data Compression Debra A. Lelewer and Daniel S. Hirschberg  

E-print Network

and Human in the late 40's to a technique developed in 1986. The aim of data compression is to reduce of data compression methods spanning almost forty years of research, from the work of Shannon, Fano theory, as they relate to the goals and evaluation of data compression methods, are discussed brie y

Hirschberg, Dan

115

The First Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the first week of class, strive to create an atmosphere of mutual trust and respect. This gives the students a chance to get to know you as a person, and you will also get to know them in the process. A key challenge is to make students feel comfortable with science, which many view as difficult to understand and unimportant to their daily lives. The variety of inquiry-based writing assignments and activities described in this section will help students build confidence in their abilities and convince them of the relevance of science. This free selection from the series, How to... Write to Learn Science includes the Table of Contents and two bonus sections.

Tierney, Bob; Dorroh, John

2004-01-01

116

Engineers Week: Future City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Engineers Week Future City Competition provides âÂÂa fun and exciting educational engineering program for seventh- and eighth-grade students that combines a stimulating engineering challenge with a âÂÂhands-onâ application to present their vision of a city of the future.â The competition is intended to foster engineering skills, such as teamwork, communication and problem solving skills, as well as to inspire students to explore future careers in engineering. Using the commercial software SIMCITY to design their ideal city, students interact with each other, and with teachers and engineer mentors and also learn about the multi-disciplines within the engineering profession. The website has more information about the competition, as well as a handbook providing helpful tips and techniques. Examples of accomplishments from previous competitions are posted and CD-ROM video is available from regional coordinators to give more background on the competition.

117

Compressively sensed complex networks.  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to develop low dimension parametric (deterministic) models of complex networks, to use compressive sensing (CS) and multiscale analysis to do so and to exploit the structure of complex networks (some are self-similar under coarsening). CS provides a new way of sampling and reconstructing networks. The approach is based on multiresolution decomposition of the adjacency matrix and its efficient sampling. It requires preprocessing of the adjacency matrix to make it 'blocky' which is the biggest (combinatorial) algorithm challenge. Current CS reconstruction algorithm makes no use of the structure of a graph, its very general (and so not very efficient/customized). Other model-based CS techniques exist, but not yet adapted to networks. Obvious starting point for future work is to increase the efficiency of reconstruction.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Ray, Jaideep; Pinar, Ali

2010-07-01

118

Compression gain aspects of JPEG image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of still image compression algorithms developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is becoming an international standard. Here we apply a methodology to study the compression obtained by each step of the three-step baseline sequential algorithm. We present results, observations, and analysis on simulating the JPEG sequential baseline system. The primary compression gain comes from run-length coding of zero coefficients. Based on our simulator, a comparison of Huffman coding, WNC arithmetic coding, and the LZW algorithm is also included.

Chang, Manyun; Langdon, Glen G., Jr.; Murphy, James L.

1992-05-01

119

ROYAL HOLLOWAY INTERNATIONAL 8-week and 4-week  

E-print Network

ROYAL HOLLOWAY INTERNATIONAL 8-week and 4-week Pre-sessional English Language Programme Student Handbook 2013/14 #12;Telephone +44 (0)1784 276629 Royal Holloway International Royal Holloway, University

Royal Holloway, University of London

120

Pregnancy Calendar: A Week-by-Week Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... Pregnancy Calendar > A Week-by-Week Pregnancy Calendar Print A A A ... is an exciting time, but with so much pregnancy information available in books, in magazines, and on websites, how can you hope to ...

121

Does Work Experience Actually Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As unemployment levels rise, so education and training move into the policy spotlight. For the government, this is a very uncomfortable place to be right now. A number of large companies have withdrawn from the flagship Work Programme--under which jobseekers are invited to take up unpaid work placements of between two and eight weeks--amid…

Field, John

2012-01-01

122

Biosafety Recommendations for Work with Influenza Viruses Containing a Hemagglutinin from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 62, Number 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CDC and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) manual describes biosafety recommendations for work involving highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) US Department of Health and Human Servic...

2013-01-01

123

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations Week 1 Report: 1. Write at and what kind of formatting expections apply. 9. Note: Keep copies of your reports and NMR's and GC Report Expectations for students who did Scheme 4: Do as much as you can from the instructions above

Jasperse, Craig P.

124

75 FR 10993 - Save Your Vision Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8483 of March 5, 2010 Save Your Vision Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...treatment of eye conditions. Save Your Vision Week is a time for all Americans to take action...performing household chores and yard work. This week, I encourage all Americans to visit...

2010-03-10

125

75 FR 48853 - National Health Center Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8545--National Health Center Week, 2010 Presidential Documents Federal Register...August 5, 2010 National Health Center Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...preventive care. During National Health Center Week, we recognize the important work of...

2010-08-11

126

10 Weeks of Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

11 June 2004 These four Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images show north polar sand dunes as they appeared on four different days over the past ten weeks. In summer, the dunes would be darker than the substrate on which they occur. However, it is currently spring in the northern hemisphere, and the dunes are still covered with frost from the previous winter. The MGS MOC has been busy over the past several months, documenting the changes in frost patterns that occur on dunes and interdune substrates all over the north polar region. The site shown here was imaged on 30 March, 23 April, 16 May, and 9 June 2004. The bright frost that covers the dunes progressively changes from one image to the next, as dark spots develop and frost sublimes away. This defrosting dune monitor site is located near 80.0oN, 237.5oW. Each strip is about 1.1 km (0.7 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2004-01-01

127

The New CCSDS Image Compression Recommendation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) data compression working group has recently adopted a recommendation for image data compression, with a final release expected in 2005. The algorithm adopted in the recommendation consists a two dimensional discrete wavelet transform of the image, followed by progressive bit-plane coding of the transformed data. The algorithm can provide both lossless and lossy compression, and allows a user to directly control the compressed data volume or the fidelity with which the wavelet-transformed data can be reconstructed. The algorithm is suitable for both frame-based image data and scan-based sensor data, and has applications for near-earth and deep-space missions. The standard will be accompanied by free software sources on a future web site. An ASIC implementation of the compressor is currently under development. This paper describes the compression algorithm along with the requirements that drove the selection of the algorithm.

Yeh, Pen-Shu; Armbruster, Philippe; Kiely, Aaron B.; Masschelein, Bart; Moury, Gilles; Schafer, Christoph

2004-01-01

128

Why Computer Science Ed Week?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Science Education Week (CSEdWeek) is a call to action to raise awareness about computing careers and the critical need to elevate computer science education at all levels. The 2nd annual CSEdWeek, which took place December 5--11, 2010, was a smashing success, thanks to incredible partner support, a new website, and engagement from the computing community. About 280 CSEdWeek-related events

Debra Richardson; Ruthe Farmer

2011-01-01

129

SWW1 -Week 1 School of Computer Science  

E-print Network

SWW1 - Week 1 Peter Tino School of Computer Science University of Birmingham UK SWW1 - Week 1 ­ p.1 that do their job well and keep working? SWW1 - Week 1 ­ p.4/6 #12;Computer Science Formal verification (theoretical computer science). SWW1 - Week 1 ­ p.5/6 #12;Algorithms Raw material of SE and CS. We can make

Tino, Peter

130

Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating three-dimensional, steady and unsteady, laminar and turbulent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared in this work. Each method is described in detail along with appropriate physical and numerical boundary conditions. Analysis of well-posedness and numerical solutions to test problems for each method are provided. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, stability and robustness is used to establish the relative positive and negative characteristics of each method.

Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

2003-01-01

131

Parallel image compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parallel compression algorithm for the 16,384 processor MPP machine was developed. The serial version of the algorithm can be viewed as a combination of on-line dynamic lossless test compression techniques (which employ simple learning strategies) and vector quantization. These concepts are described. How these concepts are combined to form a new strategy for performing dynamic on-line lossy compression is discussed. Finally, the implementation of this algorithm in a massively parallel fashion on the MPP is discussed.

Reif, John H.

1987-01-01

132

Image Compression Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some one-dimensional lossy image compression schemes. To perform one-dimensional com- pression, an image is scanned into a one-dimensional array which is then compressed. Three types of scanning are con- sidered: raster scan, Hilbert scan, and binary scan. Hilbert and binary scan are found to outperform raster scan. The methods considered for compression are integer wavelet transforms, a

Joseph Modayil; Howard Cheng; Xiaobo Li

133

Biological sequence compression algorithms.  

PubMed

Today, more and more DNA sequences are becoming available. The information about DNA sequences are stored in molecular biology databases. The size and importance of these databases will be bigger and bigger in the future, therefore this information must be stored or communicated efficiently. Furthermore, sequence compression can be used to define similarities between biological sequences. The standard compression algorithms such as gzip or compress cannot compress DNA sequences, but only expand them in size. On the other hand, CTW (Context Tree Weighting Method) can compress DNA sequences less than two bits per symbol. These algorithms do not use special structures of biological sequences. Two characteristic structures of DNA sequences are known. One is called palindromes or reverse complements and the other structure is approximate repeats. Several specific algorithms for DNA sequences that use these structures can compress them less than two bits per symbol. In this paper, we improve the CTW so that characteristic structures of DNA sequences are available. Before encoding the next symbol, the algorithm searches an approximate repeat and palindrome using hash and dynamic programming. If there is a palindrome or an approximate repeat with enough length then our algorithm represents it with length and distance. By using this preprocessing, a new program achieves a little higher compression ratio than that of existing DNA-oriented compression algorithms. We also describe new compression algorithm for protein sequences. PMID:11700586

Matsumoto, T; Sadakane, K; Imai, H

2000-01-01

134

Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard associated with compressed gas cylinders and methods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

2005-05-15

135

Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

Lee C. Cadwallader

2004-09-01

136

ECG signal compression using compressive sensing and wavelet transform.  

PubMed

Compressed Sensing (CS) is a novel approach of reconstructing a sparse signal much below the significant Nyquist rate of sampling. Due to the fact that ECG signals can be well approximated by the few linear combinations of wavelet basis, this work introduces a comparison of the reconstructed 10 ECG signals based on different wavelet families, by evaluating the performance measures as MSE (Mean Square Error), PSNR (Peak Signal To Noise Ratio), PRD (Percentage Root Mean Square Difference) and CoC (Correlation Coefficient). Reconstruction of the ECG signal is a linear optimization process which considers the sparsity in the wavelet domain. L1 minimization is used as the recovery algorithm. The reconstruction results are comprehensively analyzed for three compression ratios, i.e. 2?1, 4?1, and 6?1. The results indicate that reverse biorthogonal wavelet family can give better results for all CRs compared to other families. PMID:23366657

Mishra, Akanksha; Thakkar, Falgun; Modi, Chintan; Kher, Rahul

2012-01-01

137

Morphological changes in compressible foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss statistical and morphological properties of foams with compressible ideal gas within the bubbles. Usually in the mechanics of foams it is assumed that gas within the bubbles is incompressible. However, if we admit a compressible gas, and if we consider the full range of parameters, so that the surface tension energy is comparable to the work required to compress or expand a bubble, a variety of new phenomena arise. Principal among these is a transition to morphologies that are quite different from those seen with incompressible foams. For small compressibility, all bubbles of the foam are of comparable size. As compressibility becomes larger, a, large number of the bubbles collapse and form clusters of very small bubbles, which are immersed in a background of a few very big bubbles. We present the results of a numerical and analytical study of the behavior of compressible foams for various physical conditions. We derive the expression for the free energy, and prove the equation of state using two different approaches: one based on methods from statistical physics, the other based on differential geometry. We discuss two different states of a foam. In one state, where the surface tension is small compared with the compressibility of gas, the foam is in a relatively uniform configuration. We discuss two different approximations of the equation of state for this type of configurations. We show why uniform configurations lose stability when the parameters of the foam reach a certain limit. We show that the geometrical instability causes a morphological change analogous to a phase transition that leads to a nonuniform configuration (the second possible state), and give a qualitative description of this transition. We introduce a model free energy, assuming the bubbles in the foam to come in just two sizes and calculate its global minimum for different values of the parameters. We then consider the transition in more detail and show how some subtle factors of the foam's structure and the parameters of the numerical simulations influence the properties of the transformation and the statistics of the foam in the nonuniform state.

Vainchtein, Dmitri Leonidovich

138

The compressive strength properties of mineral wool slabs: Influence of structure anisotropy and methodical factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the research on the structure and compressive stress or compressive strength of mineral wool products. The products of chaotic, directional and combinative fibres structure have been studied visually and microscopically. During mechanical tests it was determined that compressive stress (compressive strength) of the stone wool products is dependent on the direction of the load working to the

Andrius Buska; Romualdas Ma?iulaitis

2007-01-01

139

Solar Week: Learning from Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar Week is a week-long set of games and activities allowing students to interact directly with solar science and solar scientists. Solar Week was developed as a spin-off of the highly successful Yohkoh Public Outreach Project (YPOP). While YPOP provided access to solar images, movies and activities, the main goal of Solar Week was to enhance the participation of women, who are under-represented in the physical sciences. Solar Week achieves this by providing young women, primarily in grades 6-8, with access to role models in the sciences. The scientists participating in Solar Week are women from a variety of backgrounds and with a variety of scientific expertise. In this paper, our aim is to provide some insight into developing activity-based space science for the web and to discuss the lessons-learned from tailoring to a specific group of participants.

Alexander, D.; Hauck, K.

2003-12-01

140

Distributed Compressive Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed sensing is an emerging field based on the revelation that a small collection of linear projections of a sparse signal contains enough information for reconstruction. In this paper we introduce a new theory for distributed compressed sensing (DCS) that enables new distributed coding algorithms for multi-signal ensembles that exploit both intra- and inter-signal correlation structures. The DCS theory rests

Dror Baron; Marco F. Duarte; Michael B. Wakin; Shriram Sarvotham; Richard G. Baraniuk

2009-01-01

141

Best Basis Compressed Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an extension of compressed sensing that allows to express the sparsity prior in a dictionary of bases. This enables the use of the random sampling strategy of compressed sensing together with an adaptive recovery process that adapts the basis to the structure of the sensed signal. A fast greedy scheme is used during reconstruction to estimate the

Gabriel Peyré

2007-01-01

142

Best basis compressed sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a best basis extension of compressed sensing recovery. Instead of regularizing the compressed sensing inverse problem with a sparsity prior in a fixed basis, our framework makes use of sparsity in a tree-structured dictionary of orthogonal bases. A new iterative thresholding algorithm performs both the recovery of the signal and the estimation of the best basis. The

Gabriel Peyre

2010-01-01

143

Solar Week Tuesday: Scavenger Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online game associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a scavenger hunt game to allow learners to review science concepts covered in previous activities. This game is scheduled to occur during Tuesday of Solar Week.

144

Solar Week Wednesday: Scavenger Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online game associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a scavenger hunt game to allow learners to review science concepts covered in previous activities. This game is scheduled to occur during Wednesday of Solar Week.

145

Scalable Communication Trace Compression  

SciTech Connect

Characterizing the communication behavior of parallel programs through tracing can help understand an application’s characteristics, model its performance, and predict behavior on future systems. However, lossless communication traces can get prohibitively large, causing programmers to resort to variety of other techniques. In this paper, we present a novel approach to lossless communication trace compression. We augment the sequitur compression algorithm to employ it in communication trace compression of parallel programs. We present optimizations to reduce the memory overhead, reduce size of the trace files generated, and enable compression across multiple processes in a parallel program. The evaluation shows improved compression and reduced overhead over other approaches, with up to 3 orders of magnitude improvement for the NAS MG benchmark. We also observe that, unlike existing schemes, the trace files sizes and the memory overhead incurred are less sensitive to, if not independent of, the problem size for the NAS benchmarks.

Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agarwal, Khushbu

2010-05-17

146

ROYAL HOLLOWAY INTERNATIONAL 8 WEEK and 4 WEEK  

E-print Network

ROYAL HOLLOWAY INTERNATIONAL 8 WEEK and 4 WEEK PRE-SESSIONAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROGRAMME STUDENT to the Department 1.1 Welcome Welcome to Royal Holloway International! We are pleased you have decided to study months. Royal Holloway International (RHI) is a recently established department which unites a number

Royal Holloway, University of London

147

This Week in the History of Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written and produced by Professor Christopher D. Green of York University, "This Week in the History of Psychology" is a delightful and engaging podcast series. Its intended audience is students in university level courses on the history of psychology, but a wide variety of persons will find the work here compelling. Each week Professor Green has an interview with an expert who talks about a key event from the annals of psychology. The interviews begin with a short overview of said event, along with a celebration of the week's birthdays and other related anniversaries from the world of psychology. Currently the site has several dozen interviews, including discussions on Freud's only trip to the United States and Emil Kraeplelin, the man behind the modern categories of mental illness.

Green, Christopher D.

148

Aerodynamics inside a rapid compression machine  

SciTech Connect

The aerodynamics inside a rapid compression machine after the end of compression is investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone. To study the effect of reaction chamber configuration on the resulting aerodynamics and temperature field, experiments are conducted and compared using a creviced piston and a flat piston under varying conditions. Results show that the flat piston design leads to significant mixing of the cold vortex with the hot core region, which causes alternate hot and cold regions inside the combustion chamber. At higher pressures, the effect of the vortex is reduced. The creviced piston head configuration is demonstrated to result in drastic reduction of the effect of the vortex. Experimental conditions are also simulated using the Star-CD computational fluid dynamics package. Computed results closely match with experimental observation. Numerical results indicate that with a flat piston design, gas velocity after compression is very high and the core region shrinks quickly due to rapid entrainment of cold gases. Whereas, for a creviced piston head design, gas velocity after compression is significantly lower and the core region remains unaffected for a long duration. As a consequence, for the flat piston, adiabatic core assumption can significantly overpredict the maximum temperature after the end of compression. For the creviced piston, the adiabatic core assumption is found to be valid even up to 100 ms after compression. This work therefore experimentally and numerically substantiates the importance of piston head design for achieving a homogeneous core region inside a rapid compression machine. (author)

Mittal, Gaurav; Sung, Chih-Jen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

2006-04-15

149

Personal Tutor Agenda Fourth Week  

E-print Network

Personal Tutor Agenda Fourth Week - Each Personal Tutor arranges a meeting with students who were assigned to him/her to receive their notes, concerns and get acquainted with their problems. Personal tutor to the Quality Committee. The meeting should take place before the end of the fifth week. - Each Personal Tutor

150

Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks  

MedlinePLUS

... early? • Why is it not a good idea to have an elective labor induction or cesarean delivery before 39 weeks? • What are the risks associated ... problems Why is it not a good idea to have an elective labor induction or cesarean delivery before 39 weeks? Health care professionals recommend that ...

151

Bloomberg Business Week: Small Business  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Business Week magazine, Business Week Frontier is a new resource center for small business owners. The News Center covers current issues from the perspective of small business owners and an array of columns provide advice, website recommendations, and book excerpts. Other resources include financial calculators, a glossary of terms, and market research links.

1999-01-01

152

Compressibility Effects in Aeronautical Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compressible-flow research, while a relatively new field in aeronautics, is very old, dating back almost to the development of the first firearm. Over the last hundred years, researches have been conducted in the ballistics field, but these results have been of practically no use in aeronautical engineering because the phenomena that have been studied have been the more or less steady supersonic condition of flow. Some work that has been done in connection with steam turbines, particularly nozzle studies, has been of value, In general, however, understanding of compressible-flow phenomena has been very incomplete and permitted no real basis for the solution of aeronautical engineering problems in which.the flow is likely to be unsteady because regions of both subsonic and supersonic speeds may occur. In the early phases of the development of the airplane, speeds were so low that the effects of compressibility could be justifiably ignored. During the last war and immediately after, however, propellers exhibited losses in efficiency as the tip speeds approached the speed of sound, and the first experiments of an aeronautical nature were therefore conducted with propellers. Results of these experiments indicated serious losses of efficiency, but aeronautical engineers were not seriously concerned at the time became it was generally possible. to design propellers with quite low tip. speeds. With the development of new engines having increased power and rotational speeds, however, the problems became of increasing importance.

Stack, John

1941-01-01

153

Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.  

PubMed

A 10??MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2???s. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}. PMID:24949772

Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

2014-06-01

154

Focus on Compression Stockings  

MedlinePLUS

... or control edema (leg swelling). These items of clothing may be stockings sleeves, pantyhose or leotards, depending ... wrinkles. The rubber gloves also protect the compression clothing from tears caused by your fingernails or jewelry. ...

155

Padding with Compressed Air  

E-print Network

We commonly find plants using padding to transport liquids or light solids short distances from tankers into storage tanks. Padding can wreck havoc in compressed air systems with limited storage, undersized cleanup equipment (dryers and filters...

Beals, C.

2004-01-01

156

Tension and Compression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students experience the forces of tension and compression by manipulating objects that are strong in each but not in both and then take what they have learned and apply it to the construction of various structures.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2004-02-20

157

Reference Based Genome Compression  

E-print Network

DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target genome, and then compresses this mapping with an entropy coder. As an illustration of the performance: applying our algorithm to James Watson's genome with hg18 as a reference, we are able to reduce the 2991 megabyte (MB) genome down to 6.99 MB, while Gzip compresses it to 834.8 MB.

Chern, Bobbie; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

2012-01-01

158

Shock compression of wüstite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hugoniot compression curve of wüstite (Fe1-xO) was studied up to 120 GPa using a double-stage light-gas gun. Pore-free polycrystalline wütite was grown by the floating zone method and platelet specimens, typically 10×14×2 mm3, were prepared. The inclined mirror method was adopted to record the shock compression state and both the impedance matching solution and the free surface approximation were used

T. Yagi; K. Fukuoka; H. Takei; Y. Syono

1988-01-01

159

VIDEO PRESENTATION AND COMPRESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter we first presents various video representations and formats. Then, an overview of video compression techniques is given. Two standards and related techniques are described and evaluated - px64 Kbps (or H.261\\/H.263) standard for video-based communications and MPEG standard for intensive applications of full-motion video. Both standards use the combination of DCT-based intraframe compression and predictive interframe coding based

Borko Furht; Raymond Westwater

160

Compressed Air System Optimization  

E-print Network

and not start up again unless the compressed air header pressure drops below the desired set point. To optimize the system with multiple compressors, electronic controls can be installed on all of the compressors with a master controller that loads... and not start up again unless the compressed air header pressure drops below the desired set point. To optimize the system with multiple compressors, electronic controls can be installed on all of the compressors with a master controller that loads...

Aegerter, R.

161

75 FR 20885 - National Park Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8498--National Park Week, 2010 Proclamation 8499--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 Proclamation 8500--National Volunteer Week, 2010 Proclamation 8501--National Day of Service and...

2010-04-21

162

[Compression therapy of the lower extremities particularly with compression stockings].  

PubMed

The compression therapy of the lower extremities is based on strong patho-physiologic lines and is well codified. The necessary values of pression for any case and the exact indication for compression stockings and pantys for each compression class are well known. The physician has to prescribe thoroughly the adequate compression stocking, thus protecting the patient best against further complications. PMID:7399921

Stemmer, R; Marescaux, J; Furderer, C

1980-07-01

163

Image compression technique  

DOEpatents

An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

1997-03-25

164

Magnetic flux compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic Flux Compression, as treated in this paper, is accomplished by high explosives. Flux is first captured in a closed conducting circuit, of which some or all of the conducting elements are overlaid with high explosives. Upon detonation of the explosives, these elements are driven in such a fashion as to compress the flux into regions of smaller areas or, in engineering terminology, into regions of lower inductance. The magnetic energy associated with the flux is increased by the flux compression. The additional energy is ultimately supplied by the explosive as it drives the conductors against the magnetic field pressure, which in some cases may be in the megabar range. Various names in common use for flux compression devices are flux compression generators (FCG), magneto-cumulative generators (MCG), particularly in the USSR, or simply, flux compressors. FCGs are generally used in two broadly defined categories: as compact, high-power sources to drive various loads and as generators of very large magnetic fields. In this talk, general principles of flux compression are first discussed. This is followed by a description of several applications in which different types of FCGs are used to supply pulsed power to various devices.

Fowler, C. M.

1989-08-01

165

Arithmetic Coding for Data Compression  

E-print Network

-arithmetic coder #28neglect- ing very large and very small probabilities#29 is less than one percent for N = 32 and about 0.2 percent for N = 128. In implementations, the coding tables can be stripped down so that the numerical values of the interval endpoints...Arithmetic Coding for Data Compression PAUL G. HOWARD and JEFFREY SCOTT VITTER, fellow, ieee Arithmetic coding provides an e#0Bective mechanism for remov- ing redundancy in the encoding of data. We show how arithmetic coding works and describe an e...

Howard, Paul G.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1994-01-01

166

Adult Learners' Week in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

Cross, John

2002-01-01

167

ScienceWeek: SW BULLETIN  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SW BULLETIN, a recently launched free news service offered by ScienceWeek (mentioned in the November 13, 1998 Scout Report), distributes short news items of interest to the scientific community three times per week via email (only). These news summaries are well written and detailed, and cover a wide array of topics in physics, chemistry, and biology. For those wishing to keep abreast of research discoveries at the cutting edge of science, this ScienceWeek bulletin will serve the purpose handsomely. To subscribe to SW BULLETIN, scroll down to the SW BULLETIN heading on the ScienceWeek homepage, or simply send an email message to: request@scienceweek.com with SUB BULLETIN in the subject line.

168

COMPRESSED-AIR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS FOR STAND-ALONE OFF-GRID PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES  

E-print Network

, USA ABSTRACT In this work, a low-cost, low-volume, low-maintenance, small-scale compressed-air energy of a unique energy-efficient, small- scale, compressed-air energy storage system that can be specifically and discharge and heat- exchange capabilities. The workings of a CAES system comprise of a compression phase

Deymier, Pierre

169

"Creative" Work Schedules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

Blai, Boris

170

Weekly Announcement Each Monday during the school year  

E-print Network

Weekly Announcement Each Monday during the school year we publish the Weekly Announcement. Please, the program and in classes. All are invited to post and submit work. AD Lunches At least twice a year we hold a lunch at which student and faculty attend and meet to discuss issues and developments in the major. We

Prinz, Friedrich B.

171

[Seventh National Population Week in Rwanda, 1993].  

PubMed

The 1993 National Population Week opened in the commune of Rutare on August 2 and ended in Gikongoro in the commune of Rwamiko on August 6. Its goal was to sensitize all levels of the population to Rwanda's demographic problems through an IEC (information, education, communication) program while respecting the individual liberty, and the moral and religious beliefs of couples. On the first day of the population education campaign, the mayors of each commune along with its elite presided over a meeting to discuss implementation of the campaign, the sociodemographic situation at the commune level (especially at the household level), and the importance of family planning in family health. During August 2-5 at the commune level, the communal elite and the abakangurambagas presided over sensitization meetings, conference-debates, educational discussions, home visits, theatrical sessions, songs and dances, orientation to health centers, and recruitment of family planning acceptors. On the last day, development technicians working in the commune, teachers, students, religious leaders, abakangurambagas, political party leaders, and mass media journalists, all of whom took part in the week's activities, met at the communal office to evaluate the week's activities and to amass resolutions and recommendations. The mayor closed the 1993 edition of the National Population Week after the evaluation. PMID:12287364

Munyanziza, B

1993-08-01

172

74 FR 21529 - National Charter Schools Week, 2009  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8372 of May 4, 2009 National Charter Schools Week, 2009 By the President...learning. Many successful public charter schools across the Nation are working...organizations, our Nation's public charter schools enjoy broad leeway to...

2009-05-07

173

Digital Image Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nondeterministic finite automata with states and transitions labeled by real-valued weights have turned out to be powerful tools for the representation and compression of digital grayscale and color images. The addressing of pixels by input-sequences is extended to cover multi-resolution images. Encoding algorithms for such weighted finite automata (WFA) exploit self-similarities for efficient image compression, outperforming the well-known JPEG baseline standard most of the time. WFA-concepts are embedded easily into weighted finite transducers (WFT) which can execute several natural operations on images in their compressed form and also into so-called parametric WFA, which are closely related to generalized Iterated Function Systems.

Albert, Jürgen; Kari, Jarkko

174

Compressive strength of continuous fiber unidirectional composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dow and Rosen's work in 1965 formed an intellectual framework for compressive strength of unidirectional composites. Compressive strength was explained in terms of micro-buckling, in which filaments are beams on an elastic foundation. They made simplifying assumptions, with a two dimensional idealization and linearized material properties. This study builds on their model, recognizing that the shear mode of instability drives unidirectional compressive strength. As a necessary corollary, the predictive methods developed in this study emphasize correct representation of composite shear stiffness. Non-linear effects related to matrix material properties, fiber misalignment, three dimensional representation, and thermal prestrains are taken into account. Four work streams comprise this study: first, development of a closed form analytical model; second, empirical methods development and model validation; third, creation and validation of a unit cell finite element model; and fourth, a patent application that leverages knowledge gained from the first three work streams. The analytical model characterizes the non-linearity of the matrix both with respect to shear and compressive loading. This improvement on existing analyses clearly shows why fiber modulus affects composite shear instability. Accounting for fiber misalignment in the model and experimental characterization of the fiber misalignment continuum are important contributions of this study. A simple method of compressive strength measurement of a small diameter monofilament glass-resin composite is developed. Sample definition and preparation are original, and necessary technologies are easily assessable to other researchers in this field. This study shows that glass fiber composites have the potential for high compressive strength. This potential is reached with excellent fiber alignment and suitable matrix characteristics, and results are consistent with model predictions. The unit cell three dimensional finite element model introduces a boundary condition that only allows compressive and shear deformation, thus recognizing the actual deformation mechanism of a compressed unidirectional composite. A new approach for representing the resin matrix is employed, giving improved correlation to empirical measurements noted in the literature. A method of accounting for realistic composite imperfections is introduced. The patent application work was fed by results from the first three areas. A new engineering structure is created in which buckling is beneficial. Post buckled behavior favorably affects other structural components in an overload situation. The first three work streams form a coherent unit and are mutually supportive. The analytical model predictions are corroborated by the experimental measurements. Finite element model predictions are consistent with the analytical model predictions.

Thompson, Ronald H.

175

Simulation of a solar powered vapor compression desalination system (SPRVCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the analysis of a solar powered vapor compression desalination system. It consists of three loops, namely, a collector loop, a power loop, and a vapor compression desalination loop. The system is operated by a parabolic collector trough of concentration 4 and R11 as a working fluid with an optimum boiler firing temperature of 410°K. A

K. A. Fathalah; M. A. Darwish; S. E. Aly

1983-01-01

176

Compactly encoding unstructured inputs with differential compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this article is differential compression, the algorithmic task of finding common strings between versions of data and using them to encode one version compactly by describing it as a set of changes from its companion. A main goal of this work is to present new differencing algorithms that (i) operate at a fine granularity (the atomic unit

Miklos Ajtai; Randal C. Burns; Ronald Fagin; Darrell D. E. Long; Larry J. Stockmeyer

2002-01-01

177

WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK 5 WEEK 6 WEEK 7 WEEK 8 June 16-20 June 23-27 June 30-July 3 July 7-11 July 14-18 July 21-25 July 28-August 1 August 4-8  

E-print Network

WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK 5 WEEK 6 WEEK 7 WEEK 8 June 16-20 June 23Explorers AEC235 Sound, Light and Tidal Waves AEC236 Kitchen Cabinet Science AEC237 Engineering Simple Machines AEC238 Grades 4-6th Kitchen Cabinet Science AEC461 Sound, Light

California at Davis, University of

178

Image data compression investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA continuous communications systems growth has increased the demand for image transmission and storage. Research and analysis was conducted on various lossy and lossless advanced data compression techniques or approaches used to improve the efficiency of transmission and storage of high volume stellite image data such as pulse code modulation (PCM), differential PCM (DPCM), transform coding, hybrid coding, interframe coding, and adaptive technique. In this presentation, the fundamentals of image data compression utilizing two techniques which are pulse code modulation (PCM) and differential PCM (DPCM) are presented along with an application utilizing these two coding techniques.

Myrie, Carlos

1989-01-01

179

Orbiting dynamic compression laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to examine the feasibility of carrying out dynamic compression experiments on a space station, the possibility of using explosive gun launchers is studied. The question of whether powders of a refractory metal (molybdenum) and a metallic glass could be well considered by dynamic compression is examined. In both cases extremely good bonds are obtained between grains of metal and metallic glass at 180 and 80 kb, respectively. When the oxide surface is reduced and the dynamic consolidation is carried out in vacuum, in the case of molybdenum, tensile tests of the recovered samples demonstrated beneficial ultimate tensile strengths.

Ahrens, T. J.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Kasiraj, P.; Frisch, B.

1984-01-01

180

Image compression in local helioseismology  

E-print Network

Context. Several upcoming helioseismology space missions are very limited in telemetry and will have to perform extensive data compression. This requires the development of new methods of data compression. Aims. We give an overview of the influence of lossy data compression on local helioseismology. We investigate the effects of several lossy compression methods (quantization, JPEG compression, and smoothing and subsampling) on power spectra and time-distance measurements of supergranulation flows at disk center. Methods. We applied different compression methods to tracked and remapped Dopplergrams obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We determined the signal-to-noise ratio of the travel times computed from the compressed data as a function of the compression efficiency. Results. The basic helioseismic measurements that we consider are very robust to lossy data compression. Even if only the sign of the velocity is used, time-distance helioseismology is still...

Löptien, Björn; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper

2014-01-01

181

Madhav Ranganathan John D Weeks  

E-print Network

. Impurities impede steps 3. Steps cover impurities Impurity concentration profile caused by motion makes from the surface with rate 1/i y x ci Covered impurity removed Impurity profile between steps #12;NewMadhav Ranganathan . John D Weeks IPST and Department of Chemistry UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND Impurity

Maryland at College Park, University of

182

ENERGY RECOVERY COUNCIL WEEKLY UPDATE  

E-print Network

of promoting waste-to-energy as a climate-friendly and renewable source of energy. In addition to the new name of being your resource for information on waste-to-energy. As you familiarize yourself with the website legislation this week which would establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and defines waste-to-energy

183

Shock compression of solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review contains a brief, comprehensive, critical assessment of the status of investigations concerning the response of solids to shock compression. Mechanical, metallurgical, electrical, optical and other phenomena occurring in substances subjected to shock pressures covering the range from about 0.1 to 6000 GPa are considered. Emphasis is placed on physical interpretation of observations peculiar to the shock environment and

Lee Davison; R. A. Graham

1979-01-01

184

Hyperspectral lossless compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral image data presents challenges to current transmission bandwidth and storage capabilities. To overcome these challenges and to retain the radiometric accuracy of the data, there is a need for good hyperspectral lossless compression. The current state-of-the-art lossless compression algorithm is JPEG-LS, which uses a 2-D edge-detecting predictor. Hyperspectral systems sample the electromagnetic spectrum very finely, which results in increased spectral correlation. A predictor that takes into account previous band information can obtain substantial gains in compression ratio. This paper discusses a number of different predictors that take advantage of the significant band-to-band (spectral) correlation within the hyperspectral imagery. A sample set of HYDICE, AVIRIS, and SEBASS imagery was used to evaluate the different predictors. While the JPEG-LS algorithm achieved just greater than 2:1 on most imagery, some of the 3-D prediction techniques achieved greater than 3:1 compression ratio. The characteristics of these test images and results from different predictors are presented in this paper.

Brower, Bernard V.; Lan, Austin; McCabe, Jill M.

1999-10-01

185

Nonlinear Frequency Compression  

PubMed Central

Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

2013-01-01

186

Hyperspectral Image Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral images gathered by satellites or aerial means provide a vast amount of data for geophysicists. A few applications include the exploration of minerals, research of land pollution, and military surveillance. NASA and other agencies are producing gigabytes of hyperspectral images which need to be transmitted and stored daily. As these images require high compression rates and preservation of data

Stephanie Wright; Jason Ashbach

2008-01-01

187

Compressive strength of flanges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The maximum compressive stress carried by a hinged flange is computed from a deformation theory of plasticity combined with the theory for finite deflections for this structure. The computed stresses agree well with those found experimentally. Empirical observation indicates that the results will also apply fairly well to the more commonly used flanges which are not hinged.

Stowell, Elbridge Z

1951-01-01

188

Compression failure of angle-ply laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work deals with modes and mechanisms of failure in compression of angle-ply laminates. Experimental results were obtained from 42 angle-ply IM7/8551-7a specimens with a lay-up of ((plus or minus theta)/(plus or minus theta)) sub 6s where theta, the off-axis angle, ranged from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. The results showed four failure modes, these modes being a function of off-axis angle. Failure modes include fiber compression, inplane transverse tension, inplane shear, and inplane transverse compression. Excessive interlaminar shear strain was also considered as an important mode of failure. At low off-axis angles, experimentally observed values were considerably lower than published strengths. It was determined that laminate imperfections in the form of layer waviness could be a major factor in reducing compression strength. Previously developed linear buckling and geometrically nonlinear theories were used, with modifications and enhancements, to examine the influence of layer waviness on compression response. The wavy layer is described by a wave amplitude and a wave length. Linear elastic stress-strain response is assumed. The geometrically nonlinear theory, in conjunction with the maximum stress failure criterion, was used to predict compression failure and failure modes for the angle-ply laminates. A range of wave length and amplitudes were used. It was found that for 0 less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 15 degrees failure was most likely due to fiber compression. For 15 degrees less than theta less than or equal to 35 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane transverse tension. For 35 degrees less than theta less than or equal to 70 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane shear. For theta less than 70 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane transverse compression. The fiber compression and transverse tension failure modes depended more heavily on wave length than on wave amplitude. Thus using a single parameter, such as a ratio of wave amplitude to wave length, to describe waviness in a laminate would be inaccurate. Throughout, results for AS4/3502, studied previously, are included for comparison. At low off-axis angles, the AS4/3502 material system was found to be less sensitive to layer waviness than IM7/8551-7a. Analytical predictions were also obtained for laminates with waviness in only some of the layers. For this type of waviness, laminate compression strength could also be considered a function of which layers in the laminate were wavy, and where those wavy layers were. Overall, the geometrically nonlinear model correlates well with experimental results.

Peel, Larry D.; Hyer, Michael W.; Shuart, Mark J.

1991-01-01

189

Electromyographic signal compression based on preprocessing techniques.  

PubMed

Recently, electromyographic records have been rearranged into two-dimensional arrays and encoded with image compressors, in the same way as image data. However, as a consequence of this reshaping, the correlation among signal segments is generally lost, which reduces the compression efficiency. In the present work, new preprocessing techniques for encoding electromyographic signals as two-dimensional matrices are presented, namely percentage difference sorting and relative complexity sorting, which have the potential to favor the exploitation of the intersegment dependencies. The experiments were carried out with real isometric records acquired in laboratory, that were first preprocessed and then compressed with a JPEG2000 encoder, showing that the proposed framework is effective and outperforms even state-of-the-art schemes present in the literature, in terms of PRD × Compression Ratio. PMID:23367151

Melo, Wheidima C; Filho, Eddie B L; Júnior, Waldir S S

2012-01-01

190

PDF approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the present work is to develop a probability density function (pdf) turbulence model for compressible reacting flows for use with a CFD flow solver. The probability density function of the species mass fraction and enthalpy are obtained by solving a pdf evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The pdf solution procedure is coupled with a compressible CFD flow solver which provides the velocity and pressure fields. A modeled pdf equation for compressible flows, capable of capturing shock waves and suitable to the present coupling scheme, is proposed and tested. Convergence of the combined finite-volume Monte Carlo solution procedure is discussed, and an averaging procedure is developed to provide smooth Monte-Carlo solutions to ensure convergence. Two supersonic diffusion flames are studied using the proposed pdf model and the results are compared with experimental data; marked improvements over CFD solutions without pdf are observed. Preliminary applications of pdf to 3D flows are also reported.

Hsu, A. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Raju, M. S.

1993-01-01

191

The New CCSDS Image Compression Recommendation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) data compression working group has recently adopted a recommendation for image data compression, with a final release expected in 2005. The algorithm adopted in the recommendation consists of a two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform of the image, followed by progressive bit-plane coding of the transformed data. The algorithm can provide both lossless and lossy compression, and allows a user to directly control the compressed data volume or the fidelity with which the wavelet-transformed data can be reconstructed. The algorithm is suitable for both frame-based image data and scan-based sensor data, and has applications for near-Earth and deep-space missions. The standard will be accompanied by free software sources on a future web site. An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) implementation of the compressor is currently under development. This paper describes the compression algorithm along with the requirements that drove the selection of the algorithm. Performance results and comparisons with other compressors are given for a test set of space images.

Yeh, Pen-Shu; Armbruster, Philippe; Kiely, Aaron; Masschelein, Bart; Moury, Gilles; Schaefer, Christoph

2005-01-01

192

Arithmetic coding for data compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art in data compression is arithmetic coding, not the better-known Huffman method. Arithmetic coding gives greater compression, is faster for adaptive models, and clearly separates the model from the channel encoding.

Ian H. witten; Radford M. Neal; John Gerald Cleary

1987-01-01

193

Functional Compression Through Graph Coloring  

E-print Network

Motivated by applications to sensor networks and privacy preserving databases, we consider the problem of functional compression. The objective is to separately compress possibly correlated discrete sources such that an ...

Doshi, Vishal

194

30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general...the standards and specifications of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

2012-07-01

195

30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general...the standards and specifications of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

2011-07-01

196

30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general...the standards and specifications of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

2010-07-01

197

TOWARDS A TRANSPARENT BOUNDARY CONDITION FOR COMPRESSIBLE NAVIERSTOKES EQUATIONS  

E-print Network

and Sundstrom [4] and Oliger and Sundstrom [5] propose a new BC for artificial boundaries. Dutt [6] works and Sundstrom [5] prove that imposing the pressure on a subsonic compressible outflow leads to a well

Bruneau, Charles-Henri

198

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Weekly Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the use of weekly reports as an assessment tool for student learning. It is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. Weekly reports provide rapid feedback about what students think they are learning and what conceptual difficulties they are experiencing. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique including information about how to use it. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Etkina, Eugenia; The National Institute for Science Education; College Level One Team

199

Observation of the Week Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its early years NASA's Observatorium (described in the January 10, 1997 Scout Report) posted an "observation of the week" in one of the following broad categories: earth sciences, sun and the solar system, stars, galaxies, the universe, education, human spaceflight, space technology, or space history. These weekly observations (such as the recent Leonid Meteor storm) are described in general terms and are accompanied by color images and links to recommended sites. Interested viewers may browse the archive (1995 to 1999) for events by subject or date. The simplicity of the site allows for easy access to a wide range of interesting and current information -- whether radar images of Mount Vesuvius, an understanding of Tsunamis, or Galactic Cannibalism.

1995-01-01

200

Making Compressed Air System Decisions  

E-print Network

. Today, modern, high quality manufacturing facilities require a more scientific approach. Many manufacturing processes require strict controls over compressed air pressure, temperature and purity levels. Competitive pressures also force manufacturers... volumes of compressed air are also used in high technology manufacturing processes, such as textiles and computer chips. As a result, the quality and purity of compressed air is now extremely important. This demand for high quality compressed air has...

Porri, R. E.

201

fpack: FITS Image Compression Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

fpack is a utility program for optimally compressing images in the FITS data format. The associated funpack program will restore the compressed file back to its original state. These programs may be run from the host operating system command line and are analogous to the gzip and gunzip utility programs, except that they are specifically optimized for FITS format images and offer a wider choice of compression options. fpack uses the tiled image compression convention for storing the compressed images. This convention can in principle support any number of of different compression algorithms; currently GZIP, Rice, Hcompress, and the IRAF pixel list compression algorithms have been implemented. The main advantages of fpack compared to the commonly used technique of externally compressing the whole FITS file with gzip are: It is generally faster and offers better compression than gzip.The FITS header keywords remain uncompressed for fast access.Each HDU of a multi-extension FITS file is compressed separately, so it is not necessary to uncompress the entire file to read a single image in a multi-extension file.Dividing the image into tiles before compression enables faster access to small subsections of the image.The compressed image is itself a valid FITS file and can be manipulated by other general FITS utility software.Lossy compression can be used for much higher compression in cases where it is not necessary to exactly preserve the original image.The CHECKSUM keywords are automatically updated to help verify the integrity of the files.Software that supports the tiled image compression technique can directly read and write the FITS images in their compressed form.

Seaman, Rob; Pence, William; White, Rick

2010-10-01

202

Open Access Week Planning Materials  

E-print Network

(e-displays) DSSC Head and Project Coordinator; Marketing Head and Graphic Designer Update "Did you know ?" for OA Caf? Project Coordinator Open Access Caf? additional attachments Contact OA Publishers for swag and literature DSSC Head... and Project Coordinator Contact Webservices; review current OA pages; suggest updates; determine a shortened version of OA landing page that is for easy access and display DSSC Head and Project Coordinator Have landing page on most current OA Week...

203

78 FR 71431 - National Family Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 9061--National Family Week, 2013 Presidential Documents Federal Register...9061 of November 22, 2013 National Family Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...American society. During National Family Week, we celebrate the spirit that moves...

2013-11-27

204

77 FR 22177 - National Volunteer Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8797--National Volunteer Week, 2012 Proclamation 8798--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012 Proclamation 8799--National Former...8797 of April 9, 2012 National Volunteer Week, 2012 By the President of the United...

2012-04-12

205

76 FR 72601 - National Family Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8756--National Family Week, 2011 Proclamation 8757--National Farm-City Week, 2011 Proclamation 8758--National Child's...8756 of November 18, 2011 National Family Week, 2011 By the President of the United...

2011-11-23

206

76 FR 71445 - American Education Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8753--American Education Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...of November 14, 2011 American Education Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...thriving democracy. During American Education Week, we acknowledge the central role...

2011-11-17

207

76 FR 43107 - Captive Nations Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8692--Captive Nations Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...8692 of July 15, 2011 Captive Nations Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...shaped our world. During Captive Nations Week, we remember the men and women...

2011-07-19

208

76 FR 63801 - Fire Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8732--Fire Prevention Week, 2011 Proclamation 8733--National School Lunch Week, 2011 Proclamation 8734--Leif Erikson...Proclamation 8732 of October 7, 2011 Fire Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United...

2011-10-13

209

78 FR 44867 - Captive Nations Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8998--Captive Nations Week, 2013 Presidential Documents Federal Register...8998 of July 19, 2013 Captive Nations Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...only to a privileged few. Captive Nations Week is an opportunity to reaffirm...

2013-07-24

210

Predictive Encoding in Text Compression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three text compression methods of increasing power and evaluates each based on the trade-off between compression gain and processing time. The advantages of using hash coding for speed and optimal arithmetic coding to successor information for compression gain are discussed. (26 references) (Author/CLB)

Raita, Timo; Teuhola, Jukka

1989-01-01

211

Extracting Constitutive Stress-Strain Behavior of Microscopic Phases by Micropillar Compression  

SciTech Connect

The manuscript describes how micropillar compression technique can be used to perform uniaxial compression tests within individual grains so as to generate local-scale constitutive behavior which, otherwise cannot be ascertained from the conventional macroscale compression test techniques. The manuscript uses steel and magnesium alloys as an example. A portion of the magnesium work was performed at PNNL.

Williams, J. J.; Walters, Jennifer; Wang, Mingyue; Chawla, N.; Rohatgi, Aashish

2013-02-01

212

Digital cinema video compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Motion Picture Industry began a transition from film based distribution and projection to digital distribution and projection several years ago. Digital delivery and presentation offers the prospect to increase the quality of the theatrical experience for the audience, reduce distribution costs to the distributors, and create new business opportunities for the theater owners and the studios. Digital Cinema also presents an opportunity to provide increased flexibility and security of the movies for the content owners and the theater operators. Distribution of content via electronic means to theaters is unlike any of the traditional applications for video compression. The transition from film-based media to electronic media represents a paradigm shift in video compression techniques and applications that will be discussed in this paper.

Husak, Walter

2003-05-01

213

Compressive ghost imaging  

E-print Network

We describe an advanced image reconstruction algorithm for pseudothermal ghost imaging, reducing the number of measurements required for image recovery by an order of magnitude. The algorithm is based on compressed sensing, a technique that enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from much less than N measurements. We demonstrate the algorithm using experimental data from a pseudothermal ghost-imaging setup. The algorithm can be applied to data taken from past pseudothermal ghost-imaging experiments, improving the reconstruction's quality.

Ori Katz; Yaron Bromberg; Yaron Silberberg

2009-05-04

214

29 CFR 780.316 - Thirteen week provision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...an employee performs any agricultural labor for not less than 1 hour...spent less than 13 weeks in agricultural work, regardless of...accord with the legislative history of this exemption which...is counted, but also that agricultural work for all employers...

2011-07-01

215

29 CFR 780.316 - Thirteen week provision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...an employee performs any agricultural labor for not less than 1 hour...spent less than 13 weeks in agricultural work, regardless of...accord with the legislative history of this exemption which...is counted, but also that agricultural work for all employers...

2010-07-01

216

29 CFR 780.316 - Thirteen week provision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...an employee performs any agricultural labor for not less than 1 hour...spent less than 13 weeks in agricultural work, regardless of...accord with the legislative history of this exemption which...is counted, but also that agricultural work for all employers...

2012-07-01

217

29 CFR 780.316 - Thirteen week provision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...an employee performs any agricultural labor for not less than 1 hour...spent less than 13 weeks in agricultural work, regardless of...accord with the legislative history of this exemption which...is counted, but also that agricultural work for all employers...

2013-07-01

218

Noise-constrained hyperspectral data compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage and transmission requirements for hyperspectral data sets are significant. To reduce hardware costs, well-designed compression techniques are needed to preserve information content while maximizing compression ratios. Lossless compression techniques maintain data integrity, but yield small compression ratios. We present a slightly lossy compression algorithm that uses the noise statistics of the data to preserve information content while maximizing compression

Mary H. Sharp

2002-01-01

219

Effect of ambient conditions and fuel properties on homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation  

E-print Network

Practical application of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion must demonstrate robust responses to variations in environmental conditions. This work examines the impact of ambient conditions and fuel ...

Andreae, Morgan M. (Morgan MacKenzie)

2006-01-01

220

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIO OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOSITE HONEYCOMB THROUGH ADDITION OF INTERNAL REINFORCEMENTS.  

E-print Network

??This work focuses on the compressive strength to weight ratio optimization of reinforced composite honeycomb materials for sandwich panel construction. Currently, metallic honeycomb has densities… (more)

Rudd, Jeffrey Roy

2006-01-01

221

Bilateral contusion-compression model of incomplete traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Abstract Despite the increasing incidence and prevalence of cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI), we lack clinically relevant animal models that can be used to study the pathomechanisms of this injury and test new therapies. Here, we characterize a moderate cervical contusion-compression model in rats that is similar to incomplete traumatic cSCI in humans. We characterized the effects of 18-g clip-compression injury at cervical level C6 over an 8-week recovery period. Using Luxol fast blue/hematoxylin-eosin staining in combination with quantitative stereology, we determined that 18-g injury results in loss of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), as well as in cavity formation. Magnetization transfer and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were used to analyze lesion dynamics in vivo. This analysis demonstrated that both techniques are able to differentiate between the injury epicenter, subpial rim, and WM distal to the injury. Neurobehavioral assessment of locomotor function using Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring and CatWalk revealed limited recovery from clip-compression injury at C6. Testing of forelimb function using grip strength demonstrated significant forelimb dysfunction, similar to the loss of upper-limb motor function observed in human cSCI. Sensory-evoked potentials recorded from the forelimb and Hoffman reflex recorded from the hindlimb confirmed the fore- and hindlimb deficits observed in our neurobehavioral analysis. Here, we have characterized a clip-compression model of incomplete cSCI that closely models this condition in humans. This work directly addresses the current lack of clinically relevant models of cSCI and will thus contribute to improved success in the translation of putative therapies into the clinic. PMID:24949719

Forgione, Nicole; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Foltz, Warren D; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Lip, Alyssa; Fehlings, Michael G

2014-11-01

222

Bilateral Contusion-Compression Model of Incomplete Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Despite the increasing incidence and prevalence of cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI), we lack clinically relevant animal models that can be used to study the pathomechanisms of this injury and test new therapies. Here, we characterize a moderate cervical contusion-compression model in rats that is similar to incomplete traumatic cSCI in humans. We characterized the effects of 18-g clip-compression injury at cervical level C6 over an 8-week recovery period. Using Luxol fast blue/hematoxylin-eosin staining in combination with quantitative stereology, we determined that 18-g injury results in loss of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), as well as in cavity formation. Magnetization transfer and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were used to analyze lesion dynamics in vivo. This analysis demonstrated that both techniques are able to differentiate between the injury epicenter, subpial rim, and WM distal to the injury. Neurobehavioral assessment of locomotor function using Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring and CatWalk revealed limited recovery from clip-compression injury at C6. Testing of forelimb function using grip strength demonstrated significant forelimb dysfunction, similar to the loss of upper-limb motor function observed in human cSCI. Sensory-evoked potentials recorded from the forelimb and Hoffman reflex recorded from the hindlimb confirmed the fore- and hindlimb deficits observed in our neurobehavioral analysis. Here, we have characterized a clip-compression model of incomplete cSCI that closely models this condition in humans. This work directly addresses the current lack of clinically relevant models of cSCI and will thus contribute to improved success in the translation of putative therapies into the clinic. PMID:24949719

Forgione, Nicole; Karadimas, Spyridon K.; Foltz, Warren D.; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Lip, Alyssa

2014-01-01

223

Application of Particle Swarm Optimization for Traveling Salesman Problem to lossless compression of color palette images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates optimal color indexing for the compression of color palette images. This work enhances the recent traveling salesman problem (TSP) based re-indexing technique with particle swarm optimization (PSO). In this work, color re-indexing is done by solving the problem as a TSP using PSO. The proposed technique, yields better compression gains than the recent work that used a

Joshua Van Hook; Ferat Sahin; Ziya Arnavut

2008-01-01

224

GPA/GPSA/OSU-Okmulgee natural gas compression technician training program  

SciTech Connect

Approximately one year ago, OSU-Okmulgee and the Gas Processors Association began discussions about the possibility of developing a natural Gas Technician Training Program for GPA members. Following a presentation to the Membership and Services Committee, Chairman John Ehlers solicited and obtained the approval of the GPA Executive Committee to sponsor the program. Participation in the program was also made available to GPSA members. The purpose of the program is to upgrade the technical competency and professional level of incoming natural gas compression technicians. It educates students to analytically diagnose, service and maintain gas compression equipment and systems using industry recommended procedures, special tools and service information. It also provides course content, which will enable successful graduates to advance in position after additional experience, and to understand new systems, technologies and components as they are introduced. The two-year Associate-In-Applied Science Degree program includes six successive college semesters. Nearly one-half of the time is designated for technical/academic education at Oklahoma State University-Okmulgee with the balance of time allocated for on-the-job internship experiences at sponsoring GPA/GPSA members. Each block of technical education and general education course work is followed by an immediate work experience time period designated to reinforce the technical and general education. These time periods are approximately seven and one-half weeks in length each. It is essential for the success of the students and the program that the students' education at OSU-Okmulgee and work experiences at GPA/GPSA member facilities be closely aligned for maximum student learning and retention. In addition to technical classes on gas compression equipment and components, the courses offered in math, speech, technical writing, psychology and ethics for example, prepare students to be able to communicate well, get along with others and be responsible and productive employees.

Doede, S.

1999-07-01

225

Compression of Martian atmosphere for production of oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compression of CO2 from the Martian atmosphere for production of O2 via an electrochemical cell is addressed. Design specifications call for an oxygen production rate of 10 kg per day and for compression of 50 times that mass of CO2. Those specifications require a compression rate of over 770 cfm at standard Martian temperature and pressure (SMTP). Much of the CO2 being compressed represents waste, unless it can be recycled. Recycling can reduce the volume of gas that must be compressed to 40 cfm at SMTP. That volume reduction represents significant mass savings in the compressor, heating equipment, filters, and energy source. Successful recycle of the gas requires separation of CO (produced in the electrochemical cell) from CO2, N2, and Ar found in the Martian atmosphere. That aspect was the focus of this work.

Lynch, D. C.; Cutler, A. H.; Nolan, P. E.

1991-01-01

226

Digital mammography, cancer screening: Factors important for image compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital mammography for breast cancer screening poses several novel problems such as development of digital sensors, computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) methods for image noise suppression, enhancement, and pattern recognition, compression algorithms for image storage, transmission, and remote diagnosis. X-ray digital mammography using novel direct digital detection schemes or film digitizers results in large data sets and, therefore, image compression methods will play a significant role in the image processing and analysis by CAD techniques. In view of the extensive compression required, the relative merit of 'virtually lossless' versus lossy methods should be determined. A brief overview is presented here of the developments of digital sensors, CAD, and compression methods currently proposed and tested for mammography. The objective of the NCI/NASA Working Group on Digital Mammography is to stimulate the interest of the image processing and compression scientific community for this medical application and identify possible dual use technologies within the NASA centers.

Clarke, Laurence P.; Blaine, G. James; Doi, Kunio; Yaffe, Martin J.; Shtern, Faina; Brown, G. Stephen; Winfield, Daniel L.; Kallergi, Maria

1993-01-01

227

Comparative data compression techniques and multi-compression results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data compression is very necessary in business data processing, because of the cost savings that it offers and the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. It is a method or system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication, we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise freely. This paper will provide some compression techniques for lossless text type data compression and comparative result of multiple and single compression, that will help to find out better compression output and to develop compression algorithms.

Hasan, M. R.; Ibrahimy, M. I.; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ferdaus, M. M.; Khan, M. N. H.

2013-12-01

228

Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Results We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (p<0.05) in all groups. But, receiving trigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point. PMID:24020035

Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck

2013-01-01

229

Image compression in local helioseismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Several upcoming helioseismology space missions are very limited in telemetry and will have to perform extensive data compression. This requires the development of new methods of data compression. Aims: We give an overview of the influence of lossy data compression on local helioseismology. We investigate the effects of several lossy compression methods (quantization, JPEG compression, and smoothing and subsampling) on power spectra and time-distance measurements of supergranulation flows at disk center. Methods: We applied different compression methods to tracked and remapped Dopplergrams obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We determined the signal-to-noise ratio of the travel times computed from the compressed data as a function of the compression efficiency. Results: The basic helioseismic measurements that we consider are very robust to lossy data compression. Even if only the sign of the velocity is used, time-distance helioseismology is still possible. We achieve the best results by applying JPEG compression on spatially subsampled data. However, our conclusions are only valid for supergranulation flows at disk center and may not be valid for all helioseismology applications.

Löptien, B.; Birch, A. C.; Gizon, L.; Schou, J.

2014-11-01

230

In vivo remodeling of intervertebral discs in response to short- and long-term dynamic compression.  

PubMed

This study evaluated how dynamic compression induced changes in gene expression, tissue composition, and structural properties of the intervertebral disc using a rat tail model. We hypothesized that daily exposure to dynamic compression for short durations would result in anabolic remodeling with increased matrix protein expression and proteoglycan content, and that increased daily load exposure time and experiment duration would retain these changes but also accumulate changes representative of mild degeneration. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 100) were instrumented with an Ilizarov-type device and divided into three dynamic compression (2 week-1.5 h/day, 2 week-8 h/day, 8 week-8 h/day at 1 MPa and 1 Hz) and two sham (2 week, 8 week) groups. Dynamic compression resulted in anabolic remodeling with increased matrix mRNA expression, minimal changes in catabolic genes or disc structure and stiffness, and increased glysosaminoglycans (GAG) content in the nucleus pulposus. Some accumulation of mild degeneration with 8 week-8 h included loss of annulus fibrosus GAG and disc height although 8-week shams also had loss of disc height, water content, and minor structural alterations. We conclude that dynamic compression is consistent with a notion of "healthy" loading that is able to maintain or promote matrix biosynthesis without substantially disrupting disc structural integrity. A slow accumulation of changes similar to human disc degeneration occurred when dynamic compression was applied for excessive durations, but this degenerative shift was mild when compared to static compression, bending, or other interventions that create greater structural disruption. PMID:19274755

Wuertz, Karin; Godburn, Karolyn; MacLean, Jeffrey J; Barbir, Ana; Donnelly, Justin Stinnett; Roughley, Peter J; Alini, Mauro; Iatridis, James C

2009-09-01

231

Beamforming using compressive sensing.  

PubMed

Compressive sensing (CS) is compared with conventional beamforming using horizontal beamforming of at-sea, towed-array data. They are compared qualitatively using bearing time records and quantitatively using signal-to-interference ratio. Qualitatively, CS exhibits lower levels of background interference than conventional beamforming. Furthermore, bearing time records show increasing, but tolerable, levels of background interference when the number of elements is decreased. For the full array, CS generates signal-to-interference ratio of 12 dB, but conventional beamforming only 8 dB. The superiority of CS over conventional beamforming is much more pronounced with undersampling. PMID:21974497

Edelmann, Geoffrey F; Gaumond, Charles F

2011-10-01

232

Compressibility of nanocrystalline forsterite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established an equation of state for nanocrystalline forsterite using multi-anvil press and diamond anvil cell. Comparative\\u000a high-pressure and high-temperature experiments have been performed up to 9.6 GPa and 1,300°C. We found that nanocrystalline\\u000a forsterite is more compressible than macro-powder forsterite. The bulk modulus of nanocrystalline forsterite is equal to 123.3\\u000a (±3.4) GPa whereas the bulk modulus of macro-powder forsterite is

Hélène Couvy; Jiuhua Chen; Vadym Drozd

2010-01-01

233

Blind compressive sensing dynamic MRI.  

PubMed

We propose a novel blind compressive sensing (BCS) frame work to recover dynamic magnetic resonance images from undersampled measurements. This scheme models the dynamic signal as a sparse linear combination of temporal basis functions, chosen from a large dictionary. In contrast to classical compressed sensing, the BCS scheme simultaneously estimates the dictionary and the sparse coefficients from the undersampled measurements. Apart from the sparsity of the coefficients, the key difference of the BCS scheme with current low rank methods is the nonorthogonal nature of the dictionary basis functions. Since the number of degrees-of-freedom of the BCS model is smaller than that of the low-rank methods, it provides improved reconstructions at high acceleration rates. We formulate the reconstruction as a constrained optimization problem; the objective function is the linear combination of a data consistency term and sparsity promoting l1 prior of the coefficients. The Frobenius norm dictionary constraint is used to avoid scale ambiguity. We introduce a simple and efficient majorize-minimize algorithm, which decouples the original criterion into three simpler subproblems. An alternating minimization strategy is used, where we cycle through the minimization of three simpler problems. This algorithm is seen to be considerably faster than approaches that alternates between sparse coding and dictionary estimation, as well as the extension of K-SVD dictionary learning scheme. The use of the l1 penalty and Frobenius norm dictionary constraint enables the attenuation of insignificant basis functions compared to the l0 norm and column norm constraint assumed in most dictionary learning algorithms; this is especially important since the number of basis functions that can be reliably estimated is restricted by the available measurements. We also observe that the proposed scheme is more robust to local minima compared to K-SVD method, which relies on greedy sparse coding. Our phase transition experiments demonstrate that the BCS scheme provides much better recovery rates than classical Fourier-based CS schemes, while being only marginally worse than the dictionary aware setting. Since the overhead in additionally estimating the dictionary is low, this method can be very useful in dynamic magnetic resonance imaging applications, where the signal is not sparse in known dictionaries. We demonstrate the utility of the BCS scheme in accelerating contrast enhanced dynamic data. We observe superior reconstruction performance with the BCS scheme in comparison to existing low rank and compressed sensing schemes. PMID:23542951

Lingala, Sajan Goud; Jacob, Mathews

2013-06-01

234

The JPEG still picture compression standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past few years, a joint ISO\\/CCITT committee known as JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) has been working to establish the first international compression standard for continuous-tone still images, both grayscale and color. JPEG's proposed standard aims to be generic, to support a wide variety of applications for continuous-tone images. To meet the differing needs of many applications, the

Gregory K. Wallace

1991-01-01

235

Compression of cooked freeze-dried carrots  

E-print Network

. Reduction in volume of up to 18-fold can be obtained by com- pressing dehydrated vegetables (Rabman, 1969). During World War II, the United Kingdom produced dehydrated cabbage and carrots in compressed blocks (Gooding and Rolfe, 1967). Fairbrother (1968...-propanol at low concentration by freeze-drying carbohydrate solutions. J. of Food Sci. 37:617. Flosdorf, E. W. 1949. "Freeze-drying, " Reinhold Publishing Co. , New York. Gooding, E. B. B. and Rolfe, E. J. 1957. Some Recent Work on Dehy- dration...

Macphearson, Bruce Alan

2012-06-07

236

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

Mark J. Bergander

2005-08-29

237

Work and Rest Schedules When Work Time is Further Reduced (According to Data from the URAL State University)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Draft Party Program points out that the next ten years will see the transition to a six-hour work day with one free day weekly, or to a 34 to 36 hour work week with two free days weekly, and in underground and harmful industries, to a fivehour work day or a 30-hour, five-day work week.

G. Chufarova

1962-01-01

238

Free compression tube. Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

Rusu, Ioan

2012-11-01

239

Analyzing High Resolution Geoscience Data using Parallelism and Compression (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's high-resolution climate datasets impose challenges in both storage space and I/O overhead. We explore parallel I/O and compression to address these challenges. The Parallel Analysis of GeOscience Data (pagaoda) toolkit is both an API for data-parallel analysis of geoscience climate data as well as a set of data-parallel processing tools based on this API. The API and the tools were designed first to support geodesic semi-structured NetCDF data, however they are generic enough to work with regularly gridded data as well. The command line tools are designed to mimic the NetCDF Operators but support both parallel IO and a combination of data and task parallelism. For large datasets, the single greatest performance bottleneck is IO. We describe multiple techniques we use to reduce the overhead of IO operations, namely the pseudo non-blocking interface of the parallel NetCDF library and compression. The techniques described can be applied generically to other applications using MPI-IO. We cover the current status of pagoda, compression techniques, and feature current performance information for high resolution data. Compression is promising for reducing storage space and I/O overhead. However, traditional compression algorithms, such as the LZW class compression, are designed mainly for text. These compression algorithms introduce high computation overhead and are not able to achieve high a compression ratio. We design compression algorithms specially customized for scientific data. Compared with traditional compression algorithms, our compression algorithm achieves a significantly higher compression ratio and introduces lower computation overhead. A naive architecture for incorporating compression is to first decompress data then perform computation on the decompressed data. Although this approach can reduce storage space, it hurts application performance. In our architecture, we pipeline the retrieval of compressed data from I/O devices, decompression of the data, and the computation on the decompressed data. Data decompression is overlapped with I/O operations. As a result, our architecture improves application performance by a factor close to the compression ratio for I/O bounded applications and can improve performance even for CPU bounded applications.

Daily, J.; Yin, J.

2013-12-01

240

Shock compression of precompressed deuterium  

SciTech Connect

Here we report quasi-isentropic dynamic compression and thermodynamic characterization of solid, precompressed deuterium over an ultrafast time scale (< 100 ps) and a microscopic length scale (< 1 {micro}m). We further report a fast transition in shock wave compressed solid deuterium that is consistent with the ramp to shock transition, with a time scale of less than 10 ps. These results suggest that high-density dynamic compression of hydrogen may be possible on microscopic length scales.

Armstrong, M R; Crowhurst, J C; Zaug, J M; Bastea, S; Goncharov, A F; Militzer, B

2011-07-31

241

Uncommon upper extremity compression neuropathies.  

PubMed

Hand surgeons routinely treat carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes, which are the most common upper extremity nerve compression syndromes. However, more infrequent nerve compression syndromes of the upper extremity may be encountered. Because they are unusual, the diagnosis of these nerve compression syndromes is often missed or delayed. This article reviews the causes, proposed treatments, and surgical outcomes for syndromes involving compression of the posterior interosseous nerve, the superficial branch of the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve at the wrist, and the median nerve proximal to the wrist. PMID:23895725

Knutsen, Elisa J; Calfee, Ryan P

2013-08-01

242

ECG Compression: Fast Block-Sorting Compression John Halloran  

E-print Network

ECG Compression: Fast Block-Sorting Compression John Halloran Department of Electrical Engineering University of Hawaii at Manoa EE 628 Fall 2008 April 13, 2010 1 Introduction Electrocardiography(ECG. Given ECG data, a patient may be diagnosed with health issues such as a heart attack or improper levels

Noble, William Stafford

243

Error-resilient intelligent compression of SAR imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, we propose a system for error-resilient coding of synthetic aperture radar imagery, whereby regions of interest and background information are coded independently of each other. A multiresolution, constant-false-alarm-rate (CFAR) detection scheme is utilized to discriminate between target regions and natural clutter. Based upon the detected target regions, we apply less compression to targets, and more compression

Robert J. Bonneau; Glen P. Abousleman

2002-01-01

244

Recap Compression Term statistics Dictionary compression Postings compression Web Search and Text Mining  

E-print Network

d3 with d4 brutus d2 caesar d1 julius d1 killed d2 postings to be merged brutus d2 brutus d3 caesar d1 caesar d4 julius d1 killed d2 noble d3 with d4 merged postings disk Gray: Index Compression 4 statistics Dictionary compression Postings compression Blocked Sort-Based Indexing brutus d3 caesar d4 noble

Gray, Alexander

245

Compression and compression fatigue testing of composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of moisture and temperature on the fatigue and fracture response of composite laminates under compression loads were investigated. The structural laminates studied were an intermediate stiffness graphite-epoxy composite (a typical angle ply laimna liminate had a typical fan blade laminate). Full and half penetration slits and impact delaminations were the defects examined. Results are presented which show the effects of moisture on the fracture and fatigue strength at room temperature, 394 K (250 F), and 422 K (300 F). Static tests results show the effects of defect size and type on the compression-fracture strength under moisture and thermal environments. The cyclic tests results compare the fatigue lives and residual compression strength under compression only and under tension-compression fatigue loading.

Porter, T. R.

1982-01-01

246

HAPPENING THIS WEEK NECO MEETING  

E-print Network

THE YEAR, SO EXPECT TO WORK MORE DURING TIMES OF INFLUX IN RECY- CLING (MOVE IN, MOVE OUT, FOOTBALL SEASON STADIUM- AS PART OF OUR NEW BIKING CAMPAIGN, WE ARE OFFERING PATRONS AT THE FOOTBALL GAMES FREE BIKE VALET PARKING! WITH THAT, WE NEED SOME AWESOME VOLUNTEERS FOR THE GAME. LET US KNOW IF YOU WANT TO RACK UP SOME

Maxwell, Bruce D.

247

Educators' Guide to Ally Week  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ally is an individual who speaks out and stands up for a person or group that is targeted and/or discriminated against. An ally works to end oppression by supporting and advocating for people who are stigmatized, or treated unfairly because of who they are. In this context, Allies are referred to as people who do not identify as LGBT (lesbian,…

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2010

2010-01-01

248

Influence of Avicel PH-301 on the compressibility of alpha-methyldopa and phenobarbitone in direct compression.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the compressibility behavior of alpha-methyldopa and phenobarbitone using a Korsch EK0 instrumented eccentric tablet machine, with force-time and force-displacement curves constructed and applied to calculate different compressional values to study the compressional behavior. The results of this work revealed a difference in compressibility behavior between the two drugs during the compressional process. alpha-Methyldopa gave an abnormal compressional curve with high friction in the pre- and postcompressional phases. A residual force could be seen on the lower punch. Furthermore, capping and sticking were observed visually during tablet pressing, indicating poor compressibility behavior. In the case of phenobarbitone, no friction was observed in the precompressional phase, but there was higher friction in the postcompressional phase, especially in the ejection phase. The compressibility of the drugs was improved by the addition of Avicel PH-301 and magnesium stearate. PMID:10914328

Siaan, M; Pintye-Hódi, K; Szabó-Révész, P; Kása, P; Erõs, I

2000-09-01

249

Survey of Header Compression Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides a summary of several different header compression techniques. The different techniques included are: (1) Van Jacobson's header compression (RFC 1144); (2) SCPS (Space Communications Protocol Standards) header compression (SCPS-TP, SCPS-NP); (3) Robust header compression (ROHC); and (4) The header compression techniques in RFC2507 and RFC2508. The methodology for compression and error correction for these schemes are described in the remainder of this document. All of the header compression schemes support compression over simplex links, provided that the end receiver has some means of sending data back to the sender. However, if that return path does not exist, then neither Van Jacobson's nor SCPS can be used, since both rely on TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). In addition, under link conditions of low delay and low error, all of the schemes perform as expected. However, based on the methodology of the schemes, each scheme is likely to behave differently as conditions degrade. Van Jacobson's header compression relies heavily on the TCP retransmission timer and would suffer an increase in loss propagation should the link possess a high delay and/or bit error rate (BER). The SCPS header compression scheme protects against high delay environments by avoiding delta encoding between packets. Thus, loss propagation is avoided. However, SCPS is still affected by an increased BER (bit-error-rate) since the lack of delta encoding results in larger header sizes. Next, the schemes found in RFC2507 and RFC2508 perform well for non-TCP connections in poor conditions. RFC2507 performance with TCP connections is improved by various techniques over Van Jacobson's, but still suffers a performance hit with poor link properties. Also, RFC2507 offers the ability to send TCP data without delta encoding, similar to what SCPS offers. ROHC is similar to the previous two schemes, but adds additional CRCs (cyclic redundancy check) into headers and improves compression schemes which provide better tolerances in conditions with a high BER.

Ishac, Joseph

2001-01-01

250

Compressed Wavefront Sensing  

PubMed Central

We report on an algorithm for fast wavefront sensing that incorporates sparse representation for the first time in practice. The partial derivatives of optical wavefronts were sampled sparsely with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) by randomly subsampling the original SHWFS data to as little as 5%. Reconstruction was performed by a sparse representation algorithm that utilized the Zernike basis. We name this method SPARZER. Experiments on real and simulated data attest to the accuracy of the proposed techniques as compared to traditional sampling and reconstruction methods. We have made the corresponding data set and software freely available online. Compressed wavefront sensing offers the potential to increase the speed of wavefront acquisition and to defray the cost of SHWFS devices. PMID:24690703

Polans, James; McNabb, Ryan P.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

2014-01-01

251

Free compressible jet investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) effect on a supersonic turbulent jet was investigated. A dedicated convergent/divergent nozzle together with a flow feeding system was designed and manufactured. A nozzle Mach exit of M j = 1.5 was selected in order to obtain a convective Mach number of M c = 0.6. The flow was investigated for over-expanded, correctly expanded and under-expanded jet conditions. Mach number, total temperature and flow velocity measurements were carried out in order to characterise the jet behaviour. The inlet conditions of the jet flow were monitored in order to calculate the nozzle exit speed of sound and evaluate the mean Mach number distribution starting from the flow velocity data. A detailed analysis of the Mach results obtained by a static Pitot probe and by a particle image velocimetry measurement system was carried out. The mean flow velocity was investigated, and the axial Mach decay and the spreading rate were associated with the flow structures and with the compressibility effects. Aerodynamics of the different jet conditions was evaluated, and the shock cells structures were detected and discussed correlating the jet structure to the flow fluctuation and local turbulence. The longitudinal and radial distribution of the total temperature was investigated, and the temperature profiles were analysed and discussed. The total temperature behaviour was correlated to the turbulent phenomena and to the NPR jet conditions. Self-similarity condition was encountered and discussed for the over-expanded jet. Compressibility effects on the local turbulence, on the turbulent kinetic energy and on the Reynolds tensor were discussed.

De Gregorio, Fabrizio

2014-03-01

252

MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT (MMWR)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is used to disseminate weekly provisional data on nationally notifiable infectious diseases. These provisional data are used for program planning and evaluation, monitoring trends in incidence, and detecting disease outbreaks....

253

Effects of Compression on Speech Acoustics, Intelligibility, and Sound Quality  

PubMed Central

The topic of compression has been discussed quite extensively in the last 20 years (eg, Braida et al., 1982; Dillon, 1996, 2000; Dreschler, 1992; Hickson, 1994; Kuk, 2000 and 2002; Kuk and Ludvigsen, 1999; Moore, 1990; Van Tasell, 1993; Venema, 2000; Verschuure et al., 1996; Walker and Dillon, 1982). However, the latest comprehensive update by this journal was published in 1996 (Kuk, 1996). Since that time, use of compression hearing aids has increased dramatically, from half of hearing aids dispensed only 5 years ago to four out of five hearing aids dispensed today (Strom, 2002b). Most of today's digital and digitally programmable hearing aids are compression devices (Strom, 2002a). It is probable that within a few years, very few patients will be fit with linear hearing aids. Furthermore, compression has increased in complexity, with greater numbers of parameters under the clinician's control. Ideally, these changes will translate to greater flexibility and precision in fitting and selection. However, they also increase the need for information about the effects of compression amplification on speech perception and speech quality. As evidenced by the large number of sessions at professional conferences on fitting compression hearing aids, clinicians continue to have questions about compression technology and when and how it should be used. How does compression work? Who are the best candidates for this technology? How should adjustable parameters be set to provide optimal speech recognition? What effect will compression have on speech quality? These and other questions continue to drive our interest in this technology. This article reviews the effects of compression on the speech signal and the implications for speech intelligibility, quality, and design of clinical procedures.

Souza, Pamela E.

2002-01-01

254

Data Compression with Prime Numbers  

E-print Network

A compression algorithm is presented that uses the set of prime numbers. Sequences of numbers are correlated with the prime numbers, and labeled with the integers. The algorithm can be iterated on data sets, generating factors of doubles on the compression.

Gordon Chalmers

2005-11-16

255

Application specific compression : final report.  

SciTech Connect

With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

2008-12-01

256

Data compression on the sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large data-sets defined on the sphere arise in many fields. In particular, recent and forthcoming observations of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) made on the celestial sphere contain approximately three and fifty mega-pixels respectively. The compression of such data is therefore becoming increasingly important. We develop algorithms to compress data defined on the sphere. A Haar wavelet transform on the sphere is used as an energy compression stage to reduce the entropy of the data, followed by Huffman and run-length encoding stages. Lossless and lossy compression algorithms are developed. We evaluate compression performance on simulated CMB data, Earth topography data and environmental illumination maps used in computer graphics. The CMB data can be compressed to approximately 40% of its original size for essentially no loss to the cosmological information content of the data, and to approximately 20% if a small cosmological information loss is tolerated. For the topographic and illumination data compression ratios of approximately 40:1 can be achieved when a small degradation in quality is allowed. We make our SZIP program that implements these compression algorithms available publicly.

McEwen, J. D.; Wiaux, Y.; Eyers, D. M.

2011-07-01

257

Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

2010-02-03

258

Algorithms for manipulating compressed images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of algorithms that implement operations on compressed digital images is described. These algorithms allow many traditional image manipulation operations to be performed 50 to 100 times faster than their brute-force counterparts. It is shown how the algebraic operations of pixel-wise and scalar addition and multiplication, which are the basis for many image transformations, can be implemented on compressed

Brian C. Smith; Lawrence A. Rowe

1993-01-01

259

Analysis of clay layer compression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze time series data for long-term ground subsidence in response to dewatering. From this analysis, the students can back-figure the compressibility of a clay lens that is compressing, and the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the clay. The data may be downloaded from the book web site and imported into a spreadsheet for analysis.

Fitts, Charlie

260

A Tutorial on MPEG\\/Audio Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This tutorial covers the theory behind MPEG\\/audio compression This algorithm was developed by the Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG), as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard for the high fidelity compression of digital audio The MPEG\\/audio compression standard is one part of a multiple part standard that addresses the compression of video - 2), the compression of audio

Davis Pan

1995-01-01

261

Image compression through wavelet transform coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel theory is introduced for analyzing image compression methods that are based on compression of wavelet decompositions. This theory precisely relates (a) the rate of decay in the error between the original image and the compressed image as the size of the compressed image representation increases (i.e., as the amount of compression decreases) to (b) the smoothness of the

Ronald A. Devore; Björn D. Jawerth; Bradley J. Lucier

1992-01-01

262

Digital compression algorithms for HDTV transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital compression of video images is a possible avenue for high definition television (HDTV) transmission. Compression needs to be optimized while picture quality remains high. Two techniques for compression the digital images are explained and comparisons are drawn between the human vision system and artificial compression techniques. Suggestions for improving compression algorithms through the use of neural and analog circuitry are given.

Adkins, Kenneth C.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Bibyk, Steven B.

1990-01-01

263

Computer Science Education Week shines in 2011  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third annual Computer Science Education Week (CSEdWeek, http:\\/\\/www.csedweek.org\\/) was enormously successful with roughly double the engagement over the previous year. We can all look forward to CSEdWeek 2012 being even bigger and better, especially with the SIGCSE community's full participation.

Debra Richardson

264

Four-Day Week Schedule. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What does research say about the four-day week as an alternative school schedule? More than 100 districts in at least 12 states currently use a four-day week alternative schedule. Most are located in rural areas, serve less than 1000 students, and made the move to a shorter school week with longer instructional days for financial reasons. Although…

Marx, Gary E.

2007-01-01

265

78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...to be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to...summon us to experience it firsthand. This week, the National Park Service will make...

2013-04-24

266

77 FR 42941 - Captive Nations Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8841--Captive Nations Week, 2012 Memorandum of July 11, 2012...8841 of July 16, 2012 Captive Nations Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...Eisenhower first proclaimed Captive Nations Week amidst an escalating Cold War, he...

2012-07-20

267

Understanding Infidelity: An Interview with Gerald Weeks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this interview, Gerald Weeks shares his expertise on the topic of infidelity and couples counseling. Dr. Weeks defines infidelity, presents assessment strategies for treating the issue of infidelity, and discusses an intersystemic model for infidelity treatment when counseling couples. Dr. Weeks also provides insight into common mistakes made…

Smith, Travis

2011-01-01

268

77 FR 62133 - Fire Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8881 of October 5, 2012 Fire Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...heartbreaking. During Fire Prevention Week, we resolve to protect ourselves, our...immediately. As we mark Fire Prevention Week by recommitting to preparedness, we...

2012-10-12

269

Compact wavefunctions from compressed imaginary time evolution  

E-print Network

Simulation of quantum systems promises to deliver physical and chemical predictions for the frontiers of technology. Unfortunately, the exact representation of these systems is plagued by the exponential growth of dimension with the number of particles, or colloquially, the curse of dimensionality. The success of approximation methods has hinged on the relative simplicity of physical systems with respect to the exponentially complex worst case. Exploiting this relative simplicity has required detailed knowledge of the physical system under study. In this work, we introduce a general and efficient black box method for many-body quantum systems that utilizes technology from compressed sensing to find the most compact wavefunction possible without detailed knowledge of the system. It is a Multicomponent Adaptive Greedy Iterative Compression (MAGIC) scheme. No knowledge is assumed in the structure of the problem other than correct particle statistics. This method can be applied to many quantum systems such as spi...

McClean, Jarrod R

2014-01-01

270

Internship Training Work Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following report was written by the group leader several weeks following the conference and distributed to all work group members and the Psychology Consultant. There were two main concerns of the work group: how to improve and achieve a better fit be...

F. H. Rath

1974-01-01

271

Compressive Sensing of Sparse Tensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressive sensing (CS) has triggered enormous research activity since its first appearance. CS exploits the signal's sparsity or compressibility in a particular domain and integrates data compression and acquisition, thus allowing exact reconstruction through relatively few non-adaptive linear measurements. While conventional CS theory relies on data representation in the form of vectors, many data types in various applications such as color imaging, video sequences, and multi-sensor networks, are intrinsically represented by higher-order tensors. Application of CS to higher-order data representation is typically performed by conversion of the data to very long vectors that must be measured using very large sampling matrices, thus imposing a huge computational and memory burden. In this paper, we propose Generalized Tensor Compressive Sensing (GTCS)--a unified framework for compressive sensing of higher-order tensors which preserves the intrinsic structure of tensor data with reduced computational complexity at reconstruction. GTCS offers an efficient means for representation of multidimensional data by providing simultaneous acquisition and compression from all tensor modes. In addition, we propound two reconstruction procedures, a serial method (GTCS-S) and a parallelizable method (GTCS-P). We then compare the performance of the proposed method with Kronecker compressive sensing (KCS) and multi way compressive sensing (MWCS). We demonstrate experimentally that GTCS outperforms KCS and MWCS in terms of both reconstruction accuracy (within a range of compression ratios) and processing speed. The major disadvantage of our methods (and of MWCS as well), is that the compression ratios may be worse than that offered by KCS.

Friedland, Shmuel; Li, Qun; Schonfeld, Dan

2014-10-01

272

77 FR 31143 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8824--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2012 Proclamation 8825--National Safe Boating Week, 2012 Proclamation 8826--National Small Business Week, 2012 Proclamation 8827--World Trade Week, 2012...

2012-05-24

273

Weekly patterns, diet quality and energy balance.  

PubMed

Human behaviour is made up of many repeated patterns and habitual behaviours. Our day to day lives are punctuated by work, education, domestic chores, sleep and food. Changes in daily patterns such as not working in paid employment or attending school on the weekend contribute significantly to changes in dietary patterns of food consumption, patterns of physical activity and ultimately energy balance. The aim of this paper is to adopt a life-course perspective and explore the changes in dietary quality and physical activity patterns across the week from young children to elderly adults with a focus on Western cultures. Research literature indicates that the dietary quality is somewhat poorer on the weekends, characterised by higher fat intakes, higher alcohol intakes and consequently higher energy intakes. This increase in energy intake is not necessarily offset by an increase in activity, rather an increase in sedentary behaviours. Some research has observed an increase of more than 100 cal per day over the weekend in American adults. Over the course of one year, this can result in a significant increase in body mass. Some of the interventions in tackling obesity and diet related behaviours must focus on the changes in the weekend behaviour of consumers in terms of both food and activity. These efforts should also focus on increasing consumer awareness of the long term consequences of the short lived weekend excess as well as putting in place practical measures and interventions that are evidence based and targeted to consumer needs. PMID:24589367

McCarthy, Sinéad

2014-07-01

274

[Compression of interference hyperspectral image based on FHALS-NTD].  

PubMed

A hyperspectral interference image compression algorithm based on fast hierarchical alternating least squares nonnegative tensor Tucker decomposition (FHALS-NTD) is proposed. Firstly, the interference hyperspectral image is decomposed by 3-D OPD lifting-based discrete wavelet transform (3D OPT-LDWT) in the OPD direction. Then, the 3D DWT sub-bands decomposed are used as a three order nonnegative tensor, which is decomposed by the proposed FHALS-NTD algorithm to obtain 8 core tensors and 24 unknown component matrices. Finally, to obtain the final compressed bit-stream, each unknown component matrices element is quantized, and each core tensor is encoded by the proposed bit-plane coding of significant coefficients. The experimental results showed that the proposed compression algorithm could be used for reliable and stable work and has good compressive property. In the compression ratio range from 32 : 1 to 4 : 1, the average peak signal to noise ratio of proposed compression algorithm is higher than 40 dB. Compared with traditional approaches, the proposed method could improve the average PSNR by 1.23 dB. This effectively improves the compression performance of hyperspectral interference image. PMID:23387199

Du, Li-Min; Li, Jin; Jin, Guang; Gao, Hui-Bin; Jin, Long-Xu; Zhang, Ke

2012-11-01

275

Coil Compression for Accelerated Imaging with Cartesian Sampling  

PubMed Central

MRI using receiver arrays with many coil elements can provide high signal-to-noise ratio and increase parallel imaging acceleration. At the same time, the growing number of elements results in larger datasets and more computation in the reconstruction. This is of particular concern in 3D acquisitions and in iterative reconstructions. Coil compression algorithms are effective in mitigating this problem by compressing data from many channels into fewer virtual coils. In Cartesian sampling there often are fully sampled k-space dimensions. In this work, a new coil compression technique for Cartesian sampling is presented that exploits the spatially varying coil sensitivities in these non-subsampled dimensions for better compression and computation reduction. Instead of directly compressing in k-space, coil compression is performed separately for each spatial location along the fully-sampled directions, followed by an additional alignment process that guarantees the smoothness of the virtual coil sensitivities. This important step provides compatibility with autocalibrating parallel imaging techniques. Its performance is not susceptible to artifacts caused by a tight imaging fieldof-view. High quality compression of in-vivo 3D data from a 32 channel pediatric coil into 6 virtual coils is demonstrated. PMID:22488589

Zhang, Tao; Pauly, John M.; Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Lustig, Michael

2012-01-01

276

Anxiety symptoms and disorders at eight weeks postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the prevalence, risk factors for, and consequences of postpartum depression have been studied extensively, little work has examined the nature of postpartum anxiety disorders in community samples. In the present study, 147 community women completed a diagnostic interview and a battery of self-report inventories approximately eight weeks after childbirth. The rate of generalized anxiety disorder was elevated as compared

Amy Wenzel; Erin N. Haugen; Lydia C. Jackson; Jennifer R. Brendle

2005-01-01

277

National Severe Weather Preparedness Week 2013 Page 1 Talking Points  

E-print Network

Severe Weather Preparedness Week, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Oceanic weather strikes. · [Organization], FEMA and NOAA are just one part of the emergency management team of the emergency management team that works to prepare and respond to disaster. A key member of the team

278

ABC's “Person of the Week”: American Values in Television News  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed five years of “ABC World News Tonight's ‘Person of the Week’” segments to identify prominent types of people and values endorsed by mainstream news media. Individuals most frequently selected for ABC's honor lived in the United States; worked in politics and entertainment; and were white, male, and famous. American values such as individualism, heroism, and unselfishness were

Stephanie Greco Larson; Martha Bailey

1998-01-01

279

75 FR 71523 - National Farm-City Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...relationship between American farms and families, and work...generations. During National Farm-City Week, we recognize...between rural industries and urban markets is stronger than...contributions in connecting urban, suburban, and rural...food options by visiting farms, learning from...

2010-11-24

280

29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.  

...equipment complying with the provisions of subpart E of this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed a pressure of 30 psi. Compressed air shall not be used to clean...

2014-07-01

281

Processing of compressed imagery: compressive operations with VPIC-, BTC-, VQ-, and JPEG-compressed imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processing of compressed imagery can exhibit advantages of (1) reduced space requirement for image storage, due to fewer data; (2) computational speedup resulting from fewer operations on reduced data; and (3) increased data security due to an obscure encoding format. We call this technique compressive processing, which we have shown can simulate an image-domain operation using an analogous operation over a given compressed image format. The output of the analogous operation, when decompressed, equals or approximates the output of the corresponding image operation. In Part 1 of this three-part series, we show that compressive processing can lead to sequential computational efficiencies that approach the compression ratio. Additionally, we present unifying theory that portrays the derivation of compressive operations at a high level for image operations such as pointwise, global reduce (e.g., image summation or maximum), and image-template (e.g., linear convolution) operations. Further discussion and analysis concerned formulations of block truncation coding (BTC) and visual pattern image coding (VPIC) compressive transforms. In this paper, we analyze high-level formulations of the vector quantization (VQ) and JPEG compression transforms. Additionally, we illustrate the utility of our high-level derivational methods by demonstrating the derivation and operation of several pixel-level operations over VPIC- and BTC-compressed imagery. Such operations are extended to include VQ- and JPEG-compressed imagery. In Part 3, we consider the pixel- level operations of edge detection and smoothing, as well as higher-level operations such as target classification and connected component labeling. Analyses emphasize computational efficiency, as well as effects of information loss and computational error. Our algorithms are expressed in terms of image algebra, a rigorous, concise notation that unifies linear and nonlinear mathematics in the image domain. Since image algebra has been implemented on numerous sequential and parallel computers, our algorithms are feasible and widely portable.

Schmalz, Mark S.

1996-06-01

282

Lossless compression of pseudocolor images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a pseudo-color (color-mapped) image pixel values represent indices that point to color values in a look-up table. Well-known linear predictive schemes, such as JPEG and CALIC, perform poorly when used with pseudo-color images, while universal compressors, such as Gzip, Pkzip and Compress, yield better compression gain. Recently, Burrows and Wheeler introduced the Block Sorting Lossless Data Compression Algorithm (BWA). The BWA algorithm received considerable attention. It achieves compression rates as good as context-based methods, such as PPM, but at execution speeds closer to Ziv-Lempel techniques. The BWA algorithm is mainly composed of a block-sorting transformation which is known as Burrows-Wheeler Transformation (BWT), followed by Move-To-Front coding. In this paper, we introduce a new block transformation, Linear Order Transformation (LOT). We delineate its relationship to BWT and show that LOT is faster than BWT transformation. We then show that when MTF coder is employed after the LOT, the compression gain obtained is better than the well-known compression techniques, such as GIF, JPEG, CALLIC, Gzip, LZW (Unix Compress) and the BWA for pseudo-color images.

Arnavut, Ziya; Leavitt, David; Abdulazizoglu, Meral

1998-10-01

283

Intralobar nephroblastematosis in a nine-week-old Wistar rat.  

PubMed

Intralobar nephroblastematosis (ILNB) is a precursor lesion to the development of nephroblastoma (NB) in rats. Unilateral ILNB was observed in the kidney of a nine-week-old female Wistar rat (Crl:WI) from a short-term toxicity study. Clinical pathology and urinalysis did not reveal altered renal function. This microscopic, unencapsulated lesion consisted of basophilic sheets of blastemal cells that did not include a prominent mesenchymal component. These cells expanded in the interstitium, which trapped and compressed few normal renal tubules. The blastemal cells moderately differentiated to form rosettes, primitive tubules, and a glomeruloid body. Multifocally, the lumen of primitive tubules contained eosinophilic secretions with basophilic material in the center. The diagnostic criteria used were compared and differentiated with renal dysplasia, nephrogenic rest, NB in rats, and with that of the identical lesion in children. PMID:19773594

Kalaiselvan, P; Mathur, K Y; Pande, V V; Madheswaran, R; Bhelonde, J J; Shelar, P D; Udupa, V; Shingatgeri, V M

2009-10-01

284

Pseudoaneurysm of the Inferior Epigastric Artery Successfully Treated by Ultrasound-guided Compression  

SciTech Connect

An 82-year-old woman underwent right hemicolectomy by median laparotomy. Two weeks later, a pulsatile mass was found at the left side of the surgical wound, which was diagnosed as pseudoaneurysm of the inferior epigastric artery by color Doppler US and CT. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated by US-guided compression of the neck of the aneurysm for 30 minutes. US-guided compression should be considered the treatment of choice for postsurgical pseudoaneurysm of the inferior epigastric artery.

Takase, Kei [Ishinomaki Redcross Hospital, 1-7-10 Yoshino, Ishinomaki, Miyagi 986-8522, Department of Radiology (Japan)], E-mail: kytakase@mb.infoweb.ne.jp; Kazama, Takuro [Ishinomaki Redcross Hospital, 1-7-10 Yoshino, Ishinomaki, Miyagi 986-8522, Department of Surgery (Japan); Abe, Kayoko; Chiba, Yoshihiro [Ishinomaki Redcross Hospital, 1-7-10 Yoshino, Ishinomaki, Miyagi 986-8522, Department of Radiology (Japan); Saito, Haruo; Takahashi, Shoki [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8574, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2004-09-15

285

Fast Progressive Lossless Image Compression  

E-print Network

CS--1994--14 Fast Progressive Lossless Image Compression Paul G. Howard, Jeffrey S. Vitter Department of Computer Science Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708-0129 March 25, 1994 Fast Progressive Lossless Image Compression Paul G#2; Howard... and Je#3;rey Scott Vitter To appear in Image and Video Compression IS#2;T#3;SPIE Symposium on Electronic Imaging#4; Science #2; Technology San Jose#5; California February #6; #7;#8;#5; #7; Paper number #11;#7;#12;#6; #7;#11; Fast progressive lossless...

Howard, Paul G.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1994-02-01

286

Designing experiments through compressed sensing.  

SciTech Connect

In the following paper, we discuss how to design an ensemble of experiments through the use of compressed sensing. Specifically, we show how to conduct a small number of physical experiments and then use compressed sensing to reconstruct a larger set of data. In order to accomplish this, we organize our results into four sections. We begin by extending the theory of compressed sensing to a finite product of Hilbert spaces. Then, we show how these results apply to experiment design. Next, we develop an efficient reconstruction algorithm that allows us to reconstruct experimental data projected onto a finite element basis. Finally, we verify our approach with two computational experiments.

Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

2013-06-01

287

Image compression quality rating using anchored scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional image quality rating schemes use descriptive scales applicable to wide ranges of quality. These scales, based on equal interval verbal descriptors, cannot be used for restricted ranges of quality now encountered in image compression studies. Although numerical category scales have been successfully used in some studies for quantifying small variations in quality arising from lossy image compression, problems arise in more general image coding applications. In this work, we propose a double anchored numerical category scale based on a 3-context visual assessment scheme for image coding applications. The goal is to devise a common subjective scale applicable to a set of images produced from multiple scenes compressed by multiple coding algorithms. Therefore, the contexts are in the use of distinct coders and distinct images. The first two contexts, using a specific image scene, are the visibility of specific coder induced artifacts and the visibility of artifacts arising from different coders. In the third context, the artifact visibility is in terms of the content of different image scenes. Separate scales are obtained for images differing in scene content and for each coding algorithm, using numerical category scaling with explicit high and low anchors. These scales are linked using pairwise matching techniques to obtain a robust image quality sale.

Avadhanam, Niranjan; Algazi, V. Ralph

1998-04-01

288

Streaming Compression of Tetrahedral Volume Meshes  

SciTech Connect

Geometry processing algorithms have traditionally assumed that the input data is entirely in main memory and available for random access. This assumption does not scale to large data sets, as exhausting the physical memory typically leads to IO-inefficient thrashing. Recent works advocate processing geometry in a 'streaming' manner, where computation and output begin as soon as possible. Streaming is suitable for tasks that require only local neighbor information and batch process an entire data set. We describe a streaming compression scheme for tetrahedral volume meshes that encodes vertices and tetrahedra in the order they are written. To keep the memory footprint low, the compressor is informed when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. are finalized). The compression achieved depends on how coherent the input order is and how many tetrahedra are buffered for local reordering. For reasonably coherent orderings and a buffer of 10,000 tetrahedra, we achieve compression rates that are only 25 to 40 percent above the state-of-the-art, while requiring drastically less memory resources and less than half the processing time.

Isenburg, M; Lindstrom, P; Gumhold, S; Shewchuk, J

2005-11-21

289

Chemical Processes During Shock Compression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A critical examination of material in the literature concerning the occurrence of chemical processes in shock compression has shown that no correct proof has yet appeared showing that endothermic diffusion processes can take place actually during the shor...

A. N. Dremin, E. N. Klopova, G. A. Adadurov, O. N. Breusov, T. V. Bavina

1980-01-01

290

Compression fractures of the back  

MedlinePLUS

Vertebral compression fractures ... the most common cause of this type of fracture. Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become ... the spine, such as multiple myeloma Having many fractures of the vertabrae can lead to kyphosis . This ...

291

High compression rate text summarization  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

2008-01-01

292

Compressed gas fuel storage system  

DOEpatents

A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

2001-01-01

293

Normalized Compression Distance of Multiples  

E-print Network

Normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free similarity measure based on compression. The NCD between pairs of objects is not sufficient for all applications. We propose an NCD of finite multisets (multiples) of objacts that is metric and is better for many applications. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. We use the theoretical notion of Kolmogorov complexity that for practical purposes is approximated from above by the length of the compressed version of the file involved, using a real-world compression program. We applied the new NCD for multiples to retinal progenitor cell questions that were earlier treated with the pairwise NCD. Here we get significantly better results. We also applied the NCD for multiples to synthetic time sequence data. The preliminary results are as good as nearest neighbor Euclidean classifier.

Cohen, Andrew R

2012-01-01

294

Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

2004-01-01

295

Mechanisms in Compressible Cake Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Basic mechanisms influencing filtration dewatering of compressible water and wastewater sludges were examined. Results revealed many hitherto unappreciated aspects of filtration dewatering and pointed out the lack of reliability of present means for chara...

R. I. Dick

1989-01-01

296

Solar Week Friday: Women in Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a list of online resources associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is set of online resources related to women in science careers. Investigating these resources is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

297

Solar Week Wednesday: The Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short online reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Learners will read about how Earth is protected from the harmful effects of solar radiation. This activity is scheduled to occur during Wednesday of Solar Week.

298

Solar Week Wednesday: Meet Today's Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of readings associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Female scientists with different perspectives about the Sun are highlighted in the online readings. This activity is scheduled to occur during Wednesday of Solar Week.

299

Solar Week Monday: Play the Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a game associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. During this game, learners use clues to find out the color, average size, temperature, and location of the Sun. This activity is scheduled to occur during Monday of Solar Week.

300

Position Description: Appointment for summer 2013 32 to 40 hours/week x 12 weeks -May through August. (380 480 hours)  

E-print Network

Qualifications: - Competency with Microsoft Work, Excel, PowerPoint - Competency in social media, web content RSDP website (UM Content platform) · Implement social media presence for NW RSDP using Facebook andPosition Description: Appointment for summer 2013 ­ 32 to 40 hours/week x 12 weeks - May through

Minnesota, University of

301

A New Image Compression Scheme with Wavelet Transform and SPIHT Algorithm using PSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The necessity in image compression continuously grows during the last decade. A number of image compression techniques have been developed in the past different kind of application. But, majority of the image compression approaches available in the literature have poor visual quality and low PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) value. In recent years, discrete time wavelet transform (DWT) is observed to be very efficient for image compression techniques. The existing work implemented with SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Tress) compression scheme. This paper introduce a proposed method of implementation wavelet family which is combine with SPIHT compression scheme using PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) which gives significant improvement in image visual quality such as PSNR value than existing work.

Zala, Mahipalsinh R.; Parmar, Shaktisinh S.

2013-03-01

302

AFIS data compression: an example of how domain specific compression algorithms can produce very high compression ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development and implementation of a data compression algorithm designed specifically for fingerprints, referred to as GBP compression. The algorithm is herein discussed. Data Compression algorithms can be designed for general applications, meaning the input data is unknown. This is more commonly referred to as generic data. [LI01] Or, data compression algorithms can be designed for specific

Givon Zirkind

2007-01-01

303

Diagnoses of coaxial probes in shock compression.  

PubMed

A miniature diagnostic apparatus, which consists of a target, a guiding tube, a nail-gun, and a simple base, has been developed in the proposed research to estimate batches of pinlike coaxial probes with selectable collision speeds, 198.3, 361.0, and 420.6 mps, corresponding to thrust capabilities of certain minibullets. This work aims at filling the gap between typical two stage light gas gun (>500 mps) and pendulum machine (<100 mps) with low cost and risk in realistic shock compressions. As a part of the experiment, the kappa coefficient and the statistical agreement and reliability are all evaluated. PMID:19566210

Sun, Yue; Ci, Jiaxiang; Yi, Pengfei; Zhang, Hongrun

2009-06-01

304

Compression strength of composite primary structural components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A status report of work performed during the period May 1, 1992 to October 31, 1992 is presented. Research was conducted in three areas: delamination initiation in postbuckled dropped-ply laminates; stiffener crippling initiated by delamination; and pressure pillowing of an orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shell. The geometrically nonlinear response and delamination initiation of compression-loaded dropped-ply laminates is analyzed. A computational model of the stiffener specimens that includes the capability to predict the interlaminar response at the flange free edge in postbuckling is developed. The distribution of the interacting loads between the stiffeners and the shell wall, particularly at the load transfer at the stiffener crossing point, is determined.

Johnson, Eric R.

1992-01-01

305

Heart rate changes during resuscitation of newly born infants <30 weeks gestation: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation recommends starting positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in the delivery room when heart rate (HR) <100 beats per min (bpm) and giving cardiac compressions when HR <60 bpm.ObjectiveTo describe the effect of PPV on HR in infants <30 weeks gestation with HR <100 bpm in the first minutes after birth.Study designRetrospective observational study of infants,

Charmaine H Yam; Jennifer A Dawson; Georg M Schmölzer; Colin J Morley; Peter G Davis

2011-01-01

306

Evolution of some Los Alamos flux compression programs  

SciTech Connect

When we were approached to give a general discussion of some aspects of the Los Alamos flux compression program, we decided to present historical backgrounds of a few topics that have some relevance to programs that we very much In the forefront of activities going on today. Of some thirty abstracts collected at Los Alamos for this conference, ten of them dealt with electromagnetic acceleration of materials, notably the compression of heavy liners, and five dealt with plasma compression. Both of these topics have been under investigation, off and on, from the time a formal flux compression program was organized at Los Alamos. We decided that a short overview of work done In these areas would be of some interest. Some of the work described below has been discussed in Laboratory reports that, while referenced and available, are not readily accessible. For completeness, some previously published, accessible work Is also discussed but much more briefly. Perhaps the most striking thing about the early work In these two areas is how primitive much of it was when compared to the far more sophisticated, related activities of today. Another feature of these programs, actually for most programs, Is their cyclic nature. Their relevance and/or funding seems to come land go. Eventually, many of the older programs come back into favor. Activities Involving the dense plasma focus (DPF), about which some discussions will be given later, furnish a classic example of this kind, coming Into and then out of periods of heightened interest. We devote the next two sections of this paper to a review of our work In magnetic acceleration of solids and of plasma compression. A final section gives a survey of our work In which thin foils are imploded to produce intense quantities of son x-rays. The authors are well aware of much excellent work done elsewhere In all of these topics, but partly because of space limitations, have confined this discussion to work done at Los Alamos.

Fowler, C.M.; Goforth, J.H.

1996-12-31

307

Crucial Week for Northern Ireland Peace Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) leader and First Minister of the currently-suspended Northern Irish government David Trimble announced that he would rejoin the power-sharing executive alongside Sinn Fein, provided he receives majority support at the May 27 meeting of the 860-member Ulster Unionist Council. Events in Northern Ireland have taken on a new momentum since the May 6 announcement by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) that they would place their arms "beyond use" by sealing them in bunkers which would be periodically inspected by foreign arms inspectors. At first, this statement was met with considerable enthusiasm in the UK and Ireland, and the British government took steps to reinstate the home rule government in Northern Ireland that had been suspended in February because of a deadlock over arms decommissioning. The target date was set for May 22, and a meeting of the Ulster Unionist Council was scheduled for May 20. In the past week and a half, however, a number of difficulties have arisen, particularly Unionist opposition to a number of proposed changes to the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), Northern Ireland's police force, to make it more acceptable to all sections of the community, including a proposed name change to the Northern Ireland Police Service. British officials, especially Northern Ireland Secretary Peter Mandelson, have been working to address the Unionists's concerns without angering the Catholic and Nationalist communities by diluting what they regard as essential reforms. While it appears that David Trimble is now ready to reenter the government, the majority of his party clearly was not, and it was almost certain he would have lost the (now rescheduled) vote on May 20. He will now use this next week to privately and publicly lobby his party to take the risk with him and rejoin Sinn Fein in the power-sharing government. If he is successful, it may very well mark a new departure in Unionist politics; should he lose the vote, he would most probably lose the leadership of the party, gravely jeopardizing the immediate future of the peace process.

De Nie, Michael W.

308

The implementation and performance of compressed databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show how compression can be integrated into a relational database system. Specifically, we describe how the storage manager, the query execution engine, and the query optimizer of a database system can be extended to deal with compressed data. Our main result is that compression can significantly improve the response time of queries if very light-weight compression

Till Westmann; Donald Kossmann; Sven Helmer; Guido Moerkotte

2000-01-01

309

ECG compression using discrete symmetric wavelet transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new ECG signal compression algorithm using a discrete symmetric wavelet transform. This proposed compression scheme may find applications in digital Holter recording, in ECG signal archiving and in ECG data transmission through communication channels. Using the new method, a compression ratio of 8 to 1 can be achieved with PRD=3.9%, in contrast to the AZTEC compression

A. Djohan; T. Q. Nguyen; W. J. Tompkins

1995-01-01

310

Educational Efficacy of Weekly Movie Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the efficacy of a weekly movie class through students' in-school achievement, a general proficiency test, and surveys about their cultural awareness and interest in English. An experimental group watched movies with viewing guides every week for 2 months. They improved significantly more than the control group in their in-school…

Choi, Taehee

2000-01-01

311

National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

312

NIDIS Weekly Climate, Water Drought Assessment Summary  

E-print Network

Phee. McPhee storage has decreased this past month, but usually its levels are increasing during this time). Both gages saw decreases from last week, but remain in the normal conditions range. #12;Reservoirs: All reservoirs in the UCRB saw decreases over the past week, except for Lake Dillon. Dillon volume slightly

313

IWSA WEEKLY UPDATE January 30, 2009  

E-print Network

credit for waste-to-energy and other renewables. Consideration by the full Senate is expected next week-year extension of the production tax credit for waste-to-energy and other renewables. A table summarizing, including waste-to-energy, in New York's Hudson Valley. After her swearing in this week, Gillibrand

Columbia University

314

Banned Books Week: Just the Beginning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Founded in 1982, Banned Books Week is celebrated annually during the last week in September and will be observed from September 26-October 3 in 2009. The event acknowledges Americans' right to read the books of their choice regardless of whether the ideas, language, or images are controversial. This annual observance of banned books is a good…

Adams, Helen R.

2009-01-01

315

Inflammatory cascades mediate synapse elimination in spinal cord compression  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM) is caused by chronic spinal cord compression due to spondylosis, a degenerative disc disease, and ossification of the ligaments. Tip-toe walking Yoshimura (twy) mice are reported to be an ideal animal model for CCM-related neuronal dysfunction, because they develop spontaneous spinal cord compression without any artificial manipulation. Previous histological studies showed that neurons are lost due to apoptosis in CCM, but the mechanism underlying this neurodegeneration was not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology of CCM by evaluating the global gene expression of the compressed spinal cord and comparing the transcriptome analysis with the physical and histological findings in twy mice. Methods Twenty-week-old twy mice were divided into two groups according to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings: a severe compression (S) group and a mild compression (M) group. The transcriptome was analyzed by microarray and RT-PCR. The cellular pathophysiology was examined by immunohistological analysis and immuno-electron microscopy. Motor function was assessed by Rotarod treadmill latency and stride-length tests. Results Severe cervical calcification caused spinal canal stenosis and low functional capacity in twy mice. The microarray analysis revealed 215 genes that showed significantly different expression levels between the S and the M groups. Pathway analysis revealed that genes expressed at higher levels in the S group were enriched for terms related to the regulation of inflammation in the compressed spinal cord. M1 macrophage-dominant inflammation was present in the S group, and cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61), an inducer of M1 macrophages, was markedly upregulated in these spinal cords. Furthermore, C1q, which initiates the classical complement cascade, was more upregulated in the S group than in the M group. The confocal and electron microscopy observations indicated that classically activated microglia/macrophages had migrated to the compressed spinal cord and eliminated synaptic terminals. Conclusions We revealed the detailed pathophysiology of the inflammatory response in an animal model of chronic spinal cord compression. Our findings suggest that complement-mediated synapse elimination is a central mechanism underlying the neurodegeneration in CCM. PMID:24589419

2014-01-01

316

SCADA Protocol Anomaly Detection Utilizing Compression (SPADUC) 2013  

SciTech Connect

There is a significant need to protect the nation’s energy infrastructures from malicious actors using cyber methods. Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems may be vulnerable due to the insufficient security implemented during the design and deployment of these control systems. This is particularly true in older legacy SCADA systems that are still commonly in use. The purpose of INL’s research on the SCADA Protocol Anomaly Detection Utilizing Compression (SPADUC) project was to determine if and how data compression techniques could be used to identify and protect SCADA systems from cyber attacks. Initially, the concept was centered on how to train a compression algorithm to recognize normal control system traffic versus hostile network traffic. Because large portions of the TCP/IP message traffic (called packets) are repetitive, the concept of using compression techniques to differentiate “non-normal” traffic was proposed. In this manner, malicious SCADA traffic could be identified at the packet level prior to completing its payload. Previous research has shown that SCADA network traffic has traits desirable for compression analysis. This work investigated three different approaches to identify malicious SCADA network traffic using compression techniques. The preliminary analyses and results presented herein are clearly able to differentiate normal from malicious network traffic at the packet level at a very high confidence level for the conditions tested. Additionally, the master dictionary approach used in this research appears to initially provide a meaningful way to categorize and compare packets within a communication channel.

Gordon Rueff; Lyle Roybal; Denis Vollmer

2013-01-01

317

Absolutely lossless compression of medical images.  

PubMed

Data in medical images is very large and therefore for storage and/or transmission of these images, compression is essential. A method is proposed which provides high compression ratios for radiographic images with no loss of diagnostic quality. In the approach an image is first compressed at a high compression ratio but with loss, and the error image is then compressed losslessly. The resulting compression is not only strictly lossless, but also expected to yield a high compression ratio, especially if the lossy compression technique is good. A neural network vector quantizer (NNVQ) is used as a lossy compressor, while for lossless compression Huffman coding is used. Quality of images is evaluated by comparing with standard compression techniques available. PMID:17281110

Ashraf, Robina; Akbar, Muhammad

2005-01-01

318

The United States celebrates National Library Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ALA Report: Poor Middle, High School Libraries Suffer the Most Budget Cutshttp://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/slj/home/890148-312/ala_report_poor_middle_high.html.cspClosing most Cobb libraries not realistichttp://www.ajc.com/opinion/closing-most-cobb-libraries-906121.htmlALA: 2011 State of America's Libraries Report [pdf]http://ala.org/ala/newspresscenter/mediapresscenter/americaslibraries2011/index.cfmThe Most Criticized Books! A Handy List From Your Libraryhttp://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/04/11/135316133/the-most-criticized-books-a-handy-list-from-your-library@Your Libraryhttp://www.atyourlibrary.org/It's National Library Week, and libraries around the United States have much to celebrate. More and more patrons are coming in to their area libraries to check out e-books, read the newspapers, search for jobs online, and to take advantage of unique programs, such as special presentations and concerts. Flush times indeed, but along with rising patronage, public libraries are also facing major cutbacks in terms of funding. This week, the American Library Association (ALA) released its annual "State of America's Libraries" report, and there were a number of troubling signs within its pages. Perhaps the most troubling revelation was that middle and high school libraries in high poverty areas of the US suffered average spending cuts on information resources and collection size of 25.5 percent. The report also noted that total library staff hours declined across the United States, but there was an average increase of 0.8 hours per week among certified school librarians. While most observers tend to agree that libraries will continue to serve as important community gathering centers in the future, it remains to be seen what will be contained within their walls 10 or 20 years in the future.The first link will take visitors to a recent piece of reporting from National Public Radio (NPR) about the future of libraries, with specific reference to the growing popularity of e-books. The second link leads to a piece from the School Library Journal about the budgets cuts among libraries in high poverty areas. Moving on, the third link will whisk users away to an opinion piece by writer Margaret Johnson-Hodge about the importance of libraries in Cobb County, Georgia. The fourth link leads to the full text of the 2011 State of America's Libraries Report from the ALA. The fifth link leads to a report from NPR on the most frequently challenged books of 2010. This list includes titles such as "Brave New World" by Aldous Huxley and "Crank" by Ellen Hopkins. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the Campaign for America's Libraries, which provides information on local libraries, recommended books and music, and information on their mission and work.

Grinnell, Max

2011-04-15

319

Ambient Compression-Compression Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Single Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnesium single crystal sample with a near orientation was tested at room temperature under compression-compression cyclic loading, and the microstructure was characterized to disclose the involved deformation mechanisms. No plastic deformation region appeared on the stress-strain curve during the cyclic loading. The stress-strain curve stabilized at the first cycle, the strain range for each cycle fluctuated slightly around a constant value, and the mean strain for each cycle was in a narrow range from 0.0846 to 0.0863 during the whole test. The ratcheting strain rate decreased exponentially from ~0.0003, and reached a relatively small and stable value of about zero. The observed deformation mechanisms were prismatic slip, compression twinning, and tension twinning. The prismatic dislocation slip roughened the cylindrical sample surface by forming extrusions and intrusions, and small cracks were also observed on the surface.

Li, Qizhen

2014-01-01

320

PERFORMANCE STUDY OF COMPRESSIVE SAMPLING FOR ECG SIGNAL COMPRESSION IN NOISY AND VARYING SPARSITY ACQUISITION  

E-print Network

PERFORMANCE STUDY OF COMPRESSIVE SAMPLING FOR ECG SIGNAL COMPRESSION IN NOISY AND VARYING SPARSITY of compressive sam- pling (CS) for ECG compression in telecardiology, when the signal acquisition is noisy transform (TH-DWT), which is the best technique for real-time ECG compression. We show that CS is quite

Durrani, Salman

321

Balancing Work and Family through Flexible Work Options. Monograph. Volume 9, Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 58 percent of all women working in the U.S. labor force, many of them sole supports of their families, and 67 percent of women with children under age 18 are working. Therefore, more flexible work options are being made to allow a balance of work and family. Increasingly available options include work at home, compressed workweeks,…

Sachs, Sharon

322

WorkLife Programs -Family Friendly Services Child Care Services Flexible Work Arrangements (FWA)  

E-print Network

WorkLife Programs - Family Friendly Services Child Care Services Flexible Work Arrangements (FWA) · On-campus child care centers · Flex work · Community child care centers · Telecommuting · Camps · Compressed workweek · WorkLife Programs child care website · Job share · WorkLife Programs child care

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

323

Compression of fingerprint data using the wavelet vector quantization image compression algorithm. 1992 progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a Wavelet Vector Quantization (WVQ) image compression algorithm for fingerprint raster files. The pertinent work was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This document describes a previously-sent package of C-language source code, referred to as LAFPC, that performs the WVQ fingerprint compression and decompression tasks. The particulars of the WVQ algorithm and the associated design procedure are detailed elsewhere; the purpose of this document is to report the results of the design algorithm for the fingerprint application and to delineate the implementation issues that are incorporated in LAFPC. Special attention is paid to the computation of the wavelet transform, the fast search algorithm used for the VQ encoding, and the entropy coding procedure used in the transmission of the source symbols.

Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

1992-04-11

324

Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

None

2012-01-04

325

Impact of lossy compression on diagnostic accuracy of radiographs for periapical lesions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group compression for endodontic pretreatment digital radiographs. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty clinical charge-coupled device-based, digital radiographs depicting periapical areas were selected. Each image was compressed at 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48, and 64 compression ratios. One root per image was marked for examination. Images were randomized and viewed by four clinical observers under standardized viewing conditions. Each observer read the image set three times, with at least two weeks between each reading. Three pre-selected sites per image (mesial, distal, apical) were scored on a five-scale score confidence scale. A panel of three examiners scored the uncompressed images, with a consensus score for each site. The consensus score was used as the baseline for assessing the impact of lossy compression on the diagnostic values of images. The mean absolute error between consensus and observer scores was computed for each observer, site, and reading session. RESULTS: Balanced one-way analysis of variance for all observers indicated that for compression ratios 48 and 64, there was significant difference between mean absolute error of uncompressed and compressed images (P <.05). After converting the five-scale score to two-level diagnostic values, the diagnostic accuracy was strongly correlated (R (2) = 0.91) with the compression ratio. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that high compression ratios can have a severe impact on the diagnostic quality of the digital radiographs for detection of periapical lesions.

Eraso, Francisco E.; Analoui, Mostafa; Watson, Andrew B.; Rebeschini, Regina

2002-01-01

326

RESIDENT WORK / DUTY HOURS Duty hours must be limited to 80 hours per week, averaged over a 4-week period  

E-print Network

transitions in care occur. Residents may be allowed to remain on-site in order to accomplish these tasks clinical and academic activities related to the residency program, i.e., patient care-both inpatient and outpatient-, administrative duties related to patient care, the provision for transfer of patient care, time

Quirk, Gregory J.

327

The Lab Does Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An individualized English composition laboratory at a community college maintained a student completion rate of only 45% to 55% over a period of several semesters as a result of the following factors: the week long pretest administered to determine student needs was intimidating to students; students became frustrated at being asked to work on…

Logsdon, Richard

328

Solar Week Monday: The Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a short reading about factors that contribute to the ability of life to exist on Earth and the possibility of life on planets around other stars. This activity is scheduled to occur during Monday of Solar Week.

329

Solar Week Tuesday: Guess the Celebrity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online game associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Learners view images of celebrities in various stages of pixellation to try to guess who the celebrity is by viewing images that are highly pixellated down to images that are more defined. This relates to astronomical image resolution and how the number of pixels defines the resolution of an image. This activity is scheduled to occur during Tuesday of Solar Week.

330

Solar Week Thursday: Solar Pizza Box Cooker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about reflection. In this hands-on activity, learners will build a solar cooker by lining a box with reflective material and adding a translucent cover. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week, and it requires use of a sunny outdoor location for an extended period of time.

331

Solar Week Tuesday: The Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short online reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Learners will read about how the vision of dogs, bees, and humans differs and how the electromagnetic spectrum plays a role in those differences. This activity is scheduled to occur during Tuesday of Solar Week.

332

Solar Week Thursday: Funnel the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about reflection. Learners will create a foil funnel to focus light that can be detected by various means. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week. An optional part of this activity recommends use of a digital multimeter, an amp meter, and/or a solar cell.

333

Solar Week Thursday: Ice Cube Meltdown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about energy absorption and reflection. In this hands-on activity, learners will experiment with ways of making ice cubes melt at different rates by choosing and testing various materials with different color and reflective properties. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week, and it requires use of a sunny outdoor location for an extended period of time.

334

NASA Space Science Mathematics: Weekly Math Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features weekly mathematics problem sets that are designed to teach intermediate and upper-level students about space weather. The downloadable problem sets include one or more math problems to be solved using the information provided, a teachers' guide or answer key, and an inquiry question about the results. The web page features the current week's problem set, sets from previous weeks, and an archive of problem sets from past years. There are also downloadable books of the 20 most interesting problems published each year.

335

Compressive strength of carbon fibers  

SciTech Connect

Direct transverse compressive test of pitch-based carbon fibers was carried out on the single filament. The carbon fibers had randomly or radially orientation textures of graphite crystallite in the cross section. Both the transverse modulus and transverse compressive strength decreased with crystallite size increasing. There is little influence of orientation texture in cross section on the transverse modulus and transverse compressive strength. Fracture behavior was also observed under a scanning electron microscope from two directions. The fracture part was limited near the contact area of the punch for randomly oriented fibers, but the fracture of radially oriented fibers tend to be extended along the fiber axis. Fragment of fractured fiber with small crystallite was smaller. The fracture path in the cross section was run through the center of cross section and the edge of contact area with punch.

Sawada, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Nakanishi, Yoichiro [Government Industrial Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

1993-12-31

336

Correlations between quality indexes of chest compression  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a kind of emergency treatment for cardiopulmonary arrest, and chest compression is the most important and necessary part of CPR. The American Heart Association published the new Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care in 2010 and demanded for better performance of chest compression practice, especially in compression depth and rate. The current study was to explore the relationship of quality indexes of chest compression and to identify the key points in chest compression training and practice. METHODS: Totally 219 healthcare workers accepted chest compression training by using Laerdal ACLS advanced life support resuscitation model. The quality indexes of chest compression, including compression hands placement, compression rate, compression depth, and chest wall recoil as well as self-reported fatigue time were monitored by the Laerdal Computer Skills and Reporting System. RESULTS: The quality of chest compression was related to the gender of the compressor. The indexes in males, including self-reported fatigue time, the accuracy of compression depth and the compression rate, the accuracy of compression rate, were higher than those in females. However, the accuracy of chest recoil was higher in females than in males. The quality indexes of chest compression were correlated with each other. The self-reported fatigue time was related to all the indexes except the compression rate. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to offer CPR training courses regularly. In clinical practice, it might be better to change the practitioner before fatigue, especially for females or weak practitioners. In training projects, more attention should be paid to the control of compression rate, in order to delay the fatigue, guarantee enough compression depth and improve the quality of chest compression.

Zhang, Feng-ling; Yan, Li; Huang, Su-fang; Bai, Xiang-jun

2013-01-01

337

78 FR 30723 - National Safe Boating Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8981--National Safe Boating Week, 2013 Proclamation 8982--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2013 Proclamation 8983--World Trade Week, 2013 Proclamation 8984--Armed Forces Day, 2013 Memorandum...

2013-05-22

338

A Prototype Hardware for Random Demodulation Based Compressive Analog-to-Digital Conversion  

E-print Network

A Prototype Hardware for Random Demodulation Based Compressive Analog-to-Digital Conversion Tamer additional structure other than bandlimitedness. We present a working prototype of compressive analog-to-digital inherent non-ideal performance. However, the physical limitations of traditional analog-to-digital

339

Subjective testing results for still picture compression algorithms for international standardization  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1987 and 1988, a joint group of ISO and CCITT has worked to create a world standard for data compression of still-frame color continuous-tone images. During this period, the adaptive discrete cosine transform (ADCT) was selected for final refinement from 12 proposed algorithms. Because the standard is required to provide either lossless or lossy compression, subjective image quality testing

Gregory Wallace; Roy Vivian; Henning Poulsen

1988-01-01

340

Performance evaluation of functional medical imaging compression via optimal sampling schedule designs and cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work we have described a technique for the compression of positron emission tomography (PET) image data in the spatial and temporal domains based on optimal sampling schedule designs (OSS) and cluster analysis. It can potentially achieve a high data compression ratio greater than 80:1. However, the number of distinguishable cluster groups in dynamic PET image data is a

Zhe Chen; David Dagan Feng; Weidong Cai; Roger Fulton

2005-01-01

341

Receiver-and Channel-adaptive Compression for Remote Browsing of Image-Based Scene Representations  

E-print Network

. For the compression of video sequences, rate-distortion optimization has been well studied in the recent years (see e and video compression and streaming of video sequences have been studied within the rate-distortion theory and delimits the rate distortion (RD) trade-off that can be achieved. This work considers conventional RD

Steinbach, Eckehard

342

Profiling of Lossless-Compression Algorithms for a Novel Biomedical-Implant Architecture  

E-print Network

Profiling of Lossless-Compression Algorithms for a Novel Biomedical-Implant Architecture Christos The Netherlands ABSTRACT In view of a booming market for microelectronic implants, our ongoing research work--Data compaction and compression General Terms Performance, Measurement Keywords Implantable devices, ultra

Kuzmanov, Georgi

343

Progress in year 2012 1. Compressibility of an ultracold Fermi  

E-print Network

, which suppresses inelastic molecule between rotational levels [3] exothermic reactions NaLi + NaLi 2 that occur via coupli [3]. Second, NaLi in its singlet ground state undergoes exothermic reactions NaLi + Na compressibility. The increases with interaction strength due to increasing rates of pair formation is work

344

Optimal Disturbances in Compressible Boundary Layers Complete Energy Norm Analysis  

E-print Network

of the disturbance energy in flows that are stable to wave-like perturbations (Tollmien­Schlichting waves). Transient for flow in a pipe.6 The first quantitative calculation of three­dimensional optimal perturbations, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA In the present work we revise results of transient growth in compressible boundary

Zuccher, Simone

345

An(other) Entropy-Bounded Compressed Suffix Tree  

E-print Network

Conclusions Future Work #12;Motivation and Context Basic Structures and Operations Results and Conclusions Why Tree #12;Motivation and Context Basic Structures and Operations Results and Conclusions Why Compressed a a a a a a a a al b r l l b r d $ #12;Motivation and Context Basic Structures and Operations Results and Conclusions

Lonardi, Stefano

346

References on Compression of Freeze-Dried Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report attempts to assemble the references to the R&D work conducted in the area of freeze-dried and compressed foods. Sixty-eight technical reports with authors summaries, 69 journal articles and papers, 27 patents, and 17 specifications and Limited...

S. E. Wallen, J. M. Tuomy, G. C. Walker

1978-01-01

347

A Survey of Parallel Algorithms for Fractal Image Compression  

E-print Network

research work that has been undertaken in the application of parallel algorithms for Fractal image of this compression method is the very high computational cost that is associated with the encoding phase to speed up this phase, whilst still maintaining the advantageous features of the approach. This paper

Jimack, Peter

348

Entropy Controlled Adaptive Finite Element Simulations for Compressible Gas Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal idea of the present work consists in using the entropy balance equation in its discrete form as a rationale for controling an optimal amount of artifficial dissipation in Finite Element (FE) compressible gas simulations. The entropy control can be reinterpreted as a nonlinear stability estimate in terms of the so-called modified entropy function. The idea has been practically

K. Banas; L. Demkowicz

1996-01-01

349

Mechanics of the Compression Wood Response: II. On the Location, Action, and Distribution of Compression Wood Formation.  

PubMed

A new method for simulation of cross-sectional growth provided detailed information on the location of normal wood and compression wood increments in two tilted white pine (Pinus strobus L.) leaders. These data were combined with data on stiffness, slope, and curvature changes over a 16-week period to make the mechanical analysis. The location of compression wood changed from the under side to a flank side and then to the upper side of the leader as the geotropic stimulus decreased, owing to compression wood action. Its location shifted back to a flank side when the direction of movement of the leader reversed. A model for this action, based on elongation strains, was developed and predicted the observed curvature changes with elongation strains of 0.3 to 0.5%, or a maximal compressive stress of 60 to 300 kilograms per square centimeter. After tilting, new wood formation was distributed so as to maintain consistent strain levels along the leaders in bending under gravitational loads. The computed effective elastic moduli were about the same for the two leaders throughout the season. PMID:16658408

Archer, R R; Wilson, B F

1973-04-01

350

Compression and rarefaction waves in shock-compressed metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of duralumin and copper is studied under conditions of specimen loading by two successive shock waves and during unloading after the shock compression. The amplitude of the first shock wave was 150–250 kbar. Direct measurements were performed of the difference in main stresses behind the shock front in duralumin. The results obtained do not agree with existing concepts

A. N. Dremin; G. I. Kanel

1976-01-01

351

30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall...and compressed-air receivers shall...with automatic pressure-relief valves...Repairs involving the pressure system of compressors...or compressed-air-powered...

2013-07-01

352

30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall...and compressed-air receivers shall...with automatic pressure-relief valves...Repairs involving the pressure system of compressors...or compressed-air-powered...

2012-07-01

353

30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall...and compressed-air receivers shall...with automatic pressure-relief valves...Repairs involving the pressure system of compressors...or compressed-air-powered...

2011-07-01

354

30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall...and compressed-air receivers shall...with automatic pressure-relief valves...Repairs involving the pressure system of compressors...or compressed-air-powered...

2010-07-01

355

78 FR 69749 - American Education Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of American opportunity. In an increasingly competitive world, it gives our children the tools to thrive and our Nation the talent to lead. During American Education Week, we reaffirm our commitment to the next generation, and we celebrate everyone...

2013-11-20

356

Solar Week Thursday: Shoebox Solar Water Heater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about reflection. In this hands-on activity, learners will build a solar water heater by lining a box with reflective material, adding a translucent cover, and adding water-filled cans that are painted black. The temperature of the water is taken and recorded every fifteen minutes. This activity can use the same solar cooker built for the Solar Week Thursday: Solar Pizza Box Cooker activity. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week, and it requires use of a sunny outdoor location for an extended period of time.

357

High Energy Astrophysics Picture of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each week this site provides a new image from X-ray and Gamma ray astronomy. Information is provided about the object and the telescope that took the picture. Previous images are available in an archive.

Corcoran, Michael

2004-07-14

358

Visible Embryo: 12 weeks post ovulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

a comprehensive resource of information on human development at 12 weeks from ovulation, designed for both medical student and interested lay people. The Visible Embryo offers a detailed pictorial account of normal and abnormal development.

Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

2006-10-19

359

THIS WEEK Chikungunya on Why the cochlea  

E-print Network

Congress last week. U.S. research- ers developing the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) say the new timetable legislation requiring ... economy-wide reductions" in carbon emissions. Quoting the Bible on the need

360

78 FR 30729 - World Trade Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...grows our economy. During World Trade Week, we recognize workers, growers, and entrepreneurs nationwide who share that ambition, and we rededicate ourselves to advancing it in the year ahead. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the...

2013-05-22

361

Weekly Reports: Student Reflections on Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weekly reports, a structured journal form of formative assessment, allow instructors to receive information from the students, to address students' difficulties in a timely manner, and to alter their instruction based on the students' needs. In addition,

Etkina, Eugenia; Harper, Kathleen A.

2002-05-01

362

Highlights From PhUn Week 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. "More than 100 APS physiologists volunteered their time in reaching out to more than 3000 students last November during Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn Week), the APS member-based annual outreach program to local area K-12 schools (http://www.PhUnWeek.org). APS members partnered with more than 70 teachers and science educators from across the nation to develop engaging classroom or campus presentations for students at all grade levels, from day care through twelfth grades. The following vignettes are only a few samples of the excitement and fun generated by the focus on the physiology of health and exercise during the first week in November. All events with the primary APS member and lead teacher coordinators are listed in Table 1.".

2008-02-01

363

Conductivity enhancement of multiwalled carbon nanotube thin film via thermal compression method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, the thermal compression method is applied to effectively enhance the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube thin films (CNTFs). With the assistance of heat and pressure on the CNTFs, the neighbor multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) start to link with each other, and then these separated CNTs are twined into a continuous film while the compression force, duration, and temperature are quite enough for the reaction. Under the compression temperature of 400°C and the compression force of 100 N for 50 min, the sheet resistance can be reduced from 17 to 0.9 k ?/sq for the CNTFs with a thickness of 230 nm. Moreover, the effects of compression temperature and the duration of thermal compression on the conductivity of CNTF are also discussed in this work.

Tsai, Wan-Lin; Wang, Kuang-Yu; Chang, Yao-Jen; Li, Yu-Ren; Yang, Po-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Cheng, Huang-Chung

2014-08-01

364

Conductivity enhancement of multiwalled carbon nanotube thin film via thermal compression method  

PubMed Central

For the first time, the thermal compression method is applied to effectively enhance the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube thin films (CNTFs). With the assistance of heat and pressure on the CNTFs, the neighbor multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) start to link with each other, and then these separated CNTs are twined into a continuous film while the compression force, duration, and temperature are quite enough for the reaction. Under the compression temperature of 400°C and the compression force of 100 N for 50 min, the sheet resistance can be reduced from 17 to 0.9 k ?/sq for the CNTFs with a thickness of 230 nm. Moreover, the effects of compression temperature and the duration of thermal compression on the conductivity of CNTF are also discussed in this work. PMID:25232300

2014-01-01

365

Changing the Way We Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 21-hour working week is a long way from today's standard of 40 hours or more, but not so far-fetched when people consider the infinitely varied ways in which they actually spend their time. On average, people of working age spend 19.6 hours a week in paid employment and 20.4 hours in unpaid housework and childcare. These averages mask huge…

Coote, Anna

2010-01-01

366

World Space Week: Linking Space and Humanity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World Space Week, October 4-10 annually, is an international celebration of the contribution that space science and technology makes to the betterment of the human condition. Since its official declaration in 1999 by the United Nation, World Space Week has rapidly grown to include over 40 nations. The dates of World Space Week commemorate key milestones in space. October 4, 1957 was the launch date of Sputnik I, the first artificial Earth satellite. The Outer Space Treaty took effect on October 10, 1967. During World Space Week, participants such as government agencies, companies, science museums, teachers, and individuals organize public events, school activities, and Web-based programs related to space. So many synchronized events attract media coverage which reaches a global audience about space. In this way, World Space Week truly links space and humanity. The global organization of World Space Week is discussed as well as the results to date. The benefits of participation and opportunities to do so also identified.

Stone, D.

2002-01-01

367

Animal experiments to examine the histology of fracture healing in osteosynthesis with external fixation and compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tibia osteotomies in sheep were stabilized in nail-fixed and wire-fixed external devices with static longitudinal compression. During the 8-week study programme the mechanical situation of the osteotomies was checked via continuous measurements of interfragmentary tension, used as a functional indicator of stabilization. Simultaneously the test animals were marked by polychromatic fluorescent pigments.

G. Mayer; E. Wolfs

1983-01-01

368

Embedded function methods for compressible high speed turbulent flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report on the work performed on the grant 'Embedded Function Methods for Compressible High Speed Turbulent Flow' carried out at Lehigh University during the contract period from September, 1987, to October of 1991. Work has continued at Lehigh on this project on an unfunded basis to the present. The original proposed work had two separate thrusts which were associated with developing embedded function methods in order to obviate the need to expend computational resources on turbulent wall layers in Navier Stokes and boundary-layer calculations. Previous work on the incompressible problem had indicated that this could be done successfully for two-dimensional and three-dimensional incompressible flows. The central objective here was to extend the basic approach to the high speed compressible problem.

Walker, J. D. A.

1994-01-01

369

Simulation of Inviscid Compressible Multi-Phase Flow with Condensation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Condensation of vapours in rapid expansions of compressible gases is investigated. In the case of high temperature gradients the condensation will start at conditions well away from thermodynamic equilibrium of the fluid. In those cases homogeneous condensation is dominant over heterogeneous condensation. The present work is concerned with development of a simulation tool for computation of high speed compressible flows with homogeneous condensation. The resulting ow solver should preferably be accurate and robust to be used for simulation of industrial flows in general geometries.

Kelleners, Philip

2003-01-01

370

imagination at work GE Healthcare  

E-print Network

imagination at work GE Healthcare Data file 28-9755-23 AB Chromatography columns HiScaleTM columns compatibility with modern BioProcessTM media · Axial compression of the gel bed and a plunger mechanism enabling with GE Healthcare's XK columns HiScale columns were developed to provide a range of functional

Lebendiker, Mario

371

imagination at work GE Healthcare  

E-print Network

imagination at work GE Healthcare Data File 18-1147-36 AC Tricorn empty columns Tricorn Empty High or operated outside its specifications · Locking ring ­ prevents accidental compression of media bed · Separate packing connector ­ allows simple column packing for a broad range of media The columns Tricorn

Lebendiker, Mario

372

Weekly precipitation cycles? Lack of evidence from United States surface stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has inferred a relationship between human activity and the occurrence and amount of precipitation through examining possible weekly cycles in precipitation. Daily precipitation records for 219 surface observing stations in the United States for the 42-year period 1951–1992 are investigated for weekly cycles in precipitation. Results indicate that neither the occurrence nor amount of precipitation significantly depends upon

David M. Schultz; Santtu Mikkonen; Ari Laaksonen; Michael B. Richman

2007-01-01

373

Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

2011-01-01

374

Steganography in Compressed Video Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a steganographic algorithm in MPEG compressed video stream was proposed. In each GOP, the control information for to facilitate data extraction was embedded in I frame, in P frames and B frames, the actually transmitted data were repeatedly embedded in motion vectors of macro-blocks that have larger moving speed, for to resist video processing. Data extraction was

Changyong Xu; Xijian Ping; Tao Zhang

2006-01-01

375

Fast embedded compression for video.  

PubMed

An embedded coding algorithm creates a compressed bit stream that can be truncated to produce reduced resolution versions of the original image. Unfortunately, such algorithms are relatively slow. We introduce two new concepts in an effort to address this problem: adaptive embedding and cache-based zerotree processing. PMID:18267457

Creusere, C D

1999-01-01

376

SHOCK COMPRESSION PROCESSING OF POWDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shock compression processing is emerging as a novel technique for fabrication of esoteric materials. Not only can metal and ceramic powders be dynamically consolidated, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium structures can be synthesized under the high pressure regime during the passage of shock waves of sufficient magnitude and duration. The shock waves can be generated by impact from a plate

N. N. Thadhani

1988-01-01

377

Shock compression of solid deuterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data on the compression of solid deuterium at a pressure of ?60 GPa are presented. The data were obtained on\\u000a a generator of powerful converging spherical shock waves. The results are compared with the data of shock experiments obtained\\u000a on a Nova laser facility and an electrodynamic EPBF-Z plant.

S. I. Belov; G. V. Boriskov; A. I. Bykov; R. I. Il’kaev; N. B. Luk’yanov; A. Ya. Matveev; O. L. Mikhailova; V. D. Selemir; G. V. Simakov; R. F. Trunin; I. P. Trusov; V. D. Urlin; V. E. Fortov; A. N. Shuikin

2002-01-01

378

Thermal infrared hyperspectral data compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral imagers sample the electromagnetic spectrum at greater resolution than more traditional imaging systems, which result in a higher band-to-band correlation and greater amounts of data. With bandwidth limitations on the communications channels and storage space, intelligent system design, band selection, and/or data compression will be very important. The data from a new hyperspectral sensor, SEBASS, which collects data in the thermal IR was characterized for compression. As expected, it was found that the data's spectral characteristics were very dependent on scheme content and the collection time of day. It was found that the band-to-band correlation was greater in this data than either HYDICE or AVIRIS hyperspectral data. Compression ratios of 7:1 lossless and 20:1 with minimal loss were achieved compared to 3:1 lossless and 7:1 lossy for HYDICE and AVIRIS data. This increase in compression is directly attributable to the increase in band-to-band correlation. Unique characteristics of the thermal IR hyperspectral data is also discussed.

Brower, Bernard V.; Lan, Austin; Simmons, Rulon E.; Haddock, David H.

1998-10-01

379

Compressed Gas EHS-2200-WEB  

E-print Network

Compressed Gas Safety EHS-2200-WEB Register and launch through http://axess.stanford.edu Course title and STARS number: General Safety & Emergency Preparedness EHS-4200-WEB Chemical Safety for Laboratories EHS-1900-WEB Biosafety EHS-1500-WEB Radiation Safety Training EHS-5250 Laser Safety EHS-4820-WEB

380

Process considerations in reciprocating compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good understanding of the interrelationship of the process variables in reciprocating compression is very important for optimizing compressor performance for maximum production. In addition, trial and error operations can be minimized. A multistage reciprocating compressor program has been developed on the microcomputer. This program can be used to analyze and optimize compressor performance. A number of computer runs have

Mak

1987-01-01

381

Compressed domain packet loss concealment of sinusoidally coded speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of packet loss concealment for voice over IP (VoIP). The speech signal is compressed at the transmitter using a sinusoidal coding scheme working at 8 kbit\\/s. At the receiver, packet loss concealment is carried out working directly on the quantized sinusoidal parameters, based on time-scaling of the packets surrounding the missing ones. Subjective listening tests show

C. A. Rodbro; Muds G. Christensen; S. V. Andersen; S. H. Jensen

2003-01-01

382

Volatile Emissions from Compressed Tissue  

PubMed Central

Since almost every fifth patient treated in hospital care develops pressure ulcers, early identification of risk is important. A non-invasive method for the elucidation of endogenous biomarkers related to pressure ulcers could be an excellent tool for this purpose. We therefore found it of interest to determine if there is a difference in the emissions of volatiles from compressed and uncompressed tissue. The ultimate goal is to find a non-invasive method to obtain an early warning for the risk of developing pressure ulcers for bed-ridden persons. Chemical analysis of the emissions, collected in compresses, was made with gas-chromatography – mass spectrometry and with a chemical sensor array, the so called electronic nose. It was found that the emissions from healthy and hospitalized persons differed significantly irrespective of the site. Within each group there was a clear difference between the compressed and uncompressed site. Peaks that could be certainly deemed as markers of the compression were, however, not identified. Nonetheless, different compounds connected to the application of local mechanical pressure were found. The results obtained with GC-MS reveal the complexity of VOC composition, thus an array of non-selective chemical sensors seems to be a suitable choice for the analysis of skin emission from compressed tissues; it may represent a practical instrument for bed side diagnostics. Results show that the adopted electronic noses are likely sensitive to the total amount of the emission rather than to its composition. The development of a gas sensor-based device requires then the design of sensor receptors adequate to detect the VOCs bouquet typical of pressure. This preliminary experiment evidences the necessity of studies where each given person is followed for a long time in a ward in order to detect the insurgence of specific VOCs pattern changes signalling the occurrence of ulcers. PMID:23874929

Dini, Francesca; Capuano, Rosamaria; Strand, Tillan; Ek, Anna-Christina; Lindgren, Margareta; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; Lundstrom, Ingemar

2013-01-01

383

Lightning Safety Awareness Week 2012 Page 1 Social Media Tools  

E-print Network

Lightning Safety Awareness Week 2012 Page 1 Social Media Tools LIGHTNING SAFETY AWARNESS WEEK: June as the platform to promote Lightning Safety Awareness Week. This can be done in a variety of ways, beginning throughout the week. Hashtag: #ImAForce Sunday June 24: Intro to week It's Lightning Safety Awareness Week

384

ParkingEducation Week Parking DisabledParking  

E-print Network

for Classes Ed. Week Parking Van Routes Dining Areas Housing Areas Van Stops Direct Shuttles (West StadiumSAB IPF Education Week ParkingEducation Week Parking Education Week Parking Education Week Parking Disabled Parking DisabledParking Education Week Parking BYU Faculty/StaffParking Parking 900 NORTH 900EAST

Hart, Gus

385

The CCDS Data Compression Recommendations: Development and Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) has been engaging in recommending data compression standards for space applications. The first effort focused on a lossless scheme that was adopted in 1997. Since then, space missions benefiting from this recommendation range from deep space probes to near Earth observatories. The cost savings result not only from reduced onboard storage and reduced bandwidth, but also in ground archive of mission data. In many instances, this recommendation also enables more science data to be collected for added scientific value. Since 1998, the compression sub-panel of CCSDS has been investigating lossy image compression schemes and is currently working towards a common solution for a single recommendation. The recommendation will fulfill the requirements for remote sensing conducted on space platforms.

Yeh, Pen-Shu; Moury, Gilles; Armbruster, Philippe; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

386

2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling General Compression: A River of Wind  

ScienceCinema

The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are David Marcus, Founder of General Compression, and Eric Ingersoll, CEO of General Compression. General Compression, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has created an advanced air compression process which can store and release more than a weeks worth of the energy generated by wind turbines.

Marcus, David; Ingersoll, Eric

2012-03-21

387

2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling General Compression: A River of Wind  

SciTech Connect

The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are David Marcus, Founder of General Compression, and Eric Ingersoll, CEO of General Compression. General Compression, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has created an advanced air compression process which can store and release more than a weeks worth of the energy generated by wind turbines.

Marcus, David; Ingersoll, Eric

2012-02-29

388

Compact wavefunctions from compressed imaginary time evolution  

E-print Network

Simulation of quantum systems promises to deliver physical and chemical predictions for the frontiers of technology. Unfortunately, the exact representation of these systems is plagued by the exponential growth of dimension with the number of particles, or colloquially, the curse of dimensionality. The success of approximation methods has hinged on the relative simplicity of physical systems with respect to the exponentially complex worst case. Exploiting this relative simplicity has required detailed knowledge of the physical system under study. In this work, we introduce a general and efficient black box method for many-body quantum systems that utilizes technology from compressed sensing to find the most compact wavefunction possible without detailed knowledge of the system. It is a Multicomponent Adaptive Greedy Iterative Compression (MAGIC) scheme. No knowledge is assumed in the structure of the problem other than correct particle statistics. This method can be applied to many quantum systems such as spins, qubits, oscillators, or electronic systems. As an application, we use this technique to compute ground state electronic wavefunctions of hydrogen fluoride and recover 98% of the basis set correlation energy or equivalently 99.996% of the total energy with $50$ configurations out of a possible $10^7$. Building from this compactness, we introduce the idea of nuclear union configuration interaction for improving the description of reaction coordinates and use it to study the dissociation of hydrogen fluoride and the helium dimer.

Jarrod R. McClean; Alán Aspuru-Guzik

2014-09-25

389

Compressive sensor networks : fundamental limits and algorithms  

E-print Network

Compressed sensing is a non-adaptive compression method that takes advantage of natural sparsity at the input and is fast gaining relevance to both researchers and engineers for its universality and applicability. First ...

Sun, John Zheng

2009-01-01

390

Stream programming for image and video compression  

E-print Network

Video playback devices rely on compression algorithms to minimize storage, transmission bandwidth, and overall cost. Compression techniques have high realtime and sustained throughput requirements, and the end of CPU clock ...

Drake, Matthew Henry

2006-01-01

391

Infraspinatus muscle atrophy from suprascapular nerve compression.  

PubMed

Muscle weakness without pain may signal a nerve compression injury. Because these injuries should be identified and treated early to prevent permanent muscle weakness and atrophy, providers should consider suprascapular nerve compression in patients with shoulder muscle weakness. PMID:24463748

Cordova, Christopher B; Owens, Brett D

2014-02-01

392

ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity. Retrofit technologies that address the challenges of slow-speed integral compression are: (1) optimum turndown using a combination of speed and clearance with single-acting operation as a last resort; (2) if single-acting is required, implement infinite length nozzles to address nozzle pulsation and tunable side branch absorbers for 1x lateral pulsations; and (3) advanced valves, either the semi-active plate valve or the passive rotary valve, to extend valve life to three years with half the pressure drop. This next generation of slow-speed compression should attain 95% efficiency, a three-year valve life, and expanded turndown. New equipment technologies that address the challenges of large-horsepower, high-speed compression are: (1) optimum turndown with unit speed; (2) tapered nozzles to effectively reduce nozzle pulsation with half the pressure drop and minimization of mechanical cylinder stretch induced vibrations; (3) tunable side branch absorber or higher-order filter bottle to address lateral piping pulsations over the entire extended speed range with minimal pressure drop; and (4) semi-active plate valves or passive rotary valves to extend valve life with half the pressure drop. This next generation of large-horsepower, high-speed compression should attain 90% efficiency, a two-year valve life, 50% turndown, and less than 0.75 IPS vibration. This program has generated proof-of-concept technologies with the potential to meet these ambitious goals. Full development of these identified technologies is underway. The GMRC has committed to pursue the most promising enabling technologies for their industry.

Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

2005-12-01

393

3 CFR 8698 - Proclamation 8698 of August 5, 2011. National Health Center Week, 2011  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that drives the work of community health centers and fuels our efforts to improve our health-care system. During National Health Center Week, we celebrate the contributions... NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United...

2012-01-01

394

3 CFR 8865 - Proclamation 8865 of September 14, 2012. National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2012  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to market, and working men and women who build the American dream with their bare hands. This week, we honor their...promoting farm safety and health programs. I also urge Americans to honor our agricultural heritage and express...

2013-01-01

395

Effects of turbulence compressibility and unsteadiness in compression corner flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the separated flow region over a 20 degree compression corner at a free-stream Mach number of 2.84 is investigated computationally using a Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (R.A.N.S.) solver and kappa-epsilon model. At this Mach number and ramp angle, a steady-state recirculation region of order delta(sub o) is observed, with onset of a 'plateau' in the wall pressure

A. Brankovic; O. Zeman

1994-01-01

396

Simultaneous denoising and compression of multispectral images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for denoising and compression of multispectral satellite images to remove the effect of noise on the compression process is presented. One type of multispectral images has been considered: Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the dual-tree DWT, and a simple Huffman coder are used in the compression process. Simulation results show that the proposed technique is more effective than other traditional compression-only techniques.

Hagag, Ahmed; Amin, Mohamed; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

2013-01-01

397

ERTS image data compression technique evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background and results of an investigation concerning the use of multispectral data compression in the ERTS program are presented. An average compression of greater than 2:1 has been achieved under the constraint of zero distortion in the reconstructed image, and four MSS tapes can be compressed to fill less than one reel of magnetic tape. A preliminary study of the hardware implementation of this processor proves the feasability of compression at input bit rates of over 100Mbs.

May, C. L.

1974-01-01

398

MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Announcement  

E-print Network

highlights the importance of influenza vaccination and the need for persons to receive influenza vaccination during the influenza season (October–May). Influenza vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza and its potentially severe complications (1). This year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends influenza vaccination for all persons aged ?6 months (2). Approximately 160 million doses of influenza vaccine have been distributed in the United States, the most ever for a single influenza season. Throughout the week of December 5–11, 2010, National Influenza Vaccination Week will reinforce the ACIP universal recommendation and continue to emphasize the need for vaccination among persons in certain groups, including those at greater risk for influenza and for serious complications from influenza infection. During the week, CDC will focus on groups including pregnant women, children, caregivers of infants aged influenza vaccination education and awareness are available

National Influenza; Vaccination Week; Each Year; National Influenza; Vaccination Week

2010-01-01

399

Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012  

SciTech Connect

Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

2013-02-01

400

DURATION-1: Exenatide Once Weekly Produces Sustained Glycemic Control and Weight Loss Over 52 Weeks  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE In the Diabetes Therapy Utilization: Researching Changes in A1C, Weight and Other Factors Through Intervention with Exenatide Once Weekly (DURATION-1) study, the safety and efficacy of 30 weeks of treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide once weekly (exenatide QW; 2 mg) was compared with exenatide BID in 295 patients with type 2 diabetes. We now report the safety and efficacy of exenatide QW in 1) patients who continued treatment for an additional 22 weeks (52 weeks total) and 2) patients who switched from exenatide BID to exenatide QW after 30 weeks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this randomized, multicenter, comparator-controlled, open-label trial, 258 patients entered the 22-week open-ended assessment phase (n = 128 QW-only; n = 130 BID?QW). A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids, safety, and tolerability were assessed. RESULTS Patients continuing exenatide QW maintained A1C improvements through 52 weeks (least squares mean ?2.0% [95% CI ?2.1 to ?1.8%]). Patients switching from exenatide BID to exenatide QW achieved further A1C improvements; both groups exhibited the same A1C reduction and mean A1C (6.6%) at week 52. At week 52, 71 and 54% of all patients achieved A1C <7.0% and ?6.5%, respectively. In both treatment arms, FPG was reduced by >40 mg/dl, and body weight was reduced by >4 kg after 52 weeks. Nausea occurred less frequently in this assessment period and was predominantly mild. No major hypoglycemia was observed. CONCLUSION Exenatide QW elicited sustained improvements in glycemic control and body weight through 52 weeks of treatment. Patients switching to exenatide QW experienced further improvements in A1C and FPG, with sustained weight loss. PMID:20215461

Buse, John B.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Taylor, Kristin L.; Kim, Terri; Walsh, Brandon; Hu, Hao; Wilhelm, Ken; Trautmann, Michael; Shen, Larry Z.; Porter, Lisa E.

2010-01-01

401

BPCS steganography using EZW lossy compressed images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a steganography method based on an embedded zerotree wavelet compression scheme and bit-plane complexity segmentation steganography. The proposed steganography enables us to use lossy compressed images as dummy files in bit-plane-based steganographic algorithms. Large embedding rates of around 25% of the compressed image size were achieved with little noticeable degradation in image quality.

Jeremiah Spaulding; Hideki Noda; Mahdad Nouri Shirazi; Eiji Kawaguchi

2002-01-01

402

Volumetric video compression for interactive playbackq  

E-print Network

Volumetric video compression for interactive playbackq Bong-Soo Sohn,* Chandrajit Bajaj, and Vinay supports interactive browsing of compressed time-varying volumetric features (significant isosurfaces-vary- ing volume and surface data. We describe a compression scheme for encoding time-varying volumetric

Texas at Austin, University of

403

Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Storage. Tobias Brunner  

E-print Network

distribution along highways and in remote areas. Gaseous hydrogen distribution via pipelines in only-Infrastructure. Future filling station layout. Efficient compression and high scalability Cryo-compressed fuel g/L 70 MPa CGH2 1,5 kg/min (3 MW) CGH2 24 g/L 35 MPa Cryo-compressed tank compatible fuels #12;BMW

404

Subjective evaluation of compressed image quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lossy data compression generates distortion or error on the reconstructed image and the distortion becomes visible as the compression ratio increases. Even at the same compression ratio, the distortion appears differently depending on the compression method used. Because of the nonlinearity of the human visual system and lossy data compression methods, we have evaluated subjectively the quality of medical images compressed with two different methods, an intraframe and interframe coding algorithms. The evaluated raw data were analyzed statistically to measure interrater reliability and reliability of an individual reader. Also, the analysis of variance was used to identify which compression method is better statistically, and from what compression ratio the quality of a compressed image is evaluated as poorer than that of the original. Nine x-ray CT head images from three patients were used as test cases. Six radiologists participated in reading the 99 images (some were duplicates) compressed at four different compression ratios, original, 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1. The six readers agree more than by chance alone and their agreement was statistically significant, but there were large variations among readers as well as within a reader. The displacement estimated interframe coding algorithm is significantly better in quality than that of the 2-D block DCT at significance level 0.05. Also, 10:1 compressed images with the interframe coding algorithm do not show any significant differences from the original at level 0.05.

Lee, Heesub; Rowberg, Alan H.; Frank, Mark S.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin

1992-05-01

405

Gabor Function Based Medical Image Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compression methods based on Gabor functions are implemented for simulated nuclear medicine liver images with and without lesions. The performance of the compression schemes is assessed objectively by comparing the original images to the compressed\\/reconstructed images through calculation of the Hotelling trace, an index that has been shown to correlate well with performance for images from this imaging modality. Gabor-based

Mary P. Anderson; Murray H. Loew; David G. Brown

1993-01-01

406

Proposed radiology image lossy compression standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiology uses large images and series of images that can consume large amounts of storage or of communication bandwidth in the utilization of those images. An update to the standard for compressing radiology images is being considered by the medical imaging compression standards committee. A standard for compression of radiology images is proposed for consideration. The proposed standard uses four

Dennis L. Wilson

1996-01-01

407

Absenteeism and the impact of a 38-hour week, rostered day off option  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a comparative analysis of nurses working in two consecutive years: one in a 40-hour standard working week and the other in a 38-hour week with a rostered day off per month, in order to determine whether there was any effect on absenteeism. We found that total absenteeism between the two years fell significantly from 4.58% to 4.36% (?

GED WILLIAMS; KAREN SLATER

408

Message compression for high performance  

SciTech Connect

The execution cost of a parallel program reflects both its computatoin cost and its communication cost. On many of today`s supercomputers, communication costs are high many cycles per byte. Often, trading computation for communication can reduce the total execution cost. The term message compression denotes techniques for reducing the communication costs of moving information in a computer. It can refer to techniques that reduce the amount of data moved between memory modules in a hierarchical memory, for instance between main memory and disk [TAC94]. More typically, it will denote techniques for reducing the cost of transferring information between nodes of a parallel computer. Message compression may involve sending the same number of values but fewer messages (as with the recursive doubling all-to-all broadcast [LvdG93]), or it may involve sending fewer values (as with reticent broadcast [AC95]), or it may involve sending fewer bits per value as considered here.

Alpern, B.; Carter, L. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

1995-12-01

409

Compressed optimization of device architectures  

E-print Network

Recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled researchers to control individual quantum mechanical objects with unprecedented accuracy, opening the door for both quantum and extreme-scale conventional computing applications. As these devices become larger and more complex, the ability to design them for simple control becomes a daunting and computationally infeasible task. Here, motivated by ideas from compressed sensing, we introduce a protocol for Compressed Optimization of Device Architectures (CODA). It leads naturally to a metric for benchmarking device performance and optimizing device designs, and provides a scheme for automating the control of gate operations and reducing their complexity. Because CODA is both experimentally and computationally efficient, it is readily extensible to large systems. We demonstrate the CODA benchmarking and optimization protocols through simulations of up to eight quantum dots in devices that are currently being developed experimentally for quantum computation.

Adam Frees; John King Gamble; Daniel R. Ward; Robin Blume-Kohout; M. A. Eriksson; Mark Friesen; S. N. Coppersmith

2014-09-12

410

Local density dependent potential for compressible mesoparticles.  

PubMed

This work proposes a coarse grained description of molecular systems based on mesoparticles representing several molecules, where interactions between mesoparticles are modelled by an interparticle potential of molecular type. Since strong non-equilibrium situations over a wide range of pressure and density are targeted, the internal compressibility of the mesoparticles has to be considered. This is done by introducing a dependence of the potential on the local environment of the mesoparticles. To define local densities, we resort to a three-dimensional Voronoi tessellation instead of standard local, spherical averages. As an example, a local density dependent potential is fitted to reproduce the Hugoniot curve of a model of nitromethane over a large range of pressures and densities. PMID:24655170

Faure, Gérôme; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

2014-03-21

411

Local density dependent potential for compressible mesoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work proposes a coarse grained description of molecular systems based on mesoparticles representing several molecules, where interactions between mesoparticles are modelled by an interparticle potential of molecular type. Since strong non-equilibrium situations over a wide range of pressure and density are targeted, the internal compressibility of the mesoparticles has to be considered. This is done by introducing a dependence of the potential on the local environment of the mesoparticles. To define local densities, we resort to a three-dimensional Voronoi tessellation instead of standard local, spherical averages. As an example, a local density dependent potential is fitted to reproduce the Hugoniot curve of a model of nitromethane over a large range of pressures and densities.

Faure, Gérôme; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

2014-03-01

412

On Wavelet Matrix Compression for Differential Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of most adaptive wavelet methods for solving differential equations follows a general concept proposed by A. Cohen, W. Dahmen and R. DeVore in [5, 6]. The essential steps are: transformation of the variational formulation into the well-conditioned infinite-dimensional l2 problem, finding of the convergent iteration process for the l2 problem and finally derivation of its finite dimensional version which works with an inexact right hand side and approximate matrix-vector multiplication. In our contribution, we shortly review all these parts with emphasis on the approximate matrix-vector multiplication. Efficient approximation of matrix-vector multiplication is enabled by an off-diagonal decay of entries of the wavelet stiffness matrix and by decay of entries of load vector in wavelet coordinates. Besides an usual truncation in scale, we apply here also a truncation in space to compress wavelet stiffness matrices efficiently. At the end, we show some numerical experiments.

?erná, Dana; Fin?k, Václav

2011-09-01

413

Finite scale equations for compressible fluid flow  

SciTech Connect

Finite-scale equations (FSE) describe the evolution of finite volumes of fluid over time. We discuss the FSE for a one-dimensional compressible fluid, whose every point is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The FSE contain new momentum and internal energy transport terms. These are similar to terms added in numerical simulation for high-speed flows (e.g. artificial viscosity) and for turbulent flows (e.g. subgrid scale models). These similarities suggest that the FSE may provide new insight as a basis for computational fluid dynamics. Our analysis of the FS continuity equation leads to a physical interpretation of the new transport terms, and indicates the need to carefully distinguish between volume-averaged and mass-averaged velocities in numerical simulation. We make preliminary connections to the other recent work reformulating Navier-Stokes equations.

Margolin, Len G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

414

Quantum Bootstrapping via Compressed Quantum Hamiltonian Learning  

E-print Network

Recent work has shown that quantum simulation is a valuable tool for learning empirical models for quantum systems. We build upon these results by showing that a small quantum simulators can be used to characterize and learn control models for larger devices for wide classes of physically realistic Hamiltonians. This leads to a new application for small quantum computers: characterizing and controlling larger quantum computers. Our protocol achieves this by using Bayesian inference in concert with Lieb-Robinson bounds and interactive quantum learning methods to achieve compressed simulations for characterization. Whereas Fisher information analysis shows that current methods which employ short-time evolution are suboptimal, interactive quantum learning allows us to overcome this limitation. We illustrate the efficiency of our bootstrapping protocol by showing numerically that an 8-qubit Ising model simulator can be used to calibrate and control a 50 qubit Ising simulator while using only about 750 kilobits of experimental data.

Nathan Wiebe; Christopher Granade; David G. Cory

2014-09-04

415

Using Autoencoders for Mammogram Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results obtained for medical image compression using autoencoder neural networks. Since mammograms\\u000a (medical images) are usually of big sizes, training of autoencoders becomes extremely tedious and difficult if the whole image\\u000a is used for training. We show in this paper that the autoencoders can be trained successfully by using image patches instead\\u000a of the whole image.

Chun Chet Tan; Chikkannan Eswaran

2011-01-01

416

Shock compression of diamond crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carrried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9+\\/-0.3 mm\\/musec and an amplitude of 63+\\/-28 GPa.

Ken-ichi Kondo; Thomas J. Ahrens

1983-01-01

417

Thermal infrared hyperspectral data compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral imagers sample the electromagnetic spectrum at greater resolution than more traditional imaging systems, which result in a higher band-to-band correlation and greater amounts of data. With bandwidth limitations on the communications channels and storage space, intelligent system design, band selection, and\\/or data compression will be very important. The data from a new hyperspectral sensor, SEBASS, which collects data in

Bernard V. Brower; Austin Lan; Rulon E. Simmons; David H. Haddock

1998-01-01

418

Geometric compression through topological surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and importance of complex 3-D data bases in major industry segments, the affordability of interactive 3-D rendering for office and consumer use, and the exploitation of the Internet to distribute and share 3-D data have intensified the need for an effective 3-D geometric compression technique that would significantly reduce the time required to transmit 3-D models over digital

Gabriel Taubin; Jarek Rossignac

1998-01-01

419

On-line data compression  

SciTech Connect

Text compression problems are considered where substrings are substituted by code-words according to a static dictionary such that the original text is encoded by shorter code sequence. In the first part we give sharp worst-case ratios for the longest matching and the (Differential) Greedy Algorithm in case of certain dictionaries. We define a new type algorithm, the Fractional Greedy Algorithm, and we investigate its worst-case behaviour. Finally, we mention some open problems.

Galambos, G.; Bekesi, J.; Pferschy, U.; Woginger, G.

1994-12-31

420

[Respiratory complications in compressive goiters].  

PubMed

Authors' experience in respiratory complications of compressive goiter is reviewed. Three cases with typical symptoms, relative therapy and outcome are reported. Appearance of respiratory distress should urge to avoid delay in elective surgery performing. In case of acute respiratory failure, immediate emergency tracheostomy is mandatory, subsequently followed by elective intervention. In case of malignancy, if radical surgery is not possible, tracheostomy is the short and medium-term palliative surgical treatment of choice. PMID:1751337

De Toma, G; Sgarzini, G; Gabriele, R; Campli, M; Adami, E A; De Cesare, E

1991-01-01

421

Compressing TV-image data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compressing technique calculates activity estimator for each segment of image line. Estimator is used in conjunction with allowable bits per line, N, to determine number of bits necessary to code each segment and which segments can tolerate truncation. Preprocessed line data are then passed to adaptive variable-length coder, which selects optimum transmission code. Method increases capacity of broadcast and cable television transmissions and helps reduce size of storage medium for video and digital audio recordings.

Hilbert, E. E.; Lee, J.; Rice, R. F.; Schlutsmeyer, A. P.

1981-01-01

422

A Simplified Adiabatic Compression Apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mottmann described an excellent way to measure the ratio of specific heats for air (? = Cp/Cv) by suddenly compressing a plastic 2-liter bottle. His arrangement can be simplified so that no valves are involved and only a single connection needs to be made. This is done by adapting the plastic cap of a 2-liter plastic bottle so it connects directly to a Vernier Software Gas Pressure Sensor2 and the LabPro3 interface.

Moloney, Michael J.; McGarvey, Albert P.

2007-10-01

423

Euclid: image compression activities for the VIS instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Euclid is a space mission dedicated to the high-precision study of dark energy and dark matter. Its visible instrument (VIS) will acquire wide field images by means of an array of 36 CCD focal plane detectors. Considering that each acquired full frame produces a huge amount of data (~1.2GByte), an overall daily production of ~120 GByte is expected, which must be compressed to fit the 520 Gbit VIS daily telemetry. Due to the highly demanding science requirements such compression must be rigorously lossless. This software requirement is very hard to meet because of the following constraints: i) the average Compression Ratio (CR) must be greater than 2.8; ii) the activities of data compression inside the Control Data Processing Unit and transmission towards the satellite shall complete in less than 369s, that fits to the acquisition time of the near-infrared instrument; and iii) the compressors parameters as well as the transmission packet size must be tuned to ensure minimal data loss in case of transmission errors. The results obtained with 1D and 2D compression algorithms based on the CCSDS 121 and CCSDS 122 recommended standards, fed with improved focal plane simulations, have been compared to each other. Moreover, a set of various reordering and pre-processing procedures has been applied to the read-out data stream, considering different sizes of the input data segments. The overall scope of these comparative works has been not only to maximize the compression ratio and to minimize the compression time, but also to provide a trade-off between the input data size and the minimum output compressed data segment in order to minimize the data loss due to transmission errors propagation. From our test we found that performing a full (at CCD level) reordering of the read-out data-stream leads to a better compression ratio with both algorithms. The CCSDS 121, however, gives the best results in terms of CR. Finally we found that, for the considered simulated images, the standard pre-processing activities like bias subtraction, bitshift and windowing do not affect the CR significantly. Analogously an additional analysis of the effect of the expected source crowding showed that it is also not important.

Giusi, Giovanni; Liu, Scige J.; Li Causi, Gianluca; Niemi, Sami M.; Di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Galli, Emanuele; Farina, Maria

2014-08-01

424

Swelling archives warrant closer look at compression.  

PubMed

Image compression is broadly categorized as lossless or lossy. With lossless compression, a compressed image can be decompressed and displayed as an exact digital replica of the original. With lossy compression, redundant pixel data are discarded during the compression process so that the compressed image is only an approximation of the original, therefore it cannot be returned to an original state. Although both types of compression are commonly used within the medical imaging community, institutions are much more likely to depend upon lossless compression for diagnostic purposes, even though lossy images, saved as a fraction of the original file size, are often diagnostically equivalent. With more and more digital modalities coming online and image studies growing ever larger, institutions failing to take full advantage of lossy compression are missing an opportunity to slow the growth of their image archives and IT infrastructure costs. Today, most PACS vendors include some form of image compression technology within their product offerings. Of 13 vendors sampled during an informal survey in June 2003, eight employ JPEG 2000 compression, which was incorporated into the DICOM standard in 2001, while the remainder use wavelet compression, which is the underlying methodology used in JPEG 2000. JPEG 2000 is an industry standard that enables image sharing across platforms and product lines. It also provides a single mechanism for creating lossless and lossy images, and gives institutions the flexibility to apply unique rates of compression to individual images based on modality, patient history, image size or other factors. Although it can be used judificiously to great advantage, compression is most often applied in an "across the board" manner to all images. The incorporation of JPEG 2000 within the DICOM standard does little to guarantee its longevity, or the quality of every JPEG 2000 implementation. At some point in time, especially as the demand for more compact, higher-quality lossy images grows, institutions will begin experimenting with and employing more advanced compression methods. PMID:14603591

Schreiber, David

2003-01-01

425

Reversible compressed domain watermarking by exploiting code space inefficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algorithms that perform data hiding directly in the compressed domain, without the need for partial decompression or transcoding, are highly desirable. We based this work on the recognition of the idea that only a limited amount of a possible codespace is actually used for any specific code. Therefore, if bits are chosen appropriately, watermarking them will place a codeword outside of the valid codespace. Variable length codes in compressed bitstreams, however, have virtually no redundancy to losslessly carry hidden data. Altered VLCs will likely remain valid. In this work, we examine the bitstream not as individual VLCs but as codeword-pairs. Pairing codewords conceptually shrinks the percentage of available codespace that is actually being used. This idea has a number of key advantages, including that the watermark embedding is mathematically lossless, file size is preserved and the watermarked bitstream will still remain format-compliant. This algorithm is most appropriate for compression algorithms that are error-resilient. For example, the error concealment property of MPEG-4 or H.263+ can also counter bit "errors" caused by the watermarking while playing the video. The off-line portion of the algorithm needs to be run only once for a given VLC table regardless of multiple mediums employing the table. This allows for the algorithm to be applied in real time, both in embedding and removal, due to implementation in the compressed domain.

Mobasseri, Bijan G.; Berger, Robert J., II

2004-06-01

426

Coronal heating by Alfvén waves dissipation in compressible nonuniform media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility to produce small scales and then to efficiently dissipate energy has been studied by Malara et al. [1992b] in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an weakly dissipative incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly 2D geometry. We extend this work to include both compressibility and the third component for vector quantities. Numerical simulations show that, when an Alfvén wave propagates in a compressible nonuniform medium, the two dynamical effects responsible for the small scales formation in the incompressible case are still at work: energy pinching and phase-mixing. These effects give rise to the formation of compressible perturbations (fast and slow waves or a static entropy wave). Some of these compressive fluctuations are subject to the steepening of the wave front and become shock waves, which are extremely efficient in dissipating their energy, their dissipation being independent of the Reynolds number. Rough estimates of the typical times the various dynamical processes take to produce small scales show that these times are consistent with those required to dissipate inside the solar corona the energy of Alfvén waves of photospheric origin.

Malara, Francesco; Primavera, Leonardo; Veltri, Pierluigi

1996-07-01

427

76 FR 29139 - World Trade Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8677 of May 13, 2011 World Trade Week, 2011 By the President of the...to look beyond our borders to supply the world with innovative and technologically advanced...United States are tied to exports, and our world continues to grow more...

2011-05-19

428

Encouraging students during Science and Tech Week  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 30 April, Robert Ballard, head of the Jason Project science education program, delivered a pep talk to students and teachers about environmental stewardship, ocean exploration, and science education, as part of Global Science and Technology Week.Addressing students in a Congressional hearing room, Ballard urged them to investigate the vast, undiscovered regions of the Earth.

Randy Showstack

2002-01-01

429

Birthweight between 14 and 42 weeks' gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data representing fetal weight gain between 14 and 42 weeks' gestation are presented; firstly to provide suitable curves enabling the growth of the very immature infant to be monitored and secondly to examine the influence of the improved techniques of paediatric and obstetric assessment developed since the publication of previous studies. Data have been collected from the 57 866 livebirths

D V Keen; R G Pearse

1985-01-01

430

Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar  

E-print Network

Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar Dec. 13, 2013 (Friday) TIME Dec. 13, 14:30 ~ 15:30 TITLE Nondestructive Phase Shifting Imaging of Cold Atoms SPEAKER Prof. Dian-Jiun Han Department Nondestructive imaging of cold atoms relies on the phase shift of probe light while passing the atomic sample

Wu, Yih-Min

431

Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar  

E-print Network

Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar Dec. 14, 2012 (Friday) TIME Dec. 14, 14:30 ~ 15 Physics Building, NTU Abstract Recent cold atom researches are reaching out far beyond the realm-experiments are nowadays common targets of cold atom physicists. Two prominent examples will be outlined in this talk: BEC

Wu, Yih-Min

432

Telling the Public--It's Science Week  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an opportunity to engage the public in demonstrating and explaining some aspects of science. About 10 years ago, the author met Peter Evennett in the ASE Conference exhibition. Peter was a member of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society and currently its president. As a contribution to "Science Week" (which dates back…

Auty, Geoff

2011-01-01

433

One Week Training Course Engine Emission Formation  

E-print Network

One Week Training Course On Engine Emission Formation and Control June 28- July 3, 2011 Organized with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Indiscriminate extraction and lavish consumption of fossil fuels have led to reduction in underground- based carbon resources. This has

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

434

Week 16, Ellie Ellie at Saturday Market  

E-print Network

Week 16, Ellie Ellie at Saturday Market At the kids' current stage of development, I feel that I am. She's a good student, is self-possessed and confident, is taller than most of the other children many friends on our street. Where Alex loves physical activity -- biking, surfing, skiing -- Ellie

Bardsley, John

435

Northern Michigan FRUITNET'99 Weekly Update  

E-print Network

moth should be just about finished. Apple maggot emergence was down dramatically this past week. Growers still run the risk of having apple maggot show up in commercial blocks and should continue 1998 1997 DD42 3445 3478 2760 DD50 2295 2306 1766 INSECTS AND DISEASES Apples: McIntosh harvest is just

436

Maths Week Ireland Activities and Puzzles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of recreational math activities for students of all ages is hosted by Maths Week Ireland, the annual gathering and competition of math students from all over Ireland. Here you will find puzzles, art, magic tricks and resources for holding math events.

2013-01-01

437

77 FR 68045 - American Education Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8904 of November 9, 2012 American Education Week, 2012 By the...the chance to pursue their dreams. Our schools are a gateway...Administration is committed to enhancing American education by raising standards...making it possible for young Americans to graduate into the...

2012-11-15

438

75 FR 71005 - American Education Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...people and a Nation. During American Education Week, we rededicate...the next generation of great American leaders, we must continue...are able to reach for their dreams when teachers, parents, and...all our citizens the defining American values of freedom,...

2010-11-22

439

Week 14, Surfing It Is Smaills Beach  

E-print Network

Week 14, Surfing It Is Smaills Beach One of the things that I had hoped to be able to do while I enjoy swimming at the beach; the ocean is cold this far south, even in summer. Over the past couple to go out for an hour before school. And we also have two body boards, so going to the beach is now

Bardsley, John

440

IWSA WEEKLY UPDATE January 23, 2009  

E-print Network

approved a bill that would extend the production tax credit for new waste-to-energy capacity and other tax credit for waste-to-energy and other renewables. The U.S. Senate confirmed President Barack Obama Gillebrand (D-NY) wrote an op-ed this week in the Poughkeepsie Journal citing waste-to-energy as a tool

Columbia University

441

Twelve weeks of coronary artery disease.  

PubMed Central

Osler said the components of the student spirit are humility, confidence, pride and hope. In this retrospective look at 12 weeks spent on a cardiology ward, medical student Paul Fedak recounts his experiences concerning a patient diagnosed with terminal coronary artery disease. PMID:8625006

Fedak, P W

1996-01-01

442

Video compressive sensing using gaussian mixture models.  

PubMed

A Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based algorithm is proposed for video reconstruction from temporally compressed video measurements. The GMM is used to model spatio-temporal video patches, and the reconstruction can be efficiently computed based on analytic expressions. The GMM-based inversion method benefits from online adaptive learning and parallel computation. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed inversion method with videos reconstructed from simulated compressive video measurements, and from a real compressive video camera. We also use the GMM as a tool to investigate adaptive video compressive sensing, i.e., adaptive rate of temporal compression. PMID:25095253

Yang, Jianbo; Yuan, Xin; Liao, Xuejun; Llull, Patrick; Brady, David J; Sapiro, Guillermo; Carin, Lawrence

2014-11-01

443

30 CFR 57.13020 - Use of compressed air.  

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13020 Use of compressed air. At no time shall compressed air be directed toward a person. When compressed...

2014-07-01

444

Fertility of Bovine Spermatozoa Stored at Minus 79° C. for One Week and for Seventeen Weeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperatures are effective in preserving the fertility of bovine spermatozoa for several weeks, fertility was maintained as well in semen held at about -79 ° C. for 17 weeks as it was in that held at 5 ° C. and used within 24-36 hours after collecting and diluting. A kit capable of main- taining semen at -79 ° C.

R. W. Bratton; Joan C. Flood; R. H. Foote; S. Wearden; H. O. Dunn

1957-01-01

445

Weighted compression of spectral color information.  

PubMed

Spectral color information is used nowadays in many different applications. Accurate spectral images are usually very large files, but a proper compression method can reduce needed storage space remarkably with a minimum loss of information. In this paper we introduce a principal component analysis (PCA) -based compression method of spectral color information. In this approach spectral data is weighted with a proper weight function before forming the correlation matrix and calculating the eigenvector basis. First we give a general framework for how to use weight functions in compression of relevant color information. Then we compare the weighted compression method with the traditional PCA compression method by compressing and reconstructing the Munsell data set consisting of 1,269 reflectance spectra and the Pantone data set consisting of 922 reflectance spectra. Two different weight functions are proposed and tested. We show that weighting clearly improves retention of color information in the PCA-based compression process. PMID:18516149

Laamanen, Hannu; Jetsu, Tuija; Jaaskelainen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi

2008-06-01

446

Weekly petroleum status report. Data for week ended, October 21, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) provides timely information on the petroleum supply situation in the context of historical information, selected prices, and forecasts. The WPSR is intended to provide up-to-date information to the industry, the press, planners, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments. It is published each Thursday by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and excerpts of the data are available electronically after 9:00 a.m. Wednesday. The data contained in this report are based on company submissions for the week ending 7:00 a.m. the preceding Friday. For some weeks which include holidays, publication of the WPSR is delayed by 1 day. The WPSR is not published during 1 of the last 2 weeks of the year depending upon which day of the week Christmas occurs.

Not Available

1994-11-01

447

Oral 4-week and 13-week toxicity studies of polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer in rats.  

PubMed

Polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer (PVAcVL) is a useful component of gum base for chewing gum production. The safety of PVAcVL was examined in a 4-week and a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. Finely powdered PVAcVL was administered with the diet at levels of 1.25%, 2.0% and 5% in the 4-week study and 1.25%, 2.5% and 5% in the 13-week study. There were no treatment related effects on mortality, bodyweight gains feed efficiency, ophthalmoscopic findings, hematological and clinical chemical parameters, neurobehavioral observations as well as gross and histopathological changes of standard organs and tissues. The highest dose tested in the 13-week study (3783 and 4396mg/kgbw/d for males and females, respectively) proved to be a NOAEL. PMID:24932800

Messinger, Horst; Bär, Albert

2014-10-01

448

Hacettepe BCO511 Spring 2012 Week12 Color Science  

E-print Network

Hacettepe BCO511 Spring 2012 · Week12 Color Science Week 12 1 Acknowledgement: The course slides;Hacettepe BCO511 Spring 2012 · Week12 The problem of color science · Build a model for human color · Week12 [sourceunknown] 2 #12;Hacettepe BCO511 Spring 2012 · Week12 What light is · Light

Erdem, Erkut

449

Restoring a Master Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does it take to restore a 350 year old painting? This site shows you! For ten weeks, conservators Joan Gorman and David Marquis worked on a painting by Italian painter Guercino during museum hours. That way, visitors got to see each stage in the restoration process. Click here to see for yourself.Please note: as of 07/06/2012, not all the links at this site were available.

Gorman, Joan

450

Lithological Uncertainty Expressed by Normalized Compression Distance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithological composition and structure of the Quaternary deposits is highly complex and heterogeneous in nature, especially as described in borehole log data. This work aims to develop a universal solution for quantifying uncertainty based on mutual information shared between the borehole logs. This approach presents tangible information directly useful in generalization of the geometry and lithology of the Quaternary sediments for use in regional groundwater flow models as a qualitative estimate of lithological uncertainty involving thousands of borehole logs would be humanly impossible due to the amount of raw data involved. Our aim is to improve parametrization of recharge in the Quaternary strata. This research however holds appeal for other areas of reservoir modelling, as demonstrated in the 2011 paper by Wellmann & Regenauer-Lieb. For our experiments we used extracts of the Quaternary strata from general-purpose geological borehole log database maintained by the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, spanning the territory of Latvia. Lithological codes were generalised into 2 aggregation levels consisting of 5 and 20 rock types respectively. Our calculation of borehole log similarity relies on the concept of information distance proposed by Bennet et al. in 1998. This was developed into a practical data mining application by Cilibrasi in the 2007 dissertation. The resulting implementation called CompLearn utilities provide a calculation of the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) metric. It relies on the universal data compression algorithms for estimating mutual information content in the data. This approach has proven to be universally successful for parameter free data mining in disciplines from molecular biology to network intrusion monitoring. To improve this approach for use in geology it is beneficial to apply several transformations as pre-processing steps to the borehole log data. Efficiency of text stream compressors, such as prediction by partial matching (PPM), used for computing the NCD metric, is highly dependant on context. We assign unique symbols for aggregate lithology types and serialize the borehole logs into text strings, where the string length represents a normalized borehole depth. This encoding ensures that both lithology types as well as depth and sequence of strata is comparable in a form most native to the universal data compression software that calculates the pairwise NCD dissimilarity matrix. The NCD results can be used for generalization of the Quaternary structure using spatial clustering followed by a Voronoi tessellation using boreholes as generator points. After dissolving cluster membership identifiers of the borehole Voronoi polygons in GIS environment, regions representing similar lithological structure can be visualized. The exact number of regions and their homogeneity depends on parameters of the clustering solution. This study is supported by the European Social Fund project No. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060 Keywords: geological uncertainty, lithological uncertainty, generalization, information distance, normalized compression distance, data compression

Jatnieks, J.; Saks, T.; Delina, A.; Popovs, K.

2012-04-01

451

Tensile, Compression, Open-Hole Compression and Double Cantilever Beam Fracture Toughness Testing of Multiple NASA Langley Research Center Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attached data summarizes the work performed by the Composite Materials Research Group at the University of Wyoming funded by the NASA LaRC Research Grant NAG-1-1294. The work consisted primarily of tension, compression, open-hole compression and double cantilever beam fracture toughness testing performed an a variety of NASA LaRC composite materials. Tests were performed at various environmental conditions and pre-conditioning requirements. The primary purpose of this work was to support the LaRC material development efforts. The data summaries are arranged in chronological order from oldest to newest.

Adams, Donald F.

1999-01-01

452

Analysis of the operation of the SCD Response intermittent compression system.  

PubMed

The work assessed the performance of the Kendall SCD Response intermittent pneumatic compression system for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, which claimed to set its cycle according to the blood flow characteristics of individual patient limbs. A series of tests measured the system response in various situations, including application to the limbs of healthy volunteers, and to false limbs. Practical experimentation and theoretical analysis were used to investigate influences on the system functioning other than blood flow. The system tested did not seem to perform as claimed, being unable to distinguish between real and fake limbs. The intervals between compressions were set to times unrealistic for venous refill, with temperature changes in the cuff the greatest influence on performance. Combining the functions of compression and the measurement of the effects of compression in the same air bladder makes temperature artefacts unavoidable and can cause significant errors in the inter-compression interval. PMID:12350277

Morris, Rh J; Griffiths, H; Woodcock, J P

2002-01-01

453

Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2011  

SciTech Connect

Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Program (VTP) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/. These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current Fact is available Monday through Friday on the VTP homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2011. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

2012-04-01

454

Radiological Follow-up of New Compression Fractures Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present study was to ascertain chronological changes in the analgesic effects of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) on osteoporotic vertebral compression factures and to radiologically follow new compression fractures after PVP. Seventy-six patients (206 vertebral bodies) were followed radiologically for a mean of 11.5 months. A visual analog scale (VAS; 0-10) was used to assess pain severity, and frontal and lateral plain radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae were taken 1-3 days and 1, 4, 10, and 22 months after PVP.The average VAS score was 7.2 {+-} 2.0 (mean pain score {+-} standard deviation) before PVP, 2.5 {+-} 2.3 at 1-3 days after PVP, 2.2 {+-} 2.3 at 1 month, 1.9 {+-} 2.2 at 4 months, 1.8 {+-} 2.4 at 10 months, and 1.0 {+-} 0.2 at 22 months. A new compression fracture was confirmed in 56 vertebral bodies in 28 patients (36.8%), affecting 38 adjacent vertebral bodies (67.8%), 17 nonadjacent vertebral bodies (30.4%), and 1 treated vertebral body (1.8%). A new compression fracture occurred within 1 week of PVP in 2 vertebral bodies (3.6%), between 1 week and 1 month after PVP in 22 (39.3%), between 1 and 3 months in 12 (21.4%), between 3 and 6 months in 12 (21.4%), and after more than 6 months in 8 (14.3%). PVP was highly effective in relieving the pain associated with osteoporosis-induced vertebral compression fractures, and this analgesia was long lasting. Radiological follow-up observation revealed new compression fractures in about one-third of patients. More than half of these new compression fractures occurred in adjacent vertebral bodies within 3 months of PVP.

Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2006-02-15

455

Orientation Week Events School of Computer Science  

E-print Network

Orientation Week Events School of Computer Science September 9th ­ September 12th Monday 9th:00­10:30 Jack Cole 0.35 MSc Curriculum Overview 3 14:00­16:00 Jack Cole 1.33a Computer Science Junior Honours Location Event 1 9:30­10:30 Jack Cole 0.35 Welcome to First Year Computer Science Students 1 10

St Andrews, University of

456

Orientation Week Events School of Computer Science  

E-print Network

Orientation Week Events School of Computer Science September 8th � September 12th Monday 8th:00�16:00 Jack Cole 1.33a/b Computer Science Junior Honours Project Briefing MSc 14:30�16:30 John Honey 110 MSc to First Year Computer Science Students 1 10:15�10:45 John Honey 110 First Year Systems Briefing 4 10

Brierley, Andrew

457

The Two-Week Orientation Center Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orientation programs for foreign students vary in duration and coverage from one-day programs on the cam pus of the university attended, with emphasis on local institu tional practices, to six-week programs for students destined for many different universities and with major emphasis on learn ing English. In the summer of 1960 for the first time, two universities—Minnesota and Indiana—were asked

Forrest G. Moore; Clarke A. Chambers

1961-01-01

458

Working on What Works: Working with Teachers to Improve Classroom Behaviour and Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Working on What Works (WOWW) approach, which is based upon Solution-focused Brief Therapy, was implemented in a mainstream primary classroom over a 10-week period. The focus was on improving behaviour and relationships in class. Results demonstrated an improvement in teacher ratings for targets set by the class teacher compared with baseline.…

Brown, Emma L.; Powell, Emma; Clark, Adele

2012-01-01

459

Measurement kernel design for compressive imaging under device constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We look at the design of projective measurements for compressive imaging based upon image priors and device constraints. If one assumes that image patches from natural imagery can be modeled as a low rank manifold, we develop an optimality criterion for a measurement matrix based upon separating the canonical elements of the manifold prior. We then describe a stochastic search algorithm for finding the optimal measurements under device constraints based upon a subspace mismatch algorithm. The algorithm is then tested on a prototype compressive imaging device designed to collect an 8x4 array of projective measurements simultaneously. This work is based upon work supported by DARPA and the SPAWAR System Center Pacific under Contract No. N66001-11-C-4092. The views expressed are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.

Shilling, Richard; Muise, Robert

2013-05-01

460

Lightning Safety Awareness Week 2012 Page 1 Press Release  

E-print Network

Lightning Safety Awareness Week 2012 Page 1 Press Release Contact: States ­ lightning. is proud to be promoting Lightning Safety Awareness Week. To help, Lightning Safety Awareness Week is a nationwide effort to encourage individuals, families businesses

461

79 FR 26355 - National Charter Schools Week, 2014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 9118--National Charter Schools Week, 2014 Presidential Documents...9118 of May 2, 2014 National Charter Schools Week, 2014 By the President...every child. During National Charter Schools Week, we pay tribute to...

2014-05-07

462

71 FR 25735 - National Charter Schools Week, 2006  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8007--National Charter Schools Week, 2006 Executive Order 13401...8007 of April 26, 2006 National Charter Schools Week, 2006 By the President...our Nation. During National Charter Schools Week, we celebrate charter...

2006-05-01

463

2013-2014 WEEKLY PRACTICE REPORT WOMEN'S BASKETBALL  

E-print Network

CAA 2013-2014 WEEKLY PRACTICE REPORT WOMEN'S BASKETBALL Sport: Week Of: (Month/Day to Month/Day) In-athlete's final exams. #12;Weekly Practice Report ­ Women's Basketball ACTIVITY SYMBOLS: M= MEETING; P = PRACTICE

Swaddle, John

464

75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

2010-03-19

465

77 FR 64019 - National School Lunch Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8888--National School Lunch Week, 2012 Presidential Documents Federal Register...October 12, 2012 National School Lunch Week, 2012 By The President Of The United States...at school. During National School Lunch Week, we recognize all those whose...

2012-10-17

466

76 FR 27597 - National Women's Health Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8670--National Women's Health Week, 2011 Proclamation 8671--Mother's...May 6, 2011 National Women's Health Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...lives. During National Women's Health Week, we reaffirm our commitment to...

2011-05-11

467

76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

2011-03-23

468

78 FR 72527 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...9062--Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2013 Proclamation 9063--Thanksgiving...2013 Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...During Minority Enterprise Development Week, we recognize the strength of our...

2013-12-02

469

76 FR 49645 - National Health Center Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8698--National Health Center Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...August 5, 2011 National Health Center Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...healthy. Throughout National Health Center Week, we recommit to supporting this...

2011-08-10

470

76 FR 30491 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8679--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011 Proclamation 8680--National Safe Boating Week, 2011 Proclamation 8681--Armed Forces...20, 2011 National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011 By the President of the United...

2011-05-25

471

78 FR 49357 - National Health Center Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...August 9, 2013 National Health Center Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...visits. During National Health Center Week, we recognize health centers' significant...Children's Health Insurance Program. This week, we celebrate these valuable...

2013-08-14

472

75 FR 2049 - National Influenza Vaccination Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8472--National Influenza Vaccination Week, 2010 Presidential Documents Federal Register...8, 2010 National Influenza Vaccination Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...communities by getting vaccinated as well. This week presents a window of opportunity for...

2010-01-13

473

76 FR 60351 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8721--Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2011 Proclamation 8722--Gold Star...2011 Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...During Minority Enterprise Development Week, we honor minority enterprises as...

2011-09-28

474

77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

2012-03-21

475

76 FR 20827 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8650--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011 Proclamation 8651--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2011 Proclamation 8652--National Former...2011 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011 By the President of the United...

2011-04-13

476

77 FR 65091 - National Character Counts Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8891--National Character Counts Week, 2012 Proclamation 8892--National Forest Products Week, 2012 Presidential Documents Federal Register...October 19, 2012 National Character Counts Week, 2012 By the President of the United...

2012-10-24

477

75 FR 77517 - National Influenza Vaccination Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8615--National Influenza Vaccination Week, 2010 Presidential Documents Federal Register...7, 2010 National Influenza Vaccination Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...During National Influenza Vaccination Week, we remind all Americans that the...

2010-12-10

478

76 FR 29131 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8674--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2011 Proclamation 8675--National Defense...Transportation Day and National Transportation Week, 2011 Proclamation 8676--Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2011 Proclamation 8677--World...

2011-05-19

479

Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

Hutchens, Cindy F.

2002-01-01

480

A Compressed Air Reduction Program  

E-print Network

in the equipme~t throuqhout the plant and to provide direction as to which leaks are yenerat~ng high uti 1ity costs. The direction is very beneficial in lIlaking maintenance aware of prolill,Pls within equipment .IS \\Iell as notifying them as to whf're thei... (mat.erial and labor) of $9,500. After installing the flowbars and couplings, it was quite evident tha t the volume of compressed air uti 11 zed by these presses was far more than four to eight CFM. In niany cases, $om" equipment ~:as con sumina...

Hawks, K. D.

481

SAR image quality using advanced pulse compression noise (APCN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work demonstrates the feasibility of using the advanced pulse compression noise (APCN) radar waveform for synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Using a simple image formation process (IFP), we not only show that we can successfully form images using the APCN waveform, but we grow our understanding of how different combinations of APCN waveforms and side lobe weighting functions impact SAR image quality. In this paper, an analysis is presented that compares the target range point spread function (PSF) for several simulated SAR images.

Govoni, Mark A.; Elwell, Ryan A.

2014-05-01

482

Stress analysis of an orthotropic material under diametral compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diametral compression test is commonly used to determine the tensile strength of brittle materials. For isotropic materials\\u000a a simple relation based on specimen geometry and the applied load at failure is used to calculate the tensile strength. Previous\\u000a to this work the effect of material orthotropy and material orientation on the specimen stress state had not been completely\\u000a determined.

R. K. Lemmon; D. M. Blackketter

1996-01-01

483

Elastic properties of metals and minerals under shock compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of laboratory elasticity data with seismic measurements of the Earth provides a means to understand the deep interior. In this work, elastic wave velocities have been measured under shock compression to 80 GPa in an Fe-Cr-Ni alloy, to 27 GPa in polycrystalline MgO, and to 81 GPa in molybdenum preheated to 1400[degrees]C. These measurements were made by recording particle

1992-01-01

484

Detonation wave compression in gas turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the concept of augmenting the performance of low pressure ratio gas turbines by detonation wave compression of part of the flow. The concept exploits the constant volume heat release of detonation waves to increase the efficiency of the Brayton cycle. In the models studied, a fraction of the compressor output was channeled into detonation ducts where it was processed by transient transverse detonation waves. Gas dynamic studies determined the maximum cycling frequency of detonation ducts, proved that upstream propagation of pressure pulses represented no problems and determined the variations of detonation duct output with time. Mixing and wave compression were used to recombine the combustor and detonation duct flows and a concept for a spiral collector to further smooth the pressure and temperature pulses was presented as an optional component. The best performance was obtained with a single firing of the ducts so that the flow could be re-established before the next detonation was initiated. At the optimum conditions of maximum frequency of the detonation ducts, the gas turbine efficiency was found to be 45 percent while that of a corresponding pressure ratio 5 conventional gas turbine was only 26%. Comparable improvements in specific fuel consumption data were found for gas turbines operating as jet engines, turbofans, and shaft output machines. Direct use of the detonation duct output for jet propulsion proved unsatisfactory. Careful analysis of the models of the fluid flow phenomena led to the conclusion that even more elaborate calculations would not diminish the uncertainties in the analysis of the system. Feasibility of the concept to work as an engine now requires validation in an engineering laboratory experiment.

Wortman, A.

1986-01-01

485

Dose Estimation from Daily and Weekly Dosimetry Data  

SciTech Connect

Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses (yearly dose of record). It is usually assumed that the dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. In our previous work with weekly data, a probability distribution was used to describe an individual's dose during a specific period of time and statistical methods were developed for estimating it from weekly film dosimetry data. This study showed that the yearly dose of record systematically underestimates doses for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors. The results of this evaluation raise serious questions about the suitability of the yearly dose of record for direct use in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. Here, we extend our previous work to use full information in Pocket meter data and develop the Data Synthesis for Individual Dose Estimation (DSIDE) methodology. Although the DSIDE methodology in this study is developed in the context of daily and weekly data to produce a cumulative yearly dose estimate, in principle it is completely general and can be extended to other time period and measurement combinations. The new methodology takes into account the ''measurement error'' that is produced by the film and pocket-meter dosimetry systems, the biases introduced by policies that lead to recording left-censored doses as zeros, and other measurement and recording practices. The DSIDE method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at ORNL for the years 1945 to 1955. First, the rigorous addition of daily pocket-meter information shows that the negative bias is generally more severe than was reported in our work based on weekly film data only, however, the amount of bias also varies greatly between person-years. Second, the addition of pocket-meter information reduces uncertainty for some person-years, while increasing it for others. Together, these results suggest that detailed pocket-meter and film dosimetry information is required to obtain unbiased and reliable dosimetry data for use in epidemiologic studies of workers at ORNL.

Ostrouchov, G.

2001-11-16

486

Shock Compression of Aluminum and Iron-Oxide Powder Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shock compression response of Al and Fe_2O3 powders has been studied with time-resolved pressure measurements using the PVDF stress-rate gauges, extending the early work of Holman et al. (High Pressure Science and Technology - 1993). Experiments were performed on Al and Fe_2O3 powders, mixed in different volumetric distributions, corresponding to 1:1, 2:3, and 1:3 volumetric ratios. The shock-compression response of this metal and oxide powder mixture appears to demonstrate a complex pattern with which the volumetric distribution influences the crush-strength and densification behavior. Shock recovery experiments were also performed to determine the influence of volumetric distribution of powders, in addition to particle size and initial packing density, through microstructural characterization of shock-compressed samples recovered at conditions below the reaction threshold. In this paper we will review the shock-compression response of Al and Fe_2O3 powder mixtures, based on results of time-resolved pressure measurements and recovery experiments.

Holman, G. T.; Vandersall, K.; Russell, R. R.; Thadhani, N. N.; Graham, R. A.

1997-07-01

487

External leg compression in the treatment of vascular disease.  

PubMed

In summary, external compression of the limbs is a mode of therapy that has enjoyed a long history in the treatment of venous and arterial disease. Evidence suggests that its beneficial effects are mediated through enhancement of venous and arterial blood flow, promotion of vasodilation, enhancement of fibrinolysis, and, in the case of obstructive arterial disease, promotion of the development of collateral circulation. The utility of external leg compression in the prevention of deep venous thrombosis and in the management of chronic venous stasis disease has been well documented, and it has become an accepted treatment for these disorders. The use of pneumatic compression in the treatment of atherosclerotic peripheral vascular and cardiovascular disease is less widespread and its indications are less well defined. Though the work of a few investigators in each of these areas shows striking benefits of the technique, further investigation in these areas is warranted. Potential benefits to patients of external limb compression therapy include its non-invasive nature, its ability to be applied in an out-patient setting, and long-term cost savings through possible avoidance of hospitalization and invasive procedures. PMID:9158378

Koch, C A

1997-05-01

488

Improved satellite image compression and reconstruction via genetic algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of signal and image processing applications, including the US Federal Bureau of Investigation's fingerprint compression standard [3] and the JPEG-2000 image compression standard [26], utilize wavelets. This paper describes new research that demonstrates how a genetic algorithm (GA) may be used to evolve transforms that outperform wavelets for satellite image compression and reconstruction under conditions subject to quantization error. The new approach builds upon prior work by simultaneously evolving real-valued coefficients representing matched forward and inverse transform pairs at each of three levels of a multi-resolution analysis (MRA) transform. The training data for this investigation consists of actual satellite photographs of strategic urban areas. Test results show that a dramatic reduction in the error present in reconstructed satellite images may be achieved without sacrificing the compression capabilities of the forward transform. The transforms evolved during this research outperform previous start-of-the-art solutions, which optimized coefficients for the reconstruction transform only. These transforms also outperform wavelets, reducing error by more than 0.76 dB at a quantization level of 64. In addition, transforms trained using representative satellite images do not perform quite as well when subsequently tested against images from other classes (such as fingerprints or portraits). This result suggests that the GA developed for this research is automatically learning to exploit specific attributes common to the class of images represented in the training population.

Babb, Brendan; Moore, Frank; Peterson, Michael; Lamont, Gary

2008-10-01

489

Laser Compression of Nanocrystalline Metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser compression carried out at the Omega and Janus yields new information on the deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline Ni. Although conventional deformation does not produce hardening, the extreme regime imparted by laser compression generates an increase in hardness, attributed to the residual dislocations observed in the structure by TEM. An analytical model is applied to predict the critical pressures for the cell-stacking-faults transition in single-crystalline nickel and the onset twinning in nanocrystalline nickel. The slip-twinning transition pressure is shifted from 20 GPa, for polycrystalline Ni, to 80 GPa, for Ni with g. s. of 10 nm. Contributions to the net strain from the mechanisms of plastic deformation (partials, perfect dislocations, twinning, and gb shear) were quantified in the nanocrystalline samples through MD calculations. The effect of release, a phenomenon often neglected in MD simulations, on dislocation behavior was established. A large fraction of the dislocations generated at the front are annihilated.[4pt] In collaboration with Hussam Jarmakani, University of California, San Diego; Eduardo Bringa, U. Nacional de Cuyo; Bruce Remington, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; V. Nhon, University of Illinois; P. Earhart and Morris Wang, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Meyers, Marc

2009-06-01

490

Hemifacial Spasm and Neurovascular Compression  

PubMed Central

Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by involuntary unilateral contractions of the muscles innervated by the ipsilateral facial nerve, usually starting around the eyes before progressing inferiorly to the cheek, mouth, and neck. Its prevalence is 9.8 per 100,000 persons with an average age of onset of 44 years. The accepted pathophysiology of HFS suggests that it is a disease process of the nerve root entry zone of the facial nerve. HFS can be divided into two types: primary and secondary. Primary HFS is triggered by vascular compression whereas secondary HFS comprises all other causes of facial nerve damage. Clinical examination and imaging modalities such as electromyography (EMG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to differentiate HFS from other facial movement disorders and for intraoperative planning. The standard medical management for HFS is botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections, which provides low-risk but limited symptomatic relief. The only curative treatment for HFS is microvascular decompression (MVD), a surgical intervention that provides lasting symptomatic relief by reducing compression of the facial nerve root. With a low rate of complications such as hearing loss, MVD remains the treatment of choice for HFS patients as intraoperative technique and monitoring continue to improve.

Lu, Alex Y.; Yeung, Jacky T.; Gerrard, Jason L.; Michaelides, Elias M.; Sekula, Raymond F.; Bulsara, Ketan R.

2014-01-01

491

Compressible Turbulence in the Heliosheath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the multi-scale structure of the compressible "turbulence" observed by Voyager 2 in the heliosheath behind the termination shock from 2007 DOY 245.0-300.8 and in a unipolar region from 2008 DOY 2.9-75.6. The magnetic field strength is highly variable on scales from 48 s to several hours in both intervals. The amplitudes of the fluctuations were greater in the post-TS region than in the unipolar region. The multiscale structure of the increments of B is described by the q-Gaussian distribution of nonextensive statistical mechanics on all scales from 48 s to 3.4 hr in the unipolar region and 6.8 hr in the post-TS region, respectively. The amplitudes of the fluctuations of increments of B are larger in the post-TS region than in the unipolar region at all scales. Time series of the magnitude and direction of B show that the fluctuations are highly compressive. The small-scale fluctuations are a mixture of coherent structures (semi-deterministic structures) and random structures, which vary significantly from day to day

Burlaga, Leonard F.; Ness, N. F.

2009-01-01

492

Noise-constrained hyperspectral data compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storage and transmission requirements for hyperspectral data sets are significant. To reduce hardware costs, well-designed compression techniques are needed to preserve information content while maximizing compression ratios. Lossless compression techniques maintain data integrity, but yield small compression ratios. We present a slightly lossy compression algorithm that uses the noise statistics of the data to preserve information content while maximizing compression ratios. The adaptive principal components analysis (APCA) algorithm uses noise statistics to determine the number of significant principal components and selects only those that are required to represent each pixel to within the noise level. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods with airborne visible/infrared spectrometer (AVIRIS), hyperspectral digital imagery collection experiment (HYDICE), hyperspectral mapper (HYMAP), and Hyperion datasets.

Sharp, Mary H.

2002-09-01

493

Influence of 6-week, 6 days per week, training on pituitary function in recreational athletes.  

PubMed

The influence on pituitary function of 6 weeks of training on 6 days a week was examined in six recreational athletes. Endurance training on a bicycle ergometer for 31-33 min was performed on 4 days each week at 90-96% (weeks 1-3) and 89-92% (weeks 4-6) of the 4 mmol lactate thresholds determined on day 0 and day 21, respectively, with interval training of 3-5 x 3-5 min in addition on 2 days a week at 117-127% and 115-110%, respectively. Determination of the serum hormone levels and a combined pituitary function test (200 micrograms thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), 100 micrograms gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 100 micrograms corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), 50 micrograms growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)) were made before training, after 6 weeks of training and after another 3 weeks of recovery. Training increased performance at 2 mmol lactate by 25%, at 4 mmol by 12%, and maximum performance by approximately 12%. The releasing hormone-stimulable prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and somatotrophic hormone (STH) synthesis-secretion capacity remained unchanged, the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was increased after training. Cortisol release was reduced, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-synthesis-secretion capacity was increased after training, and the luteinizing hormone (LH)-synthesis-secretion capacity reduced. This had no influence on base or exercise-induced serum hormone levels (cortisol, aldosterone, insulin, prolactin, FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, ADH and STH), which showed no dependence on training, except for free testosterone which showed a decreasing trend (P < 0.10) of 19-25% and post-exercise ACTH which showed an increasing trend of 33% (P < 0.10). Conditioning (cortisol sensitivity and ACTH response) or adaptation (FSH and LH responses) to changed testosterone serum levels and altered spermatogenesis is discussed. PMID:8242277

Lehmann, M; Knizia, K; Gastmann, U; Petersen, K G; Khalaf, A N; Bauer, S; Kerp, L; Keul, J

1993-09-01

494

FBI compression standard for digitized fingerprint images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FBI has formulated national standards for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. The compression algorithm for the digitized images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition, a technique referred to as the wavelet\\/scalar quantization method. The algorithm produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow

Christopher M. Brislawn; Jonathan N. Bradley; Remigius J. Onyshczak; Thomas Hopper

1996-01-01

495

Short text compression for smart devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short text compression is a great concern for data engineering and management. The rapid use of small devices especially, mobile phones and wireless sensors have turned short text compression into a demand-of-the-time. In this paper, we propose an approach of compressing short English text for smart devices. The prime objective of this proposed technique is to establish a low-complexity lossless

M. R. Islam; S. A. Ahsan Rajon; Anonda Podder

2008-01-01

496

Compressed data for the movie industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper will present a compression algorithm that will allow for both random and non-random sequential binary strings of data to be compressed for storage and transmission of media information. The compression system has direct applications to the storage and transmission of digital media such as movies, television, audio signals and other visual and auditory signals needed for engineering practicalities in such industries.

Tice, Bradley S.

2013-12-01

497

Compression Techniques in Cooperative Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Many of today’s embedded systems, such as sensor networks, have extremely tight constraints on energy and area, rely on wireless communication,to together,solve a given task. This paper shows that, for many cooperative embedded systems, it is beneficial to trade communication,with,computation,and compress,data before it is transmitted,over the air. In order to better understand the impact of compression, two