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1

Labouring for leisure? Achieving work-life balance through compressed working weeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexible work practices spreading work times across the entire week have reduced the time to engage in leisure activities and for some have compounded the problem of a lack of defined break between work weeks. This study examines time spent outside of the workplace through a multiple case study of working time and leisure in the construction industry. A framework

Kerry Brown; Lisa Bradley; Helen Lingard; Keith Townsend; Sharine Ling

2011-01-01

2

5 CFR 532.513 - Flexible and compressed work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Flexible and compressed work schedules. 532.513...Differentials § 532.513 Flexible and compressed work schedules. Federal Wage...employees who are authorized to work flexible and compressed...

2010-01-01

3

5 CFR 610.407 - Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules. 610.407 Section 610.407...CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.407 Premium pay...

2010-01-01

4

5 CFR 610.407 - Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules. 610.407 Section 610.407 Administrative...REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.407 Premium pay for...

2014-01-01

5

5 CFR 610.407 - Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules. 610.407 Section 610.407 Administrative...REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.407 Premium pay for...

2011-01-01

6

5 CFR 610.407 - Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules. 610.407 Section 610.407 Administrative...REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.407 Premium pay for...

2012-01-01

7

5 CFR 610.407 - Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules. 610.407 Section 610.407 Administrative...REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.407 Premium pay for...

2013-01-01

8

UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE COMPRESSED WORK WEEK PROPOSAL AND AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

potential barriers could occur with the following groups and how would you suggest addressing those barriers? Group Potential Barriers How to Address Barriers External Customers Internal Customers Co-Workers Others) payroll, benefits and/or overtime code. Payroll: Benefits: Overtime Code: Arrangement review and

Tennessee, University of

9

Working characteristics of variable intake valve in compressed air engine.  

PubMed

A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536

Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin

2014-01-01

10

5 CFR 610.406 - Holiday for employees on compressed work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Holiday for employees on compressed work schedules. 610.406 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.406 Holiday for employees on compressed work schedules. (a) If a...

2010-01-01

11

Working fluids thermodynamic behavior for vapor compression cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code has been employed to evaluate some thermodynamic properties of the most common working fluids for vapor compression plants and to analyze a standard reversed Rankine cycle. A study of the plant irreversibilities has been carried out. The thermodynamic behavior of the following substances: R503, R23, R13, R13B1, R115, R502, R22, R500, R134a, R12, R152a, RC318, R124a, R717,

Filippo deRossi; Rita Mastrullo; Pietro Mazzei

1991-01-01

12

Target compressions by working fluids driven with solid liner implosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compression by a spherical solid liner of a gold target surrounded by a hydrogen plasma is simulated. Two-dimensional simulations that treat only a subset of the physics included in the one-dimensional code were performed in an attempt to assess multidimensional effects. A one-dimensional numerical code has been developed to study the effects of thermal radiation and conduction. Results of pressure, density, and energy deposited for different initial plasma conditions are presented and discussed. Results from both one- and two-dimensional codes show that the average target density at peak compression is 39-43 g/cu cm, using the SHIVA Star facility at 90 kV discharge.

Chiang, P.-R.; Lewis, R. A.; Smith, G. A.; Dailey, J. M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Higman, K. I.; Bell, D.; Degnan, J. H.; Hussey, T. W.; Mullins, B. W.

1994-01-01

13

Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47?h) and junior (45–46?h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48?h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45?h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

2014-01-01

14

Means and method for the recovery of expansion work in a vapor compression cycle device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of substantially all of the work associated with the expansion of a multi-component working fluid mixture in a vapor compression cycle device is enabled by conveying working fluid in a liquid phase from a condenser to a coldest portion of an evaporator assembly in a countercurrent heat exchange relationship with fluid flowing through the evaporator assembly.

Vakil

1981-01-01

15

Working fluids selection for fishing boats waste heat powered organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To utilize waste heat from fishing boats, an organic Rankine cycle/vapor compression cycle system was employed for ice making and a thermodynamic model was developed. Six working fluids were selected and compared in order to identify suitable working fluids which may yield high system efficiencies. The calculated results show that R600a is most suitable working fluid through comprehensive comparison of efficiency, size parameter, pressure ratio, coefficient of performance, system pressure and safety.

Bu, Xianbiao; Wang, Lingbao; Li, Huashan

2014-10-01

16

Performance Estimation of Absorption/Compression Cycle Using Working Pair Dimethyle Ether/Methanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the performance estimation of hybrid absorption/compression heat pump cycle, which use dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol pair as a working fluid. The disadvantage of the DME as a refrigerant is that it is flammable. But it has several advantages from the environmental aspects; toxicity is very low, and GWP is small. The first purpose of this study is to estimate the reduction of the loss of the heat exchangers, by use of absorption/compression cycle. And the second purpose is to lower the working pressure to reduce the possibility of the leakage of the working fluids. Two hybrid systems are supposed as models; one is absorption/compression system with single stage solution circuit, and another is an absorption/compression system with generator/absorber heat exchange cycle. The former cycle exceeds the cooling and heating COPs of pure DME cycle, reducing the maximum pressure about 130 kPa. And the latter system increases the heating COP by 6 to 36% with the working pressure range about 150-260 kPa.

Endo, Naok; Maeda, Tetsuhiko; Hasegawa, Yasuo

17

Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities introduce redundancies that make the input more compressible. The current

Timothy F. Brady; Talia Konkle; George A. Alvarez

2009-01-01

18

LARGE-SCALE VIDEO COMPRESSION RESEARCH WORK ON QUALITY OF EXPERIENCE (QOE) EVALUATION  

E-print Network

LARGE-SCALE VIDEO COMPRESSION RESEARCH WORK ON QUALITY OF EXPERIENCE (QOE) EVALUATION M. Leszczuk describes a comprehensive evaluation experiment on perceived video quality. Consequently, in summary, 19 acquisition, 2) Encoder and streaming server, 3) Network, 4) User equipment. In terms of mechanisms delivering

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Compressed-air work is entering the field of high pressures.  

PubMed

Since 1850, compressed-air work has been used to prevent shafts or tunnels under construction from flooding. Until the 1980s, workers were digging in compressed-air environments. Since the introduction of tunnel boring machines (TBMs), very little digging under pressure is needed. However, the wearing out of cutter-head tools requires inspection and repair. Compressed-air workers enter the pressurized working chamber only occasionally to perform such repairs. Pressures between 3.5 and 4.5 bar, that stand outside a reasonable range for air breathing, were reached by 2002. Offshore deep diving technology had to be adapted to TBM work. Several sites have used mixed gases: in Japan for deep shaft sinking (4.8 bar), in The Netherlands at Western Scheldt Tunnels (6.9 bar), in Russia for St. Petersburg Metro (5.8 bar) and in the United States at Seattle (5.8 bar). Several tunnel projects are in progress that may involve higher pressures: Hallandsås (Sweden) interventions in heliox saturation up to 13 bar, and Lake Mead (U.S.) interventions to about 12 bar (2010). Research on TBMs and grouting technologies tries to reduce the requirements for hyperbaric works. Adapted international rules, expertise and services for saturation work, shuttles and trained personnel matching industrial requirements are the challenges. PMID:20737925

Le Péchon, J Cl; Gourdon, G

2010-01-01

20

An Improved Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Model for Flows Without Viscous Heat Dissipation and Compression Work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for thermal flows in which the viscous heat dissipation and compression work by the pressure can be neglected. In the improved model, the whole complicated gradient term in the internal energy density distribution function model is correctly discarded by modifying the velocity moments' condition. The corresponding macroscopic energy equation is exactly derived through Chapman-Enskog expansion. In particular, based on the improved thermal model, a double-distribution-function lattice BGK model is developed for two-dimensional Boussinesq flow, which is a typical flow with negligible viscous heat dissipation and compression work. A two-dimensional plane flow and the natural convection of air in a square cavity with various Rayleigh numbers are simulated by using the double-distribution-function lattice BGK model. It is found that there is excellent agreement between the present results with the analytical or benchmark solutions.

Li, Q.; He, Y. L.; Wang, Y.; Tang, G. H.

21

This thesis corresponds to 20 weeks of full-time work. Spatial-Symbolic Query Engine in Anatomy  

E-print Network

This thesis corresponds to 20 weeks of full-time work. Spatial-Symbolic Query Engine in Anatomy processor that can access and manage spatial anatomical knowledge for use in anatomy education and clinical of concept. The processor can answer questions like: 'Which structures are anterior to the heart?', thanks

Washington at Seattle, University of

22

Figure 3: Normal probability plot of home-to-work travel time observations for one subject during 13 weeks.  

E-print Network

Figure 3: Normal probability plot of home-to-work travel time observations for one subject during 13 weeks. Statistical test shows that travel time for the majority (77%) of all 95 subjects follow strategy for a rational traveler who cares about both journey time and lateness when facing stochastic

Levinson, David M.

23

Week 24, Reflections at the Halfway Point The opportunity to work less and with more quiet and less stress is one of the great benefits of  

E-print Network

Week 24, Reflections at the Halfway Point The opportunity to work less and with more quiet and less of time (maybe too much) on my hands, five weeks into summer break and half-way through my time here

Bardsley, John

24

Overtime rates for staff on defined working hours (grades 1-6) Additional hours worked by part-time staff on any day of the week up to 36.5  

E-print Network

-time staff on any day of the week up to 36.5 hours per week: single time · Hours worked beyond 36.5 hoursOvertime rates for staff on defined working hours (grades 1-6) · Additional hours worked by part on days 1-5 inclusive that an individual works in his/her working week: time and a half. · Hours worked

Sussex, University of

25

Day of the week lost time occupational injury trends in the US by gender and industry and their implications for work scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is a growing body of research on the impact of work schedules on the risk of occupational injuries, there has been little investigation into the impact that the day of the week might have. The present research was completed to explore day of the week trends, reasons for such trends and the corresponding implications for work scheduling. Data

G. E. Brogmus

2007-01-01

26

Effects of 6 weeks of aerobic exercise combined with conjugated linoleic acid on the physical working capacity at fatigue threshold.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in conjunction with 6 weeks of aerobic exercise training on the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT), timed sit-ups, and the standing long jump. Thirty-three untrained to moderately trained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.6 ± 2.8 years) participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 17) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group. Before and after 6 weeks of aerobic training (50% VO2peak for 30 minutes, twice per week) and supplementation (8 ml CLA or PLA per day), each subject completed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion to determine the PWCFT, maximal number of sit-ups in 1 minute, and the standing long jump. There were no differences (all p ? 0.23) between the CLA and PLA groups for the analysis of covariance-adjusted posttest mean values for PWCFT, sit-ups, or standing long jump. The PWCFT increased from pre- to posttraining in the CLA (p = 0.003) and PLA (p = 0.003) groups. There were no differences (p > 0.05) from pre- to posttraining for sit-ups and standing long jump in either the CLA or PLA groups. There was no effect of CLA on the training-induced increases in PWCFT, nor were there any effects of CLA or aerobic training on the maximum number of sit-ups or standing long jump. Thus, CLA had no ergogenic benefits on this model of aerobic training-induced improvements in neuromuscular fatigue, or on field tests of muscle endurance and power. PMID:24796987

Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Baker, Robert B; Bergstrom, Haley C; Cochrane, Kristen C; Weir, Joseph P; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T

2014-08-01

27

An old integration scheme for compressible flows revisited, refurbished and put to work  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scheme for integrating the Euler equations of compressible flow in any hyperbolic case is presented. The scheme relies on the concept of characteristics but is strictly a finite difference scheme. Improvements in accuracy and physical consistence due to the scheme are discussed and results of its application to complex flows are shown.

Moretti, G.

1978-01-01

28

The Concept and experimental results of low compression Ratio DME engines operated at stoichiometric working gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among a lot of benefits of Dimethyl Ether (DME) as an alternative fuel, the combustion characteristic for diesel engines, are high cetane number and no soot combustion.The high cetane number of DME enables to operate the low compression ratio engines produced for spark ignition engines designed for a direct gasoline injection. And no soot combustion enables to operate engines at

Shuichi KAJITANI; Masayuki TAKEDA; Atushi HOSHIYAMA; Masaaki KATO

29

The Heart: See It, Feel It, Hear It, Work It! - PhUn Week Poster Session EB 2012  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three undergraduate students and one exercise physiology faculty member from California State University, Northridge visited Meadows Elementary School in Valencia California. Each of the undergraduate students and the faculty member chose a different topic related to the heart and worked independently to develop hands-on activities related to their topic. On the day of the PhUn week presentation, 90 fourth and fifth grade students and four teachers actively participated. The morning began with a short introduction about the function of the heart and its importance during exercise. The students then spilt up into four groups of 20-25 students each. The groups rotated through four different 15-minute hands-on activities. Activity one was Â?SeeÂ?, where the students learned about the anatomy of the heart. Students Â?sawÂ? a poster illustrating the entire circulatory system, a heart model, and a real sheep heart. Activity two was Â?FeelÂ?, where the students learned about the pulse and were challenged to find and Â?feelÂ? various pulses throughout their bodies. Activity three was Â?hearÂ?, where students learned about the stethoscope and had the opportunity to use real stethoscopes to Â?hearÂ? their hearts contracting. They also learned how to make a stethoscope at home. Activity four was Â?WorkÂ? where students learned about the heartÂ?s response to exercise. Students did various exercises and measured their heart rate response with heart rate monitors and by feeling their chests. We wrapped up the morning by bringing the entire group back together for a short discussion about schooling and careers in Physiology and Exercise Physiology.

Kim Henige (California State University, Northridge)

2012-04-25

30

Methyltransferases do not work by compression, cratic, or desolvation effects, but by electrostatic preorganization.  

PubMed

The enzyme catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to dopamine and related catechols. The search for the origin of COMT catalysis has led to different proposals and hypothesis, including the entropic, the NAC, and the compression proposals as well as the more reasonable electrostatic idea. Thus, it is important to understand the catalytic power of this enzyme and to examine the validity of different proposals and in particular the repeated recent implication of the compression idea. The corresponding analysis should be done by well-defined physically-based considerations that involve computations rather than circular interpretations of experimental results. Thus, we explore here the origin of the catalytic efficiency of COMT by using the empirical valence bond and the linear response approximation approaches. The results demonstrate that the catalytic effect of COMT is mainly due to electrostatic preorganization effects. It is also shown that the compression, NAC and entropic proposals do not account for the catalytic effect. Proteins 2015; 83:318-330. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25388538

Lameira, Jeronimo; Bora, Ram Prasad; Chu, Zhen T; Warshel, Arieh

2015-02-01

31

A week in the life of full-time office workers: work day and weekend light exposure in summer and winter.  

PubMed

Little is known about the light exposure in full-time office workers, who spend much of their workdays indoors. We examined the 24-h light exposure patterns of 14 full-time office workers during a week in summer, and assessed their dim light melatonin onset (DLMO, a marker of circadian timing) at the end of the working week. Six workers repeated the study in winter. Season had little impact on the workers' schedules, as the timing of sleep, commute, and work did not vary by more than 30 min in the summer and winter. In both seasons, workers received significantly more morning light on workdays than weekends, due to earlier wake times and the morning commute. Evening light in the two hours before bedtime was consistently dim. The timing of the DLMO did not vary between season, and by the end of the working week, the workers slept at a normal circadian phase. PMID:25172304

Crowley, Stephanie J; Molina, Thomas A; Burgess, Helen J

2015-01-01

32

Working Hours Flexibility. Background Paper No. 30.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible work schedules offer the promise of a low-cost option for helping people manage work and family responsibilities. Alternative work schedules include part-time work, job sharing, work sharing, shiftwork, compressed work week, flexitime, and flexiplace. Flexitime is the most prevalent full-time flexible schedule and is second in prevalence…

Staines, Graham L.

33

Development of quasi-three-dimensional compressible flow program by EWS (engineering-work-station)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CPU performance of the latest EWS is over 20 MFLOPS(Linpack). New quasi-three-dimensional compressible and viscous flow code is developed for turbomachinary airfoil design by EWS. Numerical results of transonic cascade flows of two AVER cases is compared with experimental data to validate the code. Although the CPU speed of latest EWS is little poor for design time, but enough for numerical study. That is not such a fatal problem, because the CPU speed of EWS is improving day by day. It is appreciated that improving the turbulence model is important for the accuracy of the cascade airfoil design.

Nomoto, Sukeharu; Tsuboi, Kazumasa; Kodama, Hidekazu

1992-12-01

34

A Poll about Children and Weight: Crunch Time during the American Work and School Week--3 P.M. to Bed. Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge today, with complex roots interwoven into nearly every facet of American life. This poll addresses one narrow slice of this web: the challenges that families face during the "crunch time" of the work and school week, between 3 p.m. and the time children go to bed. Compared to the school day,…

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2013

2013-01-01

35

A Poll about Children and Weight: Crunch Time during the American Work and School Week--3 P.M. to Bed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge today, with complex roots interwoven into nearly every facet of American life. This poll addresses one narrow slice of this web: the challenges that families face during the "crunch time" of the work and school week, between 3 pm and the time children go to bed. Compared to the school day, this…

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2013

2013-01-01

36

Human structure in six and one-half weeks: One approach to providing foundational anatomical competency in an era of compressed medical school anatomy curricula.  

PubMed

The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine reduced gross anatomy from a full semester, 130-hour course to a six and one-half week, 105-hour course as part of a new integrated systems-based pre-clinical curriculum. In addition to the reduction in contact hours, content from embryology, histology, and radiology were added into the course. The new curriculum incorporated best practices in the area of regular assessments, feedback, clinical application, multiple teaching modalities, and professionalism. A comparison of the components of the traditional and integrated curriculum, along with end of course evaluations and student performance revealed that the new curriculum was just as effective, if not more effective. This article also provides important lessons learned. Anat Sci Educ. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Association of Anatomists. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. PMID:24996159

Halliday, Nancy; O'Donoghue, Daniel; Klump, Kathryn E; Thompson, Britta

2014-07-01

37

Student understanding of the first law of thermodynamics: Relating work to the adiabatic compression of an ideal gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on an investigation of student understanding of the first law of thermodynamics. The students involved were drawn from first-year university physics courses and a second-year thermal physics course. The emphasis was on the ability of the students to relate the first law to the adiabatic compression of an ideal gas. Although they had studied the first law, few students recognized its relevance. Fewer still were able to apply the concept of work to account for a change in temperature in an adiabatic process. Instead most of the students based their predictions and explanations on a misinterpretation of the ideal gas law. Even when ideas of energy and work were suggested, many students were unable to give a correct analysis. They frequently failed to differentiate the concepts of heat, temperature, work, and internal energy. Some of the difficulties that students had in applying the concept of work in a thermal process seemed to be related to difficulties with mechanics. Our findings also suggest that a misinterpretation of simple microscopic models may interfere with student ability to understand macroscopic phenomena. Implications for instruction in thermal physics and in mechanics are discussed.

Loverude, Michael E.; Kautz, Christian H.; Heron, Paula R.

2005-10-27

38

Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities…

Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

2009-01-01

39

Work Experience: Marine Biology A group of 4 to 6 potential marine biology students will spend one week in the  

E-print Network

Work Experience: Marine Biology (ID:209) Outline A group of 4 to 6 potential marine biology of studying Marine Biology at Swansea University and develop a general understanding of the different subject will experience marine sampling techniques, both on board the university research vessel and from the shore

Harman, Neal.A.

40

"I've spent the week working on a bunch of different areas. Still working on the proposals, hoping to finish then  

E-print Network

we do testing in the wind tunnel so that we can gain the most accurate on the website and the turned my attention to the Scube SDK project, finding free the code to work for Preeti's jet profiles." Casey Burns Marc Magagnoli Chris

Zanibbi, Richard

41

Effect of water-soluble metal working fluid aerosols on respiratory system after 13 weeks of repeated inhalation exposure in F344 rats.  

PubMed

Three groups of male F344 rats were exposed to a water-soluble metal working fluid (MWF) aerosol at concentrations of 20, 60 or 180 mg/m3 for 6 h/day, five days a week, for 13 weeks in inhalation chambers. The aerosol particles were normally distributed and the mass median aerodynamic diameter was 1.56 microm. Despite the absence of clinical findings or significant changes in body weight during the 13-week exposure period, the numbers of white blood cells and lung weights were significantly higher at the end of the 13-week exposure period. Exposure to 20 mg/m3 of the MWF aerosol was found to have an effect on the respiratory system, including an accumulation of foamy macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and thickening of the alveolar walls in the histopathology. The level of histamine and number of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells were also higher in the BAL fluid from the rats exposed to 60 mg/m3 of the MWF aerosol, while the respiratory inflammation was most pronounced in the rats exposed to 180 mg/m3 of the MWF aerosol, including the accumulation of PMNs and foamy macrophages in the BAL cells, lung weight increase and thickening of the alveolar walls. Immunoglobulin IgG2a level was also lower in the sera from the rats exposed to 180 mg/m3 of the MWF aerosol. Therefore, even though no clinical symptoms were observed in the rats exposed to the high MWF concentration, respiratory inflammation was still induced by a relatively low concentration of the MWF, while the immune system was affected by the high MWF concentration. PMID:16342471

Lima, Cheol-Hong; Yu, Il Je; Kim, Hyeon-Young; Lee, Seung-Bae; Marshak, Daniel R; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kwang Jong

2005-10-01

42

Student understanding of the first law of thermodynamics: Relating work to the adiabatic compression of an ideal gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on an investigation of student understanding of the first law of thermodynamics. The students involved were drawn from first-year university physics courses and a second-year thermal physics course. The emphasis was on the ability of the students to relate the first law to the adiabatic compression of an ideal gas. Although they had studied the first law, few

Michael E. Loverude; Christian H. Kautz; Paula R. L. Heron

2002-01-01

43

Nickel Weeklies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A century or so, a nickel could buy a lot of entertainment. One such form of entertainment was the nickel weekly, which featured tales of detectives, Wild West characters, and evil villains. Bowling Green State University has created this thoroughly delightful digital collection of nickel weeklies for consumption by the general public. This collection includes 221 nickel weeklies, and visitors can browse these offerings by title, date, or author. Visitors can zoom in on the cover page of each weekly, or they may also download each title and view them at another more convenient moment. Users looking for a place to start might do well to look over "Adventures of Buffalo Bill from boyhood to manhood" by Colonel Prentiss Ingraham or "California Claude, the love bandit" by Captain Howard Holmes.

44

Solar Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is intended to spark pre- and early teen girls' interest in pursuing careers in science through the study of recent solar physics discoveries. The set of daily activities is self-contained, so participation can be carried out on a day-to-day basis depending upon your schedule. One of the great strengths of this project is the interaction with real scientists who have first hand knowledge of the various topics which make up Solar Week. These activities will also be available after the period chosen for Solar Week, without real-time interaction with scientists. This website is designed as a week-long unit. Each day covers a different topic.

45

} Surgery 7 weeks } Medicine 7 weeks  

E-print Network

#12;} Surgery 7 weeks } Medicine 7 weeks } Pediatrics 7 weeks } OB-GYN 7 weeks } Psychiatry 7 weeks;} Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics 8 weeks } OB-GYN, Family Med, Psychiatry 6 weeks } Elective block 6 weeks;} Educational and LCME concerns } Student wish for longer Medicine and Surgery rotations } National norms

Myers, Lawrence C.

46

Week 8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At week 8, the impact of an earthworm on decomposition is obvious and the material in the worm container is beginning to appear as compost. Keep in mind that the material within the worm-free container will decompose due to oxygen and bacteria, but at a much slower rate than the container with earthworms.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-07-08

47

Project Week at Yeovil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an approach to science teaching in which secondary school students and faculty members lived and worked together for a week at Yeovil College, concentrating on science project work. The projects investigated during this time are briefly described. (GA)

Gadd, K. F.

1979-01-01

48

Doppler ultrasound surveillance in deep tunneling compressed-air work with Trimix breathing: bounce dive technique compared to saturation-excursion technique.  

PubMed

The Western Scheldt Tunneling Project in The Netherlands provided a unique opportunity to evaluate two deep-diving techniques with Doppler ultrasound surveillance. Divers used the bounce diving techniques for repair and maintenance of the TBM. The tunnel boring machine jammed at its deepest depth. As a result the work time was not sufficient. The saturation diving technique was developed and permitted longer work time at great depth. Thirty-one divers were involved in this project. Twenty-three divers were examined using Doppler ultrasound. Data analysis addressed 52 exposures to Trimix at 4.6-4.8 bar gauge using the bounce technique and 354 exposures to Trimix at 4.0-6.9 bar gauge on saturation excursions. No decompression incidents occurred with either technique during the described phase of the project. Doppler ultrasound revealed that the bubble loads assessed in both techniques were generally low. We find out, that despite longer working hours, shorter decompression times and larger physical workloads, the saturation-excursion technique was associated with significant lower bubble grades than in the bounce technique using Doppler Ultrasound. We conclude that the saturation-excursion technique with Trimix is a good option for deep and long exposures in caisson work. The Doppler technique proved valuable, and it should be incorporated in future compressed-air work. PMID:19175196

Vellinga, T P van Rees; Sterk, W; de Boer, A G E M; van der Beek, A J; Verhoeven, A C; van Dijk, F J H

2008-01-01

49

Alternative Work Patterns: Implications for Worklife Education and Training. Worker Education and Training Policies Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph explores the major categories of alternative work patterns, e.g., flexitime, permanent part-time employment, job sharing, the compressed work week, and reduced work time. Advantages and disadvantages of each type are discussed, and new insight is offered into an unexplored dimension of the major types of alternative work patterns:…

Shore, Jane

50

Brain Week!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week-long exploration of brain structure and function through hands-on experiments and web Treasure Hunts ends with an open inquiry on the brain designed by students. Exploration topics include brain parts and their functions, surface area, optic nerve activity, touch receptors, muscle spindle fibers, motor learning, neuroscientists, and the effects of drugs on the brain. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2004 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Rachel Gillis (Arsenal Technical High School)

2005-05-01

51

Appendix: Impact of 5-Day Workweek on Hazard at 7-Day Intervals In the main text of our paper, we explain how the 5-day work week creates 7-day  

E-print Network

Appendix: Impact of 5-Day Workweek on Hazard at 7-Day Intervals In the main text of our paper, we explain how the 5-day work week creates 7-day periodicity in absence spells that confound the estimation of differences in hazard rates at multiples of 7, including 28 days. We also show that including an interaction

Sprott, Julien Clinton

52

Relief of Night-time Symptoms Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Following 4 Weeks of Treatment With Pantoprazole Magnesium: The Mexican Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Working Group  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of pantoprazole magnesium (pantoprazole-Mg) 40 mg in the relief of esophageal and extra-esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), particularly night-time symptoms. Methods Patients (aged 18-50 years) with 3-month history of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation plus at least one other symptom in the last week were enrolled in a nationwide, prospective and observational study in Mexico. Patients received pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily during 4 weeks. Symptoms were assessed through a physician-administered structured interview and the patient-completed ReQuest in Practice™ questionnaire. Night-time GERD was defined as arousal from sleep during the night due to GERD-associated symptoms. Results Out of 4,343 patients included at basal visit, 3,665 were considered for the effectiveness per protocol analysis. At baseline, patients had a median of 8 GERD related symptoms. Patients with night-time GERD symptoms (42.7%) were more likely to have extra-esophageal symptoms (P < 0.001) than other GERD patients. Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily for 4 weeks improved a broad range of GERD-associated symptoms from baseline (80% reduction on physicians assessments; 68-77% reduction on ReQuest in Practice™ dimensions), including both day- and night-time GERD symptoms; improvements were the greatest for extra-esophageal symptoms in patients with night-time symptoms. Pantoprazole-Mg was well tolerated. Conclusions Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg significantly improved a broad range of esophageal and extra-esophageal GERD related symptoms including sleep disturbances, as well as well-being, in patients with daytime or night-time GERD, making it a good option for patients with GERD, especially when extra-esophageal and night-time symptoms are present. PMID:24466446

Orr, William; Vargas-Romero, José Antonio; Remes-Troche, José María; Morales-Arámbula, Miguel; Soto-Pérez, Julio César; Mateos-Pérez, Gualberto; Sobrino-Cossío, Sergio; Teramoto-Matsubara, Oscar; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Orozco-Gamiz, Antonio; Saez-Ríos, Adolfo; Arellano-Plancarte, Araceli; Chiu-Ugalde, Jazmin; Tholen, Anne; Horbach, Silke; Lundberg, Lars; Fass, Ronnie

2014-01-01

53

Compressing Aviation Data in XML Format  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design, operations and maintenance activities in aviation involve analysis of variety of aviation data. This data is typically in disparate formats making it difficult to use with different software packages. Use of a self-describing and extensible standard called XML provides a solution to this interoperability problem. XML provides a standardized language for describing the contents of an information stream, performing the same kind of definitional role for Web content as a database schema performs for relational databases. XML data can be easily customized for display using Extensible Style Sheets (XSL). While self-describing nature of XML makes it easy to reuse, it also increases the size of data significantly. Therefore, transfemng a dataset in XML form can decrease throughput and increase data transfer time significantly. It also increases storage requirements significantly. A natural solution to the problem is to compress the data using suitable algorithm and transfer it in the compressed form. We found that XML-specific compressors such as Xmill and XMLPPM generally outperform traditional compressors. However, optimal use of Xmill requires of discovery of optimal options to use while running Xmill. This, in turn, depends on the nature of data used. Manual disc0ver.y of optimal setting can require an engineer to experiment for weeks. We have devised an XML compression advisory tool that can analyze sample data files and recommend what compression tool would work the best for this data and what are the optimal settings to be used with a XML compression tool.

Patel, Hemil; Lau, Derek; Kulkarni, Deepak

2003-01-01

54

Electrical stimulation for chronic non-specific low back pain in a working-age population: a 12-week double blinded randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Non-invasive electrotherapy is commonly used for treatment of chronic low back pain. Evidence for efficacy of most electrotherapy modalities is weak or lacking. This study aims to execute a high-quality, double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial comparing 1) H-Wave® Device stimulation plus usual care with 2) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) plus usual care, and 3) Sham electrotherapy plus usual care to determine comparative efficacy for treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain patients. Methods/Design Patients- Chronic non-specific low back pain patients between ages of 18–65 years, with pain of at least 3 months duration and minimal current 5/10 VAS pain. Patients will have no significant signs or symptoms of lumbosacral nerve impingement, malignancy, spinal stenosis, or mood disorders. Study design- Double blind RCT with 3 arms and 38 subjects per arm. Randomization by permuted blocks of random length, stratified by Workers Compensation claim (yes vs. no), and use of opioids. The null hypothesis of this study is that there are no statistically significant differences in functional improvement between treatment types during and at the end of a 12-week week treatment period. Data collection- Subjective data will be collected using Filemaker Pro™ database management collection tools. Objective data will be obtained through functional assessments. Data will be collected at enrollment and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks for each participant by a blinded assessor. Interventions- H-Wave® device stimulation (Intervention A) plus usual care, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) (Intervention B) plus usual care, and sham electrotherapy plus usual care (control). Each treatment arm will have identical numbers of visits (4) and researcher contact time (approximately 15 hours). Outcomes- Primary outcome measure: Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary measures include: Rowland Morris Instrument, VAS pain score, functional evaluation including strength when pushing and pulling, pain free range of motion in flexion and extension. Outcome measures assessed at baseline, 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Treatment failure will be defined if patient terminates assigned treatment arm for non-efficacy or undergoes invasive procedure or other excluded cointerventions. Data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis and adjusted for covariates related to LBP (e.g. age) as needed. Discussion Study strengths include complex randomization, treatment group allocation concealment, double blinding, controlling for co-interventions, rigorous inclusion criteria, assessment of compliance, plans for limiting dropout, identical assessment methods and timing for each treatment arm, and planned intention-to-treat analyses. PMID:23537462

2013-01-01

55

Working  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new special section in the New York Times, Working, features articles on the American worker. For example, the current issue contains stories on the contrast between the recent trend in layoffs and employers's complaints that they are unable to fill job openings; what is "retaining and motivating...the American worker"; and the shortage of qualified legal talent. The site also offers a great deal of career and job advice such as an article on non-traditional jobs, job forecasts, and office design. Interviews include an audio piece with Robert B. Reich, the former US Secretary of Labor. And of course, what would a newspaper section on work be without a link to the Dilbert comic strip?

56

Lightweight Natural Language Text Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variants of Hufiman codes where words are taken as the source symbols are currently the most attractive choices to compress natural language text databases. In particular, Tagged Hufiman Code by Moura et al. ofiers fast direct searching on the compressed text and random access capabilities, in exchange for producing around 11% larger compressed flles. This work describes End-Tagged Dense Code

Nieves R. Brisaboa; Antonio Fari; Gonzalo Navarro; Jose R. Parama

57

Lightweight natural language text compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variants of Huffman codes where words are taken as the source symbols are currently the most attractive choices to compress natural language text databases. In particular, Tagged Huffman Code by Moura et al. offers fast direct searching on the compressed text and random access capabilities, in exchange for producing around 11% larger compressed files. This work describes End-Tagged Dense Code

Nieves R. Brisaboa; Antonio Fariña; Gonzalo Navarro; Jose R. Parama

2007-01-01

58

Compressible Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model to treat fully compressible, nonlocal, time-dependent turbulent convection in the presence of large-scale flows and arbitrary density stratification. The problem is of interest, for example, in stellar pulsation problems, especially since accurate helioseismological data are now available, as well as in accretion disks. Owing to the difficulties in formulating an analytical model, it is not surprising that most of the work has gone into numerical simulations. At present, there are three analytical models: one by the author, which leads to a rather complicated set of equations; one by Yoshizawa; and one by Xiong. The latter two use a Reynolds stress model together with phenomenological relations with adjustable parameters whose determination on the basis of terrestrial flows does not guarantee that they may be extrapolated to astrophysical flows. Moreover, all third-order moments representing nonlocality are taken to be of the down gradient form (which in the case of the planetary boundary layer yields incorrect results). In addition, correlations among pressure, temperature, and velocities are often neglected or treated as in the incompressible case. To avoid phenomenological relations, we derive the full set of dynamic, time-dependent, nonlocal equations to describe all mean variables, second- and third-order moments. Closures are carried out at the fourth order following standard procedures in turbulence modeling. The equations are collected in an Appendix. Some of the novelties of the treatment are (1) new flux conservation law that includes the large-scale flow, (2) increase of the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy owing to compressibility and thus (3) a smaller overshooting, and (4) a new source of mean temperature due to compressibility; moreover, contrary to some phenomenological suggestions, the adiabatic temperature gradient depends only on the thermal pressure, while in the equation for the large-scale flow, the physical pressure is the sum of thermal plus turbulent pressure.

Canuto, V. M.

1997-06-01

59

11-14 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the power input to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment,  

E-print Network

11-7 11-14 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working) In an ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, the compression process is isentropic, the refrigerant of the refrigerator is determined from its definition, 4.06=== kW1.83 kW7.41 COP in R W QL & & #12;11-17 11-24 A vapor-compression

Kostic, Milivoje M.

60

Literal Shuffle of Compressed Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straight-Line Programs (SLP) are widely used compressed representations of words. In this work we study the rational transformations\\u000a and the literal shuffle of words compressed via SLP, proving that the first preserves the compression rate, while the second\\u000a does not. As a consequence, we prove a tight bound for the descriptional complexity of 2D texts compressed via SLP. Finally,\\u000a we

Alberto Bertoni; Christian Choffrut; Roberto Radicioni

2008-01-01

61

DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm  

PubMed Central

Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that “DNABIT Compress” algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases. PMID:21383923

Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

2011-01-01

62

BE(E) Amazing Race 2014! Heartowa Week 6-June 8-14-Welcome to Heartowa, Ontario! Where healthy living is heart work!  

E-print Network

- June 8-14- Welcome to Heartowa, Ontario! Where healthy living is heart work high incidence of heart disease and stroke in Canada. She linked the results. Heartwell took her research to heart and decided that something needed to be done

Seldin, Jonathan P.

63

National Engineers Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now an annual event, National Engineers Week was founded by the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1951. In 1988, the National Engineers Week consortium expanded and now includes more than 100 engineering, scientific, and education societies and major corporations dedicated to enhancing the public understanding of the engineering profession and to promoting pre-college interest in math, science, and engineering as a career option. From this website, visitors can read suggestions for ways to get involved in National Engineers Week (National Engineers Week 2004 was held February 22-28) and learn about other competitions for young and upcoming engineers. Also available online is the first Connecting the World teleconference which featured Alan Boeckmann, Chairman and CEO of Fluor Corporation, speaking about Engineering in the 21st Century. The website currently promotes the Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day, which was presented to the United Nations as part of an international briefing, Girls and Technology: New Educational Opportunities. Another feature of interest is the section highlighting the accomplishments of engineers and their inspirational stories about becoming the engineer behind the sounds of Star Wars, for example. The New Faces of Engineering program highlights the work of young engineers. A discussion forum and various educational resources are also available from this website. Finally, a section on Engineer / Volunteer Kits suggests ways engineers, community members and teachers can get involved in supporting up-and-coming engineers.

2007-12-12

64

National Engineers Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now an annual event, National Engineers Week was founded by the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1951. In 1988, the National Engineers Week consortium expanded and now includes "more than 100 engineering, scientific, and education societies and major corporations dedicated to enhancing the public understanding of the engineering profession and to promoting pre-college interest in math, science, and engineering as a career option." From this website, visitors can read suggestions for ways to get involved in National Engineers Week (National Engineers Week 2004 was held February 22-28) and learn about other competitions for young and upcoming engineers. Also available online is the first Connecting the World teleconference which featured Alan Boeckmann, Chairman and CEO of Fluor Corporation, speaking about Engineering in the 21st Century. The website currently promotes the "Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day," which was presented to the United Nations as part of an international briefing, Girls and Technology: New Educational Opportunities. Another feature of interest is the section highlighting the accomplishments of engineers and their inspirational stories about becoming "the engineer behind the sounds of Star Wars," for example. The New Faces of Engineering program highlights the work of young engineers. A discussion forum and various educational resources are also available from this website. Finally, a section on Engineer / Volunteer Kits suggests ways engineers, community members and teachers can get involved in supporting up-and-coming engineers.

2005-11-06

65

[Medical compression therapy].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the correlation between the pressure exerted by compression stockings and a resulting improvement in venous hemodynamics, we carried out an open, randomized, prospective study on 22 patients (11 women and 11 men with an average age of 55.1 [10.3]) with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in the clinical stages C1-4, Ep, AS, Ap, PR. Dynamic strain gauge plethysmography was used to measure the acute effect on venous hemodynamics of 9 different compression stockings in compression class 2 (A-D). At the same time when venous function parameters were monitored, we also measured the pressure exerted by the compression stockings during rest and exercise. With all compression stockings the average resting pressure fulfilled in reclined patients the specifications for compression class 2 (25-35 mmHg at the ankle, CEN). The compression stockings lengthened venous refill time t0 in a statistically significant degree. The improvement in venous function was correlated with the ratios of maximal working pressure to resting pressure while standing (r = 0.97, p < 0.001). Compression stockings belonging to the same compression class vary in their acute effect on venous hemodynamics. The efficiency of the different therapeutic compression stockings was largely dependent on the amount of fabric stretch, which can be characterized in vivo with the ratio of maximum exerted pressure during movement to that while standing still. A knowledge of the hemodynamic effectivity of the various compression stockings allows the optimal stocking selection for each patient and his individual clinical situation. PMID:11503471

Häfner, H M; Eichner, M; Jünger, M

2001-07-01

66

Signal Compression Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Signal Compression Lab (SCL) is a part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara. "Current research activities at SCL include low bit rate speech coding, wideband speech and audio compression, speech modeling and synthesis," and many more focus areas involving data compression of various forms of media. A large collection of informative demonstrations and slide presentations illustrate the group's work. Many of the SCL staff have publications available for downloading, which are divided into several categories for easy browsing.

67

Compression embedding  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.

Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

68

Compression embedding  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

1998-07-07

69

Compression embedding  

DOEpatents

A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

1998-03-10

70

Weekly Epidemiological Record  

MedlinePLUS

... Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) Menu WER Home 2015: Volume 90 2014: ... 85 2009: Volume 84 Archives The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) serves as ...

71

Tuberculous spinal cord compression in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of tuberculous spinal cord compression causing acute paraparesis in a pregnant woman of 33 weeks gestation is described. Immediate Caesarean section followed by aggressive surgical decompression of the spine via an anterior approach with reconstruction achieved a good outcome for mother and fetus. The management of tuberculous spinal cord compression in pregnancy is discussed, with particular reference to

J. V Rosenfeld; E. I Torey; M. S Michael; M. M Johnson

1998-01-01

72

Story of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chronicling World War II, the African American experience, nature writing, and dozens of other areas is all in a day's work for the Library of America. Its volumes have received critical acclaim from readers and critics. For the past few years, the organization has been offering up selected stories and features from its pages on this site. Each story here is available in pdf format and contains links to other compelling content, including video clips, interviews, and image databases. Currently there are over 100 stories online, including P.T. Barnum's "In France" and H.P. Lovecraft's haunting "The Music of Erich Zann." Visitors can sign up to receive a new story each week or suggest stories for possible inclusion.

2013-09-27

73

Astronomical Data Compression: Algorithms and Architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital data is the lifeblood of astronomy. Data compression deals with its efficient representation and transport. As focal planes become more crowded and observing cadences more rapid, ever increasing pressure will be applied to realize near-optimum performance. A typical observational workflow comprises many network links and storage nodes, multiplying the advantage of compression dramatically. Recent work on astronomical data compression has focused on the FITS tile compression convention (http://heasarc.gsfcnasa.gov/fitsio/fpack). This birds-of-a-feather session began a broader discussion of compression-aware astronomical data handling architectures, including compression techniques and algorithms appropriate to binary and ASCII catalogs as well as to imaging data.

Seaman, R.; Pence, W.; White, R.; Gaudet, S.

2010-12-01

74

Information Extraction from Symbolically Compressed Document Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of information from symbolically compressed document images is an increasingly important problem as the related standard (JBIG2) and commercial products become available. Symbolic compression techniques work by clustering individual connected connected components (blobs) in a document image and storing the sequence of occurrence of blobs and representative blob templates, hence the name symbolic compression. These techniques are specifically

Dar-Shyang Lee; Jonathan J. Hull

1999-01-01

75

Banned Books Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Next week is Banned Books Week, and the American Library Association (ALA) offers this site giving background on Banned Books Week and censorship as well as resources to help teachers, librarians, and booksellers observe the week. Once again, the Harry Potter series tops this year's list of most challenged books. At the ALA site, users will find the complete list as well as the most challenged books of the past decade. In addition, the site hosts a press kit, resources for sale to celebrate the week, links to other banned books sites, and a page on book burning.

2000-01-01

76

Video Compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optivision developed two PC-compatible boards and associated software under a Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research grant for NASA applications in areas such as telerobotics, telesciences and spaceborne experimentation. From this technology, the company used its own funds to develop commercial products, the OPTIVideo MPEG Encoder and Decoder, which are used for realtime video compression and decompression. They are used in commercial applications including interactive video databases and video transmission. The encoder converts video source material to a compressed digital form that can be stored or transmitted, and the decoder decompresses bit streams to provide high quality playback.

1996-01-01

77

Geometry compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the concept of Geometry Compression, al- lowing 3D triangle data to be represented with a factor of 6 to 10 times fewer bits than conventional techniques, with only slight loss- es in object quality. The technique is amenable to rapid decompres- sion in both software and hardware implementations; if 3D render- ing hardware contains a geometry decompression

Michael Deering

1995-01-01

78

Surface compression *  

E-print Network

A wavelet decomposition of a function f defined on Rd is an expression of the form. * The first author was ..... Since the case p = w is perhaps the most natural choice for surface compression, the numerical algorithm of ... We make the selection.

79

Solar Week 2001 Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers a week of online curriculum with daily topics on the Sun, including Sun as a Star, the Sun Close Up, Solar Activity, Eclipses, and Careers organized for Solar Week 2011. Each day contains a game, an activity, topical questions, a related Life Science topic, teacher information, and an Ask the Scientist page.

2001-03-01

80

Compression of echocardiographic scan line data using wavelet packet transform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient compression strategy is indispensable for digital echocardiography. Previous work has suggested improved results utilizing wavelet transforms in the compression of 2D echocardiographic images. Set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) was modified to compress echocardiographic scanline data based on the wavelet packet transform. A compression ratio of at least 94:1 resulted in preserved image quality.

Hang, X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Qin, J.; Thomas, J. D.

2001-01-01

81

75 FR 28183 - World Trade Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...be guaranteed. Yet, our success has never been guaranteed. It has been forged through decades of hard work, ingenuity, optimism, and common purpose. This week, let us renew the enduring principles that have driven our Nation to the forefront of...

2010-05-20

82

COMPRESSION WAVES AND PHASE PLOTS: SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Compression wave analysis started nearly 50 years ago with Fowles. Coperthwaite and Williams gave a method that helps identify simple and steady waves. We have been developing a method that gives describes the non-isentropic character of compression waves, in general. One result of that work is a simple analysis tool. Our method helps clearly identify when a compression wave is a simple wave, a steady wave (shock), and when the compression wave is in transition. This affects the analysis of compression wave experiments and the resulting extraction of the high-pressure equation of state.

Orlikowski, D; Minich, R

2011-08-01

83

Solar Week Friday: Blog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a blog entry about the process by which rocket payloads are assembled prior to launch. It was written by one of the female team members associated with a NASA sounding rocket launch program. The blog entry reading is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

84

MotorWeek  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2009-01-01

85

MotorWeek  

ScienceCinema

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2013-04-19

86

Compressive sensing exploiting wavelet-domain dependencies for ECG compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging signal processing paradigm that enables sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse signals. Extensive previous work has exploited the sparse representation of ECG signals in compression applications. In this paper, we propose the use of wavelet domain dependencies to further reduce the number of samples in compressive sensing-based ECG compression while decreasing the computational complexity. R wave events manifest themselves as chains of large coefficients propagating across scales to form a connected subtree of the wavelet coefficient tree. We show that the incorporation of this connectedness as additional prior information into a modified version of the CoSaMP algorithm can significantly reduce the required number of samples to achieve good quality in the reconstruction. This approach also allows more control over the ECG signal reconstruction, in particular, the QRS complex, which is typically distorted when prior information is not included in the recovery. The compression algorithm was tested upon records selected from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm leads to high compression ratios associated with low distortion levels relative to state-of-the-art compression algorithms.

Polania, Luisa F.; Carrillo, Rafael E.; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E.

2012-06-01

87

Earth Science Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, Earth Science Week focuses on a different facet of earth science to help people gain a better understanding and appreciation of the natural world. This website contains information about ways for classrooms to integrate Earth Science Week into their curriculum each year. This includes ways to involve the community, contests, and grade-level appropriate activities surrounding the year's theme. The site also includes a list of links to educational resources related to the current theme.

88

Improvements in productivity at paid work and within the household, and increased participation in daily activities after 24?weeks of certolizumab pegol treatment of patients with psoriatic arthritis: results of a phase 3 double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effect of certolizumab pegol (CZP) on productivity outside and within the home, and on participation in family, social and leisure activities in adult patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods RAPID-PsA (NCT01087788) is a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 409 patients with active PsA were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo, CZP 200?mg every 2?weeks (Q2W) or CZP 400?mg every 4?weeks (Q4W). The arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS) assessed the impact of PsA on paid work and household productivity, and participation in social activities during the preceding month. WPS responses were compared between treatment arms using a non-parametric bootstrap-t method. Results At baseline, 56.6%, 60.1% and 61.5% of placebo, CZP 200?mg Q2W and CZP 400?mg Q4W patients were employed. By week 24, employed CZP patients reported an average of 1.0–1.8 and 3.0–3.9 fewer days of absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively, per month compared with 1.0 and 0.3 fewer days for placebo patients (p<0.05). Within the home, by week 24, CZP patients reported an average of 3.0–3.5 household work days gained per month versus 1.0?day for placebo (p<0.05). CZP patients also reported fewer days with reduced household productivity or days lost for participation in family, social and leisure activities. Improvements with CZP were seen as early as week 4 and continued to week 24. Conclusions CZP treatment significantly improved productivity at paid work and within the home, and resulted in greater participation in social activities for PsA patients. Trial registration number NCT01087788. PMID:24942382

Kavanaugh, A; Gladman, D; van der Heijde, D; Purcaru, O; Mease, P

2015-01-01

89

Weekly Digest Guide The Weekly Digest is YSM's weekly events newsletter, distributed early  

E-print Network

Weekly Digest Guide The Weekly Digest is YSM's weekly events newsletter, distributed early each Friday morning to 9,000+ email recipients on the Yale campus. The Weekly Digest includes approximately. Timeline The Weekly Digest is published on Fridays for events taking place the following week. Lead time

Lee, Daeyeol

90

Efficient Compression of High Resolution Climate Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

resolution climate data can be massive. Those data can consume a huge amount of disk space for storage, incur significant overhead for outputting data during simulation, introduce high latency for visualization and analysis, and may even make interactive visualization and analysis impossible given the limit of the data that a conventional cluster can handle. These problems can be alleviated by with effective and efficient data compression techniques. Even though HDF5 format supports compression, previous work has mainly focused on employ traditional general purpose compression schemes such as dictionary coder and block sorting based compression scheme. Those compression schemes mainly focus on encoding repeated byte sequences efficiently and are not well suitable for compressing climate data consist mainly of distinguished float point numbers. We plan to select and customize our compression schemes according to the characteristics of high-resolution climate data. One observation on high resolution climate data is that as the resolution become higher, values of various climate variables such as temperature and pressure, become closer in nearby cells. This provides excellent opportunities for predication-based compression schemes. We have performed a preliminary estimation of compression ratios of a very simple minded predication-based compression ratio in which we compute the difference between current float point number with previous float point number and then encoding the exponent and significance part of the float point number with entropy-based compression scheme. Our results show that we can achieve higher compression ratios between 2 and 3 in lossless compression, which is significantly higher than traditional compression algorithms. We have also developed lossy compression with our techniques. We can achive orders of magnitude data reduction while ensure error bounds. Moreover, our compression scheme is much more efficient and introduces much less overhead compared to traditaion compression algorithms. Our compression algorithms can also be parallelized easily. We have intergrated our compression algorithms to several simple climate analysis applications. We have carefully pipelined the applications so that the overhead introduced by compression does not undermine the advantage of reducing I/O overhead from compression. Our experimental results show that we improve end-to-end application performance as well as reduce storage requirements with compression.

Yin, J.; Schuchardt, K. L.

2011-12-01

91

Compressive beamforming.  

PubMed

Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) solves such underdetermined problems achieving sparsity, thus improved resolution, and can be solved efficiently with convex optimization. The DOA estimation problem is formulated in the CS framework and it is shown that CS has superior performance compared to traditional DOA estimation methods especially under challenging scenarios such as coherent arrivals and single-snapshot data. An offset and resolution analysis is performed to indicate the limitations of CS. It is shown that the limitations are related to the beampattern, thus can be predicted. The high-resolution capabilities and the robustness of CS are demonstrated on experimental array data from ocean acoustic measurements for source tracking with single-snapshot data. PMID:24993212

Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

2014-07-01

92

Energy conversion mechanics and power evaluation of compressible fluid in pneumatic actuator systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work discusses the power transmitted by flowing compressed air, called air power in this study. Two processes are discussed to clarify the energy conversion in pneumatic systems. One is air compression where mechanical work is required for compressing air, and another is actuation of an actuator where compressed air is supplied and mechanical work is outputted. It is concluded

Maolin Cai; T. Kagawa; K. Kawashima

2002-01-01

93

Efficient lossy compression for compressive sensing acquisition of images in compressive sensing imaging systems.  

PubMed

Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI) is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS) acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity. PMID:25490597

Li, Xiangwei; Lan, Xuguang; Yang, Meng; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning

2014-01-01

94

Efficient Lossy Compression for Compressive Sensing Acquisition of Images in Compressive Sensing Imaging Systems  

PubMed Central

Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI) is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS) acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4?2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity. PMID:25490597

Li, Xiangwei; Lan, Xuguang; Yang, Meng; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning

2014-01-01

95

Compressing DNA sequence databases with coil  

PubMed Central

Background Publicly available DNA sequence databases such as GenBank are large, and are growing at an exponential rate. The sheer volume of data being dealt with presents serious storage and data communications problems. Currently, sequence data is usually kept in large "flat files," which are then compressed using standard Lempel-Ziv (gzip) compression – an approach which rarely achieves good compression ratios. While much research has been done on compressing individual DNA sequences, surprisingly little has focused on the compression of entire databases of such sequences. In this study we introduce the sequence database compression software coil. Results We have designed and implemented a portable software package, coil, for compressing and decompressing DNA sequence databases based on the idea of edit-tree coding. coil is geared towards achieving high compression ratios at the expense of execution time and memory usage during compression – the compression time represents a "one-off investment" whose cost is quickly amortised if the resulting compressed file is transmitted many times. Decompression requires little memory and is extremely fast. We demonstrate a 5% improvement in compression ratio over state-of-the-art general-purpose compression tools for a large GenBank database file containing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data. Finally, coil can efficiently encode incremental additions to a sequence database. Conclusion coil presents a compelling alternative to conventional compression of flat files for the storage and distribution of DNA sequence databases having a narrow distribution of sequence lengths, such as EST data. Increasing compression levels for databases having a wide distribution of sequence lengths is a direction for future work. PMID:18489794

White, W Timothy J; Hendy, Michael D

2008-01-01

96

This Week at USDA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's going on at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) you ask? It's a good question and each week the communications team at the USDA shares some of the key announcements, activities, and current events related to their ongoing projects. In any given week, visitors might learn about how they are making air travel safer by helping to reduce bird-aircraft collisions or read about preparation equipment that's being distributed to schools. Visitors can look over the latest News Releases and also sign up for specific topical email newsletters. Additionally, the Reports and Publications area contains direct links to complete agency reports and some of its data sets.

97

IMAGE: Weekly Problem Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Image for Magnetopause-to-Auroral Global Exploration (IMAGE) archive of weekly math, science, reading and art problems. New problems involving near-Earth space technology are emailed to participating teachers each week on Tuesday. The problems can be used in related lessons or as extra credit assignments. This web page is part of the outreach program of the IMAGE Satellite team to give teachers and students the latest information about aurora and the study of Earth's magnetic field, along with many programs that IMAGE has developed or participated in with NASA. A pdf document of extra credit problems is also available at this site.

Sten Odenwald

98

Compression of Cake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fall university physics class, at McMurry University, created a compression modulus experiment that even high school students could do. The class came up with this idea after a Young's modulus experiment which involved stretching wire. A question was raised of what would happen if we compressed something else? We created our own Young's modulus experiment, but in a more entertaining way. The experiment involves measuring the height of a cake both before and after a weight has been applied to the cake. We worked to derive the compression modulus by applying weight to a cake. In the end, we had our experimental cake and, ate it too! To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.TSS.B1.1

99

THIS WEEK Science domestication  

E-print Network

yearsafterthemost recent report of the authoritative Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), some 2000 scientists delivered a consistent if not unequivocal message here last week on the state of Earth's warming at its conclusion. "Inac- tion is inexcusable" and "weaker [emissions] targets for 2020 increase the risk

Kammen, Daniel M.

100

Visible Embryo: 14 weeks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

a comprehensive resource of information on human development at 14 weeks of gestation (80-90mm, 25g), designed for both medical student and interested lay people. The Visible Embryo offers a detailed pictorial account of normal and abnormal development. This is a subset of a larger site.

Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

2006-10-31

101

Visible Embryo: 26 weeks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

a comprehensive resource of information on human development at 26 weeks of gestation, designed for both medical student and interested lay people. The Visible Embryo offers a detailed pictorial account of normal and abnormal development. This is a subset of a larger site.

Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

2006-11-01

102

Swahili 12 Weeks Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

103

Brain Awareness Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Awareness Week (BAW) is an inspirational global campaign that unites those who share an interest in elevating public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain and nervous system research. BAW focuses international attention on the field of neuroscience and offers opportunities for teachers and students to engage in fun educational activities.

Sf (Society for Neuroscience)

2005-05-01

104

The Weekly Defense Monitor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new free electronic publication by the Center for Defense Information will bring readers a few short articles on various military and foreign affairs issues each week. Recent topics included an arms trade code of conduct introduced in the Senate, US base closures and the military force structure, and the cost of defending Western Europe.

105

A Week of Observations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even the most effective teachers have room to grow, but it's not always easy for principals to give adequate guidance through short observations. High school principal Jenne Colasacco decided to bring more depth to her observations by observing each of her teachers during one class for an entire week. The new observation structure, which included…

Colasacco, Jenne

2011-01-01

106

A Week for Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Space Week focuses on concepts that enable students to make concrete observations in the early grades (K-2) and move to concepts that help students develop their internet research and writing skills in middle and upper grades (Grades 3-5), and culminates with the development of science investigation design skills (Grade 6). To help launch your…

Comstock, Diane

2008-01-01

107

Phun Week: Understanding Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

2009-01-01

108

Achondroplasia and Cervicomedullary Compression: Prospective Evaluation and Surgical Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between sudden death and cervicomedullary compression in infants with achondroplasia has been well described. Prospective clinical and imaging evaluations have been recommended to identify those infants with achondroplasia who are at risk of dying suddenly from respiratory arrest secondary to unrecognized cervicomedullary compression. Since 1988, we have prospectively evaluated 11 infants (average age 13 weeks) with achondroplasia who

Glenn L. Keiper Jr.; Bernadette Koch; Kerry R. Crone

1999-01-01

109

Hyperspectral Image Compression on Reconfigurable Platforms1  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's satellites currently do not make use of advanced image compression techniques during data transmission to earth because of limitations in the available platforms. With the advent of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and Adaptive Computing technologies it is now possible to construct a system, which compresses the data stream before down linking. Our work is part of a NASA-sponsored

Thomas W. Fry; Scott Hauck

2001-01-01

110

First two cases of primary carcinoma of the vagina successfully treated with concurrent weekly carboplatin plus paclitaxel, external beam radiotherapy and high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy: A case report and published work review.  

PubMed

Vaginal carcinoma is rare, accounting for only 2% of all gynecological malignancies. Due to a lack of prospective randomized studies, the role of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of primary vaginal carcinoma remains unclear. We report the first two cases of primary vaginal carcinoma successfully treated with a regimen involving concurrent weekly carboplatin plus paclitaxel, external beam radiotherapy and high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. These cases strongly indicate that definitive chemoradiation involving carboplatin plus paclitaxel may be a reasonable treatment for primary vaginal carcinoma. PMID:25227150

Mabuchi, Seiji; Kawano, Mahiru; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Kuroda, Hiromasa; Sasano, Tomoyuki; Kimura, Tadashi

2015-01-01

111

75 FR 10993 - Save Your Vision Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...8483 of March 5, 2010 Save Your Vision Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...treatment of eye conditions. Save Your Vision Week is a time for all Americans to take action...performing household chores and yard work. This week, I encourage all Americans to visit...

2010-03-10

112

75 FR 48853 - National Health Center Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8545--National Health Center Week, 2010 Presidential Documents Federal Register...August 5, 2010 National Health Center Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...preventive care. During National Health Center Week, we recognize the important work of...

2010-08-11

113

A Week for Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Week focuses on concepts that enable students to make concrete observations in the early grades (K--2) and move to concepts that help students develop their internet research and writing skills in middle and upper grades (Grades 3--5), and culminates with the development of science investigation design skills (Grade 6). To help launch your students' interest in space science, this article presents inquiry-based space lessons, which are aligned with the National Science Education Standards.

Comstock, Diane

2008-09-01

114

Week Calendar 7  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Week Calendar is a great app that allows visitors to create a dynamic and collaborative calendar, allowing the user to elaborate on meetings, planning sessions, or busy activity schedules. One remarkable features is Travel Time which smartly acquires the time it will take to travel between calendar events with locations. The site contains a great FAQ area along with several tutorials. This version is compatible with iPhones running iOS 7.

2013-12-12

115

Chemical of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri at the University of Wisconsin-Madison adds a new chemical to this page every week. The site was created for his general chemistry courses, Chem 103 and Chem 104, to increase students' knowledge about various chemicals and their use. Users can view featured chemicals from the currently updated fall course (103) or from the spring course (104). The chemicals featured thus far include: lime, methane, uranium, the chemistry of autumn colors, and gases that emit light.

Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

1997-01-01

116

Atomic effect algebras with compression bases  

SciTech Connect

Compression base effect algebras were recently introduced by Gudder [Demonstr. Math. 39, 43 (2006)]. They generalize sequential effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 49, 87 (2002)] and compressible effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 54, 93 (2004)]. The present paper focuses on atomic compression base effect algebras and the consequences of atoms being foci (so-called projections) of the compressions in the compression base. Part of our work generalizes results obtained in atomic sequential effect algebras by Tkadlec [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 47, 185 (2008)]. The notion of projection-atomicity is introduced and studied, and several conditions that force a compression base effect algebra or the set of its projections to be Boolean are found. Finally, we apply some of these results to sequential effect algebras and strengthen a previously established result concerning a sufficient condition for them to be Boolean.

Caragheorgheopol, Dan [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Technical University of Civil Engineering in Bucharest, 124 Lacul Tei blv., RO-020396 and 'Ilie Murgulescu' Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Tkadlec, Josef [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic)

2011-01-15

117

New compression grinding technologies  

SciTech Connect

The development of roller presses in pregrinding has shown the advantages of compression grinding over the ball mill from the power consumption point of view. But classical roller presses still have maintenance problems due to the high grinding pressure. The FCB Research Centre has carried out much work in this field and in particular has studied the advantages of this process in pregrinding and integral grinding. These researches lead to the development of two new compression grinding machines. The first one, HOROMILL{reg_sign}, presented for the first time on the 8th European symposium on comminution at Stockholm, finds its application in the field of fine to very fine grinding in dry process. The second one, RHODAX{reg_sign}, presented at INTERMAT in Paris, covers the field of secondary and tertiary crushing and the first stage of grinding for most of the minerals in dry or wet process. Its high reduction factor permits to do with only one machine the work realized today with two or three crushing/milling stages.

Cordonnier, A.; Evrard, R.; Obry, C. [FCB CRCM Research Centre, Lille (France)

1995-12-31

118

Saugus Iron Works Forge  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Saugus Iron Works forge, which used a large hammer to compress the iron. Forging strenghened the iron, which, right out of the blast furnace, was brittle. The Saugus River, which powered the forge, can be seen in the background....

119

Extended testing of compression distillation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

1972-01-01

120

BusinessWeek Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Business Week_, published by the McGraw Hill Companies, has recently made its web debut. The site is highlighted by the full text of articles from the print magazine. Also included are a selected browsable archive back to late 1995; a daily briefing section (frames based), with concise summaries of news and market information including performance information on new IPOs (initial public offerings); BW Plus, with topical information on such issues as the best business schools, mutual funds, and women in business; a computer buying guide; and an interactive portfolio manager. A complete five-year searchable archive (fee based) will soon be available.

121

Evolutionary Lossless Compression with GP-ZIP* Ahmad Kattan  

E-print Network

-zip worked well with heterogonous data sets, providing significant improvements in compression ratio compared improvements in compression ratio ranging from a fraction to several tens of percent over its predecessor of the factors that help in developing an efficient data compression model is the availability of prior knowledge

Poli, Riccardo

122

Multi-view Geometry Estimation for Light Field Compression  

E-print Network

compression requires accurate geometry for the efficient representation of the light field image data, such that it max- imizes the compression efficiency. Previous work on this problem uses least-squares to solve, is suggested [1], but only low compression ratios are attained, around 120:1. Disparity compensation, which

Girod, Bernd

123

A low complexity image compression solution for onboard space applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a real time hardware data compression solution for raster scan cameras, to be onboard the next generation of Remote Sensing Brazilian satellites, is proposed. The options for image data compression methods are briefly covered to substantiate the choice: a low complexity implementation based on JPEG-LS, near-lossless compression algorithm, which can be synthesized in a single electronic device.

Roberto d'Amore

2010-01-01

124

LOSSLESS COMPRESSION OF ENCRYPTED GREY-LEVEL AND COLOR IMAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of lossless compression of encrypted images has been recently demonstrated by relying on the analogy with source coding with side information at the decoder. However previous works only addressed the compression of bilevel images, namely sparse black and white images, with asymmetric probabilities of black and white pixels. In this paper we investigate the possibility of compressing en-

Riccardo Lazzeretti; Mauro Barni

2008-01-01

125

Iran Weekly Press Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Iran Weekly Press Digest, a weekly review of the Iranian press in English, contains a number of articles on the summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and its significance for Iran in its archived and current issues. The eighth summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference was recently held in Tehran, Iran. Iran recently hosted representatives from 55 countries to a three-day Muslim summit in Tehran in a move which is being seen as a new phase in the country's re-emergence after years of relative isolation. The acceptance of Iran's invitations by senior figures from former enemies such as Saudi Arabia and Iraq has been portrayed by Iranian leaders and many others as a strong setback for US attempts to politically quarantine that country. Representatives considered 142 resolutions prepared by foreign ministers on issues including Middle East peace, regional conflicts, terrorism and human rights. However, perhaps the most significant outcome of the summit has been a reintroduction of Iran into the Muslim community of nations. Capitalizing on current anti-American sentiments and the recent election of a relatively moderate president, Iran hopes to rebuild its relationships with its neighbors and once again become a regional leader, a position it held for approximately 3000 years.

1997-01-01

126

Data compression using Chebyshev transform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a method, system, and computer program product for implementation of a capable, general purpose compression algorithm that can be engaged on the fly. This invention has particular practical application with time-series data, and more particularly, time-series data obtained form a spacecraft, or similar situations where cost, size and/or power limitations are prevalent, although it is not limited to such applications. It is also particularly applicable to the compression of serial data streams and works in one, two, or three dimensions. The original input data is approximated by Chebyshev polynomials, achieving very high compression ratios on serial data streams with minimal loss of scientific information.

Cheng, Andrew F. (Inventor); Hawkins, III, S. Edward (Inventor); Nguyen, Lillian (Inventor); Monaco, Christopher A. (Inventor); Seagrave, Gordon G. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

127

Learning in compressed space.  

PubMed

We examine two methods which are used to deal with complex machine learning problems: compressed sensing and model compression. We discuss both methods in the context of feed-forward artificial neural networks and develop the backpropagation method in compressed parameter space. We further show that compressing the weights of a layer of a multilayer perceptron is equivalent to compressing the input of the layer. Based on this theoretical framework, we will use orthogonal functions and especially random projections for compression and perform experiments in supervised and reinforcement learning to demonstrate that the presented methods reduce training time significantly. PMID:23501172

Fabisch, Alexander; Kassahun, Yohannes; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Kirchner, Frank

2013-06-01

128

Distributed sensor data compression algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretically it is possible for two sensors to reliably send data at rates smaller than the sum of the necessary data rates for sending the data independently, essentially taking advantage of the correlation of sensor readings to reduce the data rate. In 2001, Caltech researchers Michelle Effros and Qian Zhao developed new techniques for data compression code design for correlated sensor data, which were published in a paper at the 2001 Data Compression Conference (DCC 2001). These techniques take advantage of correlations between two or more closely positioned sensors in a distributed sensor network. Given two signals, X and Y, the X signal is sent using standard data compression. The goal is to design a partition tree for the Y signal. The Y signal is sent using a code based on the partition tree. At the receiving end, if ambiguity arises when using the partition tree to decode the Y signal, the X signal is used to resolve the ambiguity. We have extended this work to increase the efficiency of the code search algorithms. Our results have shown that development of a highly integrated sensor network protocol that takes advantage of a correlation in sensor readings can result in 20-30% sensor data transport cost savings. In contrast, the best possible compression using state-of-the-art compression techniques that did not take into account the correlation of the incoming data signals achieved only 9-10% compression at most. This work was sponsored by MDA, but has very widespread applicability to ad hoc sensor networks, hyperspectral imaging sensors and vehicle health monitoring sensors for space applications.

Ambrose, Barry; Lin, Freddie

2006-04-01

129

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations Week 1 Report: 1. Write product 3 or 6. · see the section in the manual on NMR and GC-MS to give you some help in what to look Report Expectations for students who did Scheme 4: Do as much as you can from the instructions above

Jasperse, Craig P.

130

An explanation for observed compression ratios in internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper comparisons of the compression ratios, efficiencies, and work of the ideal Otto and Diesel cycles are presented at conditions that yield maximum work per cycle. The compression ratios that maximize the work of the Diesel cycle are found always to be higher than those for the Otto cycle at the same operating conditions, although the thermal efficiencies

S. A. Klein

1991-01-01

131

Engineers Week: Future City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Engineers Week Future City Competition provides âÂÂa fun and exciting educational engineering program for seventh- and eighth-grade students that combines a stimulating engineering challenge with a âÂÂhands-onâ application to present their vision of a city of the future.â The competition is intended to foster engineering skills, such as teamwork, communication and problem solving skills, as well as to inspire students to explore future careers in engineering. Using the commercial software SIMCITY to design their ideal city, students interact with each other, and with teachers and engineer mentors and also learn about the multi-disciplines within the engineering profession. The website has more information about the competition, as well as a handbook providing helpful tips and techniques. Examples of accomplishments from previous competitions are posted and CD-ROM video is available from regional coordinators to give more background on the competition.

132

An explanation for observed compression ratios in internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

In this paper comparisons of the compression ratios, efficiencies, and work of the ideal Otto and Diesel cycles are presented at conditions that yield maximum work per cycle. The compression ratios that maximize the work of the Diesel cycle are found always to be higher than those for the Otto cycle at the same operating conditions, although the thermal efficiencies are nearly identical. The compression ratios that maximize the work of the Otto and Diesel cycles compare well with the compression ratios employed in corresponding production engines.

Klein, S.A. (Mechanical Engineering Dept., Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (US))

1991-10-01

133

Prelude to compressed baryonic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why study compressed baryonic matter, or more generally strongly interacting matter at high densities and temperatures? Most obviously, because it's an important piece of Nature. The whole universe, in the early moments of the big bang, was filled with the stuff. Today, highly compressed baryonic matter occurs in neutron stars and during crucial moments in the development of supernovae. Also, working to understand compressed baryonic matter gives us new perspectives on ordinary baryonic matter, i.e. the matter in atomic nuclei. But perhaps the best answer is a variation on the one George Mallory gave, when asked why he sought to scale Mount Everest: Because, as a prominent feature in the landscape of physics, it's there. Compressed baryonic matter is a material we can produce in novel, challenging experiments that probe new extremes of temperature and density. On the theoretical side, it is a mathematically well-defined domain with a wealth of novel, challenging problems, as well as wide-ranging connections. Its challenges have already inspired a lot of very clever work, and revealed some wonderful surprises, as documented in this volume.

Wilczek, Frank

134

Modeling and evaluation of advanced compression techniques for vapor compression equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the many air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heating applications that utilize vapor compression equipment, the vapor compression cycle has been the focus of significant research. The combination of rising energy costs and increasing environmental awareness motivates the development of more efficient cycle components, including higher performance compressors, heat exchangers, and expansion devices for recovering work. However, modifications to the basic

Margaret M Mathison

2011-01-01

135

Microbunching and RF Compression  

SciTech Connect

Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

2010-05-23

136

Deformation: Nanocomposite Compression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about nanocomposites, compression and strain as they design and program robots that compress materials. Student groups conduct experiments to determine how many LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT motor rotations it takes to compress soft nanocomposites, including mini marshmallows, Play-Doh®, bread and foam. They measure the length and width of their nanocomposite objects before and after compression to determine the change in length and width as a function of motor rotation.

2014-09-18

137

LEADERSHIP WEEK APRIL 1119, 2012  

E-print Network

a LEADERSHIP WEEK APRIL 11­19, 2012 COMMEMORATING THE INAUGURATION OF PAUL W. FERGUSON #12;1 LEADERSHIP WEEK APRIL 11­19, 2012 President Paul W. Ferguson #12;3 A series of leadership events, academic of University of Maine President Paul W. Ferguson on April 19. Leadership Week, April 11­19, took its theme from

Thomas, Andrew

138

Secure Compressed Reading in Smart Grids  

E-print Network

Smart Grids measure energy usage in real-time and tailor supply and delivery accordingly, in order to improve power transmission and distribution. For the grids to operate effectively, it is critical to collect readings from massively-installed smart meters to control centers in an efficient and secure manner. In this paper, we propose a secure compressed reading scheme to address this critical issue. We observe that our collected real-world meter data express strong temporal correlations, indicating they are sparse in certain domains. We adopt Compressed Sensing technique to exploit this sparsity and design an efficient meter data transmission scheme. Our scheme achieves substantial efficiency offered by compressed sensing, without the need to know beforehand in which domain the meter data are sparse. This is in contrast to traditional compressed-sensing based scheme where such sparse-domain information is required a priori. We then design specific dependable scheme to work with our compressed sensing based ...

Cai, Sheng; Chen, Minghua; Yan, Jianxin; Jaggi, Sidharth

2012-01-01

139

The New CCSDS Image Compression Recommendation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) data compression working group has recently adopted a recommendation for image data compression, with a final release expected in 2005. The algorithm adopted in the recommendation consists a two dimensional discrete wavelet transform of the image, followed by progressive bit-plane coding of the transformed data. The algorithm can provide both lossless and lossy compression, and allows a user to directly control the compressed data volume or the fidelity with which the wavelet-transformed data can be reconstructed. The algorithm is suitable for both frame-based image data and scan-based sensor data, and has applications for near-earth and deep-space missions. The standard will be accompanied by free software sources on a future web site. An ASIC implementation of the compressor is currently under development. This paper describes the compression algorithm along with the requirements that drove the selection of the algorithm.

Yeh, Pen-Shu; Armbruster, Philippe; Kiely, Aaron B.; Masschelein, Bart; Moury, Gilles; Schafer, Christoph

2004-01-01

140

10 Weeks of Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

11 June 2004 These four Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images show north polar sand dunes as they appeared on four different days over the past ten weeks. In summer, the dunes would be darker than the substrate on which they occur. However, it is currently spring in the northern hemisphere, and the dunes are still covered with frost from the previous winter. The MGS MOC has been busy over the past several months, documenting the changes in frost patterns that occur on dunes and interdune substrates all over the north polar region. The site shown here was imaged on 30 March, 23 April, 16 May, and 9 June 2004. The bright frost that covers the dunes progressively changes from one image to the next, as dark spots develop and frost sublimes away. This defrosting dune monitor site is located near 80.0oN, 237.5oW. Each strip is about 1.1 km (0.7 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2004-01-01

141

Aligned genomic data compression via improved modeling.  

PubMed

With the release of the latest Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) machine, the HiSeq X by Illumina, the cost of sequencing the whole genome of a human is expected to drop to a mere $1000. This milestone in sequencing history marks the era of affordable sequencing of individuals and opens the doors to personalized medicine. In accord, unprecedented volumes of genomic data will require storage for processing. There will be dire need not only of compressing aligned data, but also of generating compressed files that can be fed directly to downstream applications to facilitate the analysis of and inference on the data. Several approaches to this challenge have been proposed in the literature; however, focus thus far has been on the low coverage regime and most of the suggested compressors are not based on effective modeling of the data. We demonstrate the benefit of data modeling for compressing aligned reads. Specifically, we show that, by working with data models designed for the aligned data, we can improve considerably over the best compression ratio achieved by previously proposed algorithms. Our results indicate that the pareto-optimal barrier for compression rate and speed claimed by Bonfield and Mahoney (2013) [Bonfield JK and Mahoneys MV, Compression of FASTQ and SAM format sequencing data, PLOS ONE, 8(3):e59190, 2013.] does not apply for high coverage aligned data. Furthermore, our improved compression ratio is achieved by splitting the data in a manner conducive to operations in the compressed domain by downstream applications. PMID:25395305

Ochoa, Idoia; Hernaez, Mikel; Weissman, Tsachy

2014-12-01

142

Analysing the form of the confined uniaxial compression curve of various soils  

E-print Network

at high stresses. In the present work, uniaxial confined compression tests were performed on four soils compression curve at higher stresses; (ii) the S-shaped curve having deviation of the virgin compression curve the compression of air-filled pores and that of meso-pores storing water subjected to high capillary forces could

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

Lee C. Cadwallader

2004-09-01

144

Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard associated with compressed gas cylinders and methods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

2005-05-15

145

Timesheet Quick Reference Time Worked Section  

E-print Network

Timesheet Quick Reference Time Worked Section Knight,Golden Record time worked for each week 1 section. Place this total in the Total Hours Worked Week 1 block. 4. Follow the same steps for Week 2. Signature Section 1. Employees who have worked their standard hours with no exceptions should

Wu, Shin-Tson

146

Adaptive compressive sensing camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have embedded Adaptive Compressive Sensing (ACS) algorithm on Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) camera based on the simplest concept that each pixel is a charge bucket, and the charges comes from Einstein photoelectric conversion effect. Applying the manufactory design principle, we only allow altering each working component at a minimum one step. We then simulated what would be such a camera can do for real world persistent surveillance taking into account of diurnal, all weather, and seasonal variations. The data storage has saved immensely, and the order of magnitude of saving is inversely proportional to target angular speed. We did design two new components of CCD camera. Due to the matured CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology, the on-chip Sample and Hold (SAH) circuitry can be designed for a dual Photon Detector (PD) analog circuitry for changedetection that predicts skipping or going forward at a sufficient sampling frame rate. For an admitted frame, there is a purely random sparse matrix [?] which is implemented at each bucket pixel level the charge transport bias voltage toward its neighborhood buckets or not, and if not, it goes to the ground drainage. Since the snapshot image is not a video, we could not apply the usual MPEG video compression and Hoffman entropy codec as well as powerful WaveNet Wrapper on sensor level. We shall compare (i) Pre-Processing FFT and a threshold of significant Fourier mode components and inverse FFT to check PSNR; (ii) Post-Processing image recovery will be selectively done by CDT&D adaptive version of linear programming at L1 minimization and L2 similarity. For (ii) we need to determine in new frames selection by SAH circuitry (i) the degree of information (d.o.i) K(t) dictates the purely random linear sparse combination of measurement data a la [?]M,N M(t) = K(t) Log N(t).

Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming K.; Cha, Jae; Iwamura, Tomo; Landa, Joseph; Nguyen, Charles; Szu, Harold

2013-05-01

147

Solar Week Tuesday: Scavenger Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online game associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a scavenger hunt game to allow learners to review science concepts covered in previous activities. This game is scheduled to occur during Tuesday of Solar Week.

2012-08-03

148

Adult Learners' Week in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Russia International Adult Learners Week highlights the democratization process the country is undergoing. Government attention to rural development and training and agrarian policy is needed. (SK)

Litvinova, Nina

2002-01-01

149

An adaptive signal compression system with pre-specified reconstruction quality and compression rate.  

PubMed

Two essential properties of a signal compression method are the compression rate and the distance between the original signal and the reconstruction from the compressed signal. These two properties are used to assess the performance and quality of the method. In a recent work [B. Tümer, B. Demiröz, Lecture Notes in Computer Science-Computer and Information Sciences, volume 2869, chapter Signal Compression Using Growing Cell Structures: A Transformational Approach, Springer Verlag, 2003, pp. 952-959], an adaptive signal compression system (ACS) is presented which defines the performance of the system as a function of the system complexity, system sensitivity and data size. For a compression method, it is desirable to formulate the performance of the system as a function of the system complexity and sensitivity to optimize the performance of the system. It would be further desirable to express the reconstruction quality in terms of the same system parameters so as to know up front what compression rate to end up with for a specific reconstruction quality. In this work, we modify ACS such that the modified ACS (MACS) estimates the reconstruction quality for a given system complexity and sensitivity. Once this relation is identified it is possible to optimize either compression rate or reconstruction quality with respect to system sensitivity and system complexity while limiting the other one. PMID:16413082

Tümer, M Borahan; Demir, Mert C

2006-02-01

150

Compressive Sensing DNA Microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Compressive,Sensing Microarrays,(CSM) are DNA- based sensors that operate,using group,testing and,compressive sensing (CS) principles. In contrast to conventional DNA microar- rays, in which each genetic sensor is designed to respond to a single target, in a CSM each sensor responds to a set of targets. We study the problem,of designing,CSMs that simultaneously account for both the constraints from,compressive,sensing theory and,the biochemistry,of

Wei Dai; Mona A. Sheikh; Olgica Milenkovic; Richard G. Baraniukyy

2009-01-01

151

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy. PMID:23653867

Muqeetadnan, Mohammed; Amer, Syed; Rahman, Ambreen; Nusrat, Salman; Hassan, Syed

2013-01-01

152

75 FR 20885 - National Park Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8498--National Park Week, 2010 Proclamation 8499--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 Proclamation 8500--National Volunteer Week, 2010 Proclamation 8501--National Day of Service and...

2010-04-21

153

SPAIN PROGRAM Madrid Four Week /  

E-print Network

SPAIN PROGRAM Madrid Four Week / Madrid and Málaga Six Week 2014 Summer Program APPLICATION FORM face to scapobia@binghamton.edu. It will be used to make a photo ID card for you to use in Spain. 7 and the full refund and cancellation policy on the Spain program website pages. 8. Submit all materials to the

Suzuki, Masatsugu

154

Bloomberg Business Week: Small Business  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Business Week magazine, Business Week Frontier is a new resource center for small business owners. The News Center covers current issues from the perspective of small business owners and an array of columns provide advice, website recommendations, and book excerpts. Other resources include financial calculators, a glossary of terms, and market research links.

1999-01-01

155

Compression needs change with market  

SciTech Connect

Gas movement has changed. Gathering has changed. Operators concentrate their best resources on the core business of producing natural gas. These factors have created changes in the way compression affects production. From the 1960s into the early 1990s, Knox Western, Ariel and Gemini left their imprints on the industry. They filled that significant market for small, multistage reciprocating compressors that moved the gas from the wellhead to the main pipelines that were the only customers for gas, says Arne A. Kellstrom of Kellstrom Associates, working with Knox Western Gas Compressors. They put together the less-than-200-horsepower reciprocating compressors that made up half the compression in the nation. Knox Western makes high-speed reciprocating compressors in a range from 25 to 1,400 horsepower.

Lyle, D.

1997-07-01

156

77 FR 58297 - National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...producers who rise before the dawn, entrepreneurs who bring ideas to market, and working men and women who build the American dream with their bare hands. This week, we honor their tireless efforts and rededicate ourselves to equipping our next...

2012-09-19

157

Progressive geometry compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new progressive compression scheme for arbitrary topology, highly detailed and densely sampled meshes arising from geometry scanning. We observe that meshes consist of three distinct components: geometry, parameter, and connectivity information. The latter two do not contribute to the reduction of error in a compression setting. Using semi-regular meshes, parameter and connectivity information can be virtually eliminated.

Andrei Khodakovsky; Peter Schröder; Wim Sweldens

2000-01-01

158

LAPPED TRANSFORMS COMPRESSION  

E-print Network

Chapter 6 LAPPED TRANSFORMS FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION Ricardo L. de Queiroz Digital Imaging Technology aspects of lapped transforms and their applications to image compression. It is a subject that has been extensively studied mainly because lapped transforms are closely related to filter banks, wavelets, and time

de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

159

Compression Ratio Adjuster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

Akkerman, J. W.

1982-01-01

160

Brittle fracture in compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and propagation of microfractures and their contribution to material failure in compression are examined. The early part of the fracture process, the lateral and the axial yield points of the stress-strain curves, are identified with the onset of microfracture, respectively at the tensile and the compressive stress concentrations of the elastic flaw boundary. Later stages, including the initiation

E. Z. Lajtai

1974-01-01

161

Brittle fracture in compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent paradox of two theories of fracture depending on whether the applied load is tensile or compressive is resolved. Although in compression, fracture seems to occur when the maximum tensile stress around a hole reaches a critical value it is suggested that fracture occurs when the crack extension force at the tip of a microcrack in the neighbourhood of

B. Cotterell

1972-01-01

162

Fractal image compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fractals are geometric or data structures which do not simplify under magnification. Fractal Image Compression is a technique which associates a fractal to an image. On the one hand, the fractal can be described in terms of a few succinct rules, while on the other, the fractal contains much or all of the image information. Since the rules are described with less bits of data than the image, compression results. Data compression with fractals is an approach to reach high compression ratios for large data streams related to images. The high compression ratios are attained at a cost of large amounts of computation. Both lossless and lossy modes are supported by the technique. The technique is stable in that small errors in codes lead to small errors in image data. Applications to the NASA mission are discussed.

Barnsley, Michael F.; Sloan, Alan D.

1989-01-01

163

Micromechanics of composite laminate compression failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this annual progress report is to summarize the work effort and results accomplished from July 1987 through July 1988 on NASA Research Grant NAG1-659 entitled Micromechanics of Composite Laminate Compressive Failure. The report contains: (1) the objective of the proposed research, (2) the summary of accomplishments, (3) a more extensive review of compression literature, (4) the planned material (and corresponding properties) received to date, (5) the results for three possible specimen geometries, experimental procedures planned, and current status of the experiments, and (6) the work planned for the next contract year.

Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.

1988-01-01

164

Math Problems of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math Problems of the Week are activities, with student handouts, that can be used to help students develop, formalize, and reflect on their problem-solving strategies. Membership subscription is required to access most resources.

165

Adult Learners' Week in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

Cross, John

2002-01-01

166

Cool Robot of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

File this one under "super neat." Anyone with even the slightest interest in robots and robotics should enjoy this page, produced by the NASA Space Telerobotics Program. Each week, Cool Robot adds a new link with a short description of the featured site or a news story concerning a breakthrough in robotic technology or an innovative solution to robotics problems. Archives dating back to May 1996 are included at the site. Bookmark this one, and pay a weekly visit; I know I will.

Lavery, Dave.

167

Hyperspectral Image Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral images gathered by satellites or aerial means provide a vast amount of data for geophysicists. A few applications include the exploration of minerals, research of land pollution, and military surveillance. NASA and other agencies are producing gigabytes of hyperspectral images which need to be transmitted and stored daily. As these images require high compression rates and preservation of data integrity, we are presented with an intriguing compression problem. In our research we investigate two compression algorithms: a near-lossless technique based on minimizing maximum absolute distortion (MAD) and a lossy based algorithm which minimizes mean squared error (MSE). Near-lossless algorithms provide high compression rates and a uniform distribution of error. Whereas MSE based algorithms yield high compression rates but a non-uniform distribution of error. Our goal is to determine which algorithm yields high compression rates and minimal data loss without modifying post processing of hyperspectral data. In order to compare these two compression algorithms and determine their effect on post processing we used ENVI's image processing tools. We classified the decompressed images for each algorithm and compared them to the classified original image.

Wright, Stephanie; Miguel, Agnieszka, , Dr.; Ashbach, Jason

2008-05-01

168

Comparing audio compression using wavelets with other audio compression schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech compression is the technology of converting human speech into an efficient encoded representation that can be decoded to produce a close approximation of the original signal. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm which compresses speech signals using a wavelet compression technique. The performance of this method is compared against the following representative coding and compression schemes: adaptive

El-Bahlul Fgee; W. J. Phillips; W. Robertson

1999-01-01

169

Mining, compressing and classifying with extensible motifs  

PubMed Central

Background Motif patterns of maximal saturation emerged originally in contexts of pattern discovery in biomolecular sequences and have recently proven a valuable notion also in the design of data compression schemes. Informally, a motif is a string of intermittently solid and wild characters that recurs more or less frequently in an input sequence or family of sequences. Motif discovery techniques and tools tend to be computationally imposing, however, special classes of "rigid" motifs have been identified of which the discovery is affordable in low polynomial time. Results In the present work, "extensible" motifs are considered such that each sequence of gaps comes endowed with some elasticity, whereby the same pattern may be stretched to fit segments of the source that match all the solid characters but are otherwise of different lengths. A few applications of this notion are then described. In applications of data compression by textual substitution, extensible motifs are seen to bring savings on the size of the codebook, and hence to improve compression. In germane contexts, in which compressibility is used in its dual role as a basis for structural inference and classification, extensible motifs are seen to support unsupervised classification and phylogeny reconstruction. Conclusion Off-line compression based on extensible motifs can be used advantageously to compress and classify biological sequences. PMID:16722593

Apostolico, Alberto; Comin, Matteo; Parida, Laxmi

2006-01-01

170

Compressive receiver technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compressive receiver that has two coherent channels and is used as a phase interferometer is discussed. The receiver performs a very fast analog Fourier transformation on incoming signals. The compressive receiver architecture consists of: (1) a pulse compressive filter with chirp modulation, (2) a multiply-convolve-multiply transform, (3) a convolve-multiply-convolve with Fourier transform, and (4) a dual-channel system for phase difference determination. The design and characteristics of the 1 GHz bandwith surface acoustic wave (SAW) dispersion filter used to create the chirped local oscillator and for pulse compression are described. The SAW pulse compressors are contained in a single module and their outputs are processed in a phase processor to determine the phase differential between channels. The components of the peak detector array and the emitter coupled logic shifter register are examined.

Daniels, W. D.; Churchman, M.; Kyle, R.; Skudera, W.

1986-04-01

171

Tension and Compression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students experience the forces of tension and compression by manipulating objects that are strong in each but not in both and then take what they have learned and apply it to the construction of various structures.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2004-02-20

172

Hybrid LZW compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Science Data Management and Science Payload Operations subpanel reports from the NASA Conference on Scientific Data Compression (Snowbird, Utah in 1988) indicate the need for both lossless and lossy image data compression systems. The ranges developed by the subpanel suggest ratios of 2:1 to 4:1 for lossless coding and 2:1 to 6:1 for lossy predictive coding. For the NASA Freedom Science Video Processing Facility it would be highly desirable to implement one baseline compression system which would meet both of these criteria. Presented here is such a system, utilizing an LZW hybrid coding scheme which is adaptable to either type of compression. Simulation results are presented with the hybrid LZW algorithm operating in each of its modes.

Lewis, H. Garton, Jr.; Forsyth, William B.

1989-01-01

173

Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.  

PubMed

A 10??MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2???s. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}. PMID:24949772

Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

2014-06-01

174

Visualizing tension and compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of everyday materials to support instruction in statics is discussed. Specifically, materials such as cardboard and string are used to demonstrate tension and compression in truss-bridge models.

Taylor, Joseph A.

2002-01-01

175

DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR PREDICTING CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research work focuses on development of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in prediction of compressive strength of concrete after 28 days. To predict the compressive strength of concrete six input parameters that are cement, water, silica fume, super plasticizer, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate are identified. A total of 639 different data sets of concrete was collected from the technical

J. Noorzaei; S. J. S. Hakim; M. S. Jaafar; W. A. M. Thanoon

176

Arithmetic Compression on SPIHT Encoded Images Todd Owen, Scott Hauck  

E-print Network

, UWEETR-2002-0007 May 2002 Abstract Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) is a wavelet based Trees (SPIHT) is a wavelet-based image compression coder that offers a variety of good characteristics compression [1, 2]. The idea can be traced back to the work of Shannon [3], but it was first explicitly

Hauck, Scott

177

Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of working chamber and tie rods that strengthen the outer shell plates of the compression chamber. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

178

Brittle fracture in compression: Mechanisms, models and criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although brittle fracture in compression has been a subject of study since the pioneering work of Griffith, some fundamental aspects of the fracture mechanism and phenomenon still remain unclear. Further, computer simulations of fracture processes are rather limited. Thus, a review and summary of existing typical models and fracture criteria for brittle fracture in compression are provided. A sound fracture

E. Z. Wang; N. G. Shrive

1995-01-01

179

Digital Image Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondeterministic finite automata with states and transitions labeled by real-valued weights have turned out to be powerful\\u000a tools for the representation and compression of digital grayscale and color images. The addressing of pixels by input-sequences\\u000a is extended to cover multi-resolution images. Encoding algorithms for such weighted finite automata (WFA) exploit self-similarities\\u000a for efficient image compression, outperforming the well-known JPEG baseline

Jürgen Albert; Jarkko Kari

2009-01-01

180

Smoothing DCT Compression Artifacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image compression based on quantizing the image in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain can generate blocky artifacts in the output image. It is possible to reduce these artifacts and RMS error by adjusting measures of block edginess and image roughness, while restricting the DCT coefficient values to values that would have been quantized to those of the compressed image. We also introduce a DCT coefficient amplitude adjustment that reduces RMS error.

Ahumada, A. J., Jr.; Horng, R.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

181

Multispectral Image Compression Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a data compression algorithm capable of significantly reducing the amounts of information contained in multispectral and hyperspectral images. The loss of information ranges from a perceptually lossless level, achieved at 20-30:1 compression ratios, to a one where exploitation of the images is still possible (over 100:1 ratios). A one-dimensional transform coder removes the spectral redundancy, and a

Tassos Markas; John H. Reif

1993-01-01

182

Image compression technique  

DOEpatents

An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

Fu, Chi-Yung (San Francisco, CA); Petrich, Loren I. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

183

Image compression technique  

DOEpatents

An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

1997-03-25

184

Alternative Compression Garments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

2011-01-01

185

CHARLESTON'S FIRST-EVER PICCOLO DARWIN WEEK!  

E-print Network

CHARLESTON'S FIRST-EVER PICCOLO DARWIN WEEK! Since 2001, Darwin Week in Charleston has brought and adults and the level of presentation was not usually accessible to pre-college students. Piccolo Darwin Week aims to change that! We have added three "Piccolo Darwin Week" programs to Darwin Week 2014

Dillon, Robert T.

186

Physical Property Measurements: Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, by the Colorado School of Mines, addresses the properties of a measurement technique called unconfined compression strength (UCS). Along with defining the technique, the website shows different experiments, pictures and diagrams associated with UCS. This well organized work will be a valuable asset for any geology or engineering classroom.

Ozdemir, Levent

2008-09-17

187

Compactly encoding unstructured inputs with differential compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this article is differential compression, the algorithmic task of finding common strings between versions of data and using them to encode one version compactly by describing it as a set of changes from its companion. A main goal of this work is to present new differencing algorithms that (i) operate at a fine granularity (the atomic unit

Miklos Ajtai; Randal C. Burns; Ronald Fagin; Darrell D. E. Long; Larry J. Stockmeyer

2002-01-01

188

HAPPENING THIS WEEK NECO MEETING  

E-print Network

INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE BY CALLING (406)994-2121. MSU FOOTBALL GAME BOBCAT BIKE CHECK - SATURDAY SEPT 6TH BOBCAT STADIUM BIKE TO THE GAME THIS SATURDAY, AND WE'LL TAKE CARE OF YOUR BIKE FOR THE ENTIRETY TO OFFER BOBCATS THIS FREE SERVICE. SEE YOU, AND YOUR BIKE, AT THE GAME! GO CATS! HAPPENING THIS WEEK

Maxwell, Bruce D.

189

Micron Confidential Condor Week 2008  

E-print Network

Micron Confidential 7/14/10 Condor Week 2008 Grid Computing at Micron: Then and Now ©2008 Micron Confidential 2 Condor & Semiconductor Mfg About Micron and our Grid Then and Now Cool apps Take-aways #12;©2008 Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. 7/14/10 Micron Confidential 3 Condor & Semiconductor Mfg

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

190

75 FR 70999 - National Entrepreneurship Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8600--National Entrepreneurship Week, 2010 Proclamation 8601...8600 of November 15, 2010 National Entrepreneurship Week, 2010 By the President of the...within your reach. During National Entrepreneurship Week, we renew our commitment...

2010-11-19

191

78 FR 69749 - American Education Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 9058--American Education Week, 2013 Presidential Documents Federal Register...of November 15, 2013 American Education Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...talent to lead. During American Education Week, we reaffirm our commitment to the...

2013-11-20

192

76 FR 43107 - Captive Nations Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8692--Captive Nations Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...8692 of July 15, 2011 Captive Nations Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...shaped our world. During Captive Nations Week, we remember the men and women...

2011-07-19

193

78 FR 44867 - Captive Nations Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8998--Captive Nations Week, 2013 Presidential Documents Federal Register...8998 of July 19, 2013 Captive Nations Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...only to a privileged few. Captive Nations Week is an opportunity to reaffirm...

2013-07-24

194

78 FR 71431 - National Family Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 9061--National Family Week, 2013 Presidential Documents Federal Register...9061 of November 22, 2013 National Family Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...American society. During National Family Week, we celebrate the spirit that moves...

2013-11-27

195

76 FR 71445 - American Education Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8753--American Education Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...of November 14, 2011 American Education Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...thriving democracy. During American Education Week, we acknowledge the central role...

2011-11-17

196

76 FR 63801 - Fire Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8732--Fire Prevention Week, 2011 Proclamation 8733--National School Lunch Week, 2011 Proclamation 8734--Leif Erikson...Proclamation 8732 of October 7, 2011 Fire Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United...

2011-10-13

197

77 FR 22177 - National Volunteer Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8797--National Volunteer Week, 2012 Proclamation 8798--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012 Proclamation 8799--National Former...8797 of April 9, 2012 National Volunteer Week, 2012 By the President of the United...

2012-04-12

198

76 FR 72601 - National Family Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8756--National Family Week, 2011 Proclamation 8757--National Farm-City Week, 2011 Proclamation 8758--National Child's...8756 of November 18, 2011 National Family Week, 2011 By the President of the United...

2011-11-23

199

Curriculum Characteristics of Time-Compressed Course in a U.S. Higher Education Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explored characteristics of the curriculum practice of higher education faculty in the context of time-compressed (e.g., 5-6 weeks) courses as compared with regular term (15-16 weeks) courses. The researchers used open-ended questions on a web-based survey at a large doctoral-extensive university in a Midwestern state in the United…

Hyun, Eunsook; Kretovics, Mark; Crowe, Alicia

2006-01-01

200

Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

1981-01-01

201

Unsteady Aerodynamics - Subsonic Compressible Inviscid Case  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new analytical treatment of Unsteady Aerodynamics - the linear theory covering the subsonic compressible (inviscid) case - drawing on some recent work in Operator Theory and Functional Analysis. The specific new results are: (a) An existence and uniqueness proof for the Laplace transform version of the Possio integral equation as well as a new closed form solution approximation thereof. (b) A new representation for the time-domain solution of the subsonic compressible aerodynamic equations emphasizing in particular the role of the initial conditions.

Balakrishnan, A. V.

1999-01-01

202

Estimation of many-body quantum Hamiltonians via compressive sensing  

E-print Network

We develop an efficient and robust approach for quantum measurement of nearly sparse many-body quantum Hamiltonians based on the method of compressive sensing. This work demonstrates that with only O(sln(d)) experimental ...

Shabani, A.

203

Acceptance Test Report for 241-U compressed air system  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance testing of a newly upgraded compressed air system at 241-U Farm. The system was installed and the test successfully performed under work package 2W-92-01027.

Freeman, R.D.

1994-10-20

204

TORUS-BASED COMPRESSION BY FACTOR 4 AND 6 KORAY KARABINA  

E-print Network

efficient exponentiation algorithms that work with the compressed representations of elements and canTORUS-BASED COMPRESSION BY FACTOR 4 AND 6 KORAY KARABINA Abstract. We extend the torus-based compression technique for cyclotomic subgroups and show how the elements of certain subgroups

205

A thermal noise suppression method for increasing lossless compression ratio of the remote sensing images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve data transmission efficiency between ground and satellite, image compression methods have been implemented onboard for years. However, the thermal noise generated by charge-coupled device (CCD) will decrease the compression ratio of the onboard image data and there is few works to be undertaken on noise suppression oriented for increasing image compression ratio. Therefore, a Homogeneity and

Qiang Wu; Yaobin Chi; Zhiyong Wang

2010-01-01

206

REISS ET AL. COMPRESSION FOR SUPER AUDIO CD Audio Engineering Society  

E-print Network

coding efficiency in DSD signals. The goal of this work is to explore new compression techniques which minimised and quantified. Lower bounds are established on the compression ratio of these methodsREISS ET AL. COMPRESSION FOR SUPER AUDIO CD _________________________________ Audio Engineering

Reiss, Josh

207

Compressed-Domain Video Indexing Techniques Using DCT and Motion Vector Information in MPEG Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of various multimedia applications hinges on the availability of fast and efficient storage, browsing,indexing, and retrieval techniques. Given that video is typically stored efficiently in a compressed format, ifwe can analyze the compressed representation directly, we can avoid the costly overhead of decompressing andoperating at the pixel level. Compressed domain parsing of video has been presented in earlier work

Vikrant Kobla; David S. Doermann; King-Ip Lin; Christos Faloutsos

1997-01-01

208

Branch Prediction Based on Universal Data Compression Algorithms Eitan Federovsky, Meir Feder, and Shlomo Weiss  

E-print Network

Branch Prediction Based on Universal Data Compression Algorithms Eitan Federovsky, Meir Feder compression and prediction are closely related. Thus prediction methods based on data compression algorithms have been suggested for the branch prediction problem. In this work we consider two universal

Feder, Meir

209

Redetermination of the Relative Compressions of the Cell Edges of Olivine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell edge compressions of a peridot were measured by using a recently developed high-pressure X ray diffraction technique. The results are in disagreement with earlier work utilizing other high-pressure X ray techniques, but the results agree quantitatively with the cell edge compression calculated by Graham and Barsch from elastic constant data for forsteritc. The compressions of the cell edges

Bart Olinger; P. M. Halleck

1974-01-01

210

Compression failure of angle-ply laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work deals with modes and mechanisms of failure in compression of angle-ply laminates. Experimental results were obtained from 42 angle-ply IM7/8551-7a specimens with a lay-up of ((plus or minus theta)/(plus or minus theta)) sub 6s where theta, the off-axis angle, ranged from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. The results showed four failure modes, these modes being a function of off-axis angle. Failure modes include fiber compression, inplane transverse tension, inplane shear, and inplane transverse compression. Excessive interlaminar shear strain was also considered as an important mode of failure. At low off-axis angles, experimentally observed values were considerably lower than published strengths. It was determined that laminate imperfections in the form of layer waviness could be a major factor in reducing compression strength. Previously developed linear buckling and geometrically nonlinear theories were used, with modifications and enhancements, to examine the influence of layer waviness on compression response. The wavy layer is described by a wave amplitude and a wave length. Linear elastic stress-strain response is assumed. The geometrically nonlinear theory, in conjunction with the maximum stress failure criterion, was used to predict compression failure and failure modes for the angle-ply laminates. A range of wave length and amplitudes were used. It was found that for 0 less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 15 degrees failure was most likely due to fiber compression. For 15 degrees less than theta less than or equal to 35 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane transverse tension. For 35 degrees less than theta less than or equal to 70 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane shear. For theta less than 70 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane transverse compression. The fiber compression and transverse tension failure modes depended more heavily on wave length than on wave amplitude. Thus using a single parameter, such as a ratio of wave amplitude to wave length, to describe waviness in a laminate would be inaccurate. Throughout, results for AS4/3502, studied previously, are included for comparison. At low off-axis angles, the AS4/3502 material system was found to be less sensitive to layer waviness than IM7/8551-7a. Analytical predictions were also obtained for laminates with waviness in only some of the layers. For this type of waviness, laminate compression strength could also be considered a function of which layers in the laminate were wavy, and where those wavy layers were. Overall, the geometrically nonlinear model correlates well with experimental results.

Peel, Larry D.; Hyer, Michael W.; Shuart, Mark J.

1991-01-01

211

Compressible Flow Toolbox  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Compressible Flow Toolbox is primarily a MATLAB-language implementation of a set of algorithms that solve approximately 280 linear and nonlinear classical equations for compressible flow. The toolbox is useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with either constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or Mach number greater than 1. The toolbox also contains algorithms for comparing and validating the equation-solving algorithms against solutions previously published in open literature. The classical equations solved by the Compressible Flow Toolbox are as follows: The isentropic-flow equations, The Fanno flow equations (pertaining to flow of an ideal gas in a pipe with friction), The Rayleigh flow equations (pertaining to frictionless flow of an ideal gas, with heat transfer, in a pipe of constant cross section), The normal-shock equations, The oblique-shock equations, and The expansion equations.

Melcher, Kevin J.

2006-01-01

212

The compressible mixing layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of turbulence modeling correctly to handle natural unsteadiness appearing in compressible turbulent flows is investigated. Physical aspects linked to the unsteadiness problem and the role of various flow parameters are analyzed. It is found that unsteady turbulent flows can be simulated by dividing these motions into an 'organized' part for which equations of motion are solved and a remaining 'incoherent' part represented by a turbulence model. Two-equation turbulence models and second-order turbulence models can yield reasonable results. For specific compressible unsteady turbulent flow, graphic presentations of different quantities may reveal complementary physical features. Strong compression zones are observed in rapid flow parts but shocklets do not yet occur.

Vandromme, Dany; Haminh, Hieu

1991-01-01

213

Microseismic source imaging in a compressed domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microseismic monitoring is an essential tool for the characterization of hydraulic fractures. Fast estimation of the parameters that define a microseismic event is relevant to understand and control fracture development. The amount of data contained in the microseismic records however, poses a challenge for fast continuous detection and evaluation of the microseismic source parameters. Work inspired by the emerging field of Compressive Sensing has showed that it is possible to evaluate source parameters in a compressed domain, thereby reducing processing time. This technique performs well in scenarios where the amplitudes of the signal are above the noise level, as is often the case in microseismic monitoring using downhole tools. This paper extends the idea of the compressed domain processing to scenarios of microseismic monitoring using surface arrays, where the signal amplitudes are commonly at the same level as, or below, the noise amplitudes. To achieve this, we resort to the use of an imaging operator, which has previously been found to produce better results in detection and location of microseismic events from surface arrays. The operator in our method is formed by full-waveform elastodynamic Green's functions that are band-limited by a source time function and represented in the frequency domain. Where full-waveform Green's functions are not available, ray tracing can also be used to compute the required Green's functions. Additionally, we introduce the concept of the compressed inverse, which derives directly from the compression of the migration operator using a random matrix. The described methodology reduces processing time at a cost of introducing distortions into the results. However, the amount of distortion can be managed by controlling the level of compression applied to the operator. Numerical experiments using synthetic and real data demonstrate the reductions in processing time that can be achieved and exemplify the process of selecting the compression rate that produces a tolerable amount of distortion into the results.

Vera Rodriguez, Ismael; Sacchi, Mauricio D.

2014-08-01

214

Electromyographic signal compression based on preprocessing techniques.  

PubMed

Recently, electromyographic records have been rearranged into two-dimensional arrays and encoded with image compressors, in the same way as image data. However, as a consequence of this reshaping, the correlation among signal segments is generally lost, which reduces the compression efficiency. In the present work, new preprocessing techniques for encoding electromyographic signals as two-dimensional matrices are presented, namely percentage difference sorting and relative complexity sorting, which have the potential to favor the exploitation of the intersegment dependencies. The experiments were carried out with real isometric records acquired in laboratory, that were first preprocessed and then compressed with a JPEG2000 encoder, showing that the proposed framework is effective and outperforms even state-of-the-art schemes present in the literature, in terms of PRD × Compression Ratio. PMID:23367151

Melo, Wheidima C; Filho, Eddie B L; Júnior, Waldir S S

2012-01-01

215

PDF approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the present work is to develop a probability density function (pdf) turbulence model for compressible reacting flows for use with a CFD flow solver. The probability density function of the species mass fraction and enthalpy are obtained by solving a pdf evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The pdf solution procedure is coupled with a compressible CFD flow solver which provides the velocity and pressure fields. A modeled pdf equation for compressible flows, capable of capturing shock waves and suitable to the present coupling scheme, is proposed and tested. Convergence of the combined finite-volume Monte Carlo solution procedure is discussed, and an averaging procedure is developed to provide smooth Monte-Carlo solutions to ensure convergence. Two supersonic diffusion flames are studied using the proposed pdf model and the results are compared with experimental data; marked improvements over CFD solutions without pdf are observed. Preliminary applications of pdf to 3D flows are also reported.

Hsu, A. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Raju, M. S.

1993-01-01

216

Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine  

SciTech Connect

Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

Charles Mendler

2011-03-15

217

Electronic compressibility of bilayer graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently measured the electronic compressibility of bilayer graphene [1], allowing exploration of the thermodynamic density of states as a function of applied electric and magnetic fields. Utilizing dual-gated field-effect devices, we can independently vary both the carrier density and the size of the tunable band gap. An oscillating voltage applied to a back gate generates corresponding signals in the top gate via electric fields lines which penetrate the graphene, thereby allowing a direct measurement of the inverse compressibility, K-1, of the bilayer [2]. We have mapped K-1, which is proportional to the inverse density of states, as a function of the top and back gate voltages in zero and finite magnetic field. A sharp increase in K-1 near zero density is observed with increasing electric field strength, signaling the controlled opening of a band gap. At high magnetic fields, broad Landau level (LL) oscillations are observed, directly revealing the doubled degeneracy of the lowest LL and allowing for a determination of the disorder broadening of the levels. We compare our results to tight-binding calculations of the bilayer band structure, and to recent theoretical studies of the compressibility of bilayer graphene. Together, these clearly illustrate the unusual hyperbolic nature of the low energy band structure, reveal a sizeable electron-hole asymmetry, and suggest that many-body interactions play only a small role in bilayer-on-substrate devices. This work is a collaboration with J. P. Eisenstein of Caltech, and is supported by the NSF under Grant No. DMR-0552270 and the DOE under Grant No. DE-FG03-99ER45766. [4pt] [1] E. A. Henriksen and J. P Eisenstein, Phys. Rev. B 82, 041412(R) (2010). [0pt] [2] J. P. Eisenstein, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 674 (1992); Phys. Rev. B 50, 1760 (1994).

Henriksen, Erik

2011-03-01

218

Isentropic compression of argon  

SciTech Connect

The compression was done in an MC-1 flux compression (explosive) generator, in order to study the transition from an insulator to a conductor. Since conductivity signals were observed in all the experiments (except when the probe is removed), both the Teflon and the argon are becoming conductive. The conductivity could not be determined (Teflon insulation properties unknown), but it could be bounded as being {sigma}=1/{rho}{le}8({Omega}cm){sub -1}, because when the Teflon breaks down, the dielectric constant is reduced. The Teflon insulator problem remains, and other ways to better insulate the probe or to measure the conductivity without a probe is being sought.

Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Oona, H. [and others

1997-06-01

219

Image data compression investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA continuous communications systems growth has increased the demand for image transmission and storage. Research and analysis was conducted on various lossy and lossless advanced data compression techniques or approaches used to improve the efficiency of transmission and storage of high volume stellite image data such as pulse code modulation (PCM), differential PCM (DPCM), transform coding, hybrid coding, interframe coding, and adaptive technique. In this presentation, the fundamentals of image data compression utilizing two techniques which are pulse code modulation (PCM) and differential PCM (DPCM) are presented along with an application utilizing these two coding techniques.

Myrie, Carlos

1989-01-01

220

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Weekly Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the use of weekly reports as an assessment tool for student learning. It is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. Weekly reports provide rapid feedback about what students think they are learning and what conceptual difficulties they are experiencing. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique including information about how to use it. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Etkina, Eugenia; The National Institute for Science Education; College Level One Team

221

Ed Week: Technology Counts 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ed Week (see also Scout Report from September 13, 1996) publishes the annual Technology Counts report, now on its eighth edition, which reports on the status of technology and education. This years' report "tracks the economic and policy forces that are converging to push changes at the federal, state, and local levels." The article reports that the previous focus on funding instructional technologies, such as personal computers and learning software, is being superseded by a growing emphasis on data-management technologies. They trace this need for online student-data systems to "the expansive reporting requirements and ambitious student-achievement goals set forth in the federal No Child Left Behind Act." The article discusses these shifts and offers links to Web resources relating to data management technologies, student achievement reporting requirements, and more. Note that visitors must complete a simple and free registration form to view the articles in Ed Week.

222

Observation of the Week Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its early years NASA's Observatorium (described in the January 10, 1997 Scout Report) posted an "observation of the week" in one of the following broad categories: earth sciences, sun and the solar system, stars, galaxies, the universe, education, human spaceflight, space technology, or space history. These weekly observations (such as the recent Leonid Meteor storm) are described in general terms and are accompanied by color images and links to recommended sites. Interested viewers may browse the archive (1995 to 1999) for events by subject or date. The simplicity of the site allows for easy access to a wide range of interesting and current information -- whether radar images of Mount Vesuvius, an understanding of Tsunamis, or Galactic Cannibalism.

1995-01-01

223

GPA/GPSA/OSU-Okmulgee natural gas compression technician training program  

SciTech Connect

Approximately one year ago, OSU-Okmulgee and the Gas Processors Association began discussions about the possibility of developing a natural Gas Technician Training Program for GPA members. Following a presentation to the Membership and Services Committee, Chairman John Ehlers solicited and obtained the approval of the GPA Executive Committee to sponsor the program. Participation in the program was also made available to GPSA members. The purpose of the program is to upgrade the technical competency and professional level of incoming natural gas compression technicians. It educates students to analytically diagnose, service and maintain gas compression equipment and systems using industry recommended procedures, special tools and service information. It also provides course content, which will enable successful graduates to advance in position after additional experience, and to understand new systems, technologies and components as they are introduced. The two-year Associate-In-Applied Science Degree program includes six successive college semesters. Nearly one-half of the time is designated for technical/academic education at Oklahoma State University-Okmulgee with the balance of time allocated for on-the-job internship experiences at sponsoring GPA/GPSA members. Each block of technical education and general education course work is followed by an immediate work experience time period designated to reinforce the technical and general education. These time periods are approximately seven and one-half weeks in length each. It is essential for the success of the students and the program that the students' education at OSU-Okmulgee and work experiences at GPA/GPSA member facilities be closely aligned for maximum student learning and retention. In addition to technical classes on gas compression equipment and components, the courses offered in math, speech, technical writing, psychology and ethics for example, prepare students to be able to communicate well, get along with others and be responsible and productive employees.

Doede, S.

1999-07-01

224

Data compression for sequencing data  

PubMed Central

Post-Sanger sequencing methods produce tons of data, and there is a general agreement that the challenge to store and process them must be addressed with data compression. In this review we first answer the question “why compression” in a quantitative manner. Then we also answer the questions “what” and “how”, by sketching the fundamental compression ideas, describing the main sequencing data types and formats, and comparing the specialized compression algorithms and tools. Finally, we go back to the question “why compression” and give other, perhaps surprising answers, demonstrating the pervasiveness of data compression techniques in computational biology. PMID:24252160

2013-01-01

225

Bilateral contusion-compression model of incomplete traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing incidence and prevalence of cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI), we lack clinically relevant animal models that can be used to study the pathomechanisms of this injury and test new therapies. Here, we characterize a moderate cervical contusion-compression model in rats that is similar to incomplete traumatic cSCI in humans. We characterized the effects of 18-g clip-compression injury at cervical level C6 over an 8-week recovery period. Using Luxol fast blue/hematoxylin-eosin staining in combination with quantitative stereology, we determined that 18-g injury results in loss of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), as well as in cavity formation. Magnetization transfer and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were used to analyze lesion dynamics in vivo. This analysis demonstrated that both techniques are able to differentiate between the injury epicenter, subpial rim, and WM distal to the injury. Neurobehavioral assessment of locomotor function using Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring and CatWalk revealed limited recovery from clip-compression injury at C6. Testing of forelimb function using grip strength demonstrated significant forelimb dysfunction, similar to the loss of upper-limb motor function observed in human cSCI. Sensory-evoked potentials recorded from the forelimb and Hoffman reflex recorded from the hindlimb confirmed the fore- and hindlimb deficits observed in our neurobehavioral analysis. Here, we have characterized a clip-compression model of incomplete cSCI that closely models this condition in humans. This work directly addresses the current lack of clinically relevant models of cSCI and will thus contribute to improved success in the translation of putative therapies into the clinic. PMID:24949719

Forgione, Nicole; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Foltz, Warren D; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Lip, Alyssa; Fehlings, Michael G

2014-11-01

226

Learning random networks for compression of still and moving images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image compression for both still and moving images is an extremely important area of investigation, with numerous applications to videoconferencing, interactive education, home entertainment, and potential applications to earth observations, medical imaging, digital libraries, and many other areas. We describe work on a neural network methodology to compress/decompress still and moving images. We use the 'point-process' type neural network model which is closer to biophysical reality than standard models, and yet is mathematically much more tractable. We currently achieve compression ratios of the order of 120:1 for moving grey-level images, based on a combination of motion detection and compression. The observed signal-to-noise ratio varies from values above 25 to more than 35. The method is computationally fast so that compression and decompression can be carried out in real-time. It uses the adaptive capabilities of a set of neural networks so as to select varying compression ratios in real-time as a function of quality achieved. It also uses a motion detector which will avoid retransmitting portions of the image which have varied little from the previous frame. Further improvements can be achieved by using on-line learning during compression, and by appropriate compensation of nonlinearities in the compression/decompression scheme. We expect to go well beyond the 250:1 compression level for color images with good quality levels.

Gelenbe, Erol; Sungur, Mert; Cramer, Christopher

1994-01-01

227

Module Work Teams Training and  

E-print Network

Module Work Teams Training and Support CMS Executive Committee( PAB) Project Update from Executive month User Work Team * Meeting 4 hours every week SA & SIS+/Finance Integration Work Team (as needed) Finance/HR Integration Work Team (as needed) CSU Fullerton Common Management System (CMS) Project

de Lijser, Peter

228

Work Experience Guidance for Managers  

E-print Network

Work Experience Guidance for Managers When approached with a request for work experience, managers any work, paid or unpaid: Before 7am or after 7pm For more than two hours on a school day or Sunday, they must have a two week break from any work during the school holiday For those aged between 16 and 17

229

Effect of ambient conditions and fuel properties on homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation  

E-print Network

Practical application of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion must demonstrate robust responses to variations in environmental conditions. This work examines the impact of ambient conditions and fuel ...

Andreae, Morgan M. (Morgan MacKenzie)

2006-01-01

230

Brunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness Week A series of public lectures all about the brain  

E-print Network

Brunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness Week A series of public lectures all about the brain Tuesday 15Tuesday 15Tuesday 15Tuesday 15 13:10 - 13:45 Dr. Daniel Bishop Watching You, Watching Me: A system in the brain for understanding

Royal Holloway, University of London

231

[Evaluation of irreversible compressed images in computed radiography using physical image quality measures].  

PubMed

Joint photographic experts group(JPEG)and JPEG2000 are widely used as image compression algorithms in medical image database systems. Compressed images have been mainly evaluated by visual assessment on acceptable compression levels in clinical studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, little work has been done to clarify image properties based on physical analysis. In this work, investigations were made to clarify image properties based on physical analysis and to discuss the major causes of degradation related to compression ratios. The physical properties of JPEG2000-compressed and JPEG-compressed images in computed radiography(CR)were compared by measuring the characteristic curve, modulation transfer function(MTF), noise power spectrum(NPS), peak signal-to-noise ratio(PSNR), contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR), and noise equivalent quanta(NEQ). In the MTF measurement, the MTFs of JPEG at high compression ratio showed pronounced degradation at all frequencies. The NPS values of JPEG2000 tend to decrease considerably compared to that of the JPEG at all frequencies with the increase of compression ratio. Furthermore, JPEG2000 images showed higher PSNR, CNR, and NEQ values than JPEG images in the same compression ratio. In these signal-to-noise ratio measurements, good reproducibility of JPEG2000 images was achieved. Overall, JPEG2000 compressed images were far superior to JPEG compressed images. In the physical properties measured, these physical analyses are useful to comprehend physical properties for each irreversible compressed image related to compression ratios in CR. PMID:20124739

Watanabe, Haruyuki; Tsai, Du-Yih; Lee, Yongbum; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Kuramochi, Yoshio; Kojima, Katsuyuki

2009-12-20

232

Improved compression molding process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified compression molding process produces plastic molding compounds that are strong, homogeneous, free of residual stresses, and have improved ablative characteristics. The conventional method is modified by applying a vacuum to the mold during the molding cycle, using a volatile sink, and exercising precise control of the mold closure limits.

Heier, W. C.

1967-01-01

233

Data Compression introduction  

E-print Network

a central role in communications technology, · Braille. · Morse code. · Telephone system. and is part-length encoding Use different number of bits to encode different characters. Ex. Morse code. Issue: ambiguity1 Data Compression introduction basic coding schemes an application entropy LZW codes References

Sedgewick, Robert

234

Hyperspectral Image Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral images gathered by satellites or aerial means provide a vast amount of data for geophysicists. A few applications include the exploration of minerals, research of land pollution, and military surveillance. NASA and other agencies are producing gigabytes of hyperspectral images which need to be transmitted and stored daily. As these images require high compression rates and preservation of data

Stephanie Wright; Jason Ashbach

2008-01-01

235

The Compressed Video Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall semester 1995, Southern Arkansas University- Magnolia (SAU-M) began a two semester trial delivering college classes via a compressed video link between SAU-M and its sister school Southern Arkansas University Tech (SAU-T) in Camden. As soon as the University began broadcasting and receiving classes, it was discovered that using the…

Weber, John

236

Functional compression : theory and application  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of functional compression. The objective is to separately compress possibly correlated discrete sources such that an arbitrary deterministic function of those sources can be computed given the ...

Doshi, Vishal D. (Vishal Devendra)

2008-01-01

237

Arithmetic coding for data compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art in data compression is arithmetic coding, not the better-known Huffman method. Arithmetic coding gives greater compression, is faster for adaptive models, and clearly separates the model from the channel encoding.

Ian H. witten; Radford M. Neal; John Gerald Cleary

1987-01-01

238

The Four Day School Week. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can four-day school weeks help districts save money? How do districts overcome the barriers of moving to a four-day week? What is the effect of a four-day week on students, staff and the community? This paper enumerates the benefits for students and teachers of four-day school weeks. Recommendations for implementation of a four-day week are also…

Muir, Mike

2013-01-01

239

Multicomponent compression with the latest CCSDS recommendation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For optimum compression performances of multispectral and hyperspectral images, algorithms must exploit both spectral and spatial correlation of the data. To do this, different approaches are possible: a spectral decorrelation preprocessing stage followed by application of an image compressor to the decorrelated bands or, an integrated solution dealing with the three dimensions simultaneously. For example, Part II of JPEG2000 standard introduces a multi-component transform capability applied prior Part I spatial wavelet decomposition and coding. This article proposes to use the CCSDS Image Data Compression Recommendation together with a spectral transform to perform a multicomponent compression. Depending on the number of spectral bands, an efficient spectral transform, such as the DCT, is applied first and the CCSDS algorithm encodes each decorrelated bands. We compare the performances of such a scheme with JPEG2000 and also with a comparable scheme with a very simple decorrelation stage. Thanks to a bit plane coding of blocks of wavelet coefficients, the CCSDS encoder is a good tool to control the quality or the rate of these transformed bands. We present performances for different types of sensors: multispectral and hyperspectral. This work is part of the CNES contribution to the new CCSDS Multispectral and Hyperspectral Data Compression Working Group.

Thiebaut, Carole; Camarero, Roberto

2009-08-01

240

Multimode Data-Compression System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data-compression system developed to satisfy need for high-speed, high-performance compression of data from sources as diverse as medical images, high-definition television images, audio signals, readouts from scientific instruments, and binary data files. Maximum data-transmission capability of communication channel or storage capacity of storage device multiplied by approximately compression ratio. Various combinations of lossless and lossy compression chosen to suit various data streams.

Fang, Wai-Chi

1996-01-01

241

Open Access Week Planning Materials  

E-print Network

with faculty during the year; 50 OA mugs); E-mail Resources Management Librarian from MSL Library to set up OA Caf? 8/3/2012 Project Coordinator have not heard back as of 8/13/2012 E-mail Interim DirectorWCL & PSEL at WCL to reserve the Lobby for OA week..., rolling storage bin, (Velcro, maroon duct table) Rolling storage bin purchased at Lowes (45 gallon) 10/9/2012 Submit Facilities request to set up and remove table and chairs for OA booth in Evans, MSL, WCL, etc? this was done in August; send...

242

Band Compression of Plasmonic Filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the difference between the band compression mechanisms of plasmonic gratings and plasmonic heterogratings. The plasmonic grating can pick out a fixed polarization bandwidth with changing the incidence angle, while the plasmonic heterograting composed of two different nanogratings can pick out a tunable bandwidth with changing the incidence angle and the period ratio of two gratings. The range of the plasmonic resonances of the heterograting is about 30% wider than that of a conventional grating. Thus, the plasmonic heterograting can work efficiently in a wider wavelength range. Moreover, high polarization extinction ratio is achieved in these plasmonic devices. This gives more insights into the mechanisms in plasmonic filters and is helpful to promote the actual applications.

Lin, Yuan-Hai; Zhai, Tian-Rui; Liu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Xin-Ping

2013-09-01

243

Shock compression of geological materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the shock compression of geological materials is important for many applications, and is particularly important to the mining industry. During blast mining the response to shock loading determines the wave propagation speed and resulting fragmentation of the rock. The present work has studied the Hugoniot of two geological materials; Lake Quarry Granite and Gosford Sandstone. For samples of these materials, the composition was characterised in detail. The Hugoniot of Lake Quarry Granite was predicted from this information as the material is fully dense and was found to be in good agreement with the measured Hugoniot. Gosford Sandstone is porous and undergoes compaction during shock loading. Such behaviour is similar to other granular material and we show how it can be described using a P-a compaction model.

Kirk, S.; Braithwaite, C.; Williamson, D.; Jardine, A.

2014-05-01

244

Speech Compression by Polynomial Approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for speech compression aim at reducing the transmission bit rate while preserving the quality and intelligibility of speech. These objectives are antipodal in nature since higher compression presupposes preserving less information about the original speech signal. This paper presents a method for compressing speech based on polynomial approximations of the trajectories in time of various speech features (i.e., spectrum,

Sorin Dusan; James L. Flanagan; Amod Karve; Mridul Balaraman

2007-01-01

245

Data Compression and Harmonic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review some recent interactions between harmonic analysis and data compression. The story goes back of course to Shannon's theory in the case of Gaussian stationary processes, which says that transforming into a Fourier basis followed by block coding gives an optimal lossy compression technique; practical developments like transform- based image compression have been inspired by this

David L. Donoho; Martin Vetterli; Ronald A. Devore; Ingrid Daubechies

1998-01-01

246

Offshore gas compression lags behind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potentially vast oil and gas reserves exist in deeper water, discovered but inaccessible because present production technology has only reached the halfway point. Needs for gas compression offshore are similar to onshore: to compress natural casinghead (off separator) gas to transmission line pressures, to gas-lift wells incapable of flowing into limited flexibility gathering systems, and to compress for injection into

E. C. Jr

1969-01-01

247

Progressive transmission and compression images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an image data compression strategy featuring progressive transmission. The method exploits subband coding and arithmetic coding for compression. We analyze the Laplacian probability density, which closely approximates the statistics of individual subbands, to determine a strategy for ordering the compressed subband data in a way that improves rate-distortion performance. Results are presented for a test image.

Kiely, A. B.

1996-01-01

248

Compression of Martian atmosphere for production of oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compression of CO2 from the Martian atmosphere for production of O2 via an electrochemical cell is addressed. Design specifications call for an oxygen production rate of 10 kg per day and for compression of 50 times that mass of CO2. Those specifications require a compression rate of over 770 cfm at standard Martian temperature and pressure (SMTP). Much of the CO2 being compressed represents waste, unless it can be recycled. Recycling can reduce the volume of gas that must be compressed to 40 cfm at SMTP. That volume reduction represents significant mass savings in the compressor, heating equipment, filters, and energy source. Successful recycle of the gas requires separation of CO (produced in the electrochemical cell) from CO2, N2, and Ar found in the Martian atmosphere. That aspect was the focus of this work.

Lynch, D. C.; Cutler, A. H.; Nolan, P. E.

1991-01-01

249

Digital mammography, cancer screening: Factors important for image compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital mammography for breast cancer screening poses several novel problems such as development of digital sensors, computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) methods for image noise suppression, enhancement, and pattern recognition, compression algorithms for image storage, transmission, and remote diagnosis. X-ray digital mammography using novel direct digital detection schemes or film digitizers results in large data sets and, therefore, image compression methods will play a significant role in the image processing and analysis by CAD techniques. In view of the extensive compression required, the relative merit of 'virtually lossless' versus lossy methods should be determined. A brief overview is presented here of the developments of digital sensors, CAD, and compression methods currently proposed and tested for mammography. The objective of the NCI/NASA Working Group on Digital Mammography is to stimulate the interest of the image processing and compression scientific community for this medical application and identify possible dual use technologies within the NASA centers.

Clarke, Laurence P.; Blaine, G. James; Doi, Kunio; Yaffe, Martin J.; Shtern, Faina; Brown, G. Stephen; Winfield, Daniel L.; Kallergi, Maria

1993-01-01

250

Compressive blind image deconvolution.  

PubMed

We propose a novel blind image deconvolution (BID) regularization framework for compressive sensing (CS) based imaging systems capturing blurred images. The proposed framework relies on a constrained optimization technique, which is solved by a sequence of unconstrained sub-problems, and allows the incorporation of existing CS reconstruction algorithms in compressive BID problems. As an example, a non-convex lp quasi-norm with is employed as a regularization term for the image, while a simultaneous auto-regressive regularization term is selected for the blur. Nevertheless, the proposed approach is very general and it can be easily adapted to other state-of-the-art BID schemes that utilize different, application specific, image/blur regularization terms. Experimental results, obtained with simulations using blurred synthetic images and real passive millimeter-wave images, show the feasibility of the proposed method and its advantages over existing approaches. PMID:23744684

Amizic, Bruno; Spinoulas, Leonidas; Molina, Rafael; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K

2013-10-01

251

Compressive optical MONTAGE photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compressive Optical MONTAGE Photography Initiative (COMP-I) is an initiative under DARPA's MONTAGE program. The goals of COMP-I are to produce 1 mm thick visible imaging systems and 5 mm thick IR systems without compromising pixel-limited resolution. Innovations of COMP-I include focal-plane coding, block-wise focal plane codes, birefringent, holographic and 3D optical elements for focal plane remapping and embedded algorithms for image formation. In addition to meeting MONTAGE specifications for sensor thickness, focal plane coding enables a reduction in the transverse aperture size, physical layer compression of multispectral and hyperspectral data cubes, joint optical and electronic optimization for 3D sensing, tracking, feature-specific imaging and conformal array deployment.

Brady, David J.; Feldman, Michael; Pitsianis, Nikos; Guo, J. P.; Portnoy, Andrew; Fiddy, Michael

2005-08-01

252

Random Operator Compressions  

E-print Network

Let $A$ be a Hermitian operator of order $n$. We show that for $k\\leq n$ sufficiently large, the eigenvalues of a compression of $A$ to a $k$-dimensional subspace are almost the same for all subspaces. We prove this result using the methods introduced in a paper by Chatterjee and Ledoux on eigenvalues of principle submatrices. We show that by choosing an appropriate Markov chain, the methods of Chatterjee and Ledoux can be applied to give a more general result on operator compressions. As an additional application of this method, we prove concentration of measure of the length of the longest increasing subsequence of a random walk distributed under the invariant measure for the asymmetric exclusion process.

Stephen Ng; Meg Walters

2014-07-23

253

Digital cinema video compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Motion Picture Industry began a transition from film based distribution and projection to digital distribution and projection several years ago. Digital delivery and presentation offers the prospect to increase the quality of the theatrical experience for the audience, reduce distribution costs to the distributors, and create new business opportunities for the theater owners and the studios. Digital Cinema also presents an opportunity to provide increased flexibility and security of the movies for the content owners and the theater operators. Distribution of content via electronic means to theaters is unlike any of the traditional applications for video compression. The transition from film-based media to electronic media represents a paradigm shift in video compression techniques and applications that will be discussed in this paper.

Husak, Walter

2003-05-01

254

Sustained compression and healing of chronic venous ulcers.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--Comparison of four layer bandage system with traditional adhesive plaster bandaging in terms of (a) compression achieved and (b) healing of venous ulcers. DESIGN--Part of larger randomised trial of five different dressings. SETTING--Outpatient venous ulcer clinic in university hospital. PATIENTS--(a) Pressure exerted by both bandage systems was measured in the same 20 patients. (b) Healing with the four layer bandage was assessed in 148 legs in 126 consecutive patients (mean age 71 (SE 2); range 30-96) with chronic venous ulcers that had resisted treatment with traditional bandaging for a mean of 27.2 (SE 8) months. INTERVENTIONS--(a) Four layer bandage system or traditional adhesive plaster bandaging for pressure studies; (b) four layer bandaging applied weekly for studies of healing. END POINTS--(a) Comparison of pressures achieved at the ankle for up to one week; (b) complete healing within 12 weeks. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--(a) Four layer bandage produced higher initial pressures at the ankle of 42.5 (SE 1) mm Hg compared with 29.8 (1.8) for the adhesive plaster (p less than 0.001; 95% confidence interval 18.5 to 6.9). Pressure was maintained for one week with the four layer bandage but fell to 10.4 (3.5) mm Hg at 24 hours with adhesive plaster bandaging. (b) After weekly bandaging with the four layer bandage 110 of 48 venous ulcers had healed completely within 12 (mean 6.3 (0.4)) weeks. CONCLUSION--Sustained compression of over 40 mm Hg achieved with a multilayer bandage results in rapid healing of chronic venous ulcers that have failed to heal in many months of compression at lower pressures with more conventional bandages. PMID:3144330

Blair, S. D.; Wright, D. D.; Backhouse, C. M.; Riddle, E.; McCollum, C. N.

1988-01-01

255

The quest for 'diagnostically lossless' medical image compression: a comparative study of objective quality metrics for compressed medical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study, involving a collaboration with radiologists (DK,NSK) as well as a leading international developer of medical imaging software (AGFA), is primarily concerned with improved methods of assessing the diagnostic quality of compressed medical images and the investigation of compression artifacts resulting from JPEG and JPEG2000. In this work, we compare the performances of the Structural Similarity quality measure (SSIM), MSE/PSNR, compression ratio CR and JPEG quality factor Q, based on experimental data collected in two experiments involving radiologists. An ROC and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis indicates that compression ratio is not always a good indicator of visual quality. Moreover, SSIM demonstrates the best performance, i.e., it provides the closest match to the radiologists' assessments. We also show that a weighted Youden index1 and curve tting method can provide SSIM and MSE thresholds for acceptable compression ratios.

Kowalik-Urbaniak, Ilona; Brunet, Dominique; Wang, Jiheng; Koff, David; Smolarski-Koff, Nadine; Vrscay, Edward R.; Wallace, Bill; Wang, Zhou

2014-03-01

256

77 FR 31143 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8824--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2012 Proclamation 8825--National Safe Boating Week, 2012 Proclamation 8826--National Small Business Week, 2012 Proclamation 8827--World Trade Week, 2012...

2012-05-24

257

Turbulence modeling for high speed compressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following grant objectives were delineated in the proposal to NASA: to offer course work in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and related areas to enable mechanical engineering students at North Carolina A&T State University (N.C. A&TSU) to pursue M.S. studies in CFD, and to enable students and faculty to engage in research in high speed compressible flows. Since no CFD-related activity existed at N.C. A&TSU before the start of the NASA grant period, training of students in the CFD area and initiation of research in high speed compressible flows were proposed as the key aspects of the project. To that end, graduate level courses in CFD, boundary layer theory, and fluid dynamics were offered. This effort included initiating a CFD course for graduate students. Also, research work was performed on studying compressibility effects in high speed flows. Specifically, a modified compressible dissipation model, which included a fourth order turbulent Mach number term, was incorporated into the SPARK code and verified for the air-air mixing layer case. The results obtained for this case were compared with a wide variety of experimental data to discern the trends in the mixing layer growth rates with varying convective Mach numbers. Comparison of the predictions of the study with the results of several analytical models was also carried out. The details of the research study are described in the publication entitled 'Compressibility Effects in Modeling Turbulent High Speed Mixing Layers,' which is attached to this report.

Chandra, Suresh

1993-01-01

258

The JPEG still picture compression standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past few years, a joint ISO\\/CCITT committee known as JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) has been working to establish the first international compression standard for continuous-tone still images, both grayscale and color. JPEG's proposed standard aims to be generic, to support a wide variety of applications for continuous-tone images. To meet the differing needs of many applications, the

Gregory K. Wallace

1991-01-01

259

CMHOG: Code for Ideal Compressible Hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CMHOG (Connection Machine Higher Order Godunov) is a code for ideal compressible hydrodynamics based on the Lagrange-plus-remap version of the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) of Colella & Woodward (1984, J. Comp. Phys., 74, 1). It works in one-, two- or three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates with either an adiabatic or isothermal equation of state. A limited amount of extra physics has been added using operator splitting, including optically-thin radiative cooling, and chemistry for combustion simulations.

Piner, B. Glenn; Stone, James M.; Teuben, Peter J.

2011-01-01

260

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is a provisional series based on the compilation of data on specific diseases reported by United States government agencies and on reports about infectious and chronic diseases disasters, occupational diseases and injuries, and other injuries. Users can download current and archived MMWR reports as well as reports on topics of international interest and events of interest to the public health community. Students and educators can learn about MMWR's Continuing Medical Education (CME) Program. Individuals searching for statistics can appreciate a series of morbidity and mortality tables. The website offers links to local public health departments where they can obtain additional public health materials. Users can subscribe to receive the reports electronically.

261

The Guardian's Science Weekly Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Would you like to go around the world on a hunt for a lost rubber duck? How does learning about language sound? These are but a few of the topics covered in the Guardian's Science weekly podcast. Visitors will be delighted to learn that they can explore this vast buffet of science topics at their leisure. New visitors to the site can look through the Recent Shows area or move on down to the subject headings, which include climate change, energy, and space exploration. The site also features a lively blog that is updated frequently, and visitors are encouraged to leave comments. Some podcasts that shouldn't be missed are "The Joy of Science Demonstrations" and "The Festival of the Spoken Nerd." Also, visitors can learn more about the host of the program, the funny and interesting Alok Jha, by clicking on the link to his profile included in each podcast summary.

2012-04-27

262

Education Week on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"America's Education Newspaper of Record" now publishes a Web edition. The full text of the print version is available online, as well as the monthly Teacher Magazine. The site is in final testing, so not all areas are fully functional; however, the depth of material already available makes it worthwhile to check out now. Content is divided into general categories: This Week's News offers headlines in education; In Context provides background on issues, organizations and resources relating to education; Teacher Magazine is the online version of the popular print publication; and Election Watch investigates the future of public education under the two major-party Presidential candidates, as well as important issues in the election. Searching of 15 years of archived content will be available soon, and will be free for a limited time (fee information is not yet available). The site is polished graphically, making effective and unobtrusive use of frames and images.

1989-01-01

263

Radiator debris removing apparatus and work machine using same  

DOEpatents

A radiator assembly includes a finned radiator core and a debris removing apparatus having a compressed air inlet and at least one compressed air outlet configured to direct compressed air through the radiator core. A work machine such as a wheel loader includes a radiator and a debris removing apparatus coupled with on-board compressed air and having at least one pressurized gas outlet configured to direct a gas toward the face of the radiator.

Martin, Kevin L. (Washburn, IL); Elliott, Dwight E. (Chillicothe, IL)

2008-09-02

264

Optimization of compression ratio in compression ignition engines  

SciTech Connect

Compression ignition engines often have conflicting compression ratio (CR) requirements for satisfactory performance over a wide range of operating conditions. A mathematical simulation program is introduced that can be used to determine the optimum CR for maximum break thermal efficiency under steady-state operating conditions as well as the optimum CR for satisfactory starting characteristics. The simulation program models the full thermodynamic cycle of a four-stroke engine and includes detailed models for the intake and exhaust gas flow processes, combustion, heat transfer, mechanical friction, blowby, and the engine dynamics. The scope of which work is limited to engine performance parameters directly affected by changes in CR during steady-state operation and during initial cranking and starting. The starting process considers the period from start on until the engine reaches a steady idle speed. Experimental data from a single cylinder, four-stroke, air-cooled, direct injection diesel engine was used to calibrate the model constants and for comparison with results from the simulation program. The comparisons generally show that the simulation program satisfactorily describes the behavior of the test engine during steady-state motoring and firing conditions, as well as during starting conditions. For maximum brake thermal efficiency, the optimum CR for the test engine varied between 15:1 to 17:1 depending on the speed and load (F/A ratio). For satisfactory starting, a CR near 17:1 was found to be optimum. The startability of the engine was found to depend heavily on the ambient temperature, which affects the oil viscosity, which in turn, controls the amount of friction generated and the resulting engine speed.

Gardner, T.P.

1987-01-01

265

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

Mark J. Bergander

2005-08-29

266

MAE 124/ESYS 103 Discussion: Week 7 Transportation Alternatives  

E-print Network

MAE 124/ESYS 103 Discussion: Week 7 Transportation Alternatives 0. San Diego government routes. And today is Bike to Work Day. Let's take a Life Cycle Assessment approach to transportation planning? What steps do we need to pursue? 1. Why does SANDAG care about transportation? Why does UCSD

Gille, Sarah T.

267

Application of compressed sensing to the simulation of atomic systems  

PubMed Central

Compressed sensing is a method that allows a significant reduction in the number of samples required for accurate measurements in many applications in experimental sciences and engineering. In this work, we show that compressed sensing can also be used to speed up numerical simulations. We apply compressed sensing to extract information from the real-time simulation of atomic and molecular systems, including electronic and nuclear dynamics. We find that, compared to the standard discrete Fourier transform approach, for the calculation of vibrational and optical spectra the total propagation time, and hence the computational cost, can be reduced by approximately a factor of five. PMID:22891294

Andrade, Xavier; Sanders, Jacob N.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2012-01-01

268

Data Compression Techniques for Advanced Space Transportation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced space transportation systems, including vehicle state of health systems, will produce large amounts of data which must be stored on board the vehicle and or transmitted to the ground and stored. The cost of storage or transmission of the data could be reduced if the number of bits required to represent the data is reduced by the use of data compression techniques. Most of the work done in this study was rather generic and could apply to many data compression systems, but the first application area to be considered was launch vehicle state of health telemetry systems. Both lossless and lossy compression techniques were considered in this study.

Bradley, William G.

1998-01-01

269

Equation of state of compressed matter: a simple statistical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple approach for studying systems of compressed matter based on the Thomas-Fermi statistical model of single atom. The central point of our work is the development of the concept of “statistical ionization” by compression; in simple terms, we calculate the fraction of electrons within the atom whose positive energy, due to the compression, exceeds the negative binding energy electron-nucleus. Next we extend this concept from a single atom to macroscopic systems and write the corresponding equation of state. Positive aspects as well as limitations of the model are illustrated and discussed throughout the paper.

Delle Site, L.

2001-04-01

270

Blind compressive sensing dynamic MRI.  

PubMed

We propose a novel blind compressive sensing (BCS) frame work to recover dynamic magnetic resonance images from undersampled measurements. This scheme models the dynamic signal as a sparse linear combination of temporal basis functions, chosen from a large dictionary. In contrast to classical compressed sensing, the BCS scheme simultaneously estimates the dictionary and the sparse coefficients from the undersampled measurements. Apart from the sparsity of the coefficients, the key difference of the BCS scheme with current low rank methods is the nonorthogonal nature of the dictionary basis functions. Since the number of degrees-of-freedom of the BCS model is smaller than that of the low-rank methods, it provides improved reconstructions at high acceleration rates. We formulate the reconstruction as a constrained optimization problem; the objective function is the linear combination of a data consistency term and sparsity promoting l1 prior of the coefficients. The Frobenius norm dictionary constraint is used to avoid scale ambiguity. We introduce a simple and efficient majorize-minimize algorithm, which decouples the original criterion into three simpler subproblems. An alternating minimization strategy is used, where we cycle through the minimization of three simpler problems. This algorithm is seen to be considerably faster than approaches that alternates between sparse coding and dictionary estimation, as well as the extension of K-SVD dictionary learning scheme. The use of the l1 penalty and Frobenius norm dictionary constraint enables the attenuation of insignificant basis functions compared to the l0 norm and column norm constraint assumed in most dictionary learning algorithms; this is especially important since the number of basis functions that can be reliably estimated is restricted by the available measurements. We also observe that the proposed scheme is more robust to local minima compared to K-SVD method, which relies on greedy sparse coding. Our phase transition experiments demonstrate that the BCS scheme provides much better recovery rates than classical Fourier-based CS schemes, while being only marginally worse than the dictionary aware setting. Since the overhead in additionally estimating the dictionary is low, this method can be very useful in dynamic magnetic resonance imaging applications, where the signal is not sparse in known dictionaries. We demonstrate the utility of the BCS scheme in accelerating contrast enhanced dynamic data. We observe superior reconstruction performance with the BCS scheme in comparison to existing low rank and compressed sensing schemes. PMID:23542951

Lingala, Sajan Goud; Jacob, Mathews

2013-06-01

271

Image compression in local helioseismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Several upcoming helioseismology space missions are very limited in telemetry and will have to perform extensive data compression. This requires the development of new methods of data compression. Aims: We give an overview of the influence of lossy data compression on local helioseismology. We investigate the effects of several lossy compression methods (quantization, JPEG compression, and smoothing and subsampling) on power spectra and time-distance measurements of supergranulation flows at disk center. Methods: We applied different compression methods to tracked and remapped Dopplergrams obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We determined the signal-to-noise ratio of the travel times computed from the compressed data as a function of the compression efficiency. Results: The basic helioseismic measurements that we consider are very robust to lossy data compression. Even if only the sign of the velocity is used, time-distance helioseismology is still possible. We achieve the best results by applying JPEG compression on spatially subsampled data. However, our conclusions are only valid for supergranulation flows at disk center and may not be valid for all helioseismology applications.

Löptien, B.; Birch, A. C.; Gizon, L.; Schou, J.

2014-11-01

272

77 FR 62133 - Fire Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...8881 of October 5, 2012 Fire Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...heartbreaking. During Fire Prevention Week, we resolve to protect ourselves, our...immediately. As we mark Fire Prevention Week by recommitting to preparedness, we...

2012-10-12

273

77 FR 42941 - Captive Nations Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8841--Captive Nations Week, 2012 Memorandum of July 11, 2012...8841 of July 16, 2012 Captive Nations Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...Eisenhower first proclaimed Captive Nations Week amidst an escalating Cold War, he...

2012-07-20

274

Understanding Infidelity: An Interview with Gerald Weeks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this interview, Gerald Weeks shares his expertise on the topic of infidelity and couples counseling. Dr. Weeks defines infidelity, presents assessment strategies for treating the issue of infidelity, and discusses an intersystemic model for infidelity treatment when counseling couples. Dr. Weeks also provides insight into common mistakes made…

Smith, Travis

2011-01-01

275

78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...to be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to...summon us to experience it firsthand. This week, the National Park Service will make...

2013-04-24

276

Ultrasound beamforming using compressed data.  

PubMed

The rapid advancements in electronics technologies have made software-based beamformers for ultrasound array imaging feasible, thus facilitating the rapid development of high-performance and potentially low-cost systems. However, one challenge to realizing a fully software-based system is transferring data from the analog front end to the software back end at rates of up to a few gigabits per second. This study investigated the use of data compression to reduce the data transfer requirements and optimize the associated trade-off with beamforming quality. JPEG and JPEG2000 compression techniques were adopted. The acoustic data of a line phantom were acquired with a 128-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.5 MHz, and the acoustic data of a cyst phantom were acquired with a 64-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.33 MHz. The receive-channel data associated with each transmit event are separated into 8 × 8 blocks and several tiles before JPEG and JPEG2000 data compression is applied, respectively. In one scheme, the compression was applied to raw RF data, while in another only the amplitude of baseband data was compressed. The maximum compression ratio of RF data compression to produce an average error of lower than 5 dB was 15 with JPEG compression and 20 with JPEG2000 compression. The image quality is higher with baseband amplitude data compression than with RF data compression; although the maximum overall compression ratio (compared with the original RF data size), which was limited by the data size of uncompressed phase data, was lower than 12, the average error in this case was lower than 1 dB when the compression ratio was lower than 8. PMID:22434817

Li, Yen-Feng; Li, Pai-Chi

2012-05-01

277

Numerical simulation of 2D and 3D compressible flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work deals with numerical solutions of 2D inviscid and laminar compressible flows in the GAMM channel and DCA 8% cascade, and of 3D inviscid compressible flows in a 3D modification of the GAMM channel (Swept Wing). The FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method and the Lax-Wendroff scheme (Richtmyer's form) with Jameson's artificial dissipation were applied to obtain the numerical solutions. The results are discussed and compared to other similar results and experiments.

Huml, Jaroslav; Kozel, Karel; P?íhoda, Jaromír

2013-02-01

278

Region-based fractal image compression using heuristic search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents work carried out on fractal (or attractor) image compression. The approach relies on the assumption that image redundancy can be efficiently exploited through self-transformability. The algorithms described utilize a novel region-based partition of the image that greatly increases the compression ratios achieved over traditional block-based partitionings. Due to the large search spaces involved, heuristic algorithms are used to construct

Lester C. Thomas; Farzin Deravi

1995-01-01

279

An isentropic compression heated Ludwieg tube transient wind tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Syracuse University's Ludwieg tube with isentropic compression facility is a transient wind tunnel employing a piston drive that incorporates insentropic compression heating of the test gas located ahead of a piston. The facility is well-suited for experimental investigations concerning supersonic and subsonic vehicles over a wide range of pressures, Reynolds numbers, and temperatures; all three parameters can be almost independently controlled. Work at the facility currently includes wake-induced stagnation point heat transfer and supersonic boundary layer transition.

Magari, Patrick J.; Lagraff, John E.

1988-01-01

280

A new efficient method for color image compression based on visual attention mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key procedures in color image compression is to extract its region of interests (ROIs) and evaluate different compression ratios. A new non-uniform color image compression algorithm with high efficiency is proposed in this paper by using a biology-motivated selective attention model for the effective extraction of ROIs in natural images. When the ROIs have been extracted and labeled in the image, the subsequent work is to encode the ROIs and other regions with different compression ratios via popular JPEG algorithm. Furthermore, experiment results and quantitative and qualitative analysis in the paper show perfect performance when comparing with other traditional color image compression approaches.

Shao, Xiaoguang; Gao, Kun; Lv, Lily; Ni, Guoqiang

2010-11-01

281

Chiropractic management of a patient with ulnar nerve compression symptoms: a case report  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic management of a patient with arm and hand numbness and who was suspected to have ulnar nerve compression. Clinical Features A 41-year-old woman presented with hand weakness and numbness along the medial aspect of her right forearm and the 3 most medial fingers. The onset of symptoms presented suddenly, 3 weeks prior, when she woke up in the morning and assumed she had “slept wrong.” The patient’s posture showed protracted shoulders and moderate forward head carriage. Orthopedic assessment revealed symptomatic right elevated arm stress test, grip strength asymmetry, and a Tinel sign at the right cubital tunnel. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated using chiropractic care, which consisted of manipulative therapy, myofascial therapy, and elastic therapeutic taping. Active home care included performing postural exercises and education about workstation ergonomics. She demonstrated immediate subjective improvement of her numbness and weakness after the first treatment. Over a series of 11 treatments, her symptoms resolved completely; and she was able to perform work tasks without dysfunction. Conclusion Chiropractic treatment consisting of manipulation, soft tissue mobilizations, exercise, and education of workstation ergonomics appeared to reduce the symptoms of ulnar nerve compression symptoms for this patient. PMID:24294148

Illes, Jennifer D.; Johnson, Theodore L.

2013-01-01

282

Shock compression of formic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple molecules such as formic acid, HCOOH, have been suggested to play important roles in the origin of life due to their high pressure and temperature chemistry. The hydrogen bonding characteristics and polymerization of HCOOH under static high pressure have been recently investigated using both molecular dynamics calculations and experimental work. These works suggest that symmetric hydrogen bonding of HCOOH (forming a linear chain polymer where all C-O bonds are equivalent) occurs at 16 - 21 GPa at room temperature. In order to examine the shock compression behavior of this simple carboxylic acid, we present a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on formic acid with shock inputs in the range of 5.5 - 23.0 GPa. Using in-situ electromagnetic gauges, shock wave profiles (particle velocities) were measured at multiple positions as a function of shock input pressure, providing valuable information about its unreacted equation of state. No easily recognizable shock-induced reactions were observed in any of the four experiments, and the four points lie close to a universal liquid Hugoniot based only on the sound speed of formic acid.

Manner, Virginia W.; Sheffield, S. A.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Stahl, David B.

2012-03-01

283

Impact of JPEG2000 compression in correlation algorithms. Is subsampling a better compression  

E-print Network

Impact of JPEG2000 compression in correlation algorithms. Is subsampling a better compression denoising, texture synthesis, superresolution, etc. The jpeg2000 compression algorithm as the classical jpeg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Vertebral Compression Exacerbates Osteoporotic Pain in an Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Rat Model.  

PubMed

Study Design. Basic pain study using osteoporotic rodent models.Objective. To examine alterations in distribution of pain-related neuropeptides following compressive force on osteoporotic vertebrae and their chronic pain-related properties.Summary of Background Data. We previously reported significantly increased production of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a marker of inflammatory pain, in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of vertebrae in osteoporosis-model ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Here, we hypothesized that longitudinal compressive force on vertebrae can affect osteoporotic pain properties, which has not been examined yet.Methods. OVX rats were used as the osteoporosis model. Female Sprague Dawley rats were prepared and Fluoro-Gold (FG) neurotracer was applied to the periosteal surface of the Co5 vertebra. After FG-labeling, the animals were divided into 4 groups: Control, Control + compression, OVX, and OVX + compression. The Control groups were not ovariectomized. In the compression groups, K-wires were stabbed transversely through Co4 and Co6 with Co5 compressed longitudinally by rubber bands bridged between the two. One, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery, bilateral S1 to S3 DRGs were excised for immunofluorescence assays. Expression of CGRP and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3), a marker of neuronal injury, were compared among the 4 groups.Results. Sustained upregulation of CGRP in DRG neurons was observed following compression of the Co5 vertebra, and Co5 compression caused significant increase in CGRP production in DRG neurons, while a greater level of ATF-3 upregulation was observed in DRGs in OVX rats following dynamic vertebral compression 8 weeks after surgery, implying potential neuropathic pain.Conclusion: There was sustained upregulation of CGRP and ATF3 in DRGs in osteoporotic model rats compared with controls, and levels were further enhanced by dynamic vertebral compression. These findings imply that dynamic compression stress on vertebrae can exacerbate osteoporotic pain by inducing both inflammatory and neuropathic pain mediators. PMID:24026152

Suzuki, Miyako; Orita, Sumihisa; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Kamoda, Hiroto; Eguchi, Yawara; Arai, Gen; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Go; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Kawarai, Yuya; Yoshino, Kensuke; Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Kawakami, Mamoru; Ohtori, Seiji; Inoue, Gen

2013-09-10

285

Weekly patterns, diet quality and energy balance.  

PubMed

Human behaviour is made up of many repeated patterns and habitual behaviours. Our day to day lives are punctuated by work, education, domestic chores, sleep and food. Changes in daily patterns such as not working in paid employment or attending school on the weekend contribute significantly to changes in dietary patterns of food consumption, patterns of physical activity and ultimately energy balance. The aim of this paper is to adopt a life-course perspective and explore the changes in dietary quality and physical activity patterns across the week from young children to elderly adults with a focus on Western cultures. Research literature indicates that the dietary quality is somewhat poorer on the weekends, characterised by higher fat intakes, higher alcohol intakes and consequently higher energy intakes. This increase in energy intake is not necessarily offset by an increase in activity, rather an increase in sedentary behaviours. Some research has observed an increase of more than 100 cal per day over the weekend in American adults. Over the course of one year, this can result in a significant increase in body mass. Some of the interventions in tackling obesity and diet related behaviours must focus on the changes in the weekend behaviour of consumers in terms of both food and activity. These efforts should also focus on increasing consumer awareness of the long term consequences of the short lived weekend excess as well as putting in place practical measures and interventions that are evidence based and targeted to consumer needs. PMID:24589367

McCarthy, Sinéad

2014-07-01

286

Compression and Entrapment Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Family physicians are often confronted by patients who present with pain, numbness and weakness. Such complaints, when confined to a single extremity, most particularly to a restricted portion of the extremity, may indicate focal dysfunction of peripheral nerve structures arising from compression and/or entrapment, to which such nerves are selectively vulnerable. The authors of this article consider the paramount clinical features that allow the clinician to arrive at a correct diagnosis, reviews major points in differential diagnosis, and suggest appropriate management strategies. PMID:21263858

Heffernan, L.P.; Benstead, T.J.

1987-01-01

287

Beamforming using compressive sensing.  

PubMed

Compressive sensing (CS) is compared with conventional beamforming using horizontal beamforming of at-sea, towed-array data. They are compared qualitatively using bearing time records and quantitatively using signal-to-interference ratio. Qualitatively, CS exhibits lower levels of background interference than conventional beamforming. Furthermore, bearing time records show increasing, but tolerable, levels of background interference when the number of elements is decreased. For the full array, CS generates signal-to-interference ratio of 12 dB, but conventional beamforming only 8 dB. The superiority of CS over conventional beamforming is much more pronounced with undersampling. PMID:21974497

Edelmann, Geoffrey F; Gaumond, Charles F

2011-10-01

288

Educators' Guide to Ally Week  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ally is an individual who speaks out and stands up for a person or group that is targeted and/or discriminated against. An ally works to end oppression by supporting and advocating for people who are stigmatized, or treated unfairly because of who they are. In this context, Allies are referred to as people who do not identify as LGBT (lesbian,…

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2010

2010-01-01

289

Ultraspectral sounder data compression review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraspectral sounders provide an enormous amount of measurements to advance our knowledge of weather and climate applications.\\u000a The use of robust data compression techniques will be beneficial for ultraspectral data transfer and archiving. This paper\\u000a reviews the progress in lossless compression of ultraspectral sounder data. Various transform-based, prediction-based, and\\u000a clustering-based compression methods are covered. Also studied is a preprocessing scheme

Bormin Huang; Hunglung Huang

2008-01-01

290

Efficient image compression using directionlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directionlets are built as basis functions of critically sampled perfect-reconstruction transforms with directional vanishing moments imposed along different directions. We combine the directionlets with the space-frequency quantization (SFQ) image compression method, originally based on the standard two-dimensional wavelet transform. We show that our new compression method outperforms the standard SFQ as well as the state-of-the-art image compression methods, such as

V. Velisavljevic; Baltasar Beferull-Lozano; Martin Vetterli

2007-01-01

291

Shock compression of precompressed deuterium  

SciTech Connect

Here we report quasi-isentropic dynamic compression and thermodynamic characterization of solid, precompressed deuterium over an ultrafast time scale (< 100 ps) and a microscopic length scale (< 1 {micro}m). We further report a fast transition in shock wave compressed solid deuterium that is consistent with the ramp to shock transition, with a time scale of less than 10 ps. These results suggest that high-density dynamic compression of hydrogen may be possible on microscopic length scales.

Armstrong, M R; Crowhurst, J C; Zaug, J M; Bastea, S; Goncharov, A F; Militzer, B

2011-07-31

292

Data Compression for IR Reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent trends in airborne reconnaissance force the designers of IR reconnaissance sensors to study data compression methods so that the sensors can be more efficiently interfaced with real time data links and with magnetic recorders. The previous successful efforts in compressing FLIR data are briefly noted. Infrared line scanners have only recently become candidates for data compression. Some of the requirements and problems are noted for compressing line scan data. Applicable methods are presented, and a hybrid DPCM/Huffman Coder is described with some successful results.

McCracken, William

1985-12-01

293

Magnetic compression laser driving circuit  

DOEpatents

A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.; Cook, E.G.

1993-01-05

294

Compressive sensing of sparse tensors.  

PubMed

Compressive sensing (CS) has triggered an enormous research activity since its first appearance. CS exploits the signal's sparsity or compressibility in a particular domain and integrates data compression and acquisition, thus allowing exact reconstruction through relatively few nonadaptive linear measurements. While conventional CS theory relies on data representation in the form of vectors, many data types in various applications, such as color imaging, video sequences, and multisensor networks, are intrinsically represented by higher order tensors. Application of CS to higher order data representation is typically performed by conversion of the data to very long vectors that must be measured using very large sampling matrices, thus imposing a huge computational and memory burden. In this paper, we propose generalized tensor compressive sensing (GTCS)-a unified framework for CS of higher order tensors, which preserves the intrinsic structure of tensor data with reduced computational complexity at reconstruction. GTCS offers an efficient means for representation of multidimensional data by providing simultaneous acquisition and compression from all tensor modes. In addition, we propound two reconstruction procedures, a serial method and a parallelizable method. We then compare the performance of the proposed method with Kronecker compressive sensing (KCS) and multiway compressive sensing (MWCS). We demonstrate experimentally that GTCS outperforms KCS and MWCS in terms of both reconstruction accuracy (within a range of compression ratios) and processing speed. The major disadvantage of our methods (and of MWCS as well) is that the compression ratios may be worse than that offered by KCS. PMID:25137727

Friedland, Shmuel; Li, Qun; Schonfeld, Dan

2014-10-01

295

Cancer suppression by compression.  

PubMed

Recent experiments indicate that uniformly compressing a cancer mass at its surface tends to transform many of its cells from proliferative to functional forms. Cancer cells suffer from the Warburg effect, resulting from depleted levels of cell membrane potentials. We show that the compression results in added free energy and that some of the added energy contributes distortional pressure to the cells. This excites the piezoelectric effect on the cell membranes, in particular raising the potentials on the membranes of cancer cells from their depleted levels to near-normal levels. In a sample calculation, a gain of 150 mV in is so attained. This allows the Warburg effect to be reversed. The result is at least partially regained function and accompanying increased molecular order. The transformation remains even when the pressure is turned off, suggesting a change of phase; these possibilities are briefly discussed. It is found that if the pressure is, in particular, applied adiabatically the process obeys the second law of thermodynamics, further validating the theoretical model. PMID:25520262

Frieden, B Roy; Gatenby, Robert A

2015-01-01

296

Perceptually Lossless Wavelet Compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter, which we call DWT uniform quantization noise. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2(exp -1), where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and L is the wavelet level. Amplitude thresholds increase rapidly with spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from low-pass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We propose a mathematical model for DWT noise detection thresholds that is a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a 'perceptually lossless' quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.

Watson, Andrew B.; Yang, Gloria Y.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Villasenor, John

1996-01-01

297

Lossless compression algorithm for multispectral imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral imaging is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring the earth and its environment from space borne and airborne platforms. Multispectral imaging data consists of visible and IR measurements from a scene across space and spectrum. Growing data rates resulting from faster scanning and finer spatial and spectral resolution makes compression an increasingly critical tool to reduce data volume for transmission and archiving. Research for NOAA NESDIS has been directed to finding for the characteristics of satellite atmospheric Earth science Imager sensor data what level of Lossless compression ratio can be obtained as well as appropriate types of mathematics and approaches that can lead to approaching this data's entropy level. Conventional lossless do not achieve the theoretical limits for lossless compression on imager data as estimated from the Shannon entropy. In a previous paper, the authors introduce a lossless compression algorithm developed for MODIS as a proxy for future NOAA-NESDIS satellite based Earth science multispectral imagers such as GOES-R. The algorithm is based on capturing spectral correlations using spectral prediction, and spatial correlations with a linear transform encoder. In decompression, the algorithm uses a statistically computed look up table to iteratively predict each channel from a channel decompressed in the previous iteration. In this paper we present a new approach which fundamentally differs from our prior work. In this new approach, instead of having a single predictor for each pair of bands we introduce a piecewise spatially varying predictor which significantly improves the compression results. Our new algorithm also now optimizes the sequence of channels we use for prediction. Our results are evaluated by comparison with a state of the art wavelet based image compression scheme, Jpeg2000. We present results on the 14 channel subset of the MODIS imager, which serves as a proxy for the GOES-R imager. We will also show results of the algorithm for on NOAA AVHRR data and data from SEVIRI. The algorithm is designed to be adapted to the wide range of multispectral imagers and should facilitate distribution of data throughout globally. This compression research is managed by Roger Heymann, PE of OSD NOAA NESDIS Engineering, in collaboration with the NOAA NESDIS STAR Research Office through Mitch Goldberg, Tim Schmit, Walter Wolf.

Gladkova, Irina; Grossberg, Michael; Gottipati, Srikanth

2008-08-01

298

Optimization of compression ratio in compression ignition engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compression ignition engines often have conflicting compression ratio (CR) requirements for satisfactory performance over a wide range of operating conditions. A mathematical simulation program is introduced that can be used to determine the optimum CR for maximum break thermal efficiency under steady-state operating conditions as well as the optimum CR for satisfactory starting characteristics. The simulation program models the full

1987-01-01

299

Worksheet Math 124 Week 4 Worksheet for Week 4: Velocity and parametric curves  

E-print Network

Worksheet Math 124 Week 4 Worksheet for Week 4: Velocity and parametric curves In this worksheet)? #12;Worksheet Math 124 Week 4 (b) Now find a formula for y (t), the vertical velocity of the bug. (c;Worksheet Math 124 Week 4 (e) Suppose (a, b) is a point where the horizontal velocity x is zero

Sylvester, John

300

Worksheet Math 124 Week 7 Worksheet for Week 7: Related Rates  

E-print Network

Worksheet Math 124 Week 7 Worksheet for Week 7: Related Rates This worksheet guides you through: the volume below the 8-inch line and the volume above the 8-inch line. #12;Worksheet Math 124 Week 7 (c) Next, or by looking at the picture. How do you know your answer is correct? Page 2 #12;Worksheet Math 124 Week 7 2

Sylvester, John

301

Worksheet Math 124 Week 6 Worksheet for Week 6: Implicit Differentiation  

E-print Network

Worksheet Math 124 Week 6 Worksheet for Week 6: Implicit Differentiation In this worksheet, you. What goes wrong? #12;Worksheet Math 124 Week 6 2. In this problem you'll look at the curves from Page 1 graph above, to indicate in which direction the cat is running. Page 2 #12;Worksheet Math 124 Week 6 (c

Sylvester, John

302

Condor Week 2012 -May 2012 Remote Condor 1 Condor Week 2012  

E-print Network

Condor Week 2012 - May 2012 Remote Condor 1 Condor Week 2012 Remote Condor presented by J. M. Dost co-author I. Sfiligoi UC San Diego #12;Condor Week 2012 - May 2012 Remote Condor 2 Overview What is "Remote Condor"? Why you may want to use it? Detailed instructions Live demo #12;Condor Week 2012 - May

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

303

Condor Week 2008 -Apr 30, 2008 Pseudo Interactive monitoring -I. Sfiligoi 1 Condor Week 2008  

E-print Network

Condor Week 2008 - Apr 30, 2008 Pseudo Interactive monitoring - I. Sfiligoi 1 Condor Week 2008 Pseudo-interactive monitoring in Condor by Igor Sfiligoi #12;Condor Week 2008 - Apr 30, 2008 Pseudo, waiting for the jobs to finish may waste a lot of time and resources #12;Condor Week 2008 - Apr 30, 2008

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

304

Condor Week 2012 -May 2012 Remote Condor 1 Condor Week 2012  

E-print Network

Condor Week 2012 - May 2012 Remote Condor 1 Condor Week 2012 Remote Condor Demo presented by J. M. Dost co-author I. Sfiligoi UC San Diego #12;Condor Week 2012 - May 2012 Remote Condor 2 Remote Condor Demo The following slides provide step by step what was seen in the live demo #12;Condor Week 2222- May

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

305

Detecting double compression of audio signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MP3 is the most popular audio format nowadays in our daily life, for example music downloaded from the Internet and file saved in the digital recorder are often in MP3 format. However, low bitrate MP3s are often transcoded to high bitrate since high bitrate ones are of high commercial value. Also audio recording in digital recorder can be doctored easily by pervasive audio editing software. This paper presents two methods for the detection of double MP3 compression. The methods are essential for finding out fake-quality MP3 and audio forensics. The proposed methods use support vector machine classifiers with feature vectors formed by the distributions of the first digits of the quantized MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) coefficients. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To the best of our knowledge, this piece of work is the first one to detect double compression of audio signal.

Yang, Rui; Shi, Yun Q.; Huang, Jiwu

2010-01-01

306

Analysis of Usefulness of a Fuzzy Transform for Industrial Data Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the first part of an ongoing work on detailed analysis of compression algorithms and development of an algorithm for implementation in a real industrial data processing system. Fuzzy transforms give promising results in an image compression. The main aim of this paper is to test the possibility of an application of the fuzzy transforms to the industrial data compression. Test are carried out on the data from DAMADICS benchmark. Comparison is provided with a piecewise linear compression, which is nowadays the standard in the industry. The last section contains discussion of the obtained results and plans for the future work.

Sztyber, Anna

2014-12-01

307

Coil Compression for Accelerated Imaging with Cartesian Sampling  

PubMed Central

MRI using receiver arrays with many coil elements can provide high signal-to-noise ratio and increase parallel imaging acceleration. At the same time, the growing number of elements results in larger datasets and more computation in the reconstruction. This is of particular concern in 3D acquisitions and in iterative reconstructions. Coil compression algorithms are effective in mitigating this problem by compressing data from many channels into fewer virtual coils. In Cartesian sampling there often are fully sampled k-space dimensions. In this work, a new coil compression technique for Cartesian sampling is presented that exploits the spatially varying coil sensitivities in these non-subsampled dimensions for better compression and computation reduction. Instead of directly compressing in k-space, coil compression is performed separately for each spatial location along the fully-sampled directions, followed by an additional alignment process that guarantees the smoothness of the virtual coil sensitivities. This important step provides compatibility with autocalibrating parallel imaging techniques. Its performance is not susceptible to artifacts caused by a tight imaging fieldof-view. High quality compression of in-vivo 3D data from a 32 channel pediatric coil into 6 virtual coils is demonstrated. PMID:22488589

Zhang, Tao; Pauly, John M.; Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Lustig, Michael

2012-01-01

308

Compression and compression fatigue testing of composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of moisture and temperature on the fatigue and fracture response of composite laminates under compression loads were investigated. The structural laminates studied were an intermediate stiffness graphite-epoxy composite (a typical angle ply laimna liminate had a typical fan blade laminate). Full and half penetration slits and impact delaminations were the defects examined. Results are presented which show the effects of moisture on the fracture and fatigue strength at room temperature, 394 K (250 F), and 422 K (300 F). Static tests results show the effects of defect size and type on the compression-fracture strength under moisture and thermal environments. The cyclic tests results compare the fatigue lives and residual compression strength under compression only and under tension-compression fatigue loading.

Porter, T. R.

1982-01-01

309

Survey of Header Compression Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides a summary of several different header compression techniques. The different techniques included are: (1) Van Jacobson's header compression (RFC 1144); (2) SCPS (Space Communications Protocol Standards) header compression (SCPS-TP, SCPS-NP); (3) Robust header compression (ROHC); and (4) The header compression techniques in RFC2507 and RFC2508. The methodology for compression and error correction for these schemes are described in the remainder of this document. All of the header compression schemes support compression over simplex links, provided that the end receiver has some means of sending data back to the sender. However, if that return path does not exist, then neither Van Jacobson's nor SCPS can be used, since both rely on TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). In addition, under link conditions of low delay and low error, all of the schemes perform as expected. However, based on the methodology of the schemes, each scheme is likely to behave differently as conditions degrade. Van Jacobson's header compression relies heavily on the TCP retransmission timer and would suffer an increase in loss propagation should the link possess a high delay and/or bit error rate (BER). The SCPS header compression scheme protects against high delay environments by avoiding delta encoding between packets. Thus, loss propagation is avoided. However, SCPS is still affected by an increased BER (bit-error-rate) since the lack of delta encoding results in larger header sizes. Next, the schemes found in RFC2507 and RFC2508 perform well for non-TCP connections in poor conditions. RFC2507 performance with TCP connections is improved by various techniques over Van Jacobson's, but still suffers a performance hit with poor link properties. Also, RFC2507 offers the ability to send TCP data without delta encoding, similar to what SCPS offers. ROHC is similar to the previous two schemes, but adds additional CRCs (cyclic redundancy check) into headers and improves compression schemes which provide better tolerances in conditions with a high BER.

Ishac, Joseph

2001-01-01

310

Subjective evaluation of compressed image quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lossy data compression generates distortion or error on the reconstructed image and the distortion becomes visible as the compression ratio increases. Even at the same compression ratio, the distortion appears differently depending on the compression method used. Because of the nonlinearity of the human visual system and lossy data compression methods, we have evaluated subjectively the quality of medical images

Heesub Lee; Alan H. Rowberg; Mark S. Frank; Hyung-Sik Choi; Yongmin Kim

1992-01-01

311

A Tutorial on MPEG\\/Audio Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This tutorial covers the theory behind MPEG\\/audio compression This algorithm was developed by the Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG), as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard for the high fidelity compression of digital audio The MPEG\\/audio compression standard is one part of a multiple part standard that addresses the compression of video - 2), the compression of audio

Davis Pan

1995-01-01

312

Application specific compression : final report.  

SciTech Connect

With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

2008-12-01

313

On compressing the textual web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays we know how to effectively compress most ba- sic components of any modern search engine, such as, the graphs arising from the Web structure and\\/or its usage, the posting lists, and the dictionary of terms. But we are not aware of any study which has deeply addressed the issue of compressing the raw Web pages. Many Web applications use

Paolo Ferragina; Giovanni Manzini

2010-01-01

314

On the Compressible Bidirectional Vortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical solution that describes the compressible bidirectional vortex. Similar studies by the authors have extended the Taylor and Culick profiles to incorporate the effects of compressibility in porous channels and tubes. Our study is prompted by the need to better understand the flow behavior at high speed in swirl-driven thrust chambers

Brian A. Maicke; Joseph Majdalani

2008-01-01

315

Quad tree based Image compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, variable image segmentation and mixed transform are used to capitalize on the narrow band and broadband signal components for image compression. A mixture of transforms can exploit the different spectral bands in an image in achieve higher compression as compared to single transforms. However, the optimal distribution of the signal into transforms. However, the optimal distribution of

Shekhar Verma; A. K. Pandit

2008-01-01

316

Adaptive efficient compression of genomes  

PubMed Central

Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. However, memory requirements of the current algorithms are high and run times often are slow. In this paper, we propose an adaptive, parallel and highly efficient referential sequence compression method which allows fine-tuning of the trade-off between required memory and compression speed. When using 12 MB of memory, our method is for human genomes on-par with the best previous algorithms in terms of compression ratio (400:1) and compression speed. In contrast, it compresses a complete human genome in just 11 seconds when provided with 9 GB of main memory, which is almost three times faster than the best competitor while using less main memory. PMID:23146997

2012-01-01

317

Data compression by wavelet transforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wavelet transform algorithm is applied to image compression. It is observed that the algorithm does not suffer from the blockiness characteristic of the DCT-based algorithms at compression ratios exceeding 25:1, but the edges do not appear as sharp as they do with the latter method. Some suggestions for the improved performance of the wavelet transform method are presented.

Shahshahani, M.

1992-01-01

318

Analysis of clay layer compression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze time series data for long-term ground subsidence in response to dewatering. From this analysis, the students can back-figure the compressibility of a clay lens that is compressing, and the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the clay. The data may be downloaded from the book web site and imported into a spreadsheet for analysis.

Charlie Fitts

319

Data Compression with Prime Numbers  

E-print Network

A compression algorithm is presented that uses the set of prime numbers. Sequences of numbers are correlated with the prime numbers, and labeled with the integers. The algorithm can be iterated on data sets, generating factors of doubles on the compression.

Gordon Chalmers

2005-11-16

320

Quantum fluctuations in Compressed Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed Sensing (CS) is a new method of signal and image processing which allows for exact recovery of an image from a number of samples much smaller than that required by the Nyquist\\/Shannon theorem. Compressed Sensing uses a priori information about the object called “sparsity”, which means that only a small number of image samples are nonzero. We have analyzed

Hui Wang; Shensheng Han; Mikhail I. Kolobov

2011-01-01

321

Edge compression manifold apparatus  

DOEpatents

A manifold for connecting external capillaries to the inlet and/or outlet ports of a microfluidic device for high pressure applications is provided. The fluid connector for coupling at least one fluid conduit to a corresponding port of a substrate that includes: (i) a manifold comprising one or more channels extending therethrough wherein each channel is at least partially threaded, (ii) one or more threaded ferrules each defining a bore extending therethrough with each ferrule supporting a fluid conduit wherein each ferrule is threaded into a channel of the manifold, (iii) a substrate having one or more ports on its upper surface wherein the substrate is positioned below the manifold so that the one or more ports is aligned with the one or more channels of the manifold, and (iv) device to apply an axial compressive force to the substrate to couple the one or more ports of the substrate to a corresponding proximal end of a fluid conduit.

Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2007-02-27

322

Compressed quantum simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, I summarize the results presented in B. Kraus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 250503 (2011). Recently, it has been shown that certain circuits, the so-called match gate circuits, can be compressed to an exponentially smaller universal quantum computation. We use this result to demonstrate that the simulation of a 1-D Ising chain consisting of n qubits can be performed on a universal quantum computer running on only log(n) qubits. We show how the adiabatic evolution can be simulated on this exponentially smaller system and how the magnetization can be measured. Since the Ising model displays a quantum phase transition, this result implies that a quantum phase transition of a very large system can be observed with current technology.

Kraus, B.

2014-12-01

323

Compressive Network Analysis  

PubMed Central

Modern data acquisition routinely produces massive amounts of network data. Though many methods and models have been proposed to analyze such data, the research of network data is largely disconnected with the classical theory of statistical learning and signal processing. In this paper, we present a new framework for modeling network data, which connects two seemingly different areas: network data analysis and compressed sensing. From a nonparametric perspective, we model an observed network using a large dictionary. In particular, we consider the network clique detection problem and show connections between our formulation with a new algebraic tool, namely Randon basis pursuit in homogeneous spaces. Such a connection allows us to identify rigorous recovery conditions for clique detection problems. Though this paper is mainly conceptual, we also develop practical approximation algorithms for solving empirical problems and demonstrate their usefulness on real-world datasets.

Jiang, Xiaoye; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Han; Guibas, Leonidas

2014-01-01

324

Vapor compression distillation module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

Nuccio, P. P.

1975-01-01

325

Population attribute compression  

DOEpatents

An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

White, James M. (Los Alamos, NM); Faber, Vance (Los Alamos, NM); Saltzman, Jeffrey S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

326

Oxygen isotope ratios from tree rings containing compression wood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotope determinations on the ?-cellulose of tree rings cut from two leaning Picea engelmannii revealed significant differences between results from normal and compression wood radii. Nine samples (10-year periods) from the normal wood radius (1721-1953) in one tree showed good agreement with proxy climate information and maximum differences of 1.8‰ between the "warmest" and "coolest" decades sampled. Differences of equivalent magnitude were found between samples from the same decade from normal and compression wood radii. These differences are strongly related to the amount and/or density of compression wood present and suggest that sampling for paleoclimatic work should be restricted to complacent, erect trees without compression wood rings.

Luckman, Brian; Gray, John

1990-01-01

327

CCD noise influence on JPEG2000 compression of astronomical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compression of astronomical images is still current task. In most applications, lossless approaches are used that do no damage to the compressed data. These algorithms, however, have lower compression ratios and are not as effective. It is therefore important to deal with more efficient lossy compression techniques. For them it is necessary to define quality criteria and level of acceptable distortion of image data. The usual multimedia approach is not possible to use for the scientific image data. They are optimized for human vision. This work deals with the influence of noise generated in the CCD structure to the defined quality criteria. It will also be shown the impact of the lossy standard JPEG2000 on quality of image data in astronomy.

Páta, Petr

2012-02-01

328

CCD noise influence on JPEG2000 compression of astronomical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compression of astronomical images is still current task. In most applications, lossless approaches are used that do no damage to the compressed data. These algorithms, however, have lower compression ratios and are not as effective. It is therefore important to deal with more efficient lossy compression techniques. For them it is necessary to define quality criteria and level of acceptable distortion of image data. The usual multimedia approach is not possible to use for the scientific image data. They are optimized for human vision. This work deals with the influence of noise generated in the CCD structure to the defined quality criteria. It will also be shown the impact of the lossy standard JPEG2000 on quality of image data in astronomy.

Páta, Petr

2011-09-01

329

Correlation estimation and performance optimization for distributed image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlation estimation plays a critical role in resource allocation and rate control for distributed data compression. A Wyner-Ziv encoder for distributed image compression is often considered as a lossy source encoder followed by a lossless Slepian-Wolf encoder. The source encoder consists of spatial transform, quantization, and bit plane extraction. In this work, we find that Gray code, which has been extensively used in digital modulation, is able to significantly improve the correlation between the source data and its side information. Theoretically, we analyze the behavior of Gray code within the context of distributed image compression. Using this theoretical model, we are able to efficiently allocate the bit budget and determine the code rate of the Slepian-Wolf encoder. Our experimental results demonstrate that the Gray code, coupled with accurate correlation estimation and rate control, significantly improves the picture quality, by up to 4 dB, over the existing methods for distributed image compression.

He, Zhihai; Cao, Lei; Cheng, Hui

2006-01-01

330

Solar Week Tuesday: Meet Today's Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of readings associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Female scientists with different perspectives about the Sun are highlighted in the online readings. This activity is scheduled to occur during Tuesday of Solar Week.

331

Solar Week Wednesday: The Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short online reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Learners will read about how Earth is protected from the harmful effects of solar radiation. This activity is scheduled to occur during Wednesday of Solar Week.

332

Solar Week Monday: Play the Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a game associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. During this game, learners use clues to find out the color, average size, temperature, and location of the Sun. This activity is scheduled to occur during Monday of Solar Week.

2012-08-03

333

Solar Week Friday: Research Jobs & Salaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading and research activity associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. During this activity, learners research different science jobs and salary ranges in several online employment databases and answer related questions. This activity is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

2012-08-03

334

Solar Week Friday: Learn about Solar Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a set of biographical readings by which learners can find out more about female solar scientists. This reading activity is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

335

Free compressible jet investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) effect on a supersonic turbulent jet was investigated. A dedicated convergent/divergent nozzle together with a flow feeding system was designed and manufactured. A nozzle Mach exit of M j = 1.5 was selected in order to obtain a convective Mach number of M c = 0.6. The flow was investigated for over-expanded, correctly expanded and under-expanded jet conditions. Mach number, total temperature and flow velocity measurements were carried out in order to characterise the jet behaviour. The inlet conditions of the jet flow were monitored in order to calculate the nozzle exit speed of sound and evaluate the mean Mach number distribution starting from the flow velocity data. A detailed analysis of the Mach results obtained by a static Pitot probe and by a particle image velocimetry measurement system was carried out. The mean flow velocity was investigated, and the axial Mach decay and the spreading rate were associated with the flow structures and with the compressibility effects. Aerodynamics of the different jet conditions was evaluated, and the shock cells structures were detected and discussed correlating the jet structure to the flow fluctuation and local turbulence. The longitudinal and radial distribution of the total temperature was investigated, and the temperature profiles were analysed and discussed. The total temperature behaviour was correlated to the turbulent phenomena and to the NPR jet conditions. Self-similarity condition was encountered and discussed for the over-expanded jet. Compressibility effects on the local turbulence, on the turbulent kinetic energy and on the Reynolds tensor were discussed.

De Gregorio, Fabrizio

2014-03-01

336

K.K. Gan ATLAS Pixel Week 1 New Results on Opto-electronics  

E-print Network

of bright/dim currents on Iset is as expected q 16/18 VDC works with 2.5V! #12;K.K. Gan ATLAS Pixel Week 8K.K. Gan ATLAS Pixel Week 1 New Results on Opto-electronics K.K. Gan The Ohio State University October 9, 2001 #12;K.K. Gan ATLAS Pixel Week 2 Outline q Introduction q Result on VDC-I1/DORIC-I1 q

Gan, K. K.

337

5 CFR 610.121 - Establishment of work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of work schedules. 610.121 Section 610.121 Administrative...REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.121 Establishment of work...

2014-01-01

338

5 CFR 610.121 - Establishment of work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of work schedules. 610.121 Section 610.121 Administrative...REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.121 Establishment of work...

2010-01-01

339

5 CFR 610.121 - Establishment of work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of work schedules. 610.121 Section 610.121 Administrative...REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.121 Establishment of work...

2011-01-01

340

5 CFR 610.121 - Establishment of work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of work schedules. 610.121 Section 610.121 Administrative...REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.121 Establishment of work...

2013-01-01

341

5 CFR 610.121 - Establishment of work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of work schedules. 610.121 Section 610.121 Administrative...REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.121 Establishment of work...

2012-01-01

342

Compressing Packets Adaptively Inside Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introducing adaptive online data compression at network-internal nodes is considered for alleviating traffic congestion on the network. In this paper, we assume that advanced relay nodes, which possess both a relay function (network resource) and a processing function (computational and storage resources), are placed inside the network, and we propose an adaptive online lossless packet compression scheme utilized at these nodes. This scheme selectively compresses a packet according to its waiting time in the queue during congestion. Through preliminary investigation using actual traffic datasets, we investigate the compression ratio and processing time of packet-by-packet compression in actual network environments. Then, by means of computer simulations, we show that the proposed scheme reduces the packet delay time and discard rate and investigate factors necessary in achieving efficient packet relay.

Shimamura, Masayoshi; Koga, Hiroyuki; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Tsuru, Masato

343

Change Detection with Compressive Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quickest change point detection is concerned with the detection of statistical change(s) in sequences while minimizing the detection delay subject to false alarm constraints. In this paper, the problem of change point detection is studied when the decision maker only has access to compressive measurements. First, an expression for the average detection delay of Shiryaev's procedure with compressive measurements is derived in the asymptotic regime where the probability of false alarm goes to zero. Second, the dependence of the delay on the compression ratio and the signal to noise ratio is explicitly quantified. The ratio of delays with and without compression is studied under various sensing matrix constructions, including Gaussian ensembles and random projections. For a target ratio of the delays after and before compression, a sufficient condition on the number of measurements required to meet this objective with prespecified probability is derived.

Atia, George K.

2015-02-01

344

Hyperelastic Material Properties of Mouse Skin under Compression  

PubMed Central

The skin is a dynamic organ whose complex material properties are capable of withstanding continuous mechanical stress while accommodating insults and organism growth. Moreover, synchronized hair cycles, comprising waves of hair growth, regression and rest, are accompanied by dramatic fluctuations in skin thickness in mice. Whether such structural changes alter skin mechanics is unknown. Mouse models are extensively used to study skin biology and pathophysiology, including aging, UV-induced skin damage and somatosensory signaling. As the skin serves a pivotal role in the transfer function from sensory stimuli to neuronal signaling, we sought to define the mechanical properties of mouse skin over a range of normal physiological states. Skin thickness, stiffness and modulus were quantitatively surveyed in adult, female mice (Mus musculus). These measures were analyzed under uniaxial compression, which is relevant for touch reception and compression injuries, rather than tension, which is typically used to analyze skin mechanics. Compression tests were performed with 105 full-thickness, freshly isolated specimens from the hairy skin of the hind limb. Physiological variables included body weight, hair-cycle stage, maturity level, skin site and individual animal differences. Skin thickness and stiffness were dominated by hair-cycle stage at young (6–10 weeks) and intermediate (13–19 weeks) adult ages but by body weight in mature mice (26–34 weeks). Interestingly, stiffness varied inversely with thickness so that hyperelastic modulus was consistent across hair-cycle stages and body weights. By contrast, the mechanics of hairy skin differs markedly with anatomical location. In particular, skin containing fascial structures such as nerves and blood vessels showed significantly greater modulus than adjacent sites. Collectively, this systematic survey indicates that, although its structure changes dramatically throughout adult life, mouse skin at a given location maintains a constant elastic modulus to compression throughout normal physiological stages. PMID:23825661

Wang, Yuxiang; Marshall, Kara L.; Baba, Yoshichika; Gerling, Gregory J.; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

2013-01-01

345

A COMPRESSION METHOD FOR 3-D LASER RANGE SCANS OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS BASED ON COMPRESSIVE SENSING  

E-print Network

efficiently. We propose a novel compression technique based on compressive sensing for 3-D range measurements. The compression ratio (CR), which is the ratio of the size of the compressed output to the size of the originalA COMPRESSION METHOD FOR 3-D LASER RANGE SCANS OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS BASED ON COMPRESSIVE SENSING

Barshan, Billur

346

An efficient and extensible approach for compressing phylogenetic trees  

PubMed Central

Background Biologists require new algorithms to efficiently compress and store their large collections of phylogenetic trees. Our previous work showed that TreeZip is a promising approach for compressing phylogenetic trees. In this paper, we extend our TreeZip algorithm by handling trees with weighted branches. Furthermore, by using the compressed TreeZip file as input, we have designed an extensible decompressor that can extract subcollections of trees, compute majority and strict consensus trees, and merge tree collections using set operations such as union, intersection, and set difference. Results On unweighted phylogenetic trees, TreeZip is able to compress Newick files in excess of 98%. On weighted phylogenetic trees, TreeZip is able to compress a Newick file by at least 73%. TreeZip can be combined with 7zip with little overhead, allowing space savings in excess of 99% (unweighted) and 92%(weighted). Unlike TreeZip, 7zip is not immune to branch rotations, and performs worse as the level of variability in the Newick string representation increases. Finally, since the TreeZip compressed text (TRZ) file contains all the semantic information in a collection of trees, we can easily filter and decompress a subset of trees of interest (such as the set of unique trees), or build the resulting consensus tree in a matter of seconds. We also show the ease of which set operations can be performed on TRZ files, at speeds quicker than those performed on Newick or 7zip compressed Newick files, and without loss of space savings. Conclusions TreeZip is an efficient approach for compressing large collections of phylogenetic trees. The semantic and compact nature of the TRZ file allow it to be operated upon directly and quickly, without a need to decompress the original Newick file. We believe that TreeZip will be vital for compressing and archiving trees in the biological community. PMID:22165819

2011-01-01

347

Advanced Controls for Industrial Compressed Air Systems  

E-print Network

An integrated solution to control compressed air systems has been developed which significantly improves the quality of the compressed air, while decreasing operating expenses. Honeywell's XCEED™ compressed air system solution has been installed...

Vold, P.; Gabel, S.; Carmichael, L.; Curtner, K.; Cirillo, N. C. Jr.

348

Work–life strategies in the Australian construction industry: Implementation issues in a dynamic project-based work environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A participatory work–life balance intervention was implemented in a medium-sized construction contracting organization based in Melbourne, Australia. Weekly data capturing the number of hours worked, satisfaction with work–life balance and capacity to complete required tasks at work and at home were collected for 25 consecutive weeks. Data was subjected to time series modeling procedures and weekly work hours were found

Helen Lingard; Valerie Francis; Michelle Turner

349

Compression socks and functional recovery following marathon running: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Armstrong, SA, Till, ES, Maloney, SR, and Harris, GA. Compression socks and functional recovery following marathon running: A randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 29(2): 528-533, 2015-Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running. Athletes (n = 33, age, 38.5 ± 7.2 years) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra, or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomized into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant. Thirty-three participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group, average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks after the marathon increased by 2.6% (52 ± 103 seconds). In the placebo group, run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62 ± 130 seconds), P = 0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared with placebo. The wearing of below-knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks after the event. PMID:25627452

Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen R; Harris, Gregory A

2015-02-01

350

High power pulse compression using magnetic flux compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design of high power pulse compression by (axial) magnetic flux compression is presented. Optimal model parameters are presented for liner plasma using the thin-shell model code and finite element analyses for stator coils design. Typical model simulation results indicated that a 1.5 ?s rise-time pulse with 7.5 MA peak value could be compressed to 20 MA peak value fast rise pulse (˜40 ns rise-time) in the secondary circuit with a 0.5 ? external load. The limitations resulting from Joule heating and extra high magnetic field diffusion on stator coils are discussed.

Xu, Fu-Kai; Ding, Wu

2012-05-01

351

Proceedings of the Communications Theory MiniConference at GLOBECOM '94, San Francisco, California, pp. 120--126 A TESBASED MODEL FOR COMPRESSED  

E-print Network

, pp. 120--126 A TES­BASED MODEL FOR COMPRESSED ``STAR WARS'' VIDEO BENJAMIN MELAMED NEC USA Inc. 4 of the entire ``Star Wars'' movie under a JPEG­like compression. The goal of this work is to develop

352

Relations of Work Identity, Family Identity, Situational Demands, and Sex with Employee Work Hours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…

Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.

2012-01-01

353

Clinical Evaluation of Compression Ratios using JPEG2000 on Computed Radiography Chest Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The efficient compression of radiographic images is of importance for improved storage and network utilization in support\\u000a of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) applications. The DICOM Working Group 4 adopted JPEG2000 as an additional\\u000a compression standard in Supplement 61 over the existing JPEG. The wavelet-based JPEG2000 can achieve higher compression ratios\\u000a with less distortion than the Discrete Cosine Transform

Min-mo Sung; Hee-joung Kim; Sun Kook Yoo; Byoung-wook Choi; Ji-eun Nam; Hye-sung Kim; Jae-hoon Lee; Hyung-sik Yoo

2002-01-01

354

Streaming Compression of Tetrahedral Volume Meshes  

SciTech Connect

Geometry processing algorithms have traditionally assumed that the input data is entirely in main memory and available for random access. This assumption does not scale to large data sets, as exhausting the physical memory typically leads to IO-inefficient thrashing. Recent works advocate processing geometry in a 'streaming' manner, where computation and output begin as soon as possible. Streaming is suitable for tasks that require only local neighbor information and batch process an entire data set. We describe a streaming compression scheme for tetrahedral volume meshes that encodes vertices and tetrahedra in the order they are written. To keep the memory footprint low, the compressor is informed when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. are finalized). The compression achieved depends on how coherent the input order is and how many tetrahedra are buffered for local reordering. For reasonably coherent orderings and a buffer of 10,000 tetrahedra, we achieve compression rates that are only 25 to 40 percent above the state-of-the-art, while requiring drastically less memory resources and less than half the processing time.

Isenburg, M; Lindstrom, P; Gumhold, S; Shewchuk, J

2005-11-21

355

Progressive ROI coding and diagnostic quality for medical image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the delicate problem of lossy compression of medical images. More specifically, a selective allocation of coding resources is introduced based on the concept of 'diagnostic interest' and an interactive methodology based on a new measure of 'diagnostic quality'. The selective allocation of resources is made possible by a selection a priori of regions of specific interest for diagnostic purpose. The idea is to change the precision of representation in a transformed domain of region of particular interest, through a weighting procedure by an on- line user-defined quantization matrix. The overall compression method is multi-resolution, provides for an embedded generation of the bit-stream and guarantees for a good rate-distortion trade-off, at various bit-rates, with spatially varying reconstruction quality. This work also analyzes the delicate issue of a professional usage of lossy compression in a PACS environment. The proposed compression methodology gives interesting insights in favor of using lossy compression in a controlled fashion by the expert radiologist. Most of the ideas presented in this work have been confirmed by extensive experimental simulations involving medical expertise.

Signoroni, Alberto; Leonardi, Riccardo

1998-01-01

356

Crucial Week for Northern Ireland Peace Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) leader and First Minister of the currently-suspended Northern Irish government David Trimble announced that he would rejoin the power-sharing executive alongside Sinn Fein, provided he receives majority support at the May 27 meeting of the 860-member Ulster Unionist Council. Events in Northern Ireland have taken on a new momentum since the May 6 announcement by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) that they would place their arms "beyond use" by sealing them in bunkers which would be periodically inspected by foreign arms inspectors. At first, this statement was met with considerable enthusiasm in the UK and Ireland, and the British government took steps to reinstate the home rule government in Northern Ireland that had been suspended in February because of a deadlock over arms decommissioning. The target date was set for May 22, and a meeting of the Ulster Unionist Council was scheduled for May 20. In the past week and a half, however, a number of difficulties have arisen, particularly Unionist opposition to a number of proposed changes to the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), Northern Ireland's police force, to make it more acceptable to all sections of the community, including a proposed name change to the Northern Ireland Police Service. British officials, especially Northern Ireland Secretary Peter Mandelson, have been working to address the Unionists's concerns without angering the Catholic and Nationalist communities by diluting what they regard as essential reforms. While it appears that David Trimble is now ready to reenter the government, the majority of his party clearly was not, and it was almost certain he would have lost the (now rescheduled) vote on May 20. He will now use this next week to privately and publicly lobby his party to take the risk with him and rejoin Sinn Fein in the power-sharing government. If he is successful, it may very well mark a new departure in Unionist politics; should he lose the vote, he would most probably lose the leadership of the party, gravely jeopardizing the immediate future of the peace process.

De Nie, Michael W.

357

78 FR 30723 - National Safe Boating Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8981--National Safe Boating Week, 2013 Proclamation 8982--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2013 Proclamation 8983--World Trade Week, 2013 Proclamation 8984--Armed Forces Day, 2013 Memorandum...

2013-05-22

358

IWSA WEEKLY UPDATE January 23, 2009  

E-print Network

Gillebrand (D-NY) wrote an op-ed this week in the Poughkeepsie Journal citing waste-to-energy as a tool the development of renewable energy in the stIWSA WEEKLY UPDATE January 23, 2009 WTE DEVELOPMENTS The House Ways and Means Committee yesterday

Columbia University

359

Banned Books Week: Just the Beginning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Founded in 1982, Banned Books Week is celebrated annually during the last week in September and will be observed from September 26-October 3 in 2009. The event acknowledges Americans' right to read the books of their choice regardless of whether the ideas, language, or images are controversial. This annual observance of banned books is a good…

Adams, Helen R.

2009-01-01

360

Using the Weekly Newspaper in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for teachers in all subject areas at the elementary and secondary school levels, this booklet contains a variety of activities involving the use of the weekly newspaper as a teaching aid. Following a list of features of a weekly newspaper that make it suitable for classroom instruction, the activities are presented for elementary and…

Becker, Sharon; Kendall, Stuart

361

IWSA WEEKLY UPDATE January 30, 2009  

E-print Network

to promote renewable energy technologies, create green jobs and tackle pollution and climate change. RepsIWSA WEEKLY UPDATE January 30, 2009 WTE DEVELOPMENTS The Senate Finance Committee this week the provisions in the House and Senate bills is attached to this email. EPA's Office of Solid Waste has changed

Columbia University

362

Best compression: Reciprocating or rotary?  

SciTech Connect

A compressor is a device used to increase the pressure of a compressible fluid. The inlet pressure can vary from a deep vacuum to a high positive pressure. The discharge pressure can range from subatmospheric levels to tens of thousands of pounds per square inch. Compressors come in numerous forms, but for oilfield applications there are two primary types, reciprocating and rotary. Both reciprocating and rotary compressors are grouped in the intermittent mode of compression. Intermittent is cyclic in nature, in that a specific quantity of gas is ingested by the compressor, acted upon and discharged before the cycle is repeated. Reciprocating compression is the most common form of compression used for oilfield applications. Rotary screw compressors have a long history but are relative newcomers to oilfield applications. The rotary screw compressor-technically a helical rotor compressor-dates back to 1878. That was when the first rotary screw was manufactured for the purpose of compressing air. Today thousands of rotary screw compression packages are being used throughout the world to compress natural gas.

Cahill, C.

1997-07-01

363

Error-resilient video compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video compression reduces the required bit rate and thereby enables a number of applications such as digital television and video over the Internet. However, compression also makes the video much more susceptible to errors, e.g. bit errors or packet loss. Generally there is a tradeoff between the compression of a signal and the error resilience of the compressed representation. However, recently there have been a number of developments which provide significant improvements in error-resilience while resulting in relatively small reductions in compression. This paper provides an overview of current error-resilient compression methods and also proposes an error-resilient coding scheme referred to as Multiple State Streams (MSS). Conventional video compression standards employ a similar architecture which we refer to as single-state systems since they have a single state (e.g. the previously decoded frame) which if lost or corrupted adversely affects all subsequent frames until the state is reinitialized (the prediction is refreshed). We propose to combat this problem of incorrect state at the decoder with MSS by coding the video into multiple independently decodable streams, each with its own prediction process and state, such that if one stream is lost the other streams can still be used to produce usable video. More importantly, the correctly received streams provide improved error concealment and enable faster state recovery for the lost stream.

Apostolopoulos, John G.

1999-11-01

364

Restoring a Master Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does it take to restore a 350 year old painting? This site shows you! For ten weeks, conservators Joan Gorman and David Marquis worked on a painting by Italian painter Guercino during museum hours. That way, visitors got to see each stage in the restoration process. Click here to see for yourself.Please note: as of 07/06/2012, not all the links at this site were available.

Joan Gorman

365

Estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics using Benford's Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the tremendous growth and usage of digital images nowadays, the integrity and authenticity of digital content is becoming increasingly important, and a growing concern to many government and commercial sectors. Image Forensics, based on a passive statistical analysis of the image data only, is an alternative approach to the active embedding of data associated with Digital Watermarking. Benford's Law was first introduced to analyse the probability distribution of the 1st digit (1-9) numbers of natural data, and has since been applied to Accounting Forensics for detecting fraudulent income tax returns [9]. More recently, Benford's Law has been further applied to image processing and image forensics. For example, Fu et al. [5] proposed a Generalised Benford's Law technique for estimating the Quality Factor (QF) of JPEG compressed images. In our previous work, we proposed a framework incorporating the Generalised Benford's Law to accurately detect unknown JPEG compression rates of watermarked images in semi-fragile watermarking schemes. JPEG2000 (a relatively new image compression standard) offers higher compression rates and better image quality as compared to JPEG compression. In this paper, we propose the novel use of Benford's Law for estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics applications. By analysing the DWT coefficients and JPEG2000 compression on 1338 test images, the initial results indicate that the 1st digit probability of DWT coefficients follow the Benford's Law. The unknown JPEG2000 compression rates of the image can also be derived, and proved with the help of a divergence factor, which shows the deviation between the probabilities and Benford's Law. Based on 1338 test images, the mean divergence for DWT coefficients is approximately 0.0016, which is lower than DCT coefficients at 0.0034. However, the mean divergence for JPEG2000 images compression rate at 0.1 is 0.0108, which is much higher than uncompressed DWT coefficients. This result clearly indicates a presence of compression in the image. Moreover, we compare the results of 1st digit probability and divergence among JPEG2000 compression rates at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.9. The initial results show that the expected difference among them could be used for further analysis to estimate the unknown JPEG2000 compression rates.

Qadir, Ghulam; Zhao, Xi; Ho, Anthony T. S.

2010-05-01

366

A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the use of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allografts and multilayer compression therapy vs. multilayer compression therapy alone in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.  

PubMed

Venous leg ulcers produce significant clinical and economic burdens on society and often require advanced wound therapy. The purpose of this multicenter, randomized, controlled study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of one or two applications of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft and multilayer compression therapy vs. multilayer compression therapy alone in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. The primary study outcome was the proportion of patients achieving 40% wound closure at 4 weeks. Of the 84 participants enrolled, 53 were randomized to receive allograft and 31 were randomized to the control group of multilayer compression therapy alone. At 4 weeks, 62% in the allograft group and 32% in the control group showed a greater than 40% wound closure (p?=?0.005), thus showing a significant difference between the allograft-treated groups and the multilayer compression therapy alone group at the 4-week surrogate endpoint. After 4 weeks, wounds treated with allograft had reduced in size a mean of 48.1% compared with 19.0% for controls. Venous leg ulcers treated with allograft had a significant improvement in healing at 4 weeks compared with multilayer compression therapy alone. PMID:25224019

Serena, Thomas E; Carter, Marissa J; Le, Lam T; Sabo, Matthew J; DiMarco, Daniel T

2014-11-01

367

Working on What Works: Working with Teachers to Improve Classroom Behaviour and Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Working on What Works (WOWW) approach, which is based upon Solution-focused Brief Therapy, was implemented in a mainstream primary classroom over a 10-week period. The focus was on improving behaviour and relationships in class. Results demonstrated an improvement in teacher ratings for targets set by the class teacher compared with baseline.…

Brown, Emma L.; Powell, Emma; Clark, Adele

2012-01-01

368

Matrix completion based ECG compression.  

PubMed

An innovative electrocardiogram compression algorithm is presented in this paper. The proposed method is based on matrix completion, a new paradigm in signal processing that seeks to recover a low-rank matrix based on a small number of observations. The low-rank matrix is obtained via normalization of electrocardiogram records. Using matrix completion, the ECG data matrix is recovered from a few number of entries, thereby yielding high compression ratios comparable to those obtained by existing compression techniques. The proposed scheme offers a low-complexity encoder, good tolerance to quantization noise, and good quality reconstruction. PMID:22254667

Polania, Luisa F; Carrillo, Rafael E; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E

2011-01-01

369

Designing experiments through compressed sensing.  

SciTech Connect

In the following paper, we discuss how to design an ensemble of experiments through the use of compressed sensing. Specifically, we show how to conduct a small number of physical experiments and then use compressed sensing to reconstruct a larger set of data. In order to accomplish this, we organize our results into four sections. We begin by extending the theory of compressed sensing to a finite product of Hilbert spaces. Then, we show how these results apply to experiment design. Next, we develop an efficient reconstruction algorithm that allows us to reconstruct experimental data projected onto a finite element basis. Finally, we verify our approach with two computational experiments.

Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

2013-06-01

370

Compressive adaptive computational ghost imaging  

PubMed Central

Compressive sensing is considered a huge breakthrough in signal acquisition. It allows recording an image consisting of N2 pixels using much fewer than N2 measurements if it can be transformed to a basis where most pixels take on negligibly small values. Standard compressive sensing techniques suffer from the computational overhead needed to reconstruct an image with typical computation times between hours and days and are thus not optimal for applications in physics and spectroscopy. We demonstrate an adaptive compressive sampling technique that performs measurements directly in a sparse basis. It needs much fewer than N2 measurements without any computational overhead, so the result is available instantly. PMID:23529046

A?mann, Marc; Bayer, Manfred

2013-01-01

371

Fast Progressive Lossless Image Compression  

E-print Network

CS--1994--14 Fast Progressive Lossless Image Compression Paul G. Howard, Jeffrey S. Vitter Department of Computer Science Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708-0129 March 25, 1994 Fast Progressive Lossless Image Compression Paul G#2; Howard... and Je#3;rey Scott Vitter To appear in Image and Video Compression IS#2;T#3;SPIE Symposium on Electronic Imaging#4; Science #2; Technology San Jose#5; California February #6; #7;#8;#5; #7; Paper number #11;#7;#12;#6; #7;#11; Fast progressive lossless...

Howard, Paul G.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1994-02-01

372

A Compressed Air Reduction Program  

E-print Network

Jring the "press running" mode were four tinles the "press idle" readings. Under original ecuipment design, these re>adings should have not even doubled. I NTRODL:CTI ON Compressed Air, how much does it cost us? What ways can we, U$ers of a costly energy... of compressed air on t.he manufacturi ng f1 oor are: counterba1ances, cushions, and clutch/brake components on stamping presses. In addition to determining which pif'ces of equipment are using large amounts of compressed air, B-O-C Facilities Enyineering...

Hawks, K. D.

373

Compression fracture in postpartum osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is mainly a problem in postmenopausal women. However, we had a case of postpartum compression fracture associated with osteoporosis. A 42-year-old multiparous woman had undergone tertiary cesarean section without complications 1 month before. She was breast-feeding her baby and had no other bone-related complication history. She did not exercise on a regular basis. She experienced back pain abruptly and was diagnosed with a recent compression fracture of T12, L1, and L3. We evaluated this rare case of postpartum osteoporosis and compression fracture. PMID:24524068

Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Jeon, Dong-Su; Byun, Dong Won

2013-11-01

374

Compressed sensing for phase contrast CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern x-ray techniques opened the possibility to retrieve phase information. Phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT) has the potential to significantly improve soft tissue contrast. Radiation dose, however, continues to be an issue when moving from bench to bedside. Dose reduction in this work is achieved by sparsely acquiring PCCT data. To compensate for appearing aliasing artifacts we introduce a compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction framework. We present the feasibility of CS on PCCT with numerical as well as measured phantom data. The results proof that CS compensates for under-sampling artifacts and maintains the superior soft tissue contrast and detail visibility in the reconstructed images.

Gaass, Thomas; Potdevin, Guillaume; Noël, Peter B.; Tapfer, Arne; Willner, Marian; Herzen, Julia; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Haase, Axel

2012-07-01

375

Compression strength of composite primary structural components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A status report of work performed during the period May 1, 1992 to October 31, 1992 is presented. Research was conducted in three areas: delamination initiation in postbuckled dropped-ply laminates; stiffener crippling initiated by delamination; and pressure pillowing of an orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shell. The geometrically nonlinear response and delamination initiation of compression-loaded dropped-ply laminates is analyzed. A computational model of the stiffener specimens that includes the capability to predict the interlaminar response at the flange free edge in postbuckling is developed. The distribution of the interacting loads between the stiffeners and the shell wall, particularly at the load transfer at the stiffener crossing point, is determined.

Johnson, Eric R.

1992-01-01

376

SPH compressible turbulence  

E-print Network

In this paper an SPH version of the alpha turbulence model devised by Holm and his colleagues is formulated for compressible flow with a resolution that varies in space and time. The alpha model involves two velocity fields. One velocity field is obtained from the momentum equation, the other by averaging this velocity field as in the version of SPH called XSPH. The particles (fluid elements) are moved with the averaged velocity. In analogy to the continuum alpha model we obtain a particle Lagrangian from which the SPH alpha equations can be derived. The system satisfies a discrete Kelvin circulation theorem identical to that obtained with no velocity averaging. In addition, the energy, linear and angular momentum are conserved. We show that the continuum equivalent of the SPH equations are identical to the continuum alpha model, and we conjecture that they will have the same desirable features of the continuum modelincluding the reduction of energy in the high wave number modes even when the dissipation is z...

Monaghan, J J

2002-01-01

377

SPH compressible turbulence  

E-print Network

In this paper an SPH version of the alpha turbulence model devised by Holm and his colleagues is formulated for compressible flow with a resolution that varies in space and time. The alpha model involves two velocity fields. One velocity field is obtained from the momentum equation, the other by averaging this velocity field as in the version of SPH called XSPH. The particles (fluid elements) are moved with the averaged velocity. In analogy to the continuum alpha model we obtain a particle Lagrangian from which the SPH alpha equations can be derived. The system satisfies a discrete Kelvin circulation theorem identical to that obtained with no velocity averaging. In addition, the energy, linear and angular momentum are conserved. We show that the continuum equivalent of the SPH equations are identical to the continuum alpha model, and we conjecture that they will have the same desirable features of the continuum modelincluding the reduction of energy in the high wave number modes even when the dissipation is zero. Regardless of issues concerning turbulence modelling, the SPH alpha model is a powerful extension of the XSPH algorithm which reduces disorder at short length scales and retains the constants of the motion. The SPH alpha model is simple to implement.

J. J. Monaghan

2002-04-08

378

Inflammatory cascades mediate synapse elimination in spinal cord compression  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM) is caused by chronic spinal cord compression due to spondylosis, a degenerative disc disease, and ossification of the ligaments. Tip-toe walking Yoshimura (twy) mice are reported to be an ideal animal model for CCM-related neuronal dysfunction, because they develop spontaneous spinal cord compression without any artificial manipulation. Previous histological studies showed that neurons are lost due to apoptosis in CCM, but the mechanism underlying this neurodegeneration was not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology of CCM by evaluating the global gene expression of the compressed spinal cord and comparing the transcriptome analysis with the physical and histological findings in twy mice. Methods Twenty-week-old twy mice were divided into two groups according to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings: a severe compression (S) group and a mild compression (M) group. The transcriptome was analyzed by microarray and RT-PCR. The cellular pathophysiology was examined by immunohistological analysis and immuno-electron microscopy. Motor function was assessed by Rotarod treadmill latency and stride-length tests. Results Severe cervical calcification caused spinal canal stenosis and low functional capacity in twy mice. The microarray analysis revealed 215 genes that showed significantly different expression levels between the S and the M groups. Pathway analysis revealed that genes expressed at higher levels in the S group were enriched for terms related to the regulation of inflammation in the compressed spinal cord. M1 macrophage-dominant inflammation was present in the S group, and cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61), an inducer of M1 macrophages, was markedly upregulated in these spinal cords. Furthermore, C1q, which initiates the classical complement cascade, was more upregulated in the S group than in the M group. The confocal and electron microscopy observations indicated that classically activated microglia/macrophages had migrated to the compressed spinal cord and eliminated synaptic terminals. Conclusions We revealed the detailed pathophysiology of the inflammatory response in an animal model of chronic spinal cord compression. Our findings suggest that complement-mediated synapse elimination is a central mechanism underlying the neurodegeneration in CCM. PMID:24589419

2014-01-01

379

Performance Enhancement Technology for the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High efficiency refrigerator have been developed. For energy saving that is concerned with against global warming, performance enhancement of vapor compression refrigerator is required in field of air condition and refrigeration facility. In this paper, a review of recent performance enhancement technologies for the vapor compression refrigeration cycle is presented. This review contains high performance cycles of large sized centrifugal chiller, small to middle sized chiller and packaged air conditioner. Moreover, researches and developments of the refrigeration cycle recovering throttling loss, applications of ejector to boost in compressor suction pressure and to recirculate vapor refrigerant in the evaporator for heat transfer enhancement, and applications of expander to employ expansion work for compression work, are reviewed.

Man'o, Tatsunori

380

Impact of lossy compression on diagnostic accuracy of radiographs for periapical lesions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group compression for endodontic pretreatment digital radiographs. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty clinical charge-coupled device-based, digital radiographs depicting periapical areas were selected. Each image was compressed at 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48, and 64 compression ratios. One root per image was marked for examination. Images were randomized and viewed by four clinical observers under standardized viewing conditions. Each observer read the image set three times, with at least two weeks between each reading. Three pre-selected sites per image (mesial, distal, apical) were scored on a five-scale score confidence scale. A panel of three examiners scored the uncompressed images, with a consensus score for each site. The consensus score was used as the baseline for assessing the impact of lossy compression on the diagnostic values of images. The mean absolute error between consensus and observer scores was computed for each observer, site, and reading session. RESULTS: Balanced one-way analysis of variance for all observers indicated that for compression ratios 48 and 64, there was significant difference between mean absolute error of uncompressed and compressed images (P <.05). After converting the five-scale score to two-level diagnostic values, the diagnostic accuracy was strongly correlated (R (2) = 0.91) with the compression ratio. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that high compression ratios can have a severe impact on the diagnostic quality of the digital radiographs for detection of periapical lesions.

Eraso, Francisco E.; Analoui, Mostafa; Watson, Andrew B.; Rebeschini, Regina

2002-01-01

381

Condor Week 2011 SaaS and the OSG glidein factory 1 Condor Week 2011  

E-print Network

Condor Week 2011 SaaS and the OSG glidein factory 1 Condor Week 2011 Why SaaS can be good The tale of the OSG glidein factory by Igor Sfiligoi and Jeff Dost University of California San Diego #12;Condor Week And we will do it by providing some real life examples, too! #12;Condor Week 2011 SaaS and the OSG

Liblit, Ben

382

RESIDENT WORK / DUTY HOURS Duty hours must be limited to 80 hours per week, averaged over a 4-week period  

E-print Network

transitions in care occur. Residents may be allowed to remain on-site in order to accomplish these tasks clinical and academic activities related to the residency program, i.e., patient care-both inpatient and outpatient-, administrative duties related to patient care, the provision for transfer of patient care, time

Quirk, Gregory J.

383

Gradient Compression Stockings may Prevent Recovery after Bed Rest Deconditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: Astronauts continue to wear a compression garment during and immediately after landing to prevent orthostatic intolerance (OI). We recently developed a custom-fitted, 3-piece garment that consists of thigh-high stockings with biker-style shorts that provides continuous, gradient compression: 55 mmHg at the ankle that decreases to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and 15 mmHg over the abdomen. This garment has been shown to be effective in preventing symptoms of OI during a short stand test after Space Shuttle missions, but symptoms may persist for several days after a long-duration mission in some astronauts. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of wearing these elastic, gradient compression garments during orthostatic testing after 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of spaceflight and to determine whether they would impact recovery after bed rest. Methods: Eight (5 treatment, 3 control) of 16 subjects have completed this study to-date. All subjects wore the 3-piece garment from waking until tilt testing (3 h) as a simulation of the timeline for astronauts on landing day (BR+0). Control subjects removed the garment after the tilt test. Treatment subjects wore the garment for the remainder of the day and wore lower compression thigh-high only garments on the day after bed rest (BR+1). Blood pressure, heart rate, and stroke volume responses to a 15-min 80 degree head-up tilt test were determined before 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt, and on BR+0 and BR+1. Plasma volume (PV) was measured before each of these test sessions. Data are mean SE. Results: Compression garments prevented signs of OI on BR+0; all subjects in both groups completed the full 15-min test. Heart rate responses to tilt were lower on BR+0 than all other test days. Control subjects demonstrated a marginal PV decrease after bed rest, but showed typical recovery the day after bed rest (BR+0: 2.32 plus or minus 0.15 L to BR+1: 2.79 plus or minus 0.15 L). Treatment subjects did not recover PV the day after bed rest (BR+0: 2.61 plus or minus 0.23 L to BR+1: 2.61 plus or minus 0.23 L). Conclusion: Abdomen-high compression garments, which are effective in preventing post-bed rest orthostatic intolerance, may slow recovery of PV. Modified garments with reduced compression may be necessary to prevent prolonging recovery.

Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.; Westby, Christian M.; Willig, Michael C.; Platts, Steven H.

2011-01-01

384

SCADA Protocol Anomaly Detection Utilizing Compression (SPADUC) 2013  

SciTech Connect

There is a significant need to protect the nation’s energy infrastructures from malicious actors using cyber methods. Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems may be vulnerable due to the insufficient security implemented during the design and deployment of these control systems. This is particularly true in older legacy SCADA systems that are still commonly in use. The purpose of INL’s research on the SCADA Protocol Anomaly Detection Utilizing Compression (SPADUC) project was to determine if and how data compression techniques could be used to identify and protect SCADA systems from cyber attacks. Initially, the concept was centered on how to train a compression algorithm to recognize normal control system traffic versus hostile network traffic. Because large portions of the TCP/IP message traffic (called packets) are repetitive, the concept of using compression techniques to differentiate “non-normal” traffic was proposed. In this manner, malicious SCADA traffic could be identified at the packet level prior to completing its payload. Previous research has shown that SCADA network traffic has traits desirable for compression analysis. This work investigated three different approaches to identify malicious SCADA network traffic using compression techniques. The preliminary analyses and results presented herein are clearly able to differentiate normal from malicious network traffic at the packet level at a very high confidence level for the conditions tested. Additionally, the master dictionary approach used in this research appears to initially provide a meaningful way to categorize and compare packets within a communication channel.

Gordon Rueff; Lyle Roybal; Denis Vollmer

2013-01-01

385

Neural Networks Arbitration for Optimum DCT Image Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image compression using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is one of the simplest commonly used compression methods. The quality of compressed images, however, is marginally reduced at higher compression ratios due to the lossy nature of DCT compression, thus, the need for finding an optimum DCT compression ratio. An ideal image compression system must yield high quality compressed images with good

Adnan Khashman; Kamil Dimililer

2007-01-01

386

Bitmask aware compression of NISC control words$ Kanad Basu n  

E-print Network

the compression ratio better the compression efficiency: Compression Ratio ¼ Compressed Code Size U of the application. This paper proposes an efficient bitmask-based compression technique to drastically reduce compression efficiency by an average of 20% over the best known control word compression, giving a compression

Mishra, Prabhat

387

Worksheet Math 124 Week 11 Worksheet for Week 11: Maximizing functions  

E-print Network

Worksheet Math 124 Week 11 Worksheet for Week 11: Maximizing functions The best way to study for the Math 124 final is to solve challenging problems. In this worksheet, you'll solve a difficult problem these numbers and the formulas above to find equations for x (t) and y (t). #12;Worksheet Math 124 Week 11 2

Sylvester, John

388

Worksheet Math 124 Week 1 Worksheet for Week 1: Circles and lines  

E-print Network

Worksheet Math 124 Week 1 Worksheet for Week 1: Circles and lines This worksheet is a review of circles and lines, and will give you some practice with algebra and with graphing. Also, this worksheet;Worksheet Math 124 Week 1 2. Let C be the circle of radius 5 centered at the origin. The tangent line to C

Sylvester, John

389

Worksheet Math 124 Week 1 Worksheet for Week 1: Circles and lines  

E-print Network

Worksheet Math 124 Week 1 Worksheet for Week 1: Circles and lines This worksheet is a review of circles and lines, and will give you some practice with algebra and with graphing. Also, this worksheet of the two circles? x y y = x C1 C2 #12;Worksheet Math 124 Week 1 2. Let C be the circle of radius 5 centered

Sylvester, John

390

Condor Week 2012 -May 2012 No user requirements 1 Condor Week 2012  

E-print Network

Condor Week 2012 - May 2012 No user requirements 1 Condor Week 2012 An argument for moving the requirements out of user hands - The CMS experience presented by Igor Sfiligoi UC San Diego #12;Condor Week 2012 - May 2012 No user requirements 2 The basics Condor architecture clearly separates Resource

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

391

Compression fractures of the back  

MedlinePLUS

... fractures (Vertos II): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet . 2010 Sep 25;376(9746):1085-92. Wardlaw ... vertebral compression fracture (FREE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet . 2009;373(9668):1016-24.

392

Compressed Air Audits using AIRMaster  

E-print Network

Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user and therefore a prime target for industrial energy audits. The project goal was to develop a software tool, AIRMaster, and supporting methodology for performing compressed air system audits...

Wheeler, G. M.; McGill, R. D.; Bessey, E. G.; Vischer, K.

393

Data compression opportunities in EOSDIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is described in terms of its data volume, data rate, and data distribution requirements. Opportunities for data compression in EOSDIS are discussed.

Kobler, Ben; Berbert, John

1993-01-01

394

Compressibility of electrospun fiber mats  

E-print Network

Compressive properties of electrospun fiber mats are reported for the first time. Mats of bisphenol-A polysulfone (PSU) and of poly(trimethyl hexamethylene terephthalamide) [PA 6(3)T] were electrospun and annealed over a ...

Choong, Looh Tchuin

395

Compressed Speech: Capabilities and Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief look at compressed speech, which offers opportunities for circumventing the information explosion and effecting economy in time. It also permits training in listening and encourages development of powers of concentration. (Author/HB)

Silverstone, David M.

1974-01-01

396

NJ Teachers Back to Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Middletown, New Jersey schoolteachers went back to work today after a labor dispute that landed a quarter of the teaching work force in jail. The teachers had staged a walk-out because they refused to continue working without a new contract (the old one had expired on June 30), and they resisted proposed increases in their health insurance premiums. Last week, Judge Clarkson S. Fisher Jr. issued a back-to-work order, and when the striking teachers failed to follow the order, he began jailing them, working his way through the alphabet day by day. By yesterday, more than 225 teachers were in jail. Today, the teachers agreed to go back to work next week, and the union and the school district will enter non-binding mediation.

Koplow, Travis.

2001-01-01

397

Subjective testing results for still picture compression algorithms for international standardization  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1987 and 1988, a joint group of ISO and CCITT has worked to create a world standard for data compression of still-frame color continuous-tone images. During this period, the adaptive discrete cosine transform (ADCT) was selected for final refinement from 12 proposed algorithms. Because the standard is required to provide either lossless or lossy compression, subjective image quality testing

Gregory Wallace; Roy Vivian; Henning Poulsen

1988-01-01

398

Hysteresis Response of Lead Zirconate—Lead Nickel Niobate Ferroelectric Ceramic Under Compressive Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, PZ–PNN ceramic was prepared by a columbite method and sintered at optimum temperature. The effect of uniaxial compressive stress on the hysteresis properties of PZ–PNN ceramics is investigated. The hysteresis loop and ferroelectric properties under the compressive stress of the ceramics are observed at stress up to 100 MPa using a compressometer in conjunction with a modified

W. C. Vittayakorn; N. Vittayakorn

2009-01-01

399

Performance optimization of a hybrid cooler combining vapor compression and natural circulation cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid cooler combining vapor compression and natural circulation cycles was developed for the cooling of telecommunication equipment in the cabinet-type base station of mobile communication. This hybrid cooler normally operates in the vapor compression mode at high ambient temperatures, but works in the natural circulation mode at low ambient temperatures by the thermosiphon principle. The performance of the hybrid

Sunil Lee; Hoon Kang; Yongchan Kim

2009-01-01

400

Low-complexity and error-resilient hyperspectral image compression based on distributed source coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a lossless compression algorithm for hyperspectral images based on distributed source coding; this algorithm represents a significant improvement over our prior work on the same topic, and has been developed during a project funded by ESA-ESTEC. In particular, the algorithm achieves good compression performance with very low complexity; moreover, it also features a very good

A. Abrardo; M. Barni; A. Bertoli; A. Garzelli; E. Magli; F. Nencini; B. Penna; R. Vitulli

2008-01-01

401

Image compression evaluation for digital cinema: the case of Star Wars: Episode II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program of evaluation of compression algorithms proposed for use in a digital cinema application is described and the results presented in general form. The work was intended to aid in the selection of a compression system to be used for the digital cinema release of Star Wars: Episode II, in May 2002. An additional goal was to provide feedback

David L. Schnuelle

2003-01-01

402

Cascade signature and syndrome compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is commonly used in built-in self-test (BIST) and board-level testing schemes to compress the output response from the circuit under-test. The problem of aliasing, where errors go undetected, may occur with the LFSR-based compression. This paper describes a new method that reduces the probability of aliasing significantly. The method utilizes both LFSR-based signature analyser

Rana Ejaz Ahmed

1995-01-01

403

Solar Week Tuesday: The Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short online reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Learners will read about how the vision of dogs, bees, and humans differs and how the electromagnetic spectrum plays a role in those differences. This activity is scheduled to occur during Tuesday of Solar Week.

404

Solar Week Thursday: Ice Cube Meltdown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about energy absorption and reflection. In this hands-on activity, learners will experiment with ways of making ice cubes melt at different rates by choosing and testing various materials with different color and reflective properties. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week, and it requires use of a sunny outdoor location for an extended period of time.

405

Working Time Arrangements and Recreation: Making Time for Weekends When Working Long Hours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work time spread across the entire week, rather than the conventional five day working week, has meant that workers are now less able to utilise longer stretches of recreation time especially in gaining access to a full two-day break over a weekend. This paper explores the issues contributing to workers' acquisition of longer recreation time. It seeks to determine the

Kerry Brown; L. Bradley; H. Lingard; K. Townsend; S. Ling

2010-01-01

406

Random Accessible Mesh Compression Using Mesh Chartification  

E-print Network

compression techniques provide de- cent properties such as high compression ratio, progressive decoding compression ratio, which is only a little worse than single-rate and comparable to progressive encoding and detailed polyg- onal meshes, mesh compression has attracted much attention for supporting efficient storage

Lee, Seungyong

407

The compressible inclusion function of EPS geofoam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the state of knowledge for using expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam where the primary geosynthetic function provided by the geofoam is compressible inclusion. In general, a compressible inclusion is any material that compresses readily under an applied stress or displacement compared to other materials in contact with, or in the vicinity of, the compressible inclusion. Geotechnical applications for

John S. Horvath

1997-01-01

408

Unusual self-similar spherical compression: theory and implementations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are showing a family of spherical implosions involving high compression rate. It depends on two parameters and we can work all of it out. I Theory What is an ``unusual self-similar compression law''? Such a law is characterized by a classical self-similar law initiated by a convergent shock (cf Lazarus and Richtmyer LA6823MS-1977) followed by centred compression waves. We will explain completely the implosion given by this law. II Implementations We will apply such a law to a DT sphere (m=1.5 mug and ?0=0.003 g/cm3). We will describe the thermodynamical conditions obtained this way. Then we will compare these results to those obtained with a 1D hydrodynamical computational code under different hypotheses regarding outside conditions and gas EOS. We will discuss the agreement between model and computational code under the different hypotheses. III Conclusion Such a flow may be worth using: -It gives an accurate hydrodynamical benchmark with the difficult problem of spherical shock convergence. -It can be used to define laser experiments where very compressed matter is needed (spectroscopy experiments, thermonuclear ignition...). Indeed, it allows to build an optimized compression law for each problem. An interesting extension of this work will be to add a second medium surrounding the gas. By using the characteristic curves, we could obtain the outside conditions (pressure or speed versus time) for this more realistic geometry.

Gerin-Roze, Jean

2005-07-01

409

Current status of absorption/compression cycle technology  

SciTech Connect

Absorption/compression cycles, also known as vapor-compression cycles with solution circuits, have been known in the literature for about 100 years. The first theoretical investigations were carried out by Altenkirch in 1950 and indicated a large energy-saving potential. Based on this potential and the additional need to replace the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), research activities in the absorption/compression technology have increased rapidly since 1980 and several different experimental plants have been built. This paper gives a detailed overview of the research activities during the last 15 years. More than 40 papers have been reviewed for this purpose. Several different cycle configurations, which have been part of these research activities, are explained in greater detail. The choice of cycle components, i.e., the design of the heat exchangers and compressors, and the choice of working fluids are evaluated. Although several large-scale experimental plants have been operated, there is still considerable work to be done before the absorption/compression technology can be considered a viable alternative solution to the vapor-compression technology.

Groll, E.A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Mechanical Engineering

1997-12-31

410

Lightning Safety Awareness Week 2012 Page 1 Social Media Tools  

E-print Network

Lightning Safety Awareness Week 2012 Page 1 Social Media Tools LIGHTNING SAFETY AWARNESS WEEK: June as the platform to promote Lightning Safety Awareness Week. This can be done in a variety of ways, beginning throughout the week. Hashtag: #ImAForce Sunday June 24: Intro to week It's Lightning Safety Awareness Week

411

An experimental investigation of high-compressibility mixing layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the effects of high compressibility conditions on the two-stream, planar turbulent mixing layer is performed in a unique shock tunnel driven, supersonic mixing layer facility. Compressibility levels, previously unattainable in traditional blowdown wind tunnels, are reached to examine their effect on the growth and development of large-scale structures which dominate the entrainment behavior of mixing layers. Visualizations of the shear layer are achieved by schlieren imaging and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of two, seeded tracer species, acetone and nitric oxide. Side, plan, and end view visualizations of three compressibility conditions (Mc = 0.85, 1.71, and 2.64) provide information on large-scale structure character and dimensionality. The first focus of this work is an accurate measurement of the shear layer growth rate at compressibility conditions greater than Mc = 1. Ensemble averaged schlieren images provide a measure of the visual growth rate and are captured for a wide compressibility range (Mc = 0.85 to 2.84). Second, spatially resolved, non-intrusive, laser-based imaging techniques are employed to probe the underlying three-dimensional structure of highly compressible shear layers that is masked by line-of-sight integrated imaging. A final emphasis is on the extension of a PLIF technique, cold chemistry imaging of mixed fluid, to low pressure mixing layer environments. Consistent with the trends seen in previous mixing layer experiments and computations, all the imaging techniques reveal that the high compressibility shear layer is dominated by three-dimensional streamwise oriented structures with limited transverse dimension. The growth rate of these structures tends to asymptote to 18% of its incompressible value above Mc = 1.5. PLIF imaging results uncover three-dimensional shock structures which are caused by slow scalar structures convecting in a supersonic flow, but do not confirm the existence of shocklets in highly compressible turbulence. Visualizations of the mean and instantaneous scalar field at Mc = 2.64 suggest the applicability of gradient transport mixing models over structure based techniques at high compressibility. Also, the mixedness of the shear layer at this higher compressibility condition is seen to slowly increase with compressibility and Reynolds number when compared to prior cold chemistry results.

Rossmann, Tobias

412

Simulation of vapor compression heat pumps with solution circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor compression heat pumps with solution circuits (VCHSC) offer two main advantages compared to conventional heat pumps: capacity control by adjustment of the circulating mixture composition and performance improvement by approximating the Lorenz process. The objective of this work is two fold: (1) Development and verification of computer models simulating single and two-stage VCHSC. (2) Investigation of the performance potentials

Karim Amrane

1991-01-01

413

Compressed natural gas fuel may be the future for Phoenix  

Microsoft Academic Search

It's the law: the future must include cleaner air, and alternative fuels for vehicular engines is one way to achieve it. In Phoenix, a city beset by moderate air quality problems, equipment managers of the Public Works Department's (PWD) fleet say their future seems to be with compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG fuels a pair of refuse packer trucks that

1994-01-01

414

Workdays, Workhours, and Work Schedules: Evidence for the United States and Germany.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book studies work in the United States and Germany from two new viewpoints: (1) the division of work time into hours per day and days per week (as opposed to the standard analysis of weekly hours of work); and (2) the patterns of the particular times of the day and week when people are working, a focus on instantaneous time use. Information…

Hamermesh, Daniel S.

415

Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

None

2012-01-04

416

Compression of fingerprint data using the wavelet vector quantization image compression algorithm. 1992 progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a Wavelet Vector Quantization (WVQ) image compression algorithm for fingerprint raster files. The pertinent work was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This document describes a previously-sent package of C-language source code, referred to as LAFPC, that performs the WVQ fingerprint compression and decompression tasks. The particulars of the WVQ algorithm and the associated design procedure are detailed elsewhere; the purpose of this document is to report the results of the design algorithm for the fingerprint application and to delineate the implementation issues that are incorporated in LAFPC. Special attention is paid to the computation of the wavelet transform, the fast search algorithm used for the VQ encoding, and the entropy coding procedure used in the transmission of the source symbols.

Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

1992-04-11

417

Visible Embryo: 12 weeks post ovulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

a comprehensive resource of information on human development at 12 weeks from ovulation, designed for both medical student and interested lay people. The Visible Embryo offers a detailed pictorial account of normal and abnormal development.

Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

2006-10-19

418

77 FR 68045 - American Education Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2012 American Education Week, 2012 By the...access to a world-class education and the chance to...support and improve teacher effectiveness and...thrive. Dedicated teachers, administrators, and other education professionals...

2012-11-15

419

High Energy Astrophysics Picture of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each week this site provides a new image from X-ray and Gamma ray astronomy. Information is provided about the object and the telescope that took the picture. Previous images are available in an archive.

Corcoran, Michael

2004-07-14

420

77 FR 31151 - World Trade Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Americans. During World Trade Week, we reaffirm...jobs and growing our economy. Two years ago, my...place anywhere in the world. These and other measures...and evolving global economy. Because 95 percent of the world's consumers...

2012-05-24

421

Solar Week Thursday: Solar Shadow Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about telling time using the Sun. Learners will create a solar shadow tool and use it to chart changes in the Sun's altitude through the seasons. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week. The activity requires access to a sunny outdoor location over the course of several days, weeks, or months, as well as materials and equipment such as pine board, dowel rod piece, drill and drill bit, saw, bulls-eye level, small nails, and either wood glue or hot glue.

422

Solar Week Thursday: Shoebox Solar Water Heater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about reflection. In this hands-on activity, learners will build a solar water heater by lining a box with reflective material, adding a translucent cover, and adding water-filled cans that are painted black. The temperature of the water is taken and recorded every fifteen minutes. This activity can use the same solar cooker built for the Solar Week Thursday: Solar Pizza Box Cooker activity. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week, and it requires use of a sunny outdoor location for an extended period of time.

423

Highlights From PhUn Week 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. "More than 100 APS physiologists volunteered their time in reaching out to more than 3000 students last November during Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn Week), the APS member-based annual outreach program to local area K-12 schools (http://www.PhUnWeek.org). APS members partnered with more than 70 teachers and science educators from across the nation to develop engaging classroom or campus presentations for students at all grade levels, from day care through twelfth grades. The following vignettes are only a few samples of the excitement and fun generated by the focus on the physiology of health and exercise during the first week in November. All events with the primary APS member and lead teacher coordinators are listed in Table 1.".

2008-02-01

424

Mechanics of the Compression Wood Response: II. On the Location, Action, and Distribution of Compression Wood Formation.  

PubMed

A new method for simulation of cross-sectional growth provided detailed information on the location of normal wood and compression wood increments in two tilted white pine (Pinus strobus L.) leaders. These data were combined with data on stiffness, slope, and curvature changes over a 16-week period to make the mechanical analysis. The location of compression wood changed from the under side to a flank side and then to the upper side of the leader as the geotropic stimulus decreased, owing to compression wood action. Its location shifted back to a flank side when the direction of movement of the leader reversed. A model for this action, based on elongation strains, was developed and predicted the observed curvature changes with elongation strains of 0.3 to 0.5%, or a maximal compressive stress of 60 to 300 kilograms per square centimeter. After tilting, new wood formation was distributed so as to maintain consistent strain levels along the leaders in bending under gravitational loads. The computed effective elastic moduli were about the same for the two leaders throughout the season. PMID:16658408

Archer, R R; Wilson, B F

1973-04-01

425

COMPRESSION SOCKS AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY FOLLOWING MARATHON RUNNING: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.  

PubMed

Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running.Athletes (n=33, age = 38.5 ±7.2yrs) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomised into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks prior and 2 weeks following each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant.33 participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks following the marathon increased by 2.6% (52s ±103s). In the placebo group run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62s ±130s). P=0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared to placebo.The wearing of below knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks following the event. PMID:25187242

Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen; Harris, Gregory

2014-09-01

426

Lossless compression of JPEG2000 whole slide images is not required for diagnostic virtual microscopy.  

PubMed

The use of lossy compression in medical imaging is controversial, although it is inevitable to reduce large data amounts. In contrast with lossy compression, lossless compression does not impair image quality. In addition to our previous studies, we evaluated virtual 3-dimensional microscopy using JPEG2000 whole slide images of gastric biopsy specimens with or without Helicobacter pylori gastritis using lossless compression (1:1) or lossy compression with different compression levels: 5:1, 10:1, and 20:1. The virtual slides were diagnosed in a blinded manner by 3 pathologists using the updated Sydney classification. The results showed no significant differences in the diagnosis of H pylori between the different levels of compression in virtual microscopy. We assume that lossless compression is not required for diagnostic virtual microscopy. The limits of lossy compression in virtual microscopy without a loss of diagnostic quality still need to be determined. Analogous to the processes in radiology, recommendations for the use of lossy compression in diagnostic virtual microscopy have to be worked out by pathology societies. PMID:22095374

Kalinski, Thomas; Zwönitzer, Ralf; Grabellus, Florian; Sheu, Sien-Yi; Sel, Saadettin; Hofmann, Harald; Roessner, Albert

2011-12-01

427

Conductivity enhancement of multiwalled carbon nanotube thin film via thermal compression method  

PubMed Central

For the first time, the thermal compression method is applied to effectively enhance the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube thin films (CNTFs). With the assistance of heat and pressure on the CNTFs, the neighbor multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) start to link with each other, and then these separated CNTs are twined into a continuous film while the compression force, duration, and temperature are quite enough for the reaction. Under the compression temperature of 400°C and the compression force of 100 N for 50 min, the sheet resistance can be reduced from 17 to 0.9 k ?/sq for the CNTFs with a thickness of 230 nm. Moreover, the effects of compression temperature and the duration of thermal compression on the conductivity of CNTF are also discussed in this work. PMID:25232300

2014-01-01

428

WorkPlan: Database for Work Package Production Scheduling Proceedings IGLC '98  

E-print Network

specifically to implement lean production philosophy in construction. KEY WORDS WorkPlan, weekly work plan, database, lean construction, production scheduling, screening, work package, constraint, percent of plannedWorkPlan: Database for Work Package Production Scheduling Proceedings IGLC '98 WORKPLAN: DATABASE

Tommelein, Iris D.

429

Highlights from PhUn Week 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on pages 59-60 of the PDF file. Nearly 9,000 students from kindergarten through twelfth grade met a physiologist during Physiology Understanding Week (http://www.PhUnWeek.org). As part of the APS member-based annual outreach program to local classrooms in the fall, the visits and engaging activities highlighted physiology topics ranging from exercise and health, respiration, anatomy,and thermoregulation.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2011-04-01

430

A COMPRESSION METHOD BASED on COMPRESSIVE SENSING for 3-D LASER  

E-print Network

of environments need to be transmitted or stored, they should be compressed efficiently to increase the capac- ity with the performances of widely used compression techniques, the proposed method offers the smallest compression ratio need to be compressed when they are transmitted or stored. The compression ratio (CR), which

Barshan, Billur

431

Chapter 2 Digital Image Compression 2.1 Data Compression and Data Redundancy  

E-print Network

compression. Lossy compression can achieve a high compression ratio, 50:1 or higher, since it allows some compression can completely recover the original data but this reduces the compression ratio to around 2 is a transform to eliminate the inter-pixel redundancy to pack information efficiently. Then a quantizer

Qi, Xiaojun

432

Effects of Progressive Resistance Training Integrated with Foot and Ankle Compression on Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters of Individuals with Stroke  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of progressive resistance training (PRT) integrated with foot and ankle compression on the gait ability of post-stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to two groups: the PRT group (n=14) and the control group (n=14). Subjects in the PRT group received training for 30 minutes, five days per week, for a period of six weeks. Gait ability was evaluated using the RsScan system. [Results] Use of PRT integrated with foot and ankle compression resulted in significant improvements in temporal parameters (gait velocity, step time, and double limb support) and spatial parameters (step length, stride length, and heel-to- heel base of support). [Conclusion] Progressive resistance training integrated with foot and ankle compression improved the gait ability of stroke patients. These results suggest the feasibility and suitability of integration of PRT with foot and ankle compression for individuals with stroke. PMID:24259765

Lee, Na Kyung; Son, Sung Min; Nam, Seok Hyun; Kwon, Jung Won; Kang, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyoung

2013-01-01

433

Perceptual Image Compression in Telemedicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next era of space exploration, especially the "Mission to Planet Earth" will generate immense quantities of image data. For example, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is expected to generate in excess of one terabyte/day. NASA confronts a major technical challenge in managing this great flow of imagery: in collection, pre-processing, transmission to earth, archiving, and distribution to scientists at remote locations. Expected requirements in most of these areas clearly exceed current technology. Part of the solution to this problem lies in efficient image compression techniques. For much of this imagery, the ultimate consumer is the human eye. In this case image compression should be designed to match the visual capacities of the human observer. We have developed three techniques for optimizing image compression for the human viewer. The first consists of a formula, developed jointly with IBM and based on psychophysical measurements, that computes a DCT quantization matrix for any specified combination of viewing distance, display resolution, and display brightness. This DCT quantization matrix is used in most recent standards for digital image compression (JPEG, MPEG, CCITT H.261). The second technique optimizes the DCT quantization matrix for each individual image, based on the contents of the image. This is accomplished by means of a model of visual sensitivity to compression artifacts. The third technique extends the first two techniques to the realm of wavelet compression. Together these two techniques will allow systematic perceptual optimization of image compression in NASA imaging systems. Many of the image management challenges faced by NASA are mirrored in the field of telemedicine. Here too there are severe demands for transmission and archiving of large image databases, and the imagery is ultimately used primarily by human observers, such as radiologists. In this presentation I will describe some of our preliminary explorations of the applications of our technology to the special problems of telemedicine.

Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Eckstein, Miguel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

434

2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling General Compression: A River of Wind  

SciTech Connect

The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are David Marcus, Founder of General Compression, and Eric Ingersoll, CEO of General Compression. General Compression, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has created an advanced air compression process which can store and release more than a weeks worth of the energy generated by wind turbines.

Marcus, David; Ingersoll, Eric

2012-02-29

435

2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling General Compression: A River of Wind  

ScienceCinema

The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are David Marcus, Founder of General Compression, and Eric Ingersoll, CEO of General Compression. General Compression, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has created an advanced air compression process which can store and release more than a weeks worth of the energy generated by wind turbines.

Marcus, David; Ingersoll, Eric

2012-03-21

436

Ambient Compression-Compression Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Single Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnesium single crystal sample with a near orientation was tested at room temperature under compression-compression cyclic loading, and the microstructure was characterized to disclose the involved deformation mechanisms. No plastic deformation region appeared on the stress-strain curve during the cyclic loading. The stress-strain curve stabilized at the first cycle, the strain range for each cycle fluctuated slightly around a constant value, and the mean strain for each cycle was in a narrow range from 0.0846 to 0.0863 during the whole test. The ratcheting strain rate decreased exponentially from ~0.0003, and reached a relatively small and stable value of about zero. The observed deformation mechanisms were prismatic slip, compression twinning, and tension twinning. The prismatic dislocation slip roughened the cylindrical sample surface by forming extrusions and intrusions, and small cracks were also observed on the surface.

Li, Qizhen

2014-01-01

437

URe{sub 2}-A compressibility study of allotropic phases  

SciTech Connect

URe{sub 2} compound exists in two phases- orthorhombic and hexagonal. The hexagonal phase has been prepared using arc melting and annealingat 500°C for one week, whereas the orthorhombic phase was achieved by annealing the arc melted sample at a temperature 150°C for the same period. High pressure x-ray diffraction studies on these two allotropic forms of URe{sub 2} have been carried out up to ?15GPa using a diamond anvil cell. Normal compression was observed without any kind of phase transformation; although there is a probability of transformation from the metastable hexagonal to itsstable orthorhombicphase under pressure.

Shukla, B., E-mail: bshukla@igcar.gov.in; Shekar, N. V. Chandra, E-mail: bshukla@igcar.gov.in; Sahu, P. Ch., E-mail: bshukla@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India)

2014-04-24

438

On the creep deformation of nickel foams under compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite-element computational strategy is developed to study the viscoplastic deformation mechanisms at work in a nickel foam sample under compression creep. The constitutive law for pure nickel accounts for both diffusional and dislocation creep mechanisms. The finite-element results show the competition between both mechanisms due to the strong heterogeneity of the stress distribution in the foam. The initiation of the viscoplastic buckling phenomenon leading to cell crushing in tertiary creep is illustrated. The overall model prediction is compared to the results of compression creep tests performed in vacuo at 900 °C. xml:lang="fr"

Burteau, Anthony; Bartout, Jean-Dominique; Bienvenu, Yves; Forest, Samuel

2014-10-01

439

A PDF closure model for compressible turbulent chemically reacting flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the proposed research project was the analysis of single point closures based on probability density function (pdf) and characteristic functions and the development of a prediction method for the joint velocity-scalar pdf in turbulent reacting flows. Turbulent flows of boundary layer type and stagnation point flows with and without chemical reactions were be calculated as principal applications. Pdf methods for compressible reacting flows were developed and tested in comparison with available experimental data. The research work carried in this project was concentrated on the closure of pdf equations for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows with and without chemical reactions.

Kollmann, W.

1992-01-01

440

The CCSDS Lossless Data Compression Algorithm for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the late 80's, when the author started working at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), several scientists there were in the process of formulating the next generation of Earth viewing science instruments, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The instrument would have over thirty spectral bands and would transmit enormous data through the communications channel. This was when the author was assigned the task of investigating lossless compression algorithms for space implementation to compress science data in order to reduce the requirement on bandwidth and storage.

Yeh, Pen-Shu; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

441

Simulation of Inviscid Compressible Multi-Phase Flow with Condensation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Condensation of vapours in rapid expansions of compressible gases is investigated. In the case of high temperature gradients the condensation will start at conditions well away from thermodynamic equilibrium of the fluid. In those cases homogeneous condensation is dominant over heterogeneous condensation. The present work is concerned with development of a simulation tool for computation of high speed compressible flows with homogeneous condensation. The resulting ow solver should preferably be accurate and robust to be used for simulation of industrial flows in general geometries.

Kelleners, Philip

2003-01-01

442

Studies of fiber-matrix adhesion on compression strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was initiated on the effect of the matrix polymer and the fiber matrix bond strength of carbon fiber polymer matrix composites. The work includes tests with micro-composites, single ply composites, laminates, and multi-axial loaded cylinders. The results obtained thus far indicate that weak fiber-matrix adhesion dramatically reduces 0 degree compression strength. Evidence is also presented that the flaws in the carbon fiber that govern compression strength differ from those that determine fiber tensile strength. Examination of post-failure damage in the single ply tests indicates kink banding at the crack tip.

Bascom, Willard D.; Nairn, John A.; Boll, D. J.

1991-01-01

443

Compression of spectral meteorological imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data compression is essential to current low-earth-orbit spectral sensors with global coverage, e.g., meteorological sensors. Such sensors routinely produce in excess of 30 Gb of data per orbit (over 4 Mb/s for about 110 min) while typically limited to less than 10 Gb of downlink capacity per orbit (15 minutes at 10 Mb/s). Astro-Space Division develops spaceborne compression systems for compression ratios from as little as three to as much as twenty-to-one for high-fidelity reconstructions. Current hardware production and development at Astro-Space Division focuses on discrete cosine transform (DCT) systems implemented with the GE PFFT chip, a 32x32 2D-DCT engine. Spectral relations in the data are exploited through block mean extraction followed by orthonormal transformation. The transformation produces blocks with spatial correlation that are suitable for further compression with any block-oriented spatial compression system, e.g., Astro-Space Division's Laplacian modeler and analytic encoder of DCT coefficients.

Miettinen, Kristo

1993-01-01

444

Word-Based Text Compression  

E-print Network

Today there are many universal compression algorithms, but in most cases is for specific data better using specific algorithm - JPEG for images, MPEG for movies, etc. For textual documents there are special methods based on PPM algorithm or methods with non-character access, e.g. word-based compression. In the past, several papers describing variants of word-based compression using Huffman encoding or LZW method were published. The subject of this paper is the description of a word-based compression variant based on the LZ77 algorithm. The LZ77 algorithm and its modifications are described in this paper. Moreover, various ways of sliding window implementation and various possibilities of output encoding are described, as well. This paper also includes the implementation of an experimental application, testing of its efficiency and finding the best combination of all parts of the LZ77 coder. This is done to achieve the best compression ratio. In conclusion there is comparison of this implemented application wi...

Platos, Jan

2008-01-01

445

ForPeerReview Ice age True Polar wander in a compressible and non  

E-print Network

ForPeerReview Ice age True Polar wander in a compressible and non hydrostatic Earth Journal Ice age (TPW), have continuously been debated, after the pioneering works of the sixties. We show ice age TPW

446

CO3096 Compression Methods for Multimedia Credits: 20 Convenor: Prof. R. Raman Semester: 2nd  

E-print Network

in terms of speed and compression ratio. Methods Class sessions and problem classes. Assessment marked algorithms and show how they work on a particular input; implement these algorithms; compare their efficiency

St Andrews, University of

447

Work Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals make choices in, and adjust to, a world of work that is often a moving target. Because work is so central to human functioning, and transitions in and out of work can have major mental health repercussions, the authors argue that applied psychologists in health services need to understand those transitions. This article focuses on the…

Fouad, Nadya A.; Bynner, John

2008-01-01

448

Value of Micro-CT for Monitoring Spinal Microvascular Changes after Chronic Spinal Cord Compression  

PubMed Central

Neurological degeneration can occur after compression of the spinal cord. It is widely accepted that spinal cord compression leads to ischemic lesions and ultimately neurological dysfunction due to a narrowed spinal canal. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of spinal cord compression injury is required to help develop effective clinical interventions. In the present study, we propose a new method of quantitative 3D micro-CT to observe microvascular events in a chronic spinal cord compression rat model. A total of 36 rats were divided into two groups: sham control group (n = 12) and compressive spinal cord injury group (n = 24). Rats were scarified at four weeks after surgery. In each group, CD34 micro-vessel immunohistochemical staining was performed in half of the animals, while micro-CT scanning was performed in the other half. Microvessel density (MVD) was measured after immunohistochemical staining, while the vascular index (VI) was measured in 3D micro-CT. In comparison with sham control, abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) can be seen in all 24 cases of the compression group, and VI shows the amount of microvessels reduced consistently and significantly (p < 0.01). A significant correlation is also found between MVD and VI (r = 0.95, p < 0.01). These data suggest that quantitative 3D micro-CT is a sensitive and promising tool for investigating microvascular changes during chronic compressive spinal cord injury. PMID:25003643

Long, Hou-Qing; Xie, Wen-Han; Chen, Wen-Li; Xie, Wen-Lin; Xu, Jing-Hui; Hu, Yong

2014-01-01

449

Experimental compressive phase space tomography  

PubMed Central

Phase space tomography estimates correlation functions entirely from snapshots in the evolution of the wave function along a time or space variable. In contrast, traditional interferometric methods require measurement of multiple two–point correlations. However, as in every tomographic formulation, undersampling poses a severe limitation. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, experimental demonstration of compressive reconstruction of the classical optical correlation function, i.e. the mutual intensity function. Our compressive algorithm makes explicit use of the physically justifiable assumption of a low–entropy source (or state.) Since the source was directly accessible in our classical experiment, we were able to compare the compressive estimate of the mutual intensity to an independent ground–truth estimate from the van Cittert–Zernike theorem and verify substantial quantitative improvements in the reconstruction. PMID:22513541

Tian, Lei; Lee, Justin; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George

2012-01-01

450

DURATION-1: Exenatide Once Weekly Produces Sustained Glycemic Control and Weight Loss Over 52 Weeks  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE In the Diabetes Therapy Utilization: Researching Changes in A1C, Weight and Other Factors Through Intervention with Exenatide Once Weekly (DURATION-1) study, the safety and efficacy of 30 weeks of treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide once weekly (exenatide QW; 2 mg) was compared with exenatide BID in 295 patients with type 2 diabetes. We now report the safety and efficacy of exenatide QW in 1) patients who continued treatment for an additional 22 weeks (52 weeks total) and 2) patients who switched from exenatide BID to exenatide QW after 30 weeks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this randomized, multicenter, comparator-controlled, open-label trial, 258 patients entered the 22-week open-ended assessment phase (n = 128 QW-only; n = 130 BID?QW). A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids, safety, and tolerability were assessed. RESULTS Patients continuing exenatide QW maintained A1C improvements through 52 weeks (least squares mean ?2.0% [95% CI ?2.1 to ?1.8%]). Patients switching from exenatide BID to exenatide QW achieved further A1C improvements; both groups exhibited the same A1C reduction and mean A1C (6.6%) at week 52. At week 52, 71 and 54% of all patients achieved A1C <7.0% and ?6.5%, respectively. In both treatment arms, FPG was reduced by >40 mg/dl, and body weight was reduced by >4 kg after 52 weeks. Nausea occurred less frequently in this assessment period and was predominantly mild. No major hypoglycemia was observed. CONCLUSION Exenatide QW elicited sustained improvements in glycemic control and body weight through 52 weeks of treatment. Patients switching to exenatide QW experienced further improvements in A1C and FPG, with sustained weight loss. PMID:20215461

Buse, John B.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Taylor, Kristin L.; Kim, Terri; Walsh, Brandon; Hu, Hao; Wilhelm, Ken; Trautmann, Michael; Shen, Larry Z.; Porter, Lisa E.

2010-01-01

451

Compression of Ultrasonic NDT Image by Wavelet Based Local Quantization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compression on ultrasonic image that is always corrupted by noise will cause `over-smoothness' or much distortion. To solve this problem to meet the need of real time inspection and tele-inspection, a compression method based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) that can also suppress the noise without losing much flaw-relevant information, is presented in this work. Exploiting the multi-resolution and interscale correlation property of DWT, a simple way named DWCs classification, is introduced first to classify detail wavelet coefficients (DWCs) as dominated by noise, signal or bi-effected. A better denoising can be realized by selective thresholding DWCs. While in `Local quantization', different quantization strategies are applied to the DWCs according to their classification and the local image property. It allocates the bit rate more efficiently to the DWCs thus achieve a higher compression rate. Meanwhile, the decompressed image shows the effects of noise suppressed and flaw characters preserved.

Cheng, W.; Li, L. Q.; Tsukada, K.; Hanasaki, K.

2004-02-01

452

Thermoacoustic compression based on alternating to direct gas flow conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a remarkable thermoacoustically driven compression effect based on the conversion of gas flow from an alternating state to a direct state. The alternating gas flow is generated by the thermoacoustic effect in thermoacoustic engines, whereas direct gas flow is achieved by means of the flow rectification effect of check valves. A demonstrative thermoacoustic compressor consisting of two standing-wave thermoacoustic engines, two reservoirs, and three check valves is constructed for experimental investigation. With nitrogen as a working gas and an initial pressure of 2.4 MPa in all components, a usable pressure difference of 0.4 MPa is achieved, with the average gas pumping rate reaching 2.85 Nm3/h during the first 3 s of the compression process. The simple mechanical structure and thermally driven nature of the compressor show potential in gas compression, power generation, and refrigeration applications.

Sun, D. M.; Wang, K.; Xu, Y.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, X. J.; Qiu, L. M.

2012-05-01

453

The CCDS Data Compression Recommendations: Development and Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) has been engaging in recommending data compression standards for space applications. The first effort focused on a lossless scheme that was adopted in 1997. Since then, space missions benefiting from this recommendation range from deep space probes to near Earth observatories. The cost savings result not only from reduced onboard storage and reduced bandwidth, but also in ground archive of mission data. In many instances, this recommendation also enables more science data to be collected for added scientific value. Since 1998, the compression sub-panel of CCSDS has been investigating lossy image compression schemes and is currently working towards a common solution for a single recommendation. The recommendation will fulfill the requirements for remote sensing conducted on space platforms.

Yeh, Pen-Shu; Moury, Gilles; Armbruster, Philippe; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

454

General Equation Set Solver for Compressible and Incompressible Turbomachinery Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbomachines for propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. The flow may be incompressible, such as in the liquid hydrogen pump in a rocket engine, or supersonic, such as in the turbine which may drive the hydrogen pump. Separate codes have traditionally been used for incompressible and compressible flow solvers. The General Equation Set (GES) method can be used to solve both incompressible and compressible flows, and it is not restricted to perfect gases, as are many compressible-flow turbomachinery solvers. An unsteady GES turbomachinery flow solver has been developed and applied to both air and water flows through turbines. It has been shown to be an excellent alternative to maintaining two separate codes.

Sondak, Douglas L.; Dorney, Daniel J.

2002-01-01

455

Trochoidal rotary piston engine with bypass of compressed mixture to exhaust chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rotary piston engine is disclosed comprising a casing and a substantially tri-angular rotor disposed in the trochoidal cavity of the casing. The casing is provided with a take-out port for drawing compressed air from the compressing working and a discharge port located to open to the exhaust working chamber. The take-out port is connected through a throttle-controlled valve with

K. Kikura; H. Nomura; K. Takeda

1978-01-01

456

Data compression in digitized lines  

SciTech Connect

The problem of data compression is very important in digital photogrammetry, computer assisted cartography, and GIS/LIS. In addition, it is also applicable in many other fields such as computer vision, image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. Consequently, there are many algorithms available to solve this problem but none of them are considered to be satisfactory. In this paper, a new method of finding critical points in a digitized curve is explained. This technique, based on the normalized symmetric scattered matrix, is good for both critical points detection and data compression. In addition, the critical points detected by this algorithm are compared with those by zero-crossings. 8 refs.

Thapa, K. (Ferris State Univ., Big Rapids, MI (USA))

1990-04-01

457

Data compression in digitized lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of data compression is very important in digital photogrammetry, computer assisted cartography, and GIS/LIS. In addition, it is also applicable in many other fields such as computer vision, image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. Consequently, there are many algorithms available to solve this problem but none of them are considered to be satisfactory. In this paper, a new method of finding critical points in a digitized curve is explained. This technique, based on the normalized symmetric scattered matrix, is good for both critical points detection and data compression. In addition, the critical points detected by this algorithm are compared with those by zero-crossings.

Thapa, Khagendra

1990-01-01

458

Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012  

SciTech Connect

Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

2013-02-01

459

Compression leggings modestly affect cardiovascular but not cerebrovascular responses to heat and orthostatic stress in young and older adults.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that wearing commercially available compression leggings would attenuate postural reductions in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral perfusion during heat stress, particularly in older adults. Six older (70 years ± 4) and six younger (29 years ± 4) males were heated (esophageal temperature raised 0.5°C) in a water-perfused suit whilst wearing compression or control leggings (>1 week apart, randomized order). Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv), blood pressure (photoplethysmography), total peripheral resistance (TPR; ModelFlow) and the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide were measured continuously before and during 3-min standing in each thermal state. When supine, compression leggings did not change any cardiorespiratory variables in either age group or thermal condition (P > 0.05). Upon standing, wearing compression leggings delayed (~15%; P = 0.044) the maximal drop (nadir) in MAP irrespective of age or thermal condition. During the last minute of standing, wearing compression leggings in normothermia increased TPR (+16%) in older participants but dropped TPR (-8%) in younger participants (P = 0.004 compression × age group). When standing and heated, wearing compression leggings lowered TPR in older and younger participants (~43%; P < 0.01) without changing MAP or MCAv (P > 0.05). In older adults, when standing, compression leggings maintained MAP by elevating TPR. In contrast, under combined heat and orthostatic stress, wearing compression leggings dropped TPR in both older and younger adults, though MAP and MCAv were maintained. PMID:21526339

Lucas, Rebekah Ann Isabel; Ainslie, Philip N; Morrison, Shawnda A; Cotter, James D

2012-04-01

460

Compressible Turbulent Channel Flows: DNS Results and Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper addresses some topical issues in modeling compressible turbulent shear flows. The work is based on direct numerical simulation of two supersonic fully developed channel flows between very cold isothermal walls. Detailed decomposition and analysis of terms appearing in the momentum and energy equations are presented. The simulation results are used to provide insights into differences between conventional time-and Favre-averaging of the mean-flow and turbulent quantities. Study of the turbulence energy budget for the two cases shows that the compressibility effects due to turbulent density and pressure fluctuations are insignificant. In particular, the dilatational dissipation and the mean product of the pressure and dilatation fluctuations are very small, contrary to the results of simulations for sheared homogeneous compressible turbulence and to recent proposals for models for general compressible turbulent flows. This provides a possible explanation of why the Van Driest density-weighted transformation is so successful in correlating compressible boundary layer data. Finally, it is found that the DNS data do not support the strong Reynolds analogy. A more general representation of the analogy is analysed and shown to match the DNS data very well.

Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.; Bradshaw, P.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

461

Math Forum Technology Problems of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Technology Problems of the Week (tPoWs) are freely accessible problem-solving challenges, modeled on the Math Forumâs Problems of the Week, that take advantage of interactive mathematics tools such as Java applets, TI-Nspireâ¢, The Geometer's Sketchpad®, Fathomâ¢, or spreadsheets. A login is required. Teachers may choose a free class membership, providing the ability to create classes, create student logins, and use the Math Forumâs online mentoring and feedback system or choose a free individual membership, providing individual access to view the problems as well as any available teacher resources. Free student memberships are also available. Problems include hints and answer checks.

2011-01-01

462

5 CFR 610.405 - Holiday for part-time employees on flexible work schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for part-time employees on flexible work schedules. 610.405 Section...REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.405 Holiday for part-time employees on flexible work schedules. If a...

2010-01-01

463

A Novel ECG Data Compression Method Using Adaptive Fourier Decomposition with Security Guarantee in e-Health Applications.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel electrocardiogram (ECG) compression method for e-health applications by adapting adaptive Fourier decomposition (AFD) algorithm hybridized with symbol substitution (SS) technique. The compression consists of two stages: 1st stage AFD executes efficient lossy compression with high fidelity; 2nd stage SS performs lossless compression enhancement and built-in data encryption which is pivotal for e-health. Validated with 48 ECG records from MIT-BIH arrhythmia benchmark database, the proposed method achieves averaged compression ratio (CR) of 17.6 to 44.5 and percentage root mean square difference (PRD) of 0.8% to 2.0% with a highly linear and robust PRD-CR relationship, pushing forward the compression performance to an unexploited region. As such, this work provides an attractive candidate of ECG compression method for pervasive e-health applications. PMID:25222961

Ma, Jiali; Zhang, TanTan; Dong, MingChui

2014-09-12

464

Brazil Week 2014Brazil Week 2014MONDAYMONDAY SEPT. 29SEPT. 29 Brazil Week is sponsored by: And co-sponsored by  

E-print Network

Brazil Week 2014Brazil Week 2014MONDAYMONDAY SEPT. 29SEPT. 29 Brazil Week is sponsored by: And co and the Brazil Week 2014 Student Committee. WEDNESDAYWEDNESDAY Oct. 1Oct. 1 THURSDAYTHURSDAY Oct. 2Oct. 2 by Professor Jay Coakley "Winners & LosersJay Coakley "Winners & Losers in Brazil: World Cupin Brazil: World

Bordenstein, Seth

465

Phase II randomized trial of weekly and every-3-week ixabepilone in metastatic breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

This multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II trial compared the efficacy and tolerability of weekly ixabepilone versus the standard 3 weekly dosing regimen. Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, metastatic breast cancer (MBC) were randomly assigned to receive either ixabepilone 16 mg/m(2) as a 1-h intravenous (IV) infusion weekly on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle (1 week off therapy; n = 85), or 40 mg/m(2) as a 3-h IV infusion on day 1 of a 21-day cycle (n = 91), until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Randomization was stratified by (i) measurable versus nonmeasurable (evaluable) disease, (ii) ?two versus >two prior chemotherapy regimens for MBC, and (iii) hormone receptor (HR)-positive versus HR-negative breast cancer. The primary endpoint was rate of progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months. Of 176 randomized patients, 171 were treated. The 6-month PFS rate was significantly higher in patients treated with ixabepilone every 3 weeks (42.7, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 31.5-53.5) compared with those who received ixabepilone weekly (28.6, 95 % CI 18.9-38.9; log-rank P = 0.03). Every-3-week dosing significantly prolonged median PFS versus weekly dosing (5.3 vs. 2.9 months; log-rank P = 0.05). The every-3-week regimen was associated with higher rates of grade 3/4 toxicities, particularly neutropenia (38.2 vs. 6.1 %) and a higher rate of patient withdrawal due to adverse events. These results suggest that every-3-week ixabepilone is more effective than weekly treatment in MBC, albeit with more toxicity. PMID:24166282

Smith, John W; Vukelja, Svetislava; Rabe, Amy; Wentworth-Hartung, Nicole; Koutrelakos, Nicholas; Shao, Spencer H; Whittaker, Thomas; Wang, Yunfei; Asmar, Lina; McDowell, Diane Opatt; Mukhopadhyay, Pralay; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce

2013-11-01

466

The use of Weekly Journals in Physics by Inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics by Inquiry (PBI) is a guided inquiry-based physics class for non-science majors (the target audience is education majors). Students learn by doing hands-on experiments while working in groups. Weekly journal assignments prod students to reflect on their learning experiences. The journals provide instructors a means of two-way feedback (both from and to the students). In this study, examples from the journals will be used to show how students adopt the inquiry method in their studies and to examine their ideas about teaching and learning after taking this course.

Lin, Yuhfen; Gordon, Aubrecht

2003-10-01

467

Frequency extrapolation by nonconvex compressive sensing  

SciTech Connect

Tomographic imaging modalities sample subjects with a discrete, finite set of measurements, while the underlying object function is continuous. Because of this, inversion of the imaging model, even under ideal conditions, necessarily entails approximation. The error incurred by this approximation can be important when there is rapid variation in the object function or when the objects of interest are small. In this work, we investigate this issue with the Fourier transform (FT), which can be taken as the imaging model for magnetic resonance imaging (MRl) or some forms of wave imaging. Compressive sensing has been successful for inverting this data model when only a sparse set of samples are available. We apply the compressive sensing principle to a somewhat related problem of frequency extrapolation, where the object function is represented by a super-resolution grid with many more pixels than FT measurements. The image on the super-resolution grid is obtained through nonconvex minimization. The method fully utilizes the available FT samples, while controlling aliasing and ringing. The algorithm is demonstrated with continuous FT samples of the Shepp-Logan phantom with additional small, high-contrast objects.

Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sidky, Emil Y [UNIV OF CHICAGO; Pan, Xiaochaun [UNIV OF CHICAGO

2010-12-03

468

Intraspinal neuroblastoma: Treatment options and neurological outcome of spinal cord compression  

PubMed Central

Malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a common complication of cancer. Paraspinal neuroblastoma (NB) in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic regions may extend into the neural foramina causing compression of nerve roots and even the spinal cord. The prompt initiation of specific treatment can improve the neurological outcome. The aim of the present study was to review the clinical features, the management received and the factors that may affect the outcome of patients with MSCC caused by paraspinal NB. During a period between July 2007 and December 2012, a total of 576 NB patients were treated at the Children’s Cancer Hospital (Cairo, Egypt). Intraspinal disease extension was present in 51 patients (9%). The children with intraspinal disease extension were reviewed for disease pattern, neurological manifestations and treatment outcome. Children with intraspinal disease extension had an equal male to female ratio (1:1), and approximately two-thirds of patients (34/51) had a clinically manifested cord compression. The duration of neurological manifestations was >4 weeks in 58.8% (20/34) of symptomatic patients and ?4 weeks in 41.2% (14/34). Subsequent to starting treatment, neurological manifestations showed a complete recovery in 16 patients (47.1%), partial in 11 (32.4%), and stationary course was found in 7 (20.6%). Manifestations of ?4 weeks in duration carried an improved outcome compared with longer time compression, with a complete recovery in 78.6%, versus 25% for patients with a longer symptom duration (P=0.008). The upfront treatment, patient age and site of the primary tumor did not significantly affect the neurological outcome. Spinal cord compression in NB can be effectively managed with upfront chemotherapy. Initial surgical decompression should be reserved for benign variants only, including ganglioneuroma. Neurological manifestations of <4 weeks duration upon presentation are usually reversible.

FAWZY, MOHAMED; EL-BELTAGY, MOHAMED; SHAFEI, MAGED EL; ZAGHLOUL, MOHAMED SAAD; KINAAI, NAGLAA AL; REFAAT, AMAL; AZMY, SARAH

2015-01-01

469

Purdue University Multiscale Document Compression  

E-print Network

Image 8x8 Block Segmentation One-color Coder Two-color Coder Other Coder Picture Coder Arithmetic Coder Compressed Document Image JPEG 8x8 Block Segmentation Other Block Block Seg- mentation Map Extract Mean Colors Arithmetic Coder Two-color Block JBIG2 Coder Bilevel Thresholding Arithmetic Coder Arithmetic

470

Teaching Time-Space Compression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Time-space compression shows students that geographies are plastic, mutable and forever changing. This paper justifies the need to teach this topic, which is rarely found in undergraduate course syllabi. It addresses the impacts of transportation and communications technologies to explicate its dynamics. In summarizing various conceptual…

Warf, Barney

2011-01-01

471

On Torsion Combined with Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

If a rod is twisted while subjected to longitudinal compression it will support without fracture angles of twist many-fold greater and maximum torques somewhat greater than is possible in the absence of load. Under compressional load the curve of shearing stress against shearing strain rises to a maximum and then sinks with a long drawn out tail to an approximate

P. W. Bridgman

1943-01-01

472

Device Assists Cardiac Chest Compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable device facilitates effective and prolonged cardiac resuscitation by chest compression. Developed originally for use in absence of gravitation, also useful in terrestrial environments and situations (confined spaces, water rescue, medical transport) not conducive to standard manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques.

Eichstadt, Frank T.

1995-01-01

473

Culture: Copying, Compression, and Conventionality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, 2008; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, 2013). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning…

Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon

2015-01-01

474

Data compression using text encryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We discuss the use of a new algorithm to preprocess text in order to improve the compression ratio of textual documents, in particular online documents such as web pages on the World Wide Web. The algorithm was first introduced in an earlier paper, and in this paper we discuss the applicability of our algorithm in Internet

H. Kruse; A. Mukherjee

1997-01-01

475

Compressed Representations of Molecular Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We introduce a novel efficient representation for volumetric molecular structure and functions. This molecular representation allows us to interactively deal with large and small biomolecular datasets produced by increasingly accurate and better imaging techniques and simulations. A hierarchical basis wavelet based compression scheme is derived. Due to the continuity offered by these wavelets, we retain good accuracy of the

Chandrajit Bajaj; Vinay Siddavanahalli; Zaiqing Xu

476

Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy

Charles Mendler

2011-01-01

477

Photovoltaic driven vapor compression cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the vast majority of heat pumps, air conditioning and refrigeration equipment employs the vapor compression cycle (VCC), the use of renewable energy represents a significant opportunity. As discussed in this report, it is clear that the use of photovoltaics (PV) to drive the VCC has more potential than any other active solar cooling approach. This potential exists due to

D. K. Anand

1985-01-01

478

Hyperspectral image compressive projection algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a compressive projection algorithm and experimentally assess its performance when used with a Hyperspectral Image Projector (HIP). The HIP is being developed by NIST for system-level performance testing of hyperspectral and multispectral imagers. It projects a two-dimensional image into the unit under test (UUT), whereby each pixel can have an independently programmable arbitrary spectrum. To efficiently project a

Joseph P. Rice; David W. Allen

2009-01-01

479

Hyperspectral image compressive projection algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a compressive projection algorithm and experimentally assess its performance when used with a Hyperspectral Image Projector (HIP). The HIP is being developed by NIST for system-level performance testing of hyperspectral and multispectral imagers. It projects a two-dimensional image into the unit under test (UUT), whereby each pixel can have an independently programmable arbitrary spectrum. To efficiently project a single frame of dynamic realistic hyperspectral imagery through the collimator into the UUT, a compression algorithm has been developed whereby the series of abundance images and corresponding endmember spectra that comprise the image cube of that frame are first computed using an automated endmember-finding algorithm such as the Sequential Maximum Angle Convex Cone (SMACC) endmember model. Then these endmember spectra are projected sequentially on the HIP spectral engine in sync with the projection of the abundance images on the HIP spatial engine, during the singleframe exposure time of the UUT. The integrated spatial image captured by the UUT is the endmember-weighted sum of the abundance images, which results in the formation of a datacube for that frame. Compressive projection enables a much smaller set of broadband spectra to be projected than monochromatic projection, and thus utilizes the inherent multiplex advantage of the HIP spectral engine. As a result, radiometric brightness and projection frame rate are enhanced. In this paper, we use a visible breadboard HIP to experimentally assess the compressive projection algorithm performance.

Rice, Joseph P.; Allen, David W.

2009-05-01

480

Compressed Gas EHS-2200-WEB  

E-print Network

Compressed Gas Safety EHS-2200-WEB Register and launch through http://axess.stanford.edu Course title and STARS number: General Safety & Emergency Preparedness EHS-4200-WEB Chemical Safety for Laboratories EHS-1900-WEB Biosafety EHS-1500-WEB Radiation Safety Training EHS-5250 Laser Safety EHS-4820-WEB

481

A programmable image compression system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A programmable image compression system which has the necessary flexibility to address diverse imaging needs is described. It can compress and expand single frame video images (monochrome or color) as well as documents and graphics (black and white or color) for archival or transmission applications. Through software control, the compression mode can be set for lossless or controlled quality coding; the image size and bit depth can be varied; and the image source and destination devices can be readily changed. Despite the large combination of image data types, image sources, and algorithms, the system provides a simple consistent interface to the programmer. This system (OPTIPAC) is based on the TITMS320C25 digital signal processing (DSP) chip and has been implemented as a co-processor board for an IBM PC-AT compatible computer. The underlying philosophy can readily be applied to different hardware platforms. By using multiple DSP chips or incorporating algorithm specific chips, the compression and expansion times can be significantly reduced to meet performance requirements.

Farrelle, Paul M.

1989-01-01

482

Worksheet Math 124 Week 9 Worksheet for Week 9: Sketching Curves  

E-print Network

Worksheet Math 124 Week 9 Worksheet for Week 9: Sketching Curves You might have wondered, why're trying to graph. In this worksheet, you'll reconstruct a graph of a function given some data about it! At the end of the worksheet, there is a problem about maximizing a function on a closed interval, for extra

Sylvester, John

483

Worksheet Math 124 Week 10 Worksheet for Week 10: Sketching Curves  

E-print Network

Worksheet Math 124 Week 10 Worksheet for Week 10: Sketching Curves You might have wondered, why're trying to graph. In this worksheet, you'll reconstruct a graph of a function given some data about it! At the end of the worksheet, there is a problem about maximizing a function on a closed interval, for extra

Sylvester, John

484

Welcome to this week's edition of Lots of good news in PTRS this week! Mary  

E-print Network

Welcome to this week's edition of Lots of good news in PTRS this week! Mary Mary Rodgers, PT, Ph), was featured in a report from Fox News which ran a story about her Grandfather's decision to donate his body: http://www.foxbaltimore.com/news/features/cover-story/stories/vid_938.shtml#.UbdCHPUZueY PTRS

Weber, David J.

485

Biology Weekly December 4, 2014 1 Biology Weekly December 4, 2014  

E-print Network

Biology Weekly ­ December 4, 2014 1 Biology Weekly December 4, 2014 BGSA Holiday Party It to enter the contest! Please purchase tickets from Leanne Elchyshyn in Stewart Biology W6/5, Dieta Hanson, as there is limited availability! Ask a CIANtist Did you know that... ...a list of shareable equipment for Biology

Kambhampati, Patanjali

486

Session A Six Weeks May 26 July 2 Session B Ten Weeks June 8 August 14  

E-print Network

Reimagine Your Summer 2015 #12;Session A Six Weeks May 26 ­ July 2 Session B Ten Weeks June 8, July 3 No classes will be held 2015 Summer Sessions Calendar Inside front cover Calendar and Contact, including more than 3,000 visiting and international students. 3. Experience the Bay Area Enjoy summer

Rubin, Yoram

487

PERSISTENT EFFECTS OF REPEATED INHALATION OF TOLUENE: 4 WEEKS VS. 13 WEEKS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding and predicting the extent of neurotoxic damage from repeated exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a problem for many EPA programs. Eighty adult, male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks in a systema...

488

First Few Weeks on Campus. Prevention Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every fall, college and university campuses and communities brace for the onslaught of new and returning students. For first-year students, anecdotal evidence suggests that the first six weeks of enrollment are critical to success. Because many students initiate heavy drinking during these early days of college, the potential exists for excessive…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

2010-01-01

489

C Programming Week 7 Dr. William Hart  

E-print Network

, float exponent ); double pow(double base , double exponent ); double pow(double base , int exponent have to append -lm to gcc to use math library. 4 / 49 C Programming Week 7 #12;double cos(double x); float cos(float x); double sin(double x); float sin(float x); double tan(double x); float tan(float x

Burton, Geoffrey R.

490

Week 14, Surfing It Is Smaills Beach  

E-print Network

Week 14, Surfing It Is Smaills Beach One of the things that I had hoped to be able to do while I enjoy swimming at the beach; the ocean is cold this far south, even in summer. Over the past couple to go out for an hour before school. And we also have two body boards, so going to the beach is now

Bardsley, John

491

Science week: May 11”17  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Science Week, an event launched last year by the National Science Foundation (NSF), will be observed thi s year from May 11 to May 17, 1986. In support of this effort, NSF is urging individuals or organizations to sponsor science and math competitions or fairs, arrange "open house" events at research facilities, organize educational programs and scientific demonstrations, and arrange or participate in other activities. National Science Week is intended to increase public awareness and understanding of science and technology and to encourage young people in the United States to become more involved with and consider careers in science and mathematics. Educational packets will be made available to schools, public libraries, and science museums. The corporate sponsors of National Science Week are the Amoco Foundation, the Atlantic Richfield Foundation, the Dow Chemical Company Foundation, the DuPont Company, the Eastman Kodak Company, the General Electric Foundation, and IBM. For more information, write to National Science Week '86, c/o National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 1-800-227-SEEK).

492

Week 14: Chapter 15 Oscillatory Motion  

E-print Network

1 Week 14: Chapter 15 Oscillatory Motion Periodic Motion Periodic motion is motion of an object that regularly returns to a given position after a fixed time interval A special kind of periodic motion occurs is at the equilibrium position x = 0 Hooke's Law Hooke's Law states Fs = - kx Fs is the restoring force It is always

493

76 FR 29139 - World Trade Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8677 of May 13, 2011 World Trade Week, 2011 By the President of the...to look beyond our borders to supply the world with innovative and technologically advanced...United States are tied to exports, and our world continues to grow more...

2011-05-19

494

MODELLING OVER WEEK PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study aims to analyze alcohol consumption patterns throughout a week, controlled by socio-demographic characteristics, and to discuss the adequacy of the complex models employed. Methods: The sample included 496 participants, from both sexes, 40 years old and with 7-day dietary records. Bayesian generalized additive mixed models (GAMM) were applied using two approaches: a multinomial model, with three categories

CARLA LOPES; VALESKA LIMA ANDREOZZI; ELISABETE RAMOS

495

Maths Week Ireland Activities and Puzzles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of recreational math activities for students of all ages is hosted by Maths Week Ireland, the annual gathering and competition of math students from all over Ireland. Here you will find puzzles, art, magic tricks and resources for holding math events.

2013-01-01

496

Telling the Public--It's Science Week  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an opportunity to engage the public in demonstrating and explaining some aspects of science. About 10 years ago, the author met Peter Evennett in the ASE Conference exhibition. Peter was a member of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society and currently its president. As a contribution to "Science Week" (which dates back…

Auty, Geoff

2011-01-01

497

The Four-Day School Week. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of the 4-day school week being utilized by 36 school districts in Colorado. These districts, which tend to be rural and sparsely populated, schedule 7.5 hours per day for 144 days of school instead of the normal 6 hours for 180 days. Colorado law requires school districts to schedule 1,080 hours per year of…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

498

Star Week- A Successful Campaign in Japan -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1995, we started a campaign of the star week as between August 1 and 7 when it is usually expected that most part of Japan should be good weather after the rainy season during the summer holiday. Several hundreds of astronomical facilities for general public in Japan, including planetariums, museums, and public observatories participated in our campaign, together with make good collaborations for education purpose. More than 200 astronomical events such as star parties were coordinated for general public every year. Japan is one of the worst countries for light pollution. Especially most of children have no experience of seeing Milky Way. Let them see the real stars. Let them feel the universe by inviting them to the related astronomical facilities located all over Japan. For realizing this purpose, it is better to set the special week, similar to the "Bird Week" by arranging various astronomical events in these facilities in order to invite all the general public. This is the motivation of the beginning of the star week. Such outreach program should give opportunity for general public to understand the excitement of the astronomy. In this paper, we will introduce present situation of our campaign, along with some statistics.

Watanabe, J.

2006-08-01

499

Hours of Work Page 1 of 4 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University No. 4300 Rev.: 6  

E-print Network

Hours of Work Page 1 of 4 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University No. 4300 Rev.: 6 __________________________________________________________________________________ Subject: Hours of Work....................................................................................................................................................................1 2.1 Standard Work Week

Virginia Tech

500

Compressive sensor networks : fundamental limits and algorithms  

E-print Network

Compressed sensing is a non-adaptive compression method that takes advantage of natural sparsity at the input and is fast gaining relevance to both researchers and engineers for its universality and applicability. First ...

Sun, John Zheng

2009-01-01