Sample records for compton scattering gamma

  1. Resonant Compton scattering and gamma-ray burst continuum spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The Thomson limit of resonant inverse Compton scattering in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars is considered as a mechanism for producing gamma-ray burst continuum spectra. Photon production spectra and electron cooling rates are presented using the full magnetic Thomson cross-section. Model emission spectra are obtained as self-consistent solutions of a set of photon and electron kinetic equations, displaying spectral breaks and other structure at gamma-ray energies.

  2. COMPACT, TUNABLE COMPTON SCATTERING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2009-08-20

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by the linac interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. The source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

  3. Bursts of gamma rays from Compton scattering at cosmological distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Svensson, Roland; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    Compton scattering of the microwave background photons by beams of ultrarelativistic electrons at large redshifts, z much greater than 1, is proposed as a source of some gamma-ray bursts. Such beams may be produced by cusps on superconducting cosmic strings. In the present model, a very narrow beam of ultrarelativistic electron-positron pairs scatters the microwave background photons into a very narrow beam of gamma rays. While the pairs lose energy, the beam of gamma rays opens up and sweeps the observer. The expected time variability and spectra of the resulting gamma-ray burst are calculated. The bursts have a rapid rise time, followed by a more gradual decline. The spectra are initially very hard and become softer during the decline.

  4. Gamma-ray burst polarization via Compton scattering process

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Jiang, Yunguo, E-mail: linhn@ihep.ac.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, 264209 Weihai (China)

    2014-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation and Compton scattering are widely accepted as the most likely emission mechanisms of some astrophysical phenomena, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei. The measurement of the polarization of photons provides a useful tool to distinguish different emission mechanisms and structures of the emission region. Based on the differential cross section of a polarized photon scattered by an unpolarized electron of any initial momentum, we derive an analytical formula of polarization for beamed photons scattered by isotropic electrons with a power-law distribution. Numerical calculations are carried out in four special cases: electrons at rest, Thomson limit, head-on collision, and monochromatic electrons. It is found that the maximum polarization can be as high as 100% for low energy photons, if the electrons are at rest. Although polarization is highly suppressed due to the isotropic electrons, a maximum value of ?10%-20% can still be achieved. The Compton scattering process can be used to explain the polarization of GRB 041219A and GRB 100826A.

  5. Energy distribution of Compton-scattered gamma rays

    E-print Network

    Moreland, Richard Wayne

    1966-01-01

    DATA AND THEIR ANALYSIS ~ ~ 1 13 Carbon 15 Aluminum 16 Brass 16 VI. Lead DISCUSSION REFERENCES APPENDIX 17 19 23 24 LIST OP ThBLES Table Page Theoretical Doppler broadening of the Compton line Experimental results for each scatterer... in space, the second shift results statistically in a broadening of the shifted Compton line. This broadening is known as Doppler broadening, The Compton line is also known as the modified line. Another type of scattering which occurs is called...

  6. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.

    PubMed

    El Abd, A

    2014-12-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. PMID:25241360

  7. GAMMA RAYS FROM COMPTON SCATTERING IN THE JETS OF MICROQUASARS: APPLICATION TO LS 5039

    E-print Network

    Boettcher, Markus

    GAMMA RAYS FROM COMPTON SCATTERING IN THE JETS OF MICROQUASARS: APPLICATION TO LS 5039 Charles D in the comoving jet frame and applied to -ray observations of LS 5039. We conclude that (1) the Te and the EGRET data claimed to be associated with LS 5039 requires a very improbable leptonic model with a very

  8. GAMMA RAYS FROM COMPTON SCATTERING IN THE JETS OF MICROQUASARS: APPLICATION TO LS 5039

    E-print Network

    Boettcher, Markus

    GAMMA RAYS FROM COMPTON SCATTERING IN THE JETS OF MICROQUASARS: APPLICATION TO LS 5039 Charles D in the comoving jet frame and applied to #­ray observations of LS 5039. We conclude that (1) the Te and the EGRET data claimed to be associated with LS 5039 requires a very improbable leptonic model with a very

  9. Gamma Rays from Compton Scattering in the Jets of Microquasars: Application to LS 5039

    E-print Network

    Charles D. Dermer; Markus Boettcher

    2006-05-16

    Recent HESS observations show that microquasars in high-mass systems are sources of VHE gamma-rays. A leptonic jet model for microquasar gamma-ray emission is developed. Using the head-on approximation for the Compton cross section and taking into account angular effects from the star's orbital motion, we derive expressions to calculate the spectrum of gamma rays when nonthermal jet electrons Compton-scatter photons of the stellar radiation field. Calculations are presented for power-law distributions of nonthermal electrons that are assumed to be isotropically distributed in the comoving jet frame, and applied to $\\gamma$-ray observations of LS 5039. We conclude that (1) the TeV emission measured with HESS cannot result only from Compton-scattered stellar radiation (CSSR), but could be synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission or a combination of CSSR and SSC; (2) fitting both the HESS data and the EGRET data associated with LS 5039 requires a very improbable leptonic model with a very hard electron spectrum. Because the gamma rays would be variable in a leptonic jet model, the data sets are unlikely to be representative of a simultaneously measured gamma-ray spectrum. We therefore attribute EGRET gamma rays primarily to CSSR emission, and HESS gamma rays to SSC emission. Detection of periodic modulation of the TeV emission from LS 5039 would favor a leptonic SSC or cascade hadron origin of the emission in the inner jet, whereas stochastic variability alone would support a more extended leptonic model. The puzzle of the EGRET gamma rays from LS 5039 will be quickly solved with GLAST. (Abridged)

  10. Determination of photoneutron cross sections for {sup 197}Au by using laser inverse-Compton scattering gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Kondo, T. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Toyokawa, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Lui, Y.-W. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Kitatani, F.; Harada, H.; Goko, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nair, C. [Institut fur Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    We measured photoneutron cross sections for {sup 197}Au with quasi-monochromatic laser inverse-Compton scattering gamma rays. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the existing data.

  11. Energy distribution of Compton-scattered gamma rays 

    E-print Network

    Moreland, Richard Wayne

    1966-01-01

    in eak CH2 Al Brass Pb 6. 6 7. 5 8. 6 8. 6 9. 7 15. 4 17. 6 20. 3 20. 3 22. 9 10. 2-1 13. 0-1 16. 0-1 16. 0t 1 20. 011 14. 0 2800 14. 0 4760 15, 5 15. 5 2100 2300 6. 4 2700 27 Table 3. Properties of each scatterer used... Electrons/atom contributing 50% of peak height . 2. 3 3. 8 7. 4 8, 3 7. 84x10 23. 0x10 26. 2x10 No. of effective electrons/cm . 94x10 2. 29x10 5. 85x10 2. 68x10 Hl H2 . 376 , 392 1. 000 . 427 Mean free path 1. 25-MeV (cm) 22. 8 10. 0 3. 14 2. 6...

  12. Compton Scattering on Light Nuclei

    E-print Network

    Deepshikha Shukla

    2009-12-22

    Compton scattering on light nuclei ($A=2,3$) has emerged as an effective avenue to search for signatures of neutron polarizabilities, both spin--independent and spin--dependent ones. In this discussion I will focus on the theoretical aspect of Compton scattering on light nuclei; giving first a brief overview and therafter concentrating on our Compton scattering calculations based on Chiral effective theory at energies of the order of pion mass. These elastic $\\gamma$d and $\\gamma$He-3 calculations include nucleons, pions as the basic degrees of freedom. I will also discuss $\\gamma$d results where the $\\Delta$-isobar has been included explicitly. Our results on unpolarized and polarization observables suggest that a combination of experiments and further theoretical efforts will provide an extraction of the neutron polarizabilities.

  13. Feasibility study of ultra-short gamma ray pulse generation by laser Compton scattering in an electron storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Y.; Adachi, M.; Zen, H.; Tanikawa, T.; Hosaka, M.; Takashima, Y.; Yamamoto, N.; Soda, K.; Katoh, M.

    2011-05-01

    We are developing an ultra-short gamma ray pulse source based on laser Compton scattering technology. Ultra-short gamma ray pulses can be generated by injecting femtosecond laser pulses into the electron beam circulating in an electron storage ring from the direction perpendicular to the orbital plane. The energy, intensity, and pulse width of the gamma rays are estimated to be 6.6 MeV, 2.4×106 photons s-1, and 288 fs, respectively, for the case of a 750 MeV electron storage ring with a commercially available femtosecond laser. A preliminary head-on collision experiment was conducted. The measured spectral shape agreed well with the simulation, including the detector response calculated by the EGS5 code. The results implied that the generation of gamma rays occurred by laser Compton scattering and confirmed the validity of the estimation of the gamma ray intensity in the case of 90° collisions.

  14. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory\\/BATSE observations of energetic electrons scattered by cyclotron resonance with waves from powerful VLF transmitters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dayton W. Datlowe; William L. Imhof

    1994-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the wave-particle mechanisms responsible for the loss of electrons from the radiation belts, energetic electron data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the NASA's Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was studied. Powerful ground-based VLF transmitters resonantly scatter electrons from the inner radiation belt onto trajectories from which they precipitate into the

  15. An investigation of the electronic wave functions in solids by the Compton scattering of gamma rays

    E-print Network

    Nha, Sang Kyun

    1968-01-01

    the Compton wavelength and C9 is the 0 scattering angle. However if tne electrons are moving there is a Doppler effect, related to the velocities of the electrons; this introduce a spread in the valu s of P . This broadening of the Compton line is known... as Doppler broadening caused by the motions of electrons in the atoms of the scattering material. Regarding the broadening of the Compton line the first reference 2 to this in the literature appeared in a paper by P. A. Ross remarkable for its insight...

  16. Design and Operation of a tunable MeV-level Compton-scattering-based (gamma-ray) source

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D J; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Betts, S M; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P

    2009-07-07

    A mono-energetic gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source based on Compton-scattering, targeting nuclear physics applications such as nuclear resonance fluorescence, has been constructed and commissioned at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In this paper, the overall architecture of the system, as well as some of the critical design decisions made in the development of the source, are discussed. The performances of the two laser systems (one for electron production, one for scattering), the electron photoinjector, and the linear accelerator are also detailed, and initial {gamma}-ray results are presented.

  17. Compton scattering overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V

    2008-12-01

    An overview of linear and nonlinear Compton scattering is presented, along with a comparison with Thomson scattering. Two distinct processes play important roles in the nonlinear regime: multi-photon interactions, leading to the generation of harmonics, and radiation pressure, yielding a downshift of the radiated spectral features. These mechanisms, their influence on the source brightness, and different modeling strategies are also briefly discussed.

  18. Timelike Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, T.; Klein, F. J. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Illieva, Y. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Nadel-Turonski, P.; Stepanyan, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Paremuzyan, R. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2011-10-24

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) have become a key concept in our studies of hadron structure in QCD. The measurement of suitable experimental observables and the extraction of GPDs from these data is one of the high priority 12 GeV programs at Jefferson Lab. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is generally thought of as the most promising channel for probing GPDs in the valence quark region. However, the inverse process, Timelike Compton Scattering (TCS) can provide an important complementary measurement, in particular of the real part of the Compton amplitude and power corrections at intermediate values of Q{sup 2}. The first studies of TCS using real tagged and quasi-real untagged photons were performed in Hall B at Jefferson Lab.

  19. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. Kniffen

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments,

  20. Nucleon Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdan Wojtsekhowski

    2006-06-04

    Review of Nucleon Compton Scattering in wide angle regime is presented. JLab experimental data strongly support dominance of handbag mechanism in the RCS process. The approved ALLRCS experiment with polarized target and future plans with 12 GeV beam are discussed.

  1. Apodized aperture imaging optics for Compton-scattered x-ray and gamma-ray imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Volodymyr; Grubsky, Victor; Patton, Ned; Jannson, Tomasz

    2011-09-01

    To improve the resolution and field of view of high-energy Compton-scattered x-ray and gamma-ray imaging systems, we have developed and tested apodized imaging optics based on apertures with depth-dependent cross sections fabricated in an x-ray-absorbing material. Through ray-tracing modeling, we determined the optimum aperture shapes (apodizations) that maximize the field of view and/or resolution of the system. Such apodized apertures can be used either in single-aperture optics, or in coded-aperture arrays. Potential applications of this technology include nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials and structures, in particular Compton imaging tomography (CIT), x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, and medical imaging.

  2. Some implications of inverse-Compton scattering of hot cocoon radiation by relativistic jets in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Smoot, George F.

    2014-11-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) relativistic jets are surrounded by hot cocoons which confine jets during their punch out from the progenitor star. These cocoons are copious sources of X-ray photons that can be and are inverse-Compton (IC) scattered to MeV-GeV energies by electrons in the relativistic jet. We provide detailed estimates for IC flux resulting from various interactions between X-ray photons and the relativistic jet, and describe what we can learn about GRBs jets and progenitor stars from the detection (or an upper limit) of these IC scattered photons.

  3. Timelike Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Horn, Tanja; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel

    2015-04-01

    Deeply Virtual Comtpon Scattering (DVCS) is deemed the simplest and cleanest way to access the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon. The DVCS process interferes with the Bethe-Heitler process allowing one to access the DVCS amplitudes. The imaginary part of the Compton amplitude is now relatively well understood, primarily through measurements of DVCS. However, much less is known about the real part of the amplitude. Time-like Compton Scattering (TCS) is the inverse process of DVCS and provides a new and promising way for probing the real part of the amplitude, and so constraining GPDs. Comparing data from Time-like Compton Scattering and the space-like DVCS process will also allow for testing the universality of GPDs. First studies of TCS using real tagged and quasi-real untagged photons were carried out at Jefferson Lab 6 GeV. In this talk, preliminary results on asymmetries and extraction of the real part of the CFF using photoproduction data and a comparison to electroproduction data will be presented. We will also discuss future plans for dilepton production at Jefferson Lab 12 GeV. Supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1306227.

  4. Towards direct reconstruction from a gamma camera based on compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, M.J.; Bones, P.J. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The Compton scattering camera (sometimes called the electronically collimated camera) has been shown by others to have the potential to better the photon counting statistics and the energy resolution of the Anger camera for imaging in SPECT. By using coincident detection of Compton scattering events on two detecting planes, a photon can be localized to having been sourced on the surface of a cone. New algorithms are needed to achieve fully three-dimensional reconstruction of the source distribution from such a camera. If a complete set of cone-surface projections are collected over an infinitely extending plane, it is shown that the reconstruction problem is not only analytically solvable, but also overspecified in the absence of measurement uncertainties. Two approaches to direct reconstruction are proposed, both based on the photons which travel perpendicularly between the detector planes. Results of computer simulations are presented which demonstrate the ability of the algorithms to achieve useful reconstructions in the absence of measurement uncertainties (other than those caused by quantization). The modifications likely to be required in the presence of realistic measurement uncertainties are discussed.

  5. Gamma rays produced by inverse Compton scattering in the Super-ACO storage ring free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ninno, G.; Nutarelli, D.; Garzella, D.; Nahon, L.; Hirsch, M.; Renault, E.; Visentin, B.; Couprie, M. E.

    2001-06-01

    The inverse Compton scattering between positron bunches and the free electron laser (FEL) of the Super-ACO storage ring generates a collimated and tunable gamma-ray beam. The use of the FEL instead of an external conventional laser, automatically provides the transverse alignment and synchronisation of the electron and optical beams. The Super-ACO FEL is operated in the 300- 430 nm range at 800 MeV with a high repetition rate (8 MHz) and an average transmitted power of 300 mW at 350 nm. High energy gamma-rays of 35 MeV are produced with a rate of 1.5×10 7 photons/ s and good monochromaticity (about 10%).

  6. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. A. Kniffen

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than

  7. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-03-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

  8. Compton Scattering by the Proton

    E-print Network

    G. Galler; V. Lisin; R. Kondratiev; A. M. Massone; S. Wolf; J. Ahrens; H. -J. Arends; R. Beck; M. Camen; G. P. Capitani; P. Grabmayr; S. J. Hall; F. Härter; T. Hehl; P. Jennewein; K. Kossert; A. I. L'vov; C. Molinari; P. Ottonello; J. Peise; I. Preobrajenski; S. Proff; A. Robbiano; M. Sanzone; M. Schumacher; M. Schmitz; F. Wissmann

    2001-02-06

    Compton scattering by the proton has been measured over a wide range covering photon energies 250 MeV < E_\\gamma < 800 MeV and photon scattering angles 30^0 < \\theta^{lab}_\\gamma < 150^0, using the tagged-photon facility at MAMI (Mainz) and the large-acceptance arrangement LARA. The data are in good agreement with the dispersion theory based on the SAID-SM99K parameterization of photo-meson amplitudes. From the subset of data between 280 and 360 MeV the resonance pion-photoproduction amplitudes were evaluated leading to the multipole E2/M1 ratio EMR(340 MeV) =(-1.6 \\pm 0.4(stat+syst) \\pm 0.2(model)%. From all data below 455 MeV the proton's backward spin polarizability was determined to be \\gamma_\\pi=(-37.9 \\pm 0.6(stat+syst) \\pm 3.5(model))x10^{-4}fm^4.

  9. Compton Scattering Sources and Applications at LLNL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felicie Albert; S. G. Anderson; G. Anderson; A. Bayramian; S. M. Betts; R. R. Cross; C. A. Ebbers; D. J. Gibson; R. A. Marsh; M. Messerly; M. Y. Shverdin; S. S. Wu; F. V. Hartemann; R. Scarpetti; C. W. Siders; C. P. J. Barty

    2010-01-01

    We report the design and current status of a monoenergetic laser-based Compton scattering 0.5-2.5 MeV gamma-ray source. Previous nuclear resonance fluorescence results and future linac and laser developments for the source are presented.

  10. Rayleigh, Compton and K-shell radiative resonant Raman scattering in 83Bi for 88.034 keV gamma-rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev Kumar; Veena Sharma; D. Mehta; Nirmal Singh

    2007-01-01

    The Rayleigh, Compton and K-shell radiative resonant Raman scattering cross-sections for the 88.034 keV gamma-rays have been measured in the 83Bi (K-shell binding energy = 90.526 keV) element. The measurements have been performed at 130° scattering angle using reflection-mode geometrical arrangement involving the 109Cd radioisotope as photon source and an LEGe detector. Computer simulations were exercised to determine distributions of

  11. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  12. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-06-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  13. Nonlinear Brightness Optimization in Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartemann, Fred V.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.

    2013-07-01

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. These effects are discussed, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  14. Timelike Compton Scattering at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Paremuzyan, Rafayel G. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France)

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated, that with exclusive final state, data from electron scattering experiments that are recorded with loose trigger requirements can be used to analyze photoproduction reactions. A preliminary results on Timelike Compton Scattering using the electroproduction data from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab are presented. In particular, using final state (pe{sup -}e{sup +}) photoproduction of vector mesons and timelike photon is studied. Angular asymmetries in Timelike Compton Scattering region is compared with model predictions in the framework of Generalized Parton Distribution.

  15. The Penrose photoproduction scenario for NGC 4151: A black hole gamma-ray emission mechanism for active galactic nuclei and Seyfert galaxies. [Compton scattering and pair production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiter, D.

    1979-01-01

    A consistent theoretical interpretation is given for the suggestion that a steepening of the spectrum between X-ray and gamma ray energies may be a general, gamma-ray characteristic of Seyfert galaxies, if the diffuse gamma ray spectrum is considered to be a superposition of unresolved contributions, from one or more classes of extragalactic objects. In the case of NGC 4151, the dominant process is shown to be Penrose Compton scattering in the ergosphere of a Kerr black hole, assumed to exist in the Seyfert's active galactic nucleus.

  16. Compton scattering in strong magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Joseph K.; Harding, Alice K.

    1986-01-01

    The relativistic cross section for Compton scattering by electrons in strong magnetic fields is derived. The results confirm and extend earlier work which has treated only transitions to the lowest or first excited Landau levels. For the teragauss field strengths expected in neutron star magnetospheres, the relative rates for excited state transitions are found to be significant, especially for incident photon energies several times the cyclotron frequency. Since these transitions must result in the rapid emission of one or more cyclotron photons as well as the Compton-scattered photon, the scattering process actually becomes a photon 'splitting' mechanism which acts to soften hard photon spectra, and also provides a specific mechanism for populating higher Landau levels in the electron distribution function. The results should be significant for models of gamma-ray bursters and pulsating X-ray sources.

  17. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. A. Kniffen

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and

  18. Can the cosmic x ray and gamma ray background be due to reflection of a steep power law spectrum and Compton scattering by relativistic electrons?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zycki, Piotr T.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Svensson, Roland

    1991-01-01

    We reconsider the recent model for the origin in the cosmic X-ray and gamma-ray background by Rogers and Field. The background in the model is due to an unresolved population of AGNs. An individual AGN spectrum contains three components: a power law with the energy index of alpha = 1.1, an enhanced reflection component, and a component from Compton scattering by relativistic electrons with a low energy cutoff at some minimum Lorentz factor, gamma(sub min) much greater than 1. The MeV bump seen in the gamma-ray background is then explained by inverse Compton emission by the electrons. We show that the model does not reproduce the shape of the observed X-ray and gamma-ray background below 10 MeV and that it overproduces the background at larger energies. Furthermore, we find the assumptions made for the Compton component to be physically inconsistent. Relaxing the inconsistent assumptions leads to model spectra even more different from that of the observed cosmic background. Thus, we can reject the hypothesis that the high-energy cosmic background is due to the described model.

  19. Design of a 2 MeV Compton scattering gamma-ray source for DNDO missions

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F

    2009-08-24

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence-based isotope-specific detection and imaging is a powerful new technology that can enable access to new mission spaces for DNDO. Within this context, the development of advanced mono-energetic gamma ray sources plays an important role in the DNDO R&D portfolio, as it offers a faster, more precise, and safer alternative to conventional Bremsstrahlung sources. In this report, a specific design strategy is presented, along with a series of theoretical and computational tools, with the goal of optimizing source parameters for DNDO applications. In parallel, key technologies are outlined, along with discussions justifying specific choices and contrasting those with other alternatives. Finally, a complete conceptual design is described, and machine parameters are presented in detail.

  20. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

  1. DESIGN OF A 250 MeV, X-BAND PHOTOINJECTOR LINAC FOR A PRECISION COMPTON-SCATTERING BASED GAMMA-RAY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S G; Albert, F; Gibson, D J; McNabb, D; Messerly, M; Rusnak, B; Shverdin, M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C J; Tantawi, S; Vlieks, A

    2009-05-07

    We present a compact, X-band, high-brightness accelerator design suitable for driving a precision gamma-ray source. Future applications of gamma-rays generated by Compton-scattering of laser and relativistic electron beams place stringent demands on the brightness and stability of the incident electron beam. This design identifies the beam parameters required for gamma-ray production, including position, and pointing stability. The design uses an emittance compensated, 11.4 GHz photo-gun and linac to generate 400 pC, 1-2 mm-mrad electron bunches at up to 250 MeV and 120 Hz repetition rate. The effects of jitter in the RF power system are analyzed as well as structure and optic misalignments. Finally, strategies for the mitigation of on-axis Bremsstrahlung noise are discussed.

  2. Elastic Compton Scattering from Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, John; Feldman, Gerald

    2009-10-01

    A Compton scattering experiment was conducted at MAX-Lab in Lund, Sweden, in which tagged photons of energy E? = 81.5 -- 115.7 MeV were incident on a carbon target. Photons were produced via bremsstrahlung by an electron beam's interaction with an aluminum radiator. The electrons were then deflected by a magnetic field into plastic scintillator paddles along the focal plane, allowing the energies of the corresponding photons to be tagged. Photons scattered from the carbon target were then detected by three large-volume (50 cm x 50 cm) NaI scintillator detectors located at 60 , 120 and 150 from the photon beam axis. The elastic Compton scattering peak was identified by setting a time window on ``true'' coincidences between the NaI detectors and the tagger focal plane array. The data required a background subtraction to remove unwanted contributions to the energy spectra from ``random'' events such as cosmic rays and untagged photons. After this subtraction, the residual background was fit in order to determine the integral of the elastic scattering peak. With this experimental yield, normalization factors such as the target thickness, photon flux and NaI detector solid angles were applied to determine the absolute cross section. The results for the differential cross section will be presented as a function of angle and energy and will be compared to published values from the literature.

  3. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the neutron

    E-print Network

    M. Mazouz; A. Camsonne; C. Muñoz Camacho; for the Jefferson Lab Hall A collaboration

    2007-12-12

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D$({\\vec e},e'\\gamma)X$ cross section measured at $Q^2$=1.9 GeV$^2$ and $x_B$=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to $E_q$, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  4. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the Neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Mazouz, M.; Guillon, B.; Real, J.-S.; Voutier, E. [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier, CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Camsonne, A.; Ferdi, C.; Brossard, M.; Fieschi, J.-M.; Laveissiere, G.; Michel, B. [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Camacho, C. Munoz; Beaumel, M.; Garcon, M.; Guichon, P. A. M.; Sabatie, F. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gavalian, G.; Amarian, M.; Hayes, D.; Ibrahim, H.; Ulmer, P. E. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-12-14

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D(e-vector,e{sup '}{gamma})X cross section measured at Q{sup 2}=1.9 GeV{sup 2} and x{sub B}=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to E{sub q}, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  5. Perturbative QCD calculation of real and virtual Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, G.R.; Zhang, H. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855 (USA))

    1990-06-01

    We present the predictions of perturbative QCD for Compton scattering as a function of photon virtuality. Individual helicity amplitudes are given, along with formulas to permit calculation of the {ital eN}{r arrow}{ital e}{prime}{ital N}{prime}{gamma} amplitudes. We discover remarkable structure in some of the amplitudes as a function of photon virtuality. Since {ital eN}{r arrow}{ital e}{prime}{ital N}{prime}{gamma} contains a contribution from Bethe-Heitler scattering, whose magnitude and phase are known, the phases of the virtual Compton amplitudes can in principle be measured by interference with it. It has been shown that the leading-twist behavior of high-energy, large-angle Compton scattering is not affected by soft physics; thus at sufficiently high energies these predictions provide a stringent test of QCD.

  6. Light-Cone Wavefunction Representation of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2000-09-21

    The authors give a complete representation of virtual Compton scattering gamma*p --> gamma-p at large initial photon virtuality Q{sup 2} and small momentum transfer squared t in terms of the light-cone wavefunctions of the target proton. They verify the identities between the skewed parton distributions H(x, zeta, t) and E(x, zeta, t) which appear in deeply virtual Compton scattering and the corresponding integrands of the Dirac and Pauli form factors F1(t) and F2(t) and the gravitational form factors A{sub q}(t) and B{sub q}(t) for each quark and anti-quark constituent. The authors illustrate the general formalism for the case of deeply virtual Compton scattering on the quantum fluctuations of a fermion in quantum electrodynamics at one loop.

  7. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory\\/BATSE observations of energetic electrons scattered by cyclotron resonance with waves from powerful VLF transmitters. Final report, 13 October 1992-12 February 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Datlowe; W. L. Imhof

    1994-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the wave-particle mechanisms responsible for the loss of electrons from the radiation belts, energetic electron data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the NASA's Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was studied. Powerful ground-based VLF transmitters resonantly scatter electrons from the inner radiation belt onto trajectories from which they precipitate into the

  8. The electromagnetic calorimeter in JLab Real Compton Scattering Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Shahinyan; Eugene Chudakov; A. Danagoulian; P. Degtyarenko; K. Egiyan; V. Gorbenko; J. Hines; E. Hovhannisyan; Ch. Hyde; C.W. de Jager; A. Ketikyan; V. Mamyan; R. Michaels; A.M. Nathan; V. Nelyubin; I. Rachek; M. Roedelbrom; A. Petrosyan; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Popov; J. Segal; Yu. Shestakov; J. Templon; H. Voskanyan; B. Wojtsekhowski

    2007-04-16

    A hodoscope calorimeter comprising of 704 lead-glass blocks is described. The calorimeter was constructed for use in the JLab Real Compton Scattering experiment. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6\\%/$\\sqrt{E_\\gamma \\, [GeV]}$, respectively. Design features and performance parameters during the experiment are presented.

  9. COMPTON SCATTERING EMISSION IMAGING BASED ON THE V-LINE RADON TRANSFORM

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COMPTON SCATTERING EMISSION IMAGING BASED ON THE V-LINE RADON TRANSFORM AND ITS SIMULATION R. R, France regnierremi@yahoo.fr(R´emi R´egnier) Abstract The Radon transform (RT) on straight lines deals-dimensional emission imaging from Compton scattered gamma-rays. Its modeling leads to a Radon transform defined

  10. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and continue to be made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments and the observing programs for the first three years of the mission. During Phases 2 and 3 of the mission a Guest Investigator program has been in progress with the Guest Observers' time share increasing from 30% to over 50% for the later mission phases.

  11. Timelike Compton Scattering - A First Look

    SciTech Connect

    Nadel-Turonski, P.; Klein, F. J. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Horn, T. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Ilieva, Y. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Paremuzyan, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Stepanyan, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2009-12-17

    A major goal of the 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab is to map out the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) in the valence region. This is primarily done through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), which provides the simplest and cleanest way of accessing the GPDs. However, the 'inverse' process, Timelike Compton Scattering (TCS), can provide an important complement, in particular for measuring the real part of the amplitude and understanding corrections at finite Q{sup 2}. The first measurements of TCS have recently been carried out in Hall B at Jefferson Lab, using both tagged and untagged photon beams.

  12. Exclusive Compton Scattering on the Proton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Chen; E. Chudakov; C. DeJager; P. Degtyarenko; R. Ent; J. Gomez; O. Hansen; C. Keppel; F. Klein; M. Kuss; J. LeRose; M. Liang; R. Michaels; J. Mitchell; N. Liyanage; P. Rutt; A. Saha; B. Wojtsekhowski; M. Bouwhuis; TH Chang; R. J. Holt; A. M. Nathan; M. Roedelbronn; K. Wijesooriya; S. E. Williamson; G. Dodge; C. Hyde-Wright; A. Radyushkin; F. Sabatie; L. B. Weinstein; P. Ulmer; P. Bosted; J. M. Finn; M. Jones; S. Churchwell; C. Howell; R. Gilman; C. Glashausser; X. Jiang; R. Ransome; S. Strauch; J. Berthot; P. Bertin; H. Fonvielle; Y. Roblin; W. Bertozzi; S. Gilad; D. Rowntree; Z. Zu; D. Brown; G. Chang; A. Afanasev; K. Egiyan; E. Hoohauneysan; A. Ketikyan; S. Mailyan; A. Petrosyan; A. Shahinyan; H. Voskanyan; W. Boeglin; P. Markowitz; J. Hines; G. Strobel; J. Templon; G. Feldman; C. L. Morris; V. Gladyshev; R. A. Lindgren; J. Calarco; W. Hersman; M. Leuschner; A. Gasparian

    1999-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range; and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together; these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and

  13. Virtual Compton Scattering at Jefferson Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jaminion

    2000-01-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) off the proton below pion production threshold allows to measure at fixed four-momentum squared 6 new observables of the proton called the Generalized Polarizabilities. Their determination will put new constraints on models of nucleon structure. Experimentally, we measure an absolute cross section of photon electro-production off the proton (ep ? ep ?). At Jefferson Laboratory (Virginia,

  14. Gamma-ray bursts from synchrotron self-Compton emission

    E-print Network

    Boris E. Stern; Juri Poutanen

    2004-06-30

    The emission mechanism of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still a matter of debates. The standard synchrotron energy spectrum of cooling electrons F_E ~ E^{-1/2} is much too soft to account for the majority of the observed spectral slopes. An alternative in the form of quasi-thermal Comptonization in a high compactness source has difficulties in reproducing the peak of the observed photon distribution below a few hundred keV. We show here that for typical parameters expected in the GRB ejecta the observed spectra in the 20-1000 keV BATSE energy range can be produced by inverse Compton scattering of the synchrotron radiation in a partially self-absorbed regime. If the particles are continuously accelerated/heated over the life-time of a source rather than being instantly injected, a prominent peak develops in their distribution at a Lorentz factor gamma ~ 30-100, where synchrotron and inverse-Compton losses are balanced by acceleration and heating due to synchrotron self-absorption. The synchrotron peak should be observed at 10-100 eV, while the self-absorbed low-energy tail with F_E ~ E^2 can produce the prompt optical emission (like in the case of GRB 990123). The first Compton scattering radiation by nearly monoenergetic electrons can then be as hard as F_E ~ E^1 reproducing the hardness of most of the observed GRB spectra. The second Compton peak should be observed in the high energy gamma-ray band, possibly being responsible for the emission detected by EGRET in GRB 941017. A significant electron-positron pair production reduces the available energy per particle, moving the spectral peaks to lower energies as the burst progresses. The regime is very robust, operates in a broad range of parameter space and can explain most of the observed GRB spectra and their temporal evolution.

  15. Experimental confirmation of neoclassical Compton scattering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, V. V.; Yakunin, S. N.; Despotuli, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Incoherent X-ray scattering spectra of diamond and silicon crystals recorded on the BESSY-2 electron storage ring have been analyzed. All spectral features are described well in terms of the neoclassical scattering theory without consideration for the hypotheses accepted in quantum electrodynamics. It is noted that the accepted tabular data on the intensity ratio between the Compton and Rayleigh spectral components may significantly differ from the experimental values. It is concluded that the development of the general theory (considering coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, and Bragg diffraction) must be continued.

  16. Using MCNP for Compton Scattering Calculations with BGO Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Board, Jeremy; Womble, Phillip; Barzilov, Alexander

    2007-04-01

    Compton scattering is the process wherein photons scatter on the electrons within a material. In a detector, some of these scattered photons leave the detector with only part of their full energy. This creates a continuum which changes the signal to noise ratio with a gamma ray spectrum. For high resolution detectors such as high purity Ge (HPGe) solid state gamma ray detectors, a secondary detector surrounds the HPGe. The purpose of the secondary detector (made of a high Z material) is to detect the scattered photons. When both detectors have coincident photon events, a special circuit stops the data acquisition from acquiring the signal from the HPGe. Our goal is to design the optimal Compton ``suppressor'' using bismuth germinate scintillators for gamma rays whose energies are much larger than 1 MeV. Currently such suppressors are designed for energies less than 2 MeV. We are using the Monte Carlo N-particle code to calculate the amount of photon scattering in the HPGe into geometry of BGO surrounding the HPGe crystal. We are estimating both photon and electron fluence through the volume of BGO.

  17. Development of Compton gamma-ray sources at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Ebbers, C. A.; Gibson, D. J.; Hartemann, F. V.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M. J.; Prantil, M. A.; Wu, S.; Barty, C. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NIF and Photon Science, 7000 East avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    Compact Compton scattering gamma-ray sources offer the potential of studying nuclear photonics with new tools. The optimization of such sources depends on the final application, but generally requires maximizing the spectral density (photons/eV) of the gamma-ray beam while simultaneously reducing the overall bandwidth on target to minimize noise. We have developed an advanced design for one such system, comprising the RF drive, photoinjector, accelerator, and electron-generating and electron-scattering laser systems. This system uses a 120 Hz, 250 pC, 2 ps, 0.35 mm mrad electron beam with 250 MeV maximum energy in an X-band accelerator scattering off a 150 mJ, 10 ps, 532 nm laser to generate 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} photons/eV/s/Sr at 0.5 MeV with an overall bandwidth of less than 1%. The source will be able to produce photons up to energies of 2.5 MeV. We also discuss Compton scattering gamma-ray source predictions given by numerical codes.

  18. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off nuclei

    E-print Network

    Eric Voutier

    2008-09-24

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is the golden exclusive channel for the study of the partonic structure of hadrons, within the universal framework of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This paper presents the aim and general ideas of the DVCS experimental program off nuclei at the Jefferson Laboratory. The benefits of the study of the coherent and incoherent channels to the understanding of the EMC (European Muon Collaboration) effect are discussed, along with the case of nuclear targets to access neutron GPDs.

  19. Nucleon Compton scattering in perturbative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronfeld, A. S.; Nii?, B.

    1991-12-01

    We have computed the helicity amplitudes for the reactions ?N-->?N (N=p,n) at large momentum transfer to lowest order in perturbative QCD. Our cross section for proton Compton scattering shows good qualitative agreement with experimental data, when the proton is modeled by the Chernyak-Oglobin-Zhitnitsky, King-Sachrajda, or Gari-Stefanis distribution amplitude. Discrepancies between our results and previous calculations seem to be due to different treatments of numerical integration around singularities.

  20. Virtual Compton Scattering at Jefferson Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaminion, S.; Hall A Collaboration; E93050 Collaboration

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) off the proton below pion production threshold allows to measure at fixed four-momentum squared 6 new observables of the proton called the Generalized Polarizabilities. Their determination will put new constraints on models of nucleon structure. Experimentally, we measure an absolute cross section of photon electro-production off the proton (ep ? ep ?). At Jefferson Laboratory (Virginia, USA), the scattered electron is detected in coincidence with the recoiling proton in two high resolution spectrometers in order to access the missing particle.

  1. Nonlinear X-ray Compton Scattering

    E-print Network

    Fuchs, Matthias; Chen, Jian; Ghimire, Shambhu; Shwartz, Sharon; Kozina, Michael; Jiang, Mason; Henighan, Thomas; Bray, Crystal; Ndabashimiye, Georges; Bucksbaum, P H; Feng, Yiping; Herrmann, Sven; Carini, Gabriella; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Kenney, Christopher; Guillet, Serge; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin; Moeller, Stefan; Hastings, Jerome B; Reis, David A

    2015-01-01

    X-ray scattering is a weak linear probe of matter. It is primarily sensitive to the position of electrons and their momentum distribution. Elastic X-ray scattering forms the basis of atomic structural determination while inelastic Compton scattering is often used as a spectroscopic probe of both single-particle excitations and collective modes. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are unique tools for studying matter on its natural time and length scales due to their bright and coherent ultrashort pulses. However, in the focus of an XFEL the assumption of a weak linear probe breaks down, and nonlinear light-matter interactions can become ubiquitous. The field can be sufficiently high that even non-resonant multiphoton interactions at hard X-rays wavelengths become relevant. Here we report the observation of one of the most fundamental nonlinear X-ray-matter interactions, the simultaneous Compton scattering of two identical photons producing a single photon at nearly twice the photon energy. We measure scattered...

  2. Nonlinear dephasing and brightness optimization in Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sheldon; Hartemann, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by relativistic electrons to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Due to the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. These effects are discussed, along with an optimization strategy to account for the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force. It is found that the maximum brightness is obtained when pulse duration and diffraction effects are balanced, and one operates near the onset of the weakly nonlinear ponderomotive dephasing. In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by relativistic electrons to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Due to the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. These effects are discussed, along with an optimization strategy to account for the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force. It is found that the maximum brightness is obtained when pulse duration and diffraction effects are balanced, and one operates near the onset of the weakly nonlinear ponderomotive dephasing. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and under LLNL 12ERD057.

  3. The imaging compton telescope COMPTEL on the gamma ray observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Schonfelder, V.; Aarts, H.; Deerenberg, A.J.M.; Diehl, R.; Lichti, G.G.; Lockwood, J.; Steinle, H.; Swanburg, B.N.

    1984-02-01

    This instrument is based on a newly established concept of ..gamma..-ray detection in the very difficult 1-30 MeV range. It employs the unique feature of a two-step interaction of the ..gamma..-ray: a Compton scattering collision in a first detector followed by an interaction in a second detector element. COMPTEL has been designed to perform a very sensitive survey of the ..gamma..-ray sky. Extreme care has been taken to minimize background so that the detection limits of COMPTEL will be dominated by source counting statistics. It combines a wide field of view (about 1 steradian) with a good angular resolution. The design criteria of COMPTEL and the performance of a Science Model are described.

  4. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at JLab Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Voutier

    2007-04-16

    The deeply virtual Compton scattering reaction has been investigated in the Hall A of the Jefferson Laboratory by measuring longitudinally polarized (e,e'gamma) cross sections, in the valence quark region, for protons and neutrons. In the proton channel, experimental results strongly support the factorization of the cross section at Q2 as low as 2 GeV2, opening the path to systematic measurements of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In the neutron case, preliminary data show sensitivity to the angular momentum of quarks.

  5. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at JLab Hall A

    E-print Network

    Eric Voutier

    2007-09-27

    The deeply virtual Compton scattering reaction has been investigated in the Hall A of the Jefferson Laboratory by measuring longitudinally polarized (e,e'gamma) cross sections, in the valence quark region, for protons and neutrons. In the proton channel, experimental results strongly support the factorization of the cross section at Q2 as low as 2 GeV2, opening the path to systematic measurements of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In the neutron case, preliminary data show sensitivity to the angular momentum of quarks. http://indico.cern.ch/contributionDisplay.py?contribId=89&sessionId=12&confId=9499

  6. Deeply virtual Compton scattering and nucleon structure

    SciTech Connect

    M. Garcon

    2006-11-01

    Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is the tool of choice to study Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD) in the nucleon. After a general introduction to the subject, a review of experimental results from various facilities is given. Following the first encouraging results, new generation dedicated experiments now allow unprecedented precision and kinematical coverage. Several new results were presented during the conference, showing significant progress in this relatively new field. Prospects for future experiments are presented. The path for the experimental determination of GPDs appears now open.

  7. Studying Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering with Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Kresimir Kumericki; Dieter Mueller; Andreas Schafer

    2011-10-17

    Neural networks are utilized to fit Compton form factor H to HERMES data on deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarized protons. We used this result to predict the beam charge-spin assymetry for muon scattering off proton at the kinematics of the COMPASS II experiment.

  8. Small-angle Compton Scattering to Determine the Depth of a Radioactive Source in Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.; Valiga, R. E.; Cantrell, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    A gamma-ray peak in a spectrum is often accompanied by a discontinuity in the Compton continuum at the peak. The Compton continuum results from Compton scattering in the detector. The discontinuity at a peak results from small-angle Compton scattering by the gamma rays in matter situated directly between the gamma-ray source and the detector. The magnitude of this discontinuity with respect to the gamma-ray peak is therefore an indicator of the amount of material or shielding between the gamma-ray source and the detector. This small-angle scattering was used to determine the depth of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) solution standards in a concrete floor mockup. The empirical results of the use of this small-angle scattering discontinuity in a concrete floor experiment will be described. A Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment will also be described. In addition, the depth determined from small-angle scattering was used in conjunction with differential attenuation to more accurately measure the uranium content of the mockup. Following these empirical results, the theory of small-angle scattering will be discussed. The magnitude of the discontinuity compared to the peak count rate is directly related to the depth of the gamma-ray source in matter. This relation can be described by relatively simple mathematical expressions. This is the first instance that we are aware of in which the small-angle Compton scattering has been used to determine the depth of a radioactive source. Furthermore this is the first development of the theoretical expressions for the magnitude of the small-angle scattering discontinuity.

  9. Efficient modeling of Compton diode gamma radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Drumm; J. J. Hohlfelder; J. D. Kotulski; G. J. Scrivner; G. S. MillsandT; T. J. Tanaka

    1992-01-01

    The CEPXS\\/ONELD code package proved to be significantly more efficient than electron Monte Carlo for computing spherical Compton diode response to gamma irradiation. The authors review the mechanism responsible for the production of electric currents in Compton diodes, describe the calculation method, and present results for a few representative Compton diodes. The adjoint capability of CEPXS\\/ONELD allows the complete energy-angle

  10. A novel Compton camera design featuring a rear-panel shield for substantial noise reduction in gamma-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Fujita, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Taya, T.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Sakurai, N.; Adachi, S.; Uchiyama, T.

    2014-12-01

    After the Japanese nuclear disaster in 2011, large amounts of radioactive isotopes were released and still remain a serious problem in Japan. Consequently, various gamma cameras are being developed to help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation. The Compton camera utilizes the kinematics of Compton scattering to contract images without using a mechanical collimator, and features a wide field of view. For instance, we have developed a novel Compton camera that features a small size (13 × 14 × 15 cm3) and light weight (1.9 kg), but which also achieves high sensitivity thanks to Ce:GAGG scintillators optically coupled wiith MPPC arrays. By definition, in such a Compton camera, gamma rays are expected to scatter in the ``scatterer'' and then be fully absorbed in the ``absorber'' (in what is called a forward-scattered event). However, high energy gamma rays often interact with the detector in the opposite direction - initially scattered in the absorber and then absorbed in the scatterer - in what is called a ``back-scattered'' event. Any contamination of such back-scattered events is known to substantially degrade the quality of gamma-ray images, but determining the order of gamma-ray interaction based solely on energy deposits in the scatterer and absorber is quite difficult. For this reason, we propose a novel yet simple Compton camera design that includes a rear-panel shield (a few mm thick) consisting of W or Pb located just behind the scatterer. Since the energy of scattered gamma rays in back-scattered events is much lower than that in forward-scattered events, we can effectively discriminate and reduce back-scattered events to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the images. This paper presents our detailed optimization of the rear-panel shield using Geant4 simulation, and describes a demonstration test using our Compton camera.

  11. Compton scattering vertex for massive scalar QED

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Concha-Sanchez, Y. [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apartado Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacan 58040 (Mexico); Delbourgo, R. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37 GPO, Hobart 7001 (Australia); Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 1626, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico)

    2009-08-15

    We investigate the Compton scattering vertex of charged scalars and photons in scalar quantum electrodynamics (SQED). We carry out its nonperturbative construction consistent with Ward-Fradkin-Green-Takahashi identity which relates 3-point vertices to the 4-point ones. There is an undetermined part which is transverse to one or both the external photons, and needs to be evaluated through perturbation theory. We present in detail how the transverse part at the 1-loop order can be evaluated for completely general kinematics of momenta involved in covariant gauges and dimensions. This involves the calculation of genuine 4-point functions with three massive propagators, the most nontrivial integrals reported in this paper. We also discuss possible applications of our results.

  12. Deeply virtual Compton scattering at small x

    SciTech Connect

    I. Balitsky; E. Kuchina

    2000-02-01

    The authors calculate the cross section of the deeply virtual Compton scattering at large energies and intermediate momentum transfers. In recent years the study of the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) became one of the most popular topics in QCD due to the fact that it is determined by skewed parton distributions which generalize usual parton densities introduced by Feynman. These new probes of the nucleon structure are accessible in exclusive processes such as DVCS and potentially they can give more information than the traditional parton densities. In this paper the authors consider the small-x DVCS where the energy of the incoming virtual photon E is very large in comparison to its virtuality Q{sup 2}. To be specific, they calculate the DVCS amplitude in the region s >> Q{sup 2} >> -t >> m{sup 2} where s = 2mE, m is the nucleon mass, and t is the momentum transfer. The DVCS in this region is a semihard process which can be described by the BFKL (Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov) pomeron. It turns out that at large momentum transfer the coupling of the BFKL pomeron to the nucleon is essentially equal to the Dirac form factor of the nucleon F{sub 1}(t), so the DVCS amplitude in the region can be calculated without any model assumptions. The results obtained in this region can be used for the estimates of the amplitude at experimentally accessible energies where one or more conditions in Eq. (1) are relaxed. To be specific, they have in mind the HERA kinematics where x {approx} 10{sup -2} {divided_by} 10{sup -4}, Q{sup 2} {ge} 6 GeV{sup 2}, and -t {approx} 1 {divided_by} 5 GeV{sup 2}. Since there are only model predictions for the small-x DVCS in current literature, even the approximate calculations of the cross section in QCD are very timely.

  13. Electron-Positron Radiative Annihilation : Timelike Virtual Compton Scattering

    E-print Network

    Asmita Mukherjee

    2010-10-01

    We report on a recent work proposing measurements of the deeply virtual Compton amplitude (DVCS) $\\gamma^* \\to h \\bar h \\gamma$ in the timelike kinematic domain which is accessible at electron-positron colliders via the radiative annihilation process $e^+ e^- \\to h \\bar h \\gamma$.

  14. Virtual Compton Scattering measurements in the $?^* N\\to ?$ transition

    E-print Network

    N. F. Sparveris; P. Achenbach; C. Ayerbe Gayoso; D. Baumann; J. Bernauer; A. M. Bernstein; R. Böhm; D. Bosnar; T. Botto; A. Christopoulou; D. Dale; M. Ding; M. O. Distler; L. Doria; J. Friedrich; A. Karabarbounis; M. Makek; H. Merkel; U. Müller; I. Nakagawa; R. Neuhausen; L. Nungesser; C. N. Papanicolas; B. Pasquini; A. Piegsa; J. Pochodzalla; M. Potokar; M. Seimetz; S. Širca; S. Stave; S. Stiliaris; Th. Walcher; M. Weis

    2008-04-08

    We report on new H$(e,e^\\prime p)\\gamma$ measurements in the $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance at $Q^2=0.06$ (GeV/c) carried out simultaneously with H$(e,e^\\prime p)\\pi^0$. It is the lowest $Q^2$ for which the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) reaction has been studied in the first resonance region. The VCS measured cross sections are well described by dispersion-relation calculations in which the multipole amplitudes derived from H$(e,e^\\prime p)\\pi^0$ data are used as input, thus confirming the compatibility of the results. The derived resonant magnetic dipole amplitude $M^{3/2}_{1+} = (40.60 \\pm 0.70_{stat+sys})(10^{-3}/m_{\\pi^+})$ at $W=$ 1232 MeV is in excellent agreement with the value extracted from H$(e,e^\\prime p)\\pi^0$ measurements.

  15. Longitudinal target-spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering

    E-print Network

    E. Seder; A. Biselli; S. Pisano; S. Niccolai; the CLAS Collaboration

    2014-10-24

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for $ep\\to e'p'\\gamma$ events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in $Q^2$, $x_B$, $t$ and $\\phi$, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the $t$ dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axial charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. These results also bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.

  16. Measurement of Compton scattering in phantoms by germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zasadny, K.R.; Koral, K.F. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Medical Center); Floyd, C.E. Jr.; Jaszczak, R.J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-04-01

    Quantitative Anger-camera tomography requires correction for Compton scattering. The Anger camera spectral-fitting technique can measure scatter fractions at designated positions in an image allowing for correction. To permit verification of those measurements for {sup 131}I, the authors have determined scatter fractions with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and various phantom configurations. The scatter fraction values for {sup 99m}Tc were also measured and are compared to results from Monte Carlo simulation. The phantom consisted of a 22.2 cm diameter {times} 18.6 cm high cylinder filled with water and a 6 cm diameter water-filled sphere placed at various locations inside the cylinder. Radioisotope is added to either the sphere or the cylinder. The source is collimated by an Anger camera collimator and the active area of the HPGe detector is defined by a 0.6 cm diameter hole in a lead shielding mask. Corrections include accounting for the HPGe detector efficiency as a function of gamma-ray energy, the finite energy resolution of detector and the HPGe detector energy resolution compared to that for a NaI(Tl) Anger camera.

  17. Development of compact EUV source based on laser compton scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kashiwagi; R. Kato; J. Yang; G. Isoyama; K. Sakaue; A. Masuda; T. Nomoto; T. Gowa; M. Washio; R. Kuroda

    2007-01-01

    High-power extreme ultra-violet (EUV) sources are required for next generation semiconductor lithography. We start developing a compact EUV source in the spectral range of 13-14 nm, which is based on laser Compton scattering between a 7 MeV electron beam and a high intensity CO2 laser pulse. Before the main laser Compton scattering for EUV radiation, the electron beam is pre-

  18. Advanced Compton scattering light source R&D at LLNL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Albert; S G Anderson; G Anderson; S M Betts; T S Chu; D J Gibson; R A Marsh; M Messerly; M Y Shverdin; S Wu; F V Hartemann; C W Siders; C P Barty

    2010-01-01

    We report the design and current status of a monoenergetic laser-based Compton scattering 0.5-2.5 MeV -ray source. Previous nuclear resonance fluorescence results and future linac and laser developments for the source are presented. At MeV photon energies relevant for nuclear processes, Compton scattering light sources are attractive because of their relative compactness and improved brightness above 100 keV, compared to

  19. 120Hz Diode-Pumped Kilowatt Class Laser for Compton Scattering Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Bayramian; Glenn Beer; Rob Campbell; Barry Freitas; William Molander; Steve Sutton; Steve Telford; Chris Barty

    2009-01-01

    A Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-ray) Compton scattering light source is currently based on a 120-Hz electron accelerator. A 120-Hz laser source can increase the current gamma ray production by more than an order of magnitude and further enhancements are possible. Diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs) offer the potential to operate at these higher repetition rates where flash lamp pumped laser

  20. Deeply virtual Compton scattering at 6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-ping Chen; Eugene Chudakov; Cornelis De Jager; Javier Gomez; Jens-ole Hansen; John Lerose; Robert Michaels; Joseph Mitchell; Arunava Saha; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; J. Berthot; Pierre Bertin; Alexandre Deur; Rachele Di Salvo; Lawrence Weinstein; Werner Boeglin; Pete Markowitz; Jeffrey Templon; Paul Gueye; Ting Chang; Alan Nathan; Raffaele De Leo; Luigi Lagamba; Moskov Amarian; Evaristo Cisbani; Salvatore Frullani; Franco Garibaldi; R. Iommi; Mauro Iodice; Guido Urciuoli; Marc Vanderhaeghen; Douglas Higinbotham; Xiaodong Jiang; Pierre Guichon; Yves Roblin; Gail Dodge; Christophe Jutier; Charles Hyde-wright; Franck Sabatie; Luminita Todor; Paul Ulmer

    2000-06-01

    The authors propose a measurement of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process (DVCS) ep {yields} ep{gamma} in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a 6 GeV beam. The authors are able to explore the onset of Q{sup 2} scaling, by measuring a beam helicity asymmetry for Q{sup 2} ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 GeV{sup 2} at x{sub B} {approx} 0.35. At this kinematics, the asymmetry is dominated by the DVCS Bethe-Heitler (BH) interference, which is proportional to the imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude amplified by the full magnitude of the BH amplitude. The imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude is expected to scale early. Indeed, the imaginary part of the forward Compton amplitude measured in deep inelastic scattering (via the optical theorem) scales at Q{sup 2} as low as 1 GeV{sup 2}. If the scaling regime is reached, they make an 8% measurement of the skewed parton distributions (SPD) contributing to the DVCS amplitude. Also, this experiment allows them to separately estimate the size of the higher-twist effects, since they are only suppressed by an additional factor 1/Q compared to the leading-twist term, and have a different angular dependence. They use a polarized electron beam and detect the scattered electron in the HRSe, the real photon in an electromagnetic calorimeter (under construction) and the recoil proton in a shielded scintillator array (to be constructed). This allows them to determine the difference in cross-sections for electrons of opposite helicities. This observable is directly linked to the SPD's. The authors estimate that 25 days of beam (600 hours) are needed to achieve this goal.

  1. Efficient modeling of Compton diode gamma radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Drumm; J. J. Hohlfelder; J. D. Kotulski; G. J. Scrivner; G. S. Mills; T. J. Tanaka

    1991-01-01

    The CEPXS\\/ONELD code package proves to be significantly more efficient than electron Monte Carlo for computing the spherical Compton diode response to gamma irradiation, requiring only minutes instead of hours of Cray computer time. The adjoint capability of CEPXS\\/ONELD allows the complete energy-angle response of a Compton diode to be determined with a single transport calculation. The method is a

  2. Efficient modeling of compton diode gamma radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Drumm, C.R.; Hohlfelder, J.J.; Kotulski, J.D.; Scrivner, G.L.; Mills, G.S.; Tanaka, T.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports on the CEPXS/ONELD code package which proves to be significantly more efficient than electron Monte Carlo for computing spherical Compton diode response to gamma irradiation, requiring only minutes instead of hours of Cray computer time. The adjoint capability of CEPXS/ONELD allows the complete energy-angle response of a Compton diode to be determined with a single transport calculation. The method is a useful tool for determining new Compton-diode designs with desired energy-response characteristics.

  3. Coded-aperture Compton camera for gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farber, Aaron M.

    This dissertation describes the development of a novel gamma-ray imaging system concept and presents results from Monte Carlo simulations of the new design. Current designs for large field-of-view gamma cameras suitable for homeland security applications implement either a coded aperture or a Compton scattering geometry to image a gamma-ray source. Both of these systems require large, expensive position-sensitive detectors in order to work effectively. By combining characteristics of both of these systems, a new design can be implemented that does not require such expensive detectors and that can be scaled down to a portable size. This new system has significant promise in homeland security, astronomy, botany and other fields, while future iterations may prove useful in medical imaging, other biological sciences and other areas, such as non-destructive testing. A proof-of-principle study of the new gamma-ray imaging system has been performed by Monte Carlo simulation. Various reconstruction methods have been explored and compared. General-Purpose Graphics-Processor-Unit (GPGPU) computation has also been incorporated. The resulting code is a primary design tool for exploring variables such as detector spacing, material selection and thickness and pixel geometry. The advancement of the system from a simple 1-dimensional simulation to a full 3-dimensional model is described. Methods of image reconstruction are discussed and results of simulations consisting of both a 4 x 4 and a 16 x 16 object space mesh have been presented. A discussion of the limitations and potential areas of further study is also presented.

  4. Intershell correlations in Compton photon scattering by an atom

    SciTech Connect

    Hopersky, Alexey N.; Nadolinsky, Alexey M.; Novikov, Sergey A. [Chair of Mathematics, Rostov State University of TC, Rostov-on-Don 344038 (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-15

    The role of the intershell correlation effect is theoretically investigated using the example of the Ne atom in nonresonance Compton high-energy x-ray photon scattering by a free atom. The calculation results qualitatively reproduce the same results in the formalism of the generalized oscillator strength and the random phase approximation with exchange for the Compton photon and electron scattering by an atom; when the incident photon energy is 11 keV and the scattering angle is 90 deg., they correspond well with the results of the synchrotron experiment presented in the work by Jung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1596 (1998)].

  5. Enhancement of Compton scattering by an effective coupling constant

    SciTech Connect

    Barbiellini, Bernardo; Nicolini, Piero [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, DE-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    A robust thermodynamic argument shows that a small reduction of the effective coupling constant {alpha} of QED greatly enhances the low-energy Compton-scattering cross section and that the Thomson scattering length is connected to a fundamental scale {lambda}. A discussion provides a possible quantum interpretation of this enormous sensitivity to changes in the effective coupling constant {alpha}.

  6. Narrowband inverse Compton scattering x-ray sources at high laser intensities

    E-print Network

    D. Seipt; S. G. Rykovanov; A. Surzhykov; S. Fritzsche

    2015-03-02

    Narrowband x- and gamma-ray sources based on the inverse Compton scattering of laser pulses suffer from a limitation of the allowed laser intensity due to the onset of nonlinear effects that increase their bandwidth. It has been suggested that laser pulses with a suitable frequency modulation could compensate this ponderomotive broadening and reduce the bandwidth of the spectral lines, which would allow to operate narrowband Compton sources in the high-intensity regime. In this paper we, therefore, present the theory of nonlinear Compton scattering in a frequency modulated intense laser pulse. We systematically derive the optimal frequency modulation of the laser pulse from the scattering matrix element of nonlinear Compton scattering, taking into account the electron spin and recoil. We show that, for some particular scattering angle, an optimized frequency modulation completely cancels the ponderomotive broadening for all harmonics of the backscattered light. We also explore how sensitive this compensation depends on the electron beam energy spread and emittance, as well as the laser focusing.

  7. Compton-like polariton scattering in hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Iorsh, Ivan V; Poddubny, Alexander N; Ginzburg, Pavel; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2015-05-01

    We study the scattering of polaritons by free electrons in hyperbolic photonic media and demonstrate that the unconventional dispersion and high local density of states of electromagnetic modes in composite media with hyperbolic dispersion can lead to a giant Compton-like shift and dramatic enhancement of the scattering cross section. We develop a universal approach to study multiphoton processes in nanostructured media and derive the intensity spectrum of the scattered radiation for realistic metamaterial structures. PMID:26001008

  8. Compton-Like Polariton Scattering in Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorsh, Ivan V.; Poddubny, Alexander N.; Ginzburg, Pavel; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-05-01

    We study the scattering of polaritons by free electrons in hyperbolic photonic media and demonstrate that the unconventional dispersion and high local density of states of electromagnetic modes in composite media with hyperbolic dispersion can lead to a giant Compton-like shift and dramatic enhancement of the scattering cross section. We develop a universal approach to study multiphoton processes in nanostructured media and derive the intensity spectrum of the scattered radiation for realistic metamaterial structures.

  9. Gamma-ray imaging with a Si\\/CsI(Tl) Compton detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Hoover; J. P. Sullivan; B. Baird; S. P. Brumby; R. M. Kippen; C. W. McCluskey; M. W. Rawool-Sullivan; E. B. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    We present results from Compton imaging of gamma-ray sources using an instrument constructed from thin silicon scattering detectors and CsI(Tl) absorbing detectors. We have successfully imaged single and double point sources for several common radioactive isotopes (137Cs, 60Co, 22Na, 54Mn). The measured angular resolution is 11.6? FWHM at 662keV. In parallel with the hardware effort, a GEANT4-based simulation code was

  10. Spin and orbital magnetization loops obtained using magnetic Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)] [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Koizumi, A. [Graduate School of Materials Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Materials Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2013-02-25

    We present an application of magnetic Compton scattering (MCS) to decompose a total magnetization loop into spin and orbital magnetization contributions. A spin magnetization loop of SmAl{sub 2} was measured by recording the intensity of magnetic Compton scattering as a function of applied magnetic field. Comparing the spin magnetization loop with the total magnetization one measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer, the orbital magnetization loop was obtained. The data display an anti-coupled behavior between the spin and orbital magnetizations and confirm that the orbital part dominates the magnetization.

  11. Thick silicon strip detector Compton imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Wulf; B. F. Phlips; W. N. Johnson; J. D. Kurfess; E. I. Novikova

    2003-01-01

    We present initial results obtained with double-sided, thick (2 mm) silicon strip detectors used as a Compton imager. A reconstructed image of a gamma ray source and a spectrum of the gamma ray energy are produced at room temperature using the multiple Compton technique. Multiple Compton interactions allow the energy and Compton scattering angle to be reconstructed without having to

  12. Gamma-ray momentum reconstruction from Compton electron trajectories by filtered back-projection

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, A., E-mail: ahaefner@berkeley.edu; Plimley, B.; Pavlovsky, R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, California 94720-1730 (United States); Gunter, D. [Applied Nuclear Physics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vetter, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, California 94720-1730 (United States); Applied Nuclear Physics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    Gamma-ray imaging utilizing Compton scattering has traditionally relied on measuring coincident gamma-ray interactions to map directional information of the source distribution. This coincidence requirement makes it an inherently inefficient process. We present an approach to gamma-ray reconstruction from Compton scattering that requires only a single electron tracking detector, thus removing the coincidence requirement. From the Compton scattered electron momentum distribution, our algorithm analytically computes the incident photon's correlated direction and energy distributions. Because this method maps the source energy and location, it is useful in applications, where prior information about the source distribution is unknown. We demonstrate this method with electron tracks measured in a scientific Si charge coupled device. While this method was demonstrated with electron tracks in a Si-based detector, it is applicable to any detector that can measure electron direction and energy, or equivalently the electron momentum. For example, it can increase the sensitivity to obtain energy and direction in gas-based systems that suffer from limited efficiency.

  13. Compton scattered imaging based on the V-line radon transform and its medical imaging applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Nguyeny; R. Re?gnier; T. T. Truong; H. Zaidi

    2010-01-01

    The Radon transform (RT) on straight lines deals as mathematical foundation for many tomographic modalities (e.g. Xray scanner, Positron Emission Tomography), using only primary radiation. In this paper, we consider a new RT defined on a pair of half-lines forming a letter V, arising from the modeling a two-dimensional emission imaging process by Compton scattered gamma rays. We establish its

  14. Design and optimization of MeV class Compton scattering MEGa-ray sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felicie Albert; S. G. Anderson; S. M. Betts; R. R. Cross; C. A. Ebbers; T. L. Houck; D. J. Gibson; R. A. Marsh; M. Messerly; M. Y. Shverdin; S. S. Wu; F. V. Hartemann; C. W. Siders; R. D. Scarpetti; C. P. J. Barty

    2010-01-01

    The design and optimization of a Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering source are presented. A new precision source with up to 2.5 MeV photon energies, enabled by state of the art laser and x-band linac technologies, is currently being built at LLNL. Various aspects of the theoretical design, including dose and brightness optimization, will be presented. In particular, while it

  15. LLNL Precision Compton Scattering Light Source: X-band RF Photoinjector and Accelerator Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roark Marsh; S. G. Anderson; D. J. Gibson; S. S. Wu; F. V. Hartemann; T. L. Houck; C. Ebbers; R. D. Scarpetti; C. P. J. Barty; C. Adolphsen; T. S. Chu; Z. Li; S. G. Tantawi; A. E. Vlieks; J. W. Wang; T. O. Raubenheimer

    2010-01-01

    The design and optimization of a Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering source are presented. This precision light source with up to 2.5 MeV photon energy is currently being built at LLNL using high gradient X-band accelerator technology in collaboration with SLAC. The design of a high brightness 5.59 cell X-band RF photoinjector will be presented. An ``early light'' machine has

  16. Timelike compton scattering at JLab 12 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadel-Turonski, P.; Guidal, M.; Horn, T.; Paremuzyan, R.; Stepanyan, S.

    2013-10-01

    A major goal of Jefferson Lab at 12 GeV is to map out the 3-D structure of the proton through Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). An important tool in this endeavor is Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering, traditionally performed in kinematics where the incoming photon has a spacelike virtuality and the outgoing photon is real. However, measuring the corresponding timelike process, known as Timlike Compton Scattering (TCS), where the incoming photon is real and the outgoing one timelike, offers a unique opportunity to test the universality of GPDs. It also allows to take advantage of the straightforward access in TCS to the real part of the Compton Form Factors, providing constraints on global GPD fits. In addition, the experiment will provide a high-statistics measurement of the J/? photoproduction cross section near threshold, as this process shares the same final state.

  17. Preliminary observation of nonlinear effects in Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bula, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Prebys, E.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Joseph Henry Labs.] [and others; E-144 Collaboration

    1996-07-01

    In a new experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC a low- emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam is brought into collision with terawatt pulses from a 1.06 {mu} wavelength Nd:glass laser. Peak laser intensities of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} have been achieved corresponding to a value of 0.6 for the parameter {eta} = {ital eE/mw{sub 0}c}, and to a value of 0.3 for the parameter {Upsilon} = {ital E{sup *}/E{sub crit}} = 2{gamma}{ital ehE}/{ital m}{sup 2}{ital c}{sup 3} in the case of frequency doubled laser pulses. In these circumstances an electron that crosses the center of the laser pulse has near unit interaction probability. Signals are presented for multiphoton Compton scattering in which up to 4 laser photons interact with an electron. High energy backscattered photons of GeV energy can interact within the laser focus to create electron- positron pairs; an excess of 15 positrons above a background of 14 was observed in a run of 6,000 laser shots.

  18. Inverse Compton scattering electron spectroscopy of intense electron beam diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. J. Critchley

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. The potential exploitation of inverse Compton scattering (ICS) as a diagnostic tool for the determination of electron properties within intense electron beam diodes has been investigated. The interaction of a laser beam with a beam of high-energy electrons create an ICS spectrum of photons. In principle, one should be able to glean information on the energies

  19. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering with Positron Beams at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Burkert, Volker D. [Jefferson Lab, 26000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia (United States)

    2009-09-02

    A brief discussion of the DVCS program at the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV energy upgrade is given with emphasis on what can be learned from using both polarized electron and positron beams in measurements of deeply virtual Compton scattering on protons.

  20. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  1. Polarization of GRB by scattering off relativistically moving material: Compton sailing and high polarization

    E-print Network

    Amir Levinson; David Eichler

    2004-02-19

    The polarization of gamma ray emission scattered off the baryon rich material that collimates a GRB fireball and the coasting speed of the irradiated matter are calculated numerically for different geometries of the radiation source and the collimating wall. It is shown that when the scattering material is Compton sailing, the direction of maximum polarization is quite generally well within the beaming cone of scattered radiation. As a result, the probability for observing bright highly polarized GRB's increases considerably, provided the Lorentz factor of the coasting matter is not well below 30, and the scattered radiation is highly polarized even when the beam thickness is large compared to $1/\\Gamma$. It is suggested that correlation between polarization and intensity could provide clues as to whether energy flows from matter to photons or the reverse.

  2. Scheme of Laser-Compton Gamma-ray Beamline in SAGA-LS

    SciTech Connect

    Ohgaki, H. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 6110011 (Japan); Koda, S.; Iwasaki, Y.; Takabayashi, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Tomimasu, T. [SAGA-LS, 8-7 Yayoigaoka, Tosu, 8410005 (Japan); Uozumi, Y.; Ishibashi, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 8128581 (Japan)

    2007-01-19

    A Laser-Compton Gamma-ray beamline in SAGA-LS has been planned to investigate the nuclear science and technology. The electron beam energy of 1.4 GeV and a small emittance are attractive to generate an intense and narrow energy bandwidth of Laser-Compton gamma-ray beam in MeV-region. Thus a design work for a gamma-ray beamline has been performed. Since the electron energy will be fixed, 1.4 GeV, for SR users, the laser wavelength should be variable to tune the energy of the gamma-ray beam. An OPO-DFG laser is one of candidate for this purpose. However, the laser power is not high enough to obtain the gamma-ray yield of -106 photons/s/100mA. The other method to tune the energy of gamma-ray beam is selecting the scattering angle by using a collimator and an absorber. However, simulation shows that the collimator-absorber scheme produce a poor bandwidth of the gamma-ray beam. An acceptable performance beam can be obtained by controlling the energy of electron beam at present stage.

  3. Attosecond neutron Compton scattering from protons

    E-print Network

    C. Aris Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann

    2007-02-01

    The effect of "anomalous" scattering of neutrons and electrons from protons in the electron-volt energy-transfer range is considered, and related experimental results are mentioned. A recent independent confirmation of this effect with a new data analysis procedure is presented. Due to the very short characteristic scattering time, there is no well defined separation of time scales of electronic and protonic motions. An outline of a proposed theoretical interpretation is presented, which is based on the fact that scattering protons represent \\textit{open} quantum systems, thus being subject to decoherence.

  4. Positron annihilation in the Galactic Center: ''Cheshire cat'' Compton scattering and ''excess continuum''

    SciTech Connect

    Bildsten, M.L.; Zurek, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Two separate observations of the ..gamma..-ray spectrum originating from the Galactic Center were made by HEAO-3 in the fall of 1979 and in the spring of 1980. The 2..gamma.. 511 KeV annihilation line flux decreased by a factor of three over the corresponding six month period, whereas the excess ..gamma..-ray continuum below the 511 KeV line, often interpreted as 3..gamma.. decay of orthopositronium, barely changed. This apparent discrepancy in the temporal behavior makes it difficult to associate the bulk of the excess continuum with the 3..gamma.. decay of positronium. We will show that Compton scattering of the line and high energy radiation provides a natural explanation for the surprisingly small change seen in the excess continuum. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Measurements of Rayleigh, Compton and resonant Raman scattering cross-sections for 59.536 keV gamma-rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prem Singh; D. Mehta; N. Singh; S. Puri; J. S. Shahi

    2004-01-01

    The K-L and K-M resonant Raman scattering (RRS) cross-sections have been measured for the first time at the 59.536 keV photon energy in the 70Yb (BK=61.332 keV), 71Lu (BK=63.316 keV) and 72Hf (BK=65.345 keV) elements; BK being the K-shell binding energy. The K-L and K-M RRS measurements have been performed at the 59° and 133° angles, respectively, to avoid interference

  6. Low-Intensity Nonlinear Spectral Effects in Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-02-23

    Nonlinear effects are known to occur in Compton scattering light sources, when the laser normalized 4-potential, A = e{radical}-A{sub {mu}}A{sup {mu}}/m{sub 0}c approaches unity. In this letter, it is shown that nonlinear spectral features can appear at arbitrarily low values of A, if the fractional bandwidth of the laser pulse, {Delta}{phi}{sup -1}, is sufficiently small to satisfy A{sup 2} {Delta}{phi} {approx_equal} 1. A three dimensional analysis, based on a local plane-wave, slow-varying envelope approximation, enables the study of these effects for realistic interactions between an electron beam and a laser pulse, and their influence on high-precision Compton scattering light sources.

  7. Cosmic Gamma-ray from Inverse Compton Process in Unstable Dark Matter Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiwata, Koji; Moroi, Takeo [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Matsumoto, Shigeki [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-26

    Motivated by the PAMELA anomaly in the fluxes of cosmic-ray e{sup +} and e{sup -}, we study the cosmic gamma-ray induced by the inverse Compton (IC) scattering process in unstable dark matter scenario assuming that the anomaly is due to the e{sup +}- emission by the decay of dark matter. We calculate the fluxes of IC-induced gamma-ray produced in our Galaxy and that from cosmological distance, and show that both of them are significant. We discuss a possibility that large dark matter mass over TeV scale might be constrained by the gamma-ray observation by Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  8. Inverse Compton Scattering on laser beam and monochromatic isotropic radiation

    E-print Network

    D. Fargion; R. V. Konoplich; A. Salis

    1996-06-20

    Most of the known literature on Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) is based on earliest theoretical attempts and later approximations led by F.C.Jones and J.B.Blumenthal. We found an independent and more general analytical procedure which provide both relativistic and ultrarelativistic limits for ICS. These new analytical expressions can be derived in a straightforward way and they contain the previously reminded Jones' results. Our detailed solutions may be probed by already existing as well future ICS experiments.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of virtual Compton scattering below pion threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens, P.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Fonvieille, H.; D'Hose, N.; Bertin, P. Y.; Bensafa, I.; Degrande, N.; Distler, M.; Di Salvo, R.; Doria, L.; Friedrich, J. M.; Friedrich, J.; Hyde-Wright, Ch.; Jaminion, S.; Kerhoas, S.; Laveissière, G.; Lhuillier, D.; Marchand, D.; Merkel, H.; Roche, J.; Tamas, G.; Vanderhaeghen, M.; Van de Vyver, R.; Van de Wiele, J.; Walcher, Th.

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the Monte Carlo simulation developed specifically for the Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) experiments below pion threshold that have been performed at MAMI and JLab. This simulation generates events according to the (Bethe-Heitler + Born) cross-section behaviour and takes into account all relevant resolution-deteriorating effects. It determines the "effective" solid angle for the various experimental settings which are used for the precise determination of the photon electroproduction absolute cross-section.

  10. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Hamilton; V. H. Mamyan; K. A. Aniol; J. R. Annand; P. Y. Bertin; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; J. R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; G. C. Chang; T.-H. Chang; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; A. Danagoulian; P. Degtyarenko; C. W. de Jager; A. Deur; D. Dutta; K. Egiyan; H. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; J.-O. Hansen; D. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; C. Howell; T. Hunyady; C. E. Hyde-Wright; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; M. Khandaker; A. Ketikyan; V. Kubarovsky; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissière; J. Lerose; R. A. Lindgren; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; P. Moussiegt; S. Nanda; A. M. Nathan; D. M. Nikolenko; V. Nelyubin; B. E. Norum; K. Paschke; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. A. Punjabi; I. Rachek; A. Radyushkin; B. Reitz; R. Roche; M. Roedelbronn; G. Ron; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; N. Savvinov; A. Shahinyan; Y. Shestakov; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; P. Stoler; S. Tajima; V. Sulkosky; L. Todor; B. Vlahovic; L. B. Weinstein; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; H. Voskanyan; H. Xiang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 GeV2 and t=-4.0 GeV2 via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism, but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction

  11. Multifrequency-Gray Method for Radiation Diffusion with Compton Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. Winslow

    1995-01-01

    We describe an improved multifrequency-gray method for time-dependent nonequilibrium flux-limited radiation diffusion in a high temperature system, using a two-temperature model for electrons and ions and including energy exchange between photons and electrons by Compton scattering. Our gray equation has a nonsymmetric finite difference matrix that allows us to represent negative gray diffusion coefficients, which occur in the presence of

  12. Quantum radiation reaction effects in multiphoton Compton scattering

    E-print Network

    A. Di Piazza; K. Z. Hatsagortsyan; C. H. Keitel

    2010-11-24

    Radiation reaction effects in the interaction of an electron and a strong laser field are investigated in the realm of quantum electrodynamics. We identify quantum radiation reaction with the multiple photon recoils experienced by the laser-driven electron due to consecutive incoherent photon emissions. After determining a quantum radiation dominated regime, we demonstrate how in this regime quantum signatures of radiation reaction strongly affect multiphoton Compton scattering spectra and that they could be measurable in principle with presently available laser technology.

  13. Magnetic Compton-induced pair cascade model for gamma-ray pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, Steven J.; Dermer, Charles D.; Michel, F. Curtis

    1995-01-01

    Electrons accelerated to relativistic energies in pulsar magnetospheres will Compton scatter surface thermal emission and nonthermal optical, UV, and soft X-ray emission to gamma-ray energies, thereby initiating a pair cascade through synchrotron radiation and magnetic pair production. This process is proposed as the origin of the high-energy radiation that has been detected from six isolated pulsars. We construct an analytic model of magnetic Compton scattering near the polar cap of isolated pulsar magnetospheres and present approximate analytic derivations for scattered spectra, electron energy-loss rates, and photon luminosities. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to model the pair cascade induced by relativistic electrons scattering photons through the cyclotron resonance. For simplicity, the primary electrons are assumed to be monoenergetic and the nonresonant emission is omitted. Assuming that the angle phi(sub B) between the magnetic and spin axes is approximately equal to the polar-cap angle theta(sub pc), this model can produce both double-peaked and broad single-peaked pulse profiles and account for the trend of harder gamma-ray spectra observed from older pulsars.

  14. POSSIBLE EXPERIMENTS ON WAVE FUNCTION LOCALIZATION DUE TO COMPTON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V [ORNL] [ORNL; Danilov, Viatcheslav V [ORNL] [ORNL; Gorlov, Timofey V [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Yun [ORNL] [ORNL; Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL] [ORNL; Nagaitsev, [FNAL] [FNAL

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of a particle s wave function in the process of radiation or light scattering is a longstanding problem. Its solution will give a clue on processes that form, for example, wave functions of electrons constantly emitting synchrotron radiation quanta in storage rings. On a more global scale, it may shed light on wave function collapse due to the process of measurement. In this paper we consider various experimental options using Fermilab electron beams and a possible electron beam from the SNS linac and lasers to detect electron wave function change due to Compton scattering.

  15. Polarisation Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    David Hamilton

    2004-12-31

    The Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E99-114 comprised a series of measurements to explore proton Compton scattering at high momentum transfer. For the first time, the polarisation transfer observables in the p (~ 0 ~ p) reaction were measured in the GeV energy range, where it is believed that quark-gluon degrees of freedom begin to dominate. The experiment utilised a circularly polarised photon beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target, with the scattered photon and recoil proton detected in a lead-glass calorimeter and a magnetic spectrometer, respectively.

  16. Double deeply virtual Compton scattering off the nucleon.

    PubMed

    Guidal, M; Vanderhaeghen, M

    2003-01-10

    We study the double deeply virtual Compton scattering (DDVCS) process off the nucleon, through the scattering of a space-like virtual photon with large virtuality resulting in the production of a time-like virtual photon, decaying into an e(+)e(-) pair. This process is expressed in the Bjorken regime in terms of generalized parton distributions (GPDs), and it is shown that by varying the invariant mass of the lepton pair, one can directly extract the GPDs from the observables. We give predictions for the DDVCS cross section and beam helicity asymmetry and discuss its experimental feasibility. PMID:12570602

  17. Beam-charge azimuthal asymmetry and deeply virtual Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Airapetian, A.; Deconinck, W.; Lorenzon, W. [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Elbakian, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Marukyan, H.; Rostomyan, A.; Taroian, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Amarian, M. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Andrus, A.; Bailey, P.; Bouwhuis, M.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Makins, N. C. R.; Rubin, J. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States); Aschenauer, E. C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)] (and others)

    2007-01-01

    The first observation of an azimuthal cross section asymmetry with respect to the charge of the incoming lepton beam is reported from a study of hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The data have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY, in which the HERA 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam scattered off an unpolarized hydrogen gas target. The observed asymmetry is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process. The interference term is sensitive to DVCS amplitudes, which provide the most direct access to generalized parton distributions.

  18. Gamma-ray imaging with a Si/CsI(Tl) Compton detector.

    PubMed

    Hoover, A S; Sullivan, J P; Baird, B; Brumby, S P; Kippen, R M; McCluskey, C W; Rawool-Sullivan, M W; Sorensen, E B

    2006-12-01

    We present results from Compton imaging of gamma-ray sources using an instrument constructed from thin silicon scattering detectors and CsI(Tl) absorbing detectors. We have successfully imaged single and double point sources for several common radioactive isotopes ((137)Cs, (60)Co, (22)Na, (54)Mn). The measured angular resolution is 11.6( composite function) FWHM at 662keV. In parallel with the hardware effort, a GEANT4-based simulation code was developed. Comparisons between real and simulated data are discussed. PMID:16837205

  19. Three-Dimensional Theory of Nonlinear Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartemann, Fred; Brown, Winthrop; Anderson, Scott; Brown, Jeremy; Crane, John; Gibson, Dave; Tremaine, Aaron

    2003-10-01

    For visible laser wavelengths, at intensities exceeding 10^17 W/cm^2, Compton scattering becomes a nonlinear process, whereby the probability of coherent multiphoton scattering is large, and the effects of radiation pressure dominate the electron dynamics during the interaction. This process has been studied in the single-particle plane-wave limit^1, where focusing, diffraction, Guoy phase, and the electron beam phase space are ignored; novel phenomena, including anharmonic radiation, and multiphoton scattering are predicted in this regime, and were observed for electrons initially at rest^2, or indirectly^3. A fully three-dimensional analysis is presented here, as well as experimental plans for a test of the theory. Finally, a new approach to nonlinear Compton scattering, relying on temporal laser pulse-shaping in circular polarization, will also be discussed, with the potential to generate extremely bright, hard x-rays required for in situ material probing and advanced backlighting applications. 1. F.V. Hartemann, "High-Field Electrodynamics", CRC Press (2002). 2. S-y Chen, A. Maksimchuk, D. Umstadter, Nature 396, p. 653 (1998). 3. C. Bula, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 76, p. 3116 (1996). This work is supported under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48, and by the National Undergraduate Fusion program.

  20. Dissecting Deuteron Compton Scattering I: The Observables with Polarised Initial States

    E-print Network

    Harald W. Griesshammer

    2013-08-19

    A complete set of linearly independent observables in Compton scattering with arbitrarily polarised real photons off an arbitrarily polarised spin-1 target is introduced, for the case that the final-state polarisations are not measured. Adopted from the one widely used e.g. in deuteron photo-dissociation, it consists of 18 terms: the unpolarised cross section, the beam asymmetry, 4 target asymmetries and 12 asymmetries in which both beam and target are polarised. They are expressed by the helicity amplitudes and -- where available -- related to observables discussed by other authors. As application to deuteron Compton scattering, their dependence on the (isoscalar) scalar and spin dipole polarisabilities of the nucleon is explored in Chiral Effective Field Theory with dynamical Delta(1232) degrees of freedom at order e^2\\delta^3. Some asymmetries are sensitive to only one or two dipole polarisabilities, making them particularly attractive for experimental studies. At a photon energy of 100 MeV, a set of 5 observables is identified from which one may be able to extract the spin polarisabilities of the nucleon. These are experimentally realistic but challenging and mostly involve tensor-polarised deuterons. Relative to Compton scattering from a nucleon, sensitivity to the "mixed" spin polarisabilities \\gamma_{E1M2} and \\gamma_{M1E2} is increased because of interference with the D wave component of the deuteron and with its pion-exchange current. An interactive Mathematica 9.0 notebook with results for all observables at photon energies up to 120 MeV is available from hgrie@gwu.edu.

  1. Nucleon Polarizabilities from Low-Energy Compton Scattering

    E-print Network

    S. R. Beane; M. Malheiro; J. A. McGovern; D. R. Phillips; U. van Kolck

    2004-11-16

    An effective field theory is used to give a model-independent description of Compton scattering at energies comparable to the pion mass. The amplitudes for scattering on the proton and the deuteron, calculated to fourth order in small momenta in chiral perturbation theory, contain four undetermined parameters that are in one-to-one correspondence with the nucleon polarizabilities. These polarizabilities are extracted from fits to data on elastic photon scattering on hydrogen and deuterium. For the proton we find: alpha_p = 12.1 +/- 1.1 +/- 0.5, beta_p = 3.4 +/- 1.1 +/- 0.1, both in units of 10^{-4} fm^3. For the isoscalar polarizabilities we obtain: alpha_N = 13.0 +/- 1.9 +3.9/-1.5 (in the same units) while beta_N is consistent with zero, within sizeable error bars.

  2. Studies on Compton scattering of the Fe-C, Fe-Cu and Ni-Cu binary powder mixtures.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guang; Hu, Xianquan

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays the Compton scattering is widely applied in various fields. In the present paper, we explore the Compton scattering effects on the binary powder mixture scatterers. By using the Compton scattering theory, we obtain an approximate linear relationship between the scattered photon counts and the contents of the binary powder mixture scatterer. This relationship has been confirmed by conducting the Compton scattering experiments of the binary powder mixture series such as the Fe-C, Fe-Cu and Ni-Cu scatterers. Moreover, we make a discussion on the experimental errors. The Compton scattering method is helpful for measuring the contents of the binary powder mixtures. PMID:23774322

  3. Compton scattering off massive fundamental bosons of pure spin 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Acosta, E. G.; Kirchbach, M.; Napsuciale, M.; Rodríguez, S.

    2013-05-01

    Relativistic particles with spins J>0 are described by means of multicomponent wave functions which transform covariantly according to Lorentz-group representations that contain at rest the spin of interest. The symmetry group of space-time provides not one but an infinity of such representations which are equivalent for free particles but yield different electromagnetic couplings upon gauging; thus, the challenge is to develop criteria which allow us to select those of them which relate to physically detectable particles. We here take the position that the unitarity of the Compton scattering cross sections in the ultrarelativistic limit, when predicted by a consistent method for a spin-1 description, could provide such a criterion. We analyze the properties of massive fundamental spin-1 bosons transforming as antisymmetric tensors of second rank, (1,0)?(0,1). For this purpose, we employ the Poincaré covariant projector method, which provides consistent, gauge invariant, causal, and representation specific Lagrangians. This formalism yields a twofold extension of the Proca Lagrangian for the description of spin-1 bosons, first from an in-built g=1 value of the gyromagnetic ratio to an unspecified general g?1, and then from single-parity to parity-doublet degrees of freedom. We find different results for Compton scattering in these theories and track the differences to the lack of universality of the vector-antisymmetric-tensor equivalence theorem which is specific only to Proca’s framework, and valid for g=1, while it is violated within the more general Poincaré covariant projector formalism. Our main result is that a finite Compton scattering differential cross section in the ultrarelativistic limit requires us to consider the contributions of both parities in (1,0)?(0,1). On that basis, we conclude that massive spin-1 bosons transforming as antisymmetric tensors are physical parity doublets.

  4. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.J.; Annand, J.R.M. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Mamyan, V.H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Aniol, K.A.; Margaziotis, D.J. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90032 (United States); Bertin, P.Y.; Camsonne, A.; Laveissiere, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Bimbot, L. [IPN, Orsay B.P. no. 1 F-91406, Orsay (France); Bosted, P.; Paschke, K. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Calarco, J.R. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Chang, G.C.; Horn, T.; Savvinov, N. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Chang, T.-H.; Danagoulian, A.; Nathan, A.M.; Roedelbronn, M. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Chen, J.-P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)] [and others

    2005-06-24

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 GeV{sup 2} and t=-4.0 GeV{sup 2} via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism, but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.

  5. Flow shear induced Compton scattering of electron drift instability

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.

    1992-02-01

    Plasma flow shear effects on nonlinear saturation of electron drift waves are analyzed in the weak turbulence regime. Flow shear can enhance ion Compton scattering of long wavelength electron drift waves not only by modifying the beat wave-ion resonance condition, but also via the radial dependence of linear susceptibility. A nonlinear dispersion relation is obtained as a solution of the radially nonlocal nonlinear eigenmode equation. At nonlinear saturation, the spectral intensity of the fluctuations scales with flow shear as ({partial derivative}V{var phi}/{partial derivative}r){sup {minus}2} in addition to the linear dependence on the linear growth rate.

  6. Flow shear induced Compton scattering of electron drift instability

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.

    1992-02-01

    Plasma flow shear effects on nonlinear saturation of electron drift waves are analyzed in the weak turbulence regime. Flow shear can enhance ion Compton scattering of long wavelength electron drift waves not only by modifying the beat wave-ion resonance condition, but also via the radial dependence of linear susceptibility. A nonlinear dispersion relation is obtained as a solution of the radially nonlocal nonlinear eigenmode equation. At nonlinear saturation, the spectral intensity of the fluctuations scales with flow shear as ({partial_derivative}V{var_phi}/{partial_derivative}r){sup {minus}2} in addition to the linear dependence on the linear growth rate.

  7. Compton Scattering Cross Sections in Strong Magnetic Fields: Advances for Neutron Star Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ickes, Jesse; Gonthier, Peter L.; Eiles, Matthew; Baring, Matthew G.; Wadiasingh, Zorawar

    2014-08-01

    Various telescopes including RXTE, INTEGRAL, Suzaku and Fermi have detected steady non-thermal X-ray emission in the 10 ~ 200 keV band from strongly magnetic neutron stars known as magnetars. Magnetic inverse Compton scattering is believed to be a leading candidate for the production of this intense X-ray radiation. Generated by electrons possessing ultra-relativistic energies, this leads to attractive simplifications of the magnetic Compton cross section. We have recently addressed such a case by developing compact analytic expressions using correct spin-dependent widths acquired through the implementation of Sokolov & Ternov (ST) basis states, focusing specifically on ground state-to-ground state scattering. Such scattering in magnetar magnetospheres can cool electrons down to mildly-relativistic energies. Moreover, soft gamma-ray flaring in magnetars may well involve strong Comptonization in expanding clouds of mildly-relativistic pairs. These situations necessitate the development of more general magnetic scattering cross sections, where the incoming photons acquire substantial incident angles relative to the field in the rest frame of the electron, and the intermediate state can be excited to arbitrary Landau levels. Here, we highlight results from such a generalization using ST formalism. The cross sections treat the plethora of harmonic resonances associated with various cyclotron transitions between Landau states. Polarization dependence of the cross section for the four scattering modes is illustrated and compared with the non-relativistic Thompson cross section with classical widths. Results will find application to various neutron star problems, including computation of Eddington luminosities and polarization mode-switching rates in transient magnetar fireballs.We express our gratitude for the generous support of Michigan Space Grant Consortium, the National Science Foundation (grants AST-0607651, AST-1009725, AST-1009731 and PHY/DMR-1004811), and the NASA Astrophysics Theory Program through grants NNX06AI32G, NNX09AQ71G and NNX10AC59A.

  8. An Electron-Tracking Compton Telescope for a Survey of the Deep Universe by MeV gamma-rays

    E-print Network

    Tanimori, T; Takada, A; Iwaki, S; Komura, S; Kurosawa, S; Matsuoka, Y; Miuchi, K; Miyamoto, S; Mizumoto, T; Mizumura, Y; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, S; Oda, M; Parker, J D; Sawano, T; Sonoda, S; Takemura, T; Tomono, D; Ueno, K

    2015-01-01

    Photon imaging for MeV gammas has serious difficulties due to huge backgrounds and unclearness in images, which are originated from incompleteness in determining the physical parameters of Compton scattering in detection, e.g., lack of the directional information of the recoil electrons. The recent major mission/instrument in the MeV band, CGRO/COMPTEL, which was Compton Camera (CC), detected mere $\\sim30$ persistent sources. It is in stark contrast with $\\sim$2000 sources in the GeV band. Here we report the performance of an Electron-Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC), and prove that it has a good potential to break through this stagnation in MeV gamma-ray astronomy. The ETCC provides all the parameters of Compton-scattering by measuring 3-D recoil electron tracks; then the SPD (Scatter Plane Deviation) lost in CCs is recovered. The energy loss rate (dE/dx), which CCs cannot measure, is also obtained, and is found to be indeed helpful to reduce the background under conditions similar to space. Accordingly the si...

  9. Observations of GRB 990123 by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, M. S.; Band, D. L.; Kippen, R. M.; Preece, R. D.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanParadijs, J.; Share, G. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Matz, S. M.; Connors, A.

    1999-01-01

    GRB 990123 was the first burst from which simultaneous optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray emission was detected; its afterglow has been followed by an extensive set of radio, optical, and X-ray observations. We have studied the gamma-ray burst itself as observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detectors. We find that gamma-ray fluxes are not correlated with the simultaneous optical observations and that the gamma-ray spectra cannot be extrapolated simply to the optical fluxes. The burst is well fitted by the standard four-parameter GRB function, with the exception that excess emission compared with this function is observed below approx. 15 keV during some time intervals. The burst is characterized by the typical hard-to-soft and hardness-intensity correlation spectral evolution patterns. The energy of the peak of the vf (sub v), spectrum, E (sub p), reaches an unusually high value during the first intensity spike, 1470 plus or minus 110 keV, and then falls to approx. 300 keV during the tail of the burst. The high-energy spectrum above approx. 1 MeV is consistent with a power law with a photon index of about -3. By fluence, GRB 990123 is brighter than all but 0.4% of the GRBs observed with BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment), clearly placing it on the -3/2 power-law portion of the intensity distribution. However, the redshift measured for the afterglow is inconsistent with the Euclidean interpretation of the -3/2 power law. Using the redshift value of greater than or equal to 1.61 and assuming isotropic emission, the gamma-ray energy exceeds 10 (exp 54) ergs.

  10. Beam normal spin asymmetry in the quasireal Compton scattering approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Gorchtein, M. [Genoa University, Department of Physics, I-16146 Genoa, Italy and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The two-photon exchange contribution to the single spin asymmetries with the spin orientation normal to the reaction plane is discussed for elastic electron-proton scattering in the equivalent photon approximation. In this case, the hadronic part of the two-photon exchange amplitude describes real Compton scattering (RCS). We show that in the case of the beam normal spin asymmetry this approximation selects only the photon helicity flip amplitudes of RCS. At low energies, we make use of unitarity and estimate the contribution of the {pi}N multipoles to the photon helicity flip amplitudes. In the Regge regime, the quasi-RCS (QRCS) approximation allows for a contribution from two-pion exchange, and we provide an estimate of such contributions.

  11. Observation of the Higgs Boson of strong interaction via Compton scattering by the nucleon

    E-print Network

    Martin Schumacher

    2010-03-15

    It is shown that the Quark-Level Linear $\\sigma$ Model (QLL$\\sigma$M) leads to a prediction for the diamagnetic term of the polarizabilities of the nucleon which is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The bare mass of the $\\sigma$ meson is predicted to be $m_\\sigma=666$ MeV and the two-photon width $\\Gamma(\\sigma\\to\\gamma\\gamma)=(2.6\\pm 0.3)$ keV. It is argued that the mass predicted by the QLL$\\sigma$M corresponds to the $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\sigma\\to NN$ reaction, i.e. to a $t$-channel pole of the $\\gamma N\\to N\\gamma$ reaction. Large -angle Compton scattering experiments revealing effects of the $\\sigma$ meson in the differential cross section are discussed. Arguments are presented that these findings may be understood as an observation of the Higgs boson of strong interaction while being part of the constituent quark.

  12. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: Lessons Learned in Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, G. A.; Joseph, G. W.; Behrens, H. W.; Asato, D. I.; Carlson, R. A.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory was the second of NASA's Great Observatories. At 17 1/2 tons. it was the heaviest astrophysical payload ever flown at the time of its launch on April 5, 1991 aboard the Space Shuttle. During initial, on-orbit priming of the spacecraft's monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system, a severe waterhammer transient was experienced. At that time, anomalous telemetry readings were received from on-board propulsion system instrumentation. This led to ground analyses and laboratory investigations as to the root cause of the waterhammer, potential damage to system integrity and functionality, and risks for switching from the primary (A-side) propulsion system to the redundant (B-side) system. The switchover to B-side was ultimately performed successfully and the spacecraft completed its basic and extended missions in this configuration. Nine years later, following a critical control gyroscope failure, Compton was safely deorbited and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on June 4, 2000. Additional risk assessments concerning viability of A- and B-sides were necessary to provide confidence in attitude and delta-V authority and reliability to manage the precisely controlled reentry. This paper summarizes the design and operation of the propulsion system used on the spacecraft and provides "lessons learned" from the system engineering investigations into the propellant loading procedures, the initial priming anomaly, mission operations, and the commanded re-entry following the gyro failure.

  13. Resonant Cyclotron Scattering and Comptonization in Neutron Star Magnetospheres

    E-print Network

    Maxim Lyutikov; Fotis P. Gavriil

    2006-02-10

    Resonant cyclotron scattering of the surface radiation in the magnetospheres of neutron stars may considerably modify the emergent spectra and impede efforts to constraint neutron star properties. Resonant cyclotron scattering by a non-relativistic warm plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field has a number of unusual characteristics: (i) in the limit of high resonant optical depth, the cyclotron resonant layer is half opaque, in sharp contrast to the case of non-resonant scattering. (ii) The transmitted flux is on average Compton up-scattered by ~ $1+ 2 beta_T$, where $\\beta_T$ is the typical thermal velocity in units of the velocity of light; the reflected flux has on average the initial frequency. (iii) For both the transmitted and reflected fluxes the dispersion of intensity decreases with increasing optical depth. (iv) The emergent spectrum is appreciably non-Plankian while narrow spectral features produced at the surface may be erased. We derive semi-analytically modification of the surface Plankian emission due to multiple scattering between the resonant layers and apply the model to anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1048.1--5937. Our simple model fits just as well as the ``canonical'' magnetar spectra model of a blackbody plus power-law.

  14. Inversion of a new circular-arc Radon transform for Compton scattering tomography

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    finds numerous applications (Computed Tomography, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECTInversion of a new circular-arc Radon transform for Compton scattering tomography M. K. Nguyen formation in a new modality of Compton scattering tomography is introduced. We describe some of its

  15. Modeling and simulation results on a new Compton scattering tomography modality

    E-print Network

    Nguyen-Verger, Maï K.

    (X-ray scanner, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Positron Emission Tomography, etcModeling and simulation results on a new Compton scattering tomography modality Gaël Rigaud a Biomedical imaging Compton scattering tomography Image reconstruction a b s t r a c t Conventional tomography

  16. Virtual Compton scattering and neutral pion electroproduction in the resonance region up to the deep inelastic region at backward angles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Laveissière; Natalie Degrande; Stephanie Jaminion; Christophe Jutier; Luminita Todor; Rachele Di Salvo; L. Van Hoorebeke; L. C. Alexa; Brian Anderson; Konrad Aniol; Kathleen Arundell; Gerard Audit; Leonard Auerbach; F. T. Baker; Maud Baylac; J. Berthot; Pierre Bertin; William Bertozzi; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Edward Brash; Vincent Breton; Herbert Breuer; Etienne Burtin; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Christian Cavata; C.-C. Chang; J.-P. Chen; E. Chudakov; E. Cisbani; D. S. Dale; C. W. de Jager; R. de Leo; A. Deur; N. D'Hose; G. E. Dodge; J. J. Domingo; L. Elouadrhiri; M. B. Epstein; L. A. Ewell; J. M. Finn; K. G. Fissum; H. Fonvieille; G. Fournier; B. Frois; S. Frullani; C. Furget; H. Gao; J. Gao; F. Garibaldi; A. Gasparian; S. Gilad; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; V. Gorbenko; P. Grenier; P. A. M. Guichon; J. O. Hansen; R. Holmes; M. Holtrop; C. Howell; G. M. Huber; C. E. Hyde; S. Incerti; M. Iodice; J. Jardillier; M. K. Jones; W. Kahl; S. Kamalov; S. Kato; A. T. Katramatou; J. J. Kelly; S. Kerhoas; A. Ketikyan; M. Khayat; K. Kino; S. Kox; L. H. Kramer; K. S. Kumar; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; A. Leone; J. J. Lerose; M. Liang; R. A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G. J. Lolos; R. W. Lourie; R. Madey; K. Maeda; S. Malov; D. M. Manley; C. Marchand; D. Marchand; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; J. Marroncle; J. Martino; K. McCormick; J. McIntyre; S. Mehrabyan; F. Merchez; Z. E. Meziani; R. Michaels; G. W. Miller; J. Y. Mougey; S. K. Nanda; D. Neyret; E. A. J. M. Offermann; Z. Papandreou; C. F. Perdrisat; R. Perrino; G. G. Petratos; S. Platchkov; R. Pomatsalyuk; D. L. Prout; V. A. Punjabi; T. Pussieux; G. Quémenér; R. D. Ransome; O. Ravel; J. S. Real; F. Renard; Y. Roblin; D. Rowntree; G. Rutledge; P. M. Rutt; A. Saha; T. Saito; A. J. Sarty; A. Serdarevic; T. Smith; G. Smirnov; K. Soldi; P. Sorokin; P. A. Souder; R. Suleiman; J. A. Templon; T. Terasawa; L. Tiator; R. Tieulent; E. Tomasi-Gustaffson; H. Tsubota; H. Ueno; P. E. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; R. Van de Vyver; P. Vernin; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; E. Voutier; J. W. Watson; L. B. Weinstein; K. Wijesooriya; R. Wilson; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; D. G. Zainea; W.-M. Zhang; J. Zhao; Z.-L. Zhou; Dan Zainea; Wei-Ming Zhang; Jie Zhao

    2009-01-01

    We have made the first measurements of the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) process via the H(e, e'p)gamma exclusive reaction in the nucleon resonance region, at backward angles. Results are presented for the W-dependence at fixed Q2=1GeV2 and for the Q2 dependence at fixed W near 1.5 GeV. The VCS data show resonant structures in the first and second resonance regions.

  17. Evidence for a narrow N{sup *}(1685) resonance in quasifree Compton scattering on the neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V. [Kyungpook National University, 702-701 Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Nuclear Research, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Polyakov, M. V. [Institute fuer Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188300, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bellini, V.; Giusa, A.; Mammoliti, F.; Randieri, C.; Russo, G.; Sperduto, M. L. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Boiko, T. [Belarussian State University, 220030 Minsk, Republic of Belarus (Belarus); Chebotaryov, S.; Dho, H.-S.; Kim, W.; Milman, E.; Ni, A. [Kyungpook National University, 702-701 Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Gervino, G. [Dipartamento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, via P. Giuria, I-00125 Torino (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Ghio, F. [INFN--Sezione di Roma, piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Instituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Kim, A. [Kyungpook National University, 702-701 Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Jefferson Avenue, 23606 Virginia (United States); Perevalova, I. A.; Vall, A. N. [Physics Department, Irkutsk State University, Karl Marx str. 1, 664003 Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Sutera, C. M. [INFN--Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    The study of quasifree Compton scattering on the neutron in the energy range of E{sub {gamma}}=0.75-1.5 GeV is presented. The data reveal a narrow peak at W{approx}1.685 GeV. This result, being considered in conjunction with the recent evidence for a narrow structure at W{approx}1.68 GeV in {eta} photoproduction on the neutron, suggests the existence of a nucleon resonance with unusual properties: a mass M{approx}1.685 GeV, a narrow width {Gamma}{<=}30 MeV, and the much stronger photoexcitation on the neutron than on the proton.

  18. Correction of radiation absorption on biological samples using Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Marcelo O.; Conti, Claudio de Carvalho; dos Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to correct the absorbed radiation (the mass attenuation coefficient curve) in low energy (E < 30 keV) applied to a biological matrix based on the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio and the effective atomic number. For calibration, scattering measurements were performed on standard samples of radiation produced by a gamma-ray source of 241Am (59.54 keV) also applied to certified biological samples of milk powder, hay powder and bovine liver (NIST 1557B). In addition, six methods of effective atomic number determination were used as described in literature to determinate the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C), in order to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the transmission method. The experimental results were in good agreement with transmission values suggesting that the method to correct radiation absorption presented in this paper is adequate for biological samples.

  19. An Inverse Compton Scattering Radiation Source via Self-Guiding in a Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder, R. B. [Dept. of Physics, Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY 10471 (United States); Rosenzweig, J. B. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2006-11-27

    In an inverse-Compton scattering source, in which a relativistic electron beam collides with a high-power laser pulse, the x-ray flux produced is proportional to the brightness of the two beams and the size of their overlap region in three-dimensional space. In vacuum, this overlap is limited by the diffraction of the two beams, but the diffraction limit can be overcome by confining both beams in a plasma guiding channel. A dense, bunched electron beam injected into an underdense plasma will self-guide via 'blowout', in which the beam head creates a focusing ion channel through which the body of the beam is guided; this same channel can also guides a counterpropagating laser beam. Constraints include the need for long laser wavelength (1 to 10 {mu}m) and high beam densities. We present a possible configuration for a gamma-ray source using 180 degree sign Compton scattering in a uniform plasma, including 2D simulation results. Estimated photon yields are up to a factor of 5 larger than in vacuum scattering, with production of nearly 1010 photons per nanocoulomb of electron beam charge.

  20. Non-forward and unequal mass virtual Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhang

    1998-08-01

    We discuss the general operator product expansion of a non-forward unequal mass virtual Compton scattering amplitude. We find that the expansion now should be done in double moments with new moment variables. There are in the expansion new sets of leading twist operators which have overall derivatives, and they mix under renormalization. We compute the evolution kernels from which the anomalous dimensions for these operators can be extracted. We also obtain the lowest order Wilson coefficients. In the high-energy limit we find the explicit form of the dominant contributing anomalous dimensions and solve the resulting renormalization group equation. We find the same high-energy behavior as indicated by the conventional double leading logarithmic analysis.

  1. Longitudinal Target-Spin Asymmetries for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A; Pisano, S; Niccolai, S; Smith, G D.; Joo, K; Adhikari, K; Amaryan, M J.; Anderson, M D.; Anefalos Pereira, S; et al

    2015-01-01

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for ep-->e'p'y events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2, xB, t and phi, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axial charge ofmore »the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. These results also bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.« less

  2. Polarizability relations across real and virtual Compton scattering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We derive two relations involving spin polarizabilities of a spin-1 /2 particle and consider their empirical implications for the proton. Using the empirical values of the proton anomalous magnetic moment, electric and magnetic charge radii, moments of the spin structure functions g1 , g2, and of two spin polarizabilities, the present relations constrain the low-momentum behavior of generalized polarizabilities appearing in virtual Compton scattering. In the case of the proton, the dispersive model evaluations of the spin and generalized polarizabilities appear to be consistent with these relations. The ongoing measurements of different electromagnetic observables at the MAMI, Jefferson Lab, and HI ? S facilities may be able to put these relations to a test, or use them to unravel the low-energy spin structure of the nucleon.

  3. Deeply virtual Compton scattering from gauge/gravity duality

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Miguel S.; Djuric, Marko [University of Porto (Portugal)

    2013-04-15

    We use gauge/gravity duality to study deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) in the limit of high center of mass energy at fixed momentum transfer, corresponding to the limit of low Bjorken x, where the process is dominated by the exchange of the pomeron. At strong coupling, the pomeron is described as the graviton Regge trajectory in AdS space, with a hard wall to mimic confinement effects. This model agrees with HERA data in a large kinematical range. The behavior of the DVCS cross section for very high energies, inside saturation, can be explained by a simple AdS black disk model. In a restricted kinematical window, this model agrees with HERA data as well.

  4. Real Compton Scattering on Proton at High Momentum Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    A. Danagoulian; D.J. Hamilton; C.E. Hyde-Wright; V.H. Mamyan; A.M. Nathan; M. Roedelbronn; B. Wojtsekhowski

    2005-06-01

    The E99-114 experiment was carried out to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering (RCS) on the proton in the kinematic range s = 5-11 GeV{sup 2}, -t = 2-7 GeV{sup 2}. In addition, a measurement of longitudinal and transverse polarization transfers was made at s = 6.9 GeV{sup 2} and -t = 4.0 GeV{sup 2}. These measurements were done to test the existing theoretical mechanisms for this process and will possibly lead to the determination of RCS form factors which are related to the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD). The experiment was conducted in Hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). Final results of polarization transfer measurements are presented.

  5. Resumming soft and collinear contributions in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    E-print Network

    T. Altinoluk; B. Pire; L. Szymanowski; S. Wallon

    2012-07-19

    We calculate the quark coefficient function Tq(x,xi) that enters the factorized amplitude for deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) at all order in a soft and collinear gluon approximation, focusing on the leading double logarithmic behavior in x +/- xi, where x +/- xi is the light cone momentum fraction of the incoming/outgoing quarks. We show that the dominant part of the known one loop result can be understood in an axial gauge as the result of a semi-eikonal approximation to the box diagram. We then derive an all order result for the leading contribution of the ladder diagrams and deduce a resummation formula valid in the vicinity of the boundaries of the regions defining the energy flows of the incoming/outcoming quarks, i.e. x = +/- xi. The resummed series results in a simple closed expression.

  6. Longitudinal Target-Spin Asymmetries for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A; Pisano, S; Niccolai, S; Smith, G D.; Joo, K; Adhikari, K; Amaryan, M J.; Anderson, M D.; Anefalos Pereira, S; Avakian, H; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Bono, J; Boiarinov, S; Bosted, P; Briscoe, W; Brock, J; Brooks, W K.; Bueltmann, S; Burkert, V D.; Carman, D S.; Carlin, C; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L.; Contalbrigo, M; Crabb, D; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Filippi, A; Fleming, J A.; Fradi, A; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Giovanetti, K L.; Girod, F X.; Goetz, J T.; Gohn, W; Gothe, R W.; Griffioen, K A.; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Hirlinger Saylor, N; Holtrop, M; Hughes, S M.; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G.; Ishkhanov, B S.; Isupov, E L.; Jo, H S.; Joosten, S; Keith, C D.; Keller, D; Khachatryan, G; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J.; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E.; Lenisa, P; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y.; MacGregor, I J.D.; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Meekins, D G.; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R; Moody, C I.; Moutarde, H; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I.; Paolone, M; Pappalardo, L L.; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Peng, P; Phelps, W; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W.; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J.R.; Ripani, M; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A.; Senderovich, I; Simonyan, A; Skorodumina, I; Sokhan, D; Sparveris, N; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I.; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Tian, Y; Ungaro, M; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K.; Watts, D P.; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B.; Wood, M H.; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zonta, I

    2015-01-01

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for ep-->e'p'y events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2, xB, t and phi, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axial charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. These results also bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.

  7. Results on Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at Jefferson Lab

    E-print Network

    F. Sabatie

    2006-12-21

    After about 10 years of growing interest for Generalized Parton Distributions come the first results from dedicated experiments, using the golden Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering process. After a short introduction, we will explain the experimental methodology andshow results of the Hall A E00-110 experiment, which aimed at measuring helicity-dependent photon electroproduction cross sections. We will enphasize how this experiment provided the first stringent tests of the scaling property of this process, allowing for the first time a model-independent extraction of a linear combination of Generalized Parton Distributions. We will also describe the Hall B E01-113 experiment which measured the photon electroproduction beam spin asymmetry over a wide kinematical range. The summary will include an outlook on the next generation of experiments which are already planned at Jefferson Lab at 6 GeV, but also after the planned 12 GeV upgrade.

  8. Observation of redshifting and harmonic radiation in inverse Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Y.; Pogorelsky, I.; Williams, O.; O'Shea, F.; Barber, S.; Gadjev, I.; Duris, J.; Musumeci, P.; Fedurin, M.; Korostyshevsky, A.; Malone, B.; Swinson, C.; Stenby, G.; Kusche, K.; Babzien, M.; Montemagno, M.; Jacob, P.; Zhong, Z.; Polyanskiy, M.; Yakimenko, V.; Rosenzweig, J.

    2015-06-01

    Inverse Compton scattering of laser photons by ultrarelativistic electron beam provides polarized x- to ? -ray pulses due to the Doppler blueshifting. Nonlinear electrodynamics in the relativistically intense linearly polarized laser field changes the radiation kinetics established during the Compton interaction. These are due to the induced figure-8 motion, which introduces an overall redshift in the radiation spectrum, with the concomitant emission of higher order harmonics. To experimentally analyze the strong field physics associated with the nonlinear electron-laser interaction, clear modifications to the angular and wavelength distributions of x rays are observed. The relativistic photon wave field is provided by the ps CO2 laser of peak normalized vector potential of 0.5 scattered by 65 MeV electron beam of 0.3 nC, at the interaction point is measured to be approximately 109 .

  9. Development of Gamma-Ray Compton Imager Using Room-Temperature 3-D Position Sensitive Semiconductor Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong He; David Whe; Glenn Knoll

    2003-05-14

    During the three years of this project, two 3-dimensional position sensitive CdZnTe spectrometers were upgraded in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. A prototype Compton-scattering gamma-ray imager was assembled using the two upgraded CdZnTe detectors. The performance of both gamma-ray spectrometers were individually tested. The angular resolution and detection sensitivity of the imaging system were measured using both a point and a line-shaped 137 Cs radiation source. The measurement results are consistent with that obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations performed during the early phase of the project.

  10. Determination of the forward Compton scattering amplitudes for C and Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppman, A.; Bianchi, N.; de Sanctis, E.; Mirazita, M.; Muccifora, V.; Rossi, P.

    1998-11-01

    The forward Compton scattering amplitude for carbon and lead have been calculated from total photoabsorption cross section data by using dispersion relations. The results show a large difference between the scattering amplitudes for nuclei and the free nucleon, above the $\\Delta $ region. The forward Compton scattering cross sections have been calculated and compared with the available data. The Weise sum rule is discussed together with the prediction of a recent theoretical model.

  11. Nucleon Polarizabilities from Deuteron Compton Scattering within a Green's-Function Hybrid Approach

    E-print Network

    Robert P. Hildebrandt; Harald W. Griesshammer; Thomas R. Hemmert

    2010-08-09

    We examine elastic Compton scattering from the deuteron for photon energies ranging from zero to 100 MeV, using state-of-the-art deuteron wave functions and NN-potentials. Nucleon-nucleon rescattering between emission and absorption of the two photons is treated by Green's functions in order to ensure gauge invariance and the correct Thomson limit. With this Green's-function hybrid approach, we fulfill the low-energy theorem of deuteron Compton scattering and there is no significant dependence on the deuteron wave function used. Concerning the nucleon structure, we use Chiral Effective Field Theory with explicit \\Delta(1232) degrees of freedom within the Small Scale Expansion up to leading-one-loop order. Agreement with available data is good at all energies. Our 2-parameter fit to all elastic $\\gamma d$ data leads to values for the static isoscalar dipole polarizabilities which are in excellent agreement with the isoscalar Baldin sum rule. Taking this value as additional input, we find \\alpha_E^s= (11.3+-0.7(stat)+-0.6(Baldin)) x 10^{-4} fm^3 and \\beta_M^s = (3.2-+0.7(stat)+-0.6(Baldin)) x 10^{-4} fm^3 and conclude by comparison to the proton numbers that neutron and proton polarizabilities are essentially the same.

  12. Optimizing a three-stage Compton camera for measuring prompt gamma rays emitted during proton radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, S W; Robertson, D; Polf, J

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the use of a three-stage Compton camera to measure secondary prompt gamma rays emitted from patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was (1) to develop an optimal three-stage Compton camera specifically designed to measure prompt gamma rays emitted from tissue and (2) to determine the feasibility of using this optimized Compton camera design to measure and image prompt gamma rays emitted during proton beam irradiation. The three-stage Compton camera was modeled in Geant4 as three high-purity germanium detector stages arranged in parallel-plane geometry. Initially, an isotropic gamma source ranging from 0 to 15 MeV was used to determine lateral width and thickness of the detector stages that provided the optimal detection efficiency. Then, the gamma source was replaced by a proton beam irradiating a tissue phantom to calculate the overall efficiency of the optimized camera for detecting emitted prompt gammas. The overall calculated efficiencies varied from ~10?6 to 10?3 prompt gammas detected per proton incident on the tissue phantom for several variations of the optimal camera design studied. Based on the overall efficiency results, we believe it feasible that a three-stage Compton camera could detect a sufficient number of prompt gammas to allow measurement and imaging of prompt gamma emission during proton radiotherapy. PMID:21048295

  13. High repetition-rate inverse Compton scattering x-ray source driven by a free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsten, B. E.; Krawczyk, F. L.; Lewellen, J. W.; Marksteiner, Q. R.; Nguyen, D. C.; Yampolsky, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe a hybrid free-electron laser (FEL)/inverse Compton scattering (ICS) system that can be operated at very high repetition rates and with higher average gamma-ray fluxes than possible from ICS systems driven by J/kHz laser systems. Also, since the FEL system can generate 100 mJ class photon pulses at UV wavelengths, the electron beam energy can be lower than for systems driven with ˜micron wavelength lasers for attaining gamma rays of similar energy.

  14. Compton scattering imaging of a working battery using synchrotron high-energy X-rays

    PubMed Central

    Itou, Masayoshi; Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Suzuki, Kosuke; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Results of studies on Compton scattering imaging using synchrotron high-energy X-rays are reported. The technique is applied to a discharging coin cell, and the intensity of Compton scattered X-rays from the inside of the cell has been measured as a function of position and time. The position–time intensity map captures the migration of lithium ions in the positive electrode and reveals the structural change due to the volume expansion of the electrode. This experiment is a critical step in developing synchrotron-based Compton scattering imaging for electrochemical cells at a product level. PMID:25537603

  15. Compton Scattering from the Deuteron and Extracted Neutron Polarizabilities

    E-print Network

    M. Lundin; J. -O. Adler; M. Boland; K. Fissum; T. Glebe; K. Hansen; L. Isaksson; O. Kaltschmidt; M. Karlsson; K. Kossert; M. I. Levchuk; P. Lilja; B. Lindner; A. I. L'vov; B. Nilsson; D. E. Oner; C. Poech; S. Proff; A. Sandell; B. Schröder; M. Schumacher; D. A. Sims

    2003-06-13

    Differential cross sections for Compton scattering from the deuteron were measured at MAX-lab for incident photon energies of 55 MeV and 66 MeV at nominal laboratory angles of $45^\\circ$, $125^\\circ$, and $135^\\circ$. Tagged photons were scattered from liquid deuterium and detected in three NaI spectrometers. By comparing the data with theoretical calculations in the framework of a one-boson-exchange potential model, the sum and difference of the isospin-averaged nucleon polarizabilities, $\\alpha_N + \\beta_N = 17.4 \\pm 3.7$ and $\\alpha_N - \\beta_N = 6.4 \\pm 2.4$ (in units of $10^{-4}$ fm$^3$), have been determined. By combining the latter with the global-averaged value for $\\alpha_p - \\beta_p$ and using the predictions of the Baldin sum rule for the sum of the nucleon polarizabilities, we have obtained values for the neutron electric and magnetic polarizabilities of $\\alpha_n= 8.8 \\pm 2.4$(total) $\\pm 3.0$(model) and $\\beta_n = 6.5 \\mp 2.4$(total) $\\mp 3.0$(model), respectively.

  16. Simplified Formulae System for Resonant Inverse Compton Scattering of a Fast Electron in an Intense Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, J. H.; Chen, W. P.; Zhang, S. N.; Chen, L.; Liu, D.; Chou, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    We present simple analytical formulae for the emission spectrum and total power of a special kind of resonant inverse Compton scattering (RICS) of a relativistic electron in an intense magnetic field. In contrast with the available formulae system, we obtain a markedly simplified one based on the semiclassical quantum theory, which is more understandable for people who are unfamiliar with quantum electrodynamics. We show that the RICS process, under an appropriate 'accommodation condition' derived in this paper, is predominantly much more efficient than the coexistent ordinary inverse Compton scattering, and produces highly beamed high-frequency radiation with moderately good monochromaticity. Our formulae are simple to use - thus offering a lucid physical intuition for the theory - and may find wide applications in hard X-ray and gamma-ray astrophysics.

  17. Compton scattering in strong magnetic fields: Spin-dependent influences at the cyclotron resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonthier, Peter L.; Baring, Matthew G.; Eiles, Matthew T.; Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Taylor, Caitlin A.; Fitch, Catherine J.

    2014-08-01

    The quantum electrodynamical (QED) process of Compton scattering in strong magnetic fields is commonly invoked in atmospheric and inner magnetospheric models of x-ray and soft gamma-ray emission in high-field pulsars and magnetars. A major influence of the field is to introduce resonances at the cyclotron frequency and its harmonics, where the incoming photon accesses thresholds for the creation of virtual electrons or positrons in intermediate states with excited Landau levels. At these resonances, the effective cross section typically exceeds the classical Thomson value by over 2 orders of magnitude. Near and above the quantum critical magnetic field of 44.13 TeraGauss, relativistic corrections must be incorporated when computing this cross section. This profound enhancement underpins the anticipation that resonant Compton scattering is a very efficient process in the environs of highly magnetized neutron stars. This paper presents formalism for the QED magnetic Compton differential cross section valid for both subcritical and supercritical fields, yet restricted to scattered photons that are below pair creation threshold. Calculations are developed for the particular case of photons initially propagating along the field, and in the limit of zero vacuum dispersion, mathematically simple specializations that are germane to interactions involving relativistic electrons frequently found in neutron star magnetospheres. This exposition of relativistic, quantum, magnetic Compton cross sections treats electron spin dependence fully, since this is a critical feature for describing the finite decay lifetimes of the intermediate states. Such lifetimes are introduced to truncate the resonant cyclotronic divergences via standard Lorentz profiles. The formalism employs both the traditional Johnson and Lippmann (JL) wave functions and the Sokolov and Ternov (ST) electron eigenfunctions of the magnetic Dirac equation. The ST states are formally correct for self-consistently treating spin-dependent effects that are so important in the resonances. It is found that the values of the polarization-dependent differential cross section depend significantly on the choice of ST or JL eigenstates when in the fundamental resonance but not outside of it, a characteristic that is naturally expected. Relatively compact analytic forms for the cross sections are presented that will prove useful for astrophysical modelers.

  18. A performance study of an electron-tracking Compton camera with a compact system for environmental gamma-ray observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, T.; Tomono, D.; Takada, A.; Tanimori, T.; Komura, S.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, Y.; Mizumura, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, S.; Oda, M.; Parker, J. D.; Sawano, T.; Bando, N.; Nabetani, A.

    2015-06-01

    An electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) is a detector that can determine the arrival direction and energy of incident sub-MeV/MeV gamma-ray events on an event-by-event basis. It is a hybrid detector consisting of a gaseous time projection chamber (TPC), that is the Compton-scattering target and the tracker of recoil electrons, and a position-sensitive scintillation camera that absorbs of the scattered gamma rays, to measure gamma rays in the environment from contaminated soil. To measure of environmental gamma rays from soil contaminated with radioactive cesium (Cs), we developed a portable battery-powered ETCC system with a compact readout circuit and data-acquisition system for the SMILE-II experiment [1,2]. We checked the gamma-ray imaging ability and ETCC performance in the laboratory by using several gamma-ray point sources. The performance test indicates that the field of view (FoV) of the detector is about 1 sr and that the detection efficiency and angular resolution for 662 keV gamma rays from the center of the FoV is (9.31 ± 0.95) × 10?5 and 5.9° ± 0.6°, respectively. Furthermore, the ETCC can detect 0.15 ?Sv/h from a 137Cs gamma-ray source with a significance of 5? in 13 min in the laboratory. In this paper, we report the specifications of the ETCC and the results of the performance tests. Furthermore, we discuss its potential use for environmental gamma-ray measurements.

  19. Inverse Compton scattering on solar photons, heliospheric modulation, and neutrino astrophysics

    E-print Network

    Igor V. Moskalenko; Troy A. Porter; Seth W. Digel

    2007-07-24

    We study the inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by Galactic cosmic-ray electrons. We show that the gamma-ray emission from this process is substantial with the maximum flux in the direction of the Sun; the angular distribution of the emission is broad. This previously-neglected foreground should be taken into account in studies of the diffuse Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray emission. Furthermore, observations by GLAST can be used to monitor the heliosphere and determine the electron spectrum as a function of position from distances as large as Saturn's orbit to close proximity of the Sun, thus enabling unique studies of solar modulation. This paves the way for the determination of other Galactic cosmic-ray species, primarily protons, near the solar surface which will lead to accurate predictions of gamma rays from pp-interactions in the solar atmosphere. These albedo gamma rays will be observable by GLAST, allowing the study of deep atmospheric layers, magnetic field(s), and cosmic-ray cascade development. The latter is necessary to calculate the neutrino flux from pp-interactions at higher energies (>1 TeV). Although this flux is small, it is a "guaranteed flux" in contrast to other astrophysical sources of neutrinos, and may be detectable by km^3 neutrino telescopes of the near future, such as IceCube. Since the solar core is opaque for very high-energy neutrinos, directly studying the mass distribution of the solar core may thus be possible.

  20. Preliminary characteristics of a germanium-based, Compton-scatter telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.; Weisenberger, A.G.; McKisson, J.E.; Girit, C.

    1989-02-01

    The authors have configured a gamma-ray Compton-scatter telescope from five coaxial germanium detectors in order to evaluate the potential performance of germanium detectors in such devices. Due to their excellent energy resolution, (0.2% is obtainable at 1.332 MeV), properly configured, germanium detectors can produce the best combination of energy and position resolution of any commonly available detector material. Their high cost, moderate timing characteristics, sensitivity to noise and the requirement for cooling have limited the interest in such detectors in the past, but in many applications they may provide capabilities that cannot be obtained with other detector materials. The authors present the results of a preliminary measurement including energy, position and timing resolution. The problem of image reconstruction is considered in detail. Design constraints which can affect the overall performance of the telescope are also discussed.

  1. Scaling Tests of the Cross Section for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, C. Munoz; Beaumel, M.; Garcon, M.; Guichon, P. A. M.; Sabatie, F. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Camsonne, A.; Ferdi, C.; Brossard, M.; Fieschi, J.-M.; Laveissiere, G.; Michel, B. [Universite Blaise Pascal/CNRS-IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Mazouz, M.; Guillon, B.; Real, J.-S.; Voutier, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, 38026 Grenoble (France); Gavalian, G.; Amarian, M.; Hayes, D.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ibrahim, H. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-12-31

    We present the first measurements of the e(vector sign)p{yields}ep{gamma} cross section in the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) regime and the valence quark region. The Q{sup 2} dependence (from 1.5 to 2.3 GeV{sup 2}) of the helicity-dependent cross section indicates the twist-2 dominance of DVCS, proving that generalized parton distributions (GPDs) are accessible to experiment at moderate Q{sup 2}. The helicity-independent cross section is also measured at Q{sup 2}=2.3 GeV{sup 2}. We present the first model-independent measurement of linear combinations of GPDs and GPD integrals up to the twist-3 approximation.

  2. High-Resolution Compton Scattering Using High-Energy Synchrotron Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Shastri; P. B. Fernandez; D. R. Haeffner; D. M. Mills

    1997-01-01

    Third-generation synchrotron radiation sources, such as the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source, provide intense beams of high-energy x rays (> 50 keV). The availability of such high-energy photons benefits numerous classes of experiments, one of which is Compton scattering determination of electron momentum distributions in matter. We present our efforts to perform high-resolution Compton scattering studies by combining a brilliant synchrotron

  3. Compton scattering off massive fundamental bosons of pure spin 1

    E-print Network

    E. G. Delgado-Acosta; M. Kirchbach; M. Napsuciale; S. Rodríguez

    2013-05-16

    Relativistic particles with spins $J>0$ are described by means of multicomponent wave functions which transform covariantly according to Lorentz-group representations that contain at rest the spin of interest. The symmetry group of space-time provides not one but an infinity of such representations which are equivalent for free particles but yield different electromagnetic couplings upon gauging; thus the challenge is to develop criteria which allow us to select those of them which relate to physically detectable particles. We here take the position that the unitarity of the Compton scattering cross sections in the ultrarelativistic limit, when predicted by a consistent method for a spin-$1$ description, could provide such a criterion. We analyze the properties of massive fundamental spin-$1$ bosons transforming as antisymmetric tensors of second rank, $(1,0)\\oplus(0,1)$. For this purpose, we employ the Poincar\\'e covariant projector method, which provides consistent, causal, and representation specific Lagrangians. This formalism yields a twofold extension of the Proca Lagrangian for the description of spin-$1$ bosons, first from an in-built $g=1$ value of the gyromagnetic ratio to an unspecified $g\

  4. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at eRHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Salvatore; Mueller, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    The feasibility for a measurement of the exclusive production of a real photon, a process although known as Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), using the future eRHIC machine at BNL has been explored. eRHIC is a machine designed to collide an electron beam with energies ranging from 5 GeV up to 30 GeV with the RHIC hadron beams (protons (100 -250 GeV) and nuclei (<= 100 GeV)) at varying center-of-mass energies. DVCS is universally believed to be a golden measurement toward the determination of the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPDs) functions. The high luminosity of the machine, expected in the order of 10^34cm-2s-1 at the highest center-of-mass energies, together with the large rapidity acceptance of a newly designed dedicated detector, will open the opportunity for very high precision measurements of DVCS, providing an important tool toward a 2+1 dimensional picture of the internal structure of the proton. The huge impact such measurements would have on the determination of GPDs will be discussed.

  5. Deeply virtual Compton Scattering cross section measured with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Guegan, Baptistse [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay

    2014-09-01

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new description of nucleon structure in terms of its elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Including and extending the information provided by the form factors and the parton distribution functions, they describe the correlation between the transverse position and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the partons in the nucleon. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction of a real photon on a single quark in the nucleon eN --> e'N'g, is the exclusive process most directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has been carried out using a 5.9-GeV polarized electron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target, allowing us to collect DVCS events in the widest kinematic range ever explored in the valence region : 1.0 < Q2 < 4.6 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.58 and 0.09 < -t < 2.0 GeV2. In this paper, we show preliminary results of unpolarized cross sections and of polarized cross section differences for the DVCS channel.

  6. Initial State Helicity Correlation in Wide Angle Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Donal; Keller, Dustin; Zhang, Jixie

    2015-04-01

    Whether pQCD can describe exclusive reactions at medium energies remains an area of active study. Real Compton scattering (RCS) has the potential to provide insight to this unsettled issue. A pQCD description of RCS requires the participation of three quarks and two hard gluons. However its predictions for the RCS cross sections disagree with data while calculations based on the handbag mechanism, involving a single quark coupled to the spectator through generalized parton distributions (GPDs), match the data well. The measured longitudinal polarization transfer parameter KLL is inconsistent with predictions of pQCD yet consistent with calculations of the handbag mechanism. Furthermore, Miller's approach, which includes quark and hadron helicity flip, contradicts pQCD where KLL =ALL , the initial state helicity correlation asymmetry, by finding that KLL ?ALL . The first ever measurement of ALL (E12-14-006) has been approved to run in Jefferson Lab's Hall C and will be able to discriminate between the various models. E12-14-006 will utilize an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the longitudinally polarized UVA/JLAB proton target. After a brief introduction to the physics, the experiment will be described and the expected results presented.

  7. Virtual Compton Scattering and the Generalized Polarizabilities of the Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde-Wright, Charles E.

    2002-10-01

    The Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) process: e p arrow e p ? is sensitive to the Electromagnetic Polarizabilities of the proton. As a function of the wavelength of the virtual photon, it is possible to map out the spatial variation of the polarization response. The Low Energy Theorem (P. Guichon et al.,Nucl.Phys.A591:606-638,1995) and the Dispersion Relation formalism (B. Pasquini et al., Eur.Phys.J.A11:185-208,2001), permit the extraction of the electric and magnetic polarizabilities from VCS data up to the two pion production threshold. At Jefferson Lab, we have measured the electric and magnetic polarization response at Q^2 = 1 and 1.7 GeV^2. These complement earlier measurements at Q^2 = 0.33 (J. Roche, et al., Phys.Rev.Lett.85:708,2000) and 0.0 GeV^2 (V. Olmos de Leon, et al., Eur.Phys.J.A10:207-215,2001, B.E. MacGibbon, et al., Phys.Rev.C52:2097-2109,1995). The electric polarization and magnetic responses are very different as a function of distance scale. The electric polarizability falls with Q^2 in accord with the electric form factor of the proton: G_E(Q^2). However, for the magnetic polarizability the data illustrate the strong cancellation of para- and dia-magnetism at all distance scales within the proton.

  8. Compton scattering on the proton, neutron, and deuteron in chiral perturbation theory to O(Q^4)

    E-print Network

    S. R. Beane; M. Malheiro; J. A. McGovern; D. R. Phillips; U. van Kolck

    2004-07-30

    We study Compton scattering in systems with A=1 and 2 using chiral perturbation theory up to fourth order. For the proton we fit the two undetermined parameters in the O(Q^4) $\\gamma$p amplitude of McGovern to experimental data in the region $\\omega,\\sqrt{|t|} \\leq 180$ MeV, obtaining a chi^2/d.o.f. of 133/113. This yields a model-independent extraction of proton polarizabilities based solely on low-energy data: alpha_p=12.1 +/- 1.1 (stat.) +/- 0.5 (theory) and beta_p=3.4 +/- 1.1 (stat.) +/- 0.1 (theory), both in units of 10^{-4} fm^3. We also compute Compton scattering on deuterium to O(Q^4). The $\\gamma$d amplitude is a sum of one- and two-nucleon mechanisms, and contains two undetermined parameters, which are related to the isoscalar nucleon polarizabilities. We fit data points from three recent $\\gamma$d scattering experiments with a chi^2/d.o.f.=26.6/20, and find alpha_N=13.0 +/- 1.9 (stat.) +3.9/-1.5 (theory) and a beta_N that is consistent with zero within sizeable error bars.

  9. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: highlights from the first three years of the mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gehrels; C. Shrader; D. A. Kniffen

    1995-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray observatory is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. It has been in operation for over three years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments continue to function nearly flawlessly, and many significant discoveries have been made. The authors describe the capabilities of

  10. Thick silicon strip detector Compton imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Wulf; Bernard F. Phlips; W. Neil Johnson; James D. Kurfess; Elena I. Novikova

    2004-01-01

    We present results obtained with double-sided, thick (2 mm) silicon strip detectors used as a Compton imager. Reconstructed images and spectra from 137Cs and 60Co gamma-ray sources have been produced at room temperature using the multiple Compton technique. Multiple Compton interactions allow the energy and Compton scattering angle to be reconstructed without having to absorb the energy of the incident

  11. Nonresonance Compton scattering of an X-ray photon by a Ni-like atomic ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khopersky, A. N.; Nadolinsky, A. M.; Ikoeva, K. Kh.; Khoroshavina, O. A.; Kasprzhitskii, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    The absolute values and the shape of the double differential cross section for nonresonance Compton scattering of an X-ray photon by an atomic ion with d symmetry in the core are studied theoretically beyond the impulse approximation for the example of the Ni-like atomic ions Zn2+, Kr8+, and Mo14+. It is established that, as the nuclear charge of an ion increases, (a) in all the scattering channels, the leading harmonics of transition to states of the continuous spectrum are concentrated and (b) the integral intensities of nonresonance Compton scattering are increasingly redistributed to the energy region of resonance Lands-berg-Mandelstam-Raman scattering between the threshold of termination of the Compton profile and the line of elastic (Thomson and Rayleigh) scattering. The calculated results are predictive in character.

  12. Model-Based Detection of Radioactive Contraband for Harbor Defense Incorporating Compton Scattering Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; Chambers, D H; Breitfeller, E F; Guidry, B L; Verbeke, J M; Axelrod, M A; Sale, K E; Meyer, A M

    2010-03-02

    The detection of radioactive contraband is a critical problem is maintaining national security for any country. Photon emissions from threat materials challenge both detection and measurement technologies especially when concealed by various types of shielding complicating the transport physics significantly. This problem becomes especially important when ships are intercepted by U.S. Coast Guard harbor patrols searching for contraband. The development of a sequential model-based processor that captures both the underlying transport physics of gamma-ray emissions including Compton scattering and the measurement of photon energies offers a physics-based approach to attack this challenging problem. The inclusion of a basic radionuclide representation of absorbed/scattered photons at a given energy along with interarrival times is used to extract the physics information available from the noisy measurements portable radiation detection systems used to interdict contraband. It is shown that this physics representation can incorporated scattering physics leading to an 'extended' model-based structure that can be used to develop an effective sequential detection technique. The resulting model-based processor is shown to perform quite well based on data obtained from a controlled experiment.

  13. Image Artifacts Resulting from Gamma-Ray Tracking Algorithms Used with Compton Imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Carolyn E.; He, Zhong

    2005-10-01

    For Compton imaging it is necessary to determine the sequence of gamma-ray interactions in a single detector or array of detectors. This can be done by time-of-flight measurements if the interactions are sufficiently far apart. However, in small detectors the time between interactions can be too small to measure, and other means of gamma-ray sequencing must be used. In this work, several popular sequencing algorithms are reviewed for sequences with two observed events and three or more observed events in the detector. These algorithms can result in poor imaging resolution and introduce artifacts in the backprojection images. The effects of gamma-ray tracking algorithms on Compton imaging are explored in the context of the 4? Compton imager built by the University of Michigan.

  14. Test of Compton camera components for prompt gamma imaging at the ELBE bremsstrahlung beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, F.; Golnik, C.; Berthel, M.; Dreyer, A.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Kormoll, T.; Rohling, H.; Schöne, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Pausch, G.

    2014-05-01

    In the context of ion beam therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density map, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At OncoRay and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), a Compton camera setup is being developed consisting of two scatter planes: two CdZnTe (CZT) cross strip detectors, and an absorber consisting of one Lu2SiO5 (LSO) block detector. The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT framework. The setup has been tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which is used in this experiment to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons with up to 12.5 MeV energy and a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Their spectrum has similarities with the shape expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical environment, and the flux is also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The charge sharing effect of the CZT detector is studied qualitatively for different energy ranges. The LSO detector pixel discrimination resolution is analyzed and it shows a trend to improve for high energy depositions. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured detector signals, to be used for background suppression, exhibits a time resolution of 3 ns FWHM for the CZT detector and of 2 ns for the LSO detector. A time walk correction and pixel-wise calibration is applied for the LSO detector, whose resolution improves up to 630 ps. In conclusion, the detector setup is suitable for time-resolved background suppression in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the quantitative comparison with simulations and the test of imaging algorithms. Experiments at proton accelerators have also been performed and are currently under analysis.

  15. Virtual Compton scattering and neutral pion electroproduction in the resonance region up to the deep inelastic region at backward angles

    SciTech Connect

    Laveissiere, G.; Jaminion, S.; Salvo, R. Di; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P. Y.; Breton, V.; Fonvieille, H.; Grenier, P.; Ravel, O.; Roblin, Y.; Smirnov, G. [LPC-Clermont, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Degrande, N.; Hoorebeke, L. van; Vyver, R. van de [University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Jutier, C.; Hyde, C. E. [LPC-Clermont, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); Todor, L.; Dodge, G. E.; McCormick, K.; Ulmer, P. E. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)] (and others)

    2009-01-15

    We have made the first measurements of the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) process via the H(e, e{sup '}p){gamma} exclusive reaction in the nucleon resonance region, at backward angles. Results are presented for the W-dependence at fixed Q{sup 2}=1 GeV{sup 2} and for the Q{sup 2} dependence at fixed W near 1.5 GeV. The VCS data show resonant structures in the first and second resonance regions. The observed Q{sup 2} dependence is smooth. The measured ratio of H(e, e{sup '}p){gamma} to H(e, e{sup '}p){pi}{sup 0} cross sections emphasizes the different sensitivity of these two reactions to the various nucleon resonances. Finally, when compared to real Compton scattering (RCS) at high energy and large angles, our VCS data at the highest W (1.8-1.9 GeV) show a striking Q{sup 2} independence, which may suggest a transition to a perturbative scattering mechanism at the quark level.

  16. Virtual Compton Scattering and Neutral Pion Electroproduction in the Resonance Region up to the Deep Inelastic Region at Backward Angles

    E-print Network

    G. Laveissière; for the Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2008-11-24

    We have made the first measurements of the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) process via the H$(e,e'p)\\gamma$ exclusive reaction in the nucleon resonance region, at backward angles. Results are presented for the $W$-dependence at fixed $Q^2=1$ GeV$^2$, and for the $Q^2$-dependence at fixed $W$ near 1.5 GeV. The VCS data show resonant structures in the first and second resonance regions. The observed $Q^2$-dependence is smooth. The measured ratio of H$(e,e'p)\\gamma$ to H$(e,e'p)\\pi^0$ cross sections emphasizes the different sensitivity of these two reactions to the various nucleon resonances. Finally, when compared to Real Compton Scattering (RCS) at high energy and large angles, our VCS data at the highest $W$ (1.8-1.9 GeV) show a striking $Q^2$- independence, which may suggest a transition to a perturbative scattering mechanism at the quark level.

  17. High resolution CdTe detectors for the next-generation multi-Compton gamma-ray telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadayuki Takahashi; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Tuneyoshi Kamae; Hiroyasu Tajima; Yasushi Fukazawa; Masaharu Nomachi; Motohide Kokubun

    2003-01-01

    A multi-Compton gamma-ray telescope based on high resolution semiconductor materials (Semiconductor Multi-Compton Telescope (SMCT) or Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT)) is a promising approach to achieve high sensitivity for gamma-rays with energies from several hundred keV up to several MeV. A SMCT utilizing several tens of layers of thin CdTe (Cadmium Telluride) detector is an attractive concept to obtain higher detection

  18. Observation of Diffuse Cosmic and Atmospheric Gamma Rays at Balloon Altitudes with an Electron-tracking Compton Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Atsushi; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Hironobu; Ueno, Kazuki; Hattori, Kaori; Kabuki, Shigeto; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Miuchi, Kentaro; Mizuta, Eiichi; Nagayoshi, Tsutomu; Nonaka, Naoki; Okada, Yoko; Orito, Reiko; Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru

    2011-05-01

    We observed diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays at balloon altitudes with the Sub-MeV gamma-ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment I (SMILE-I) as the first step toward a future all-sky survey with a high sensitivity. SMILE-I employed an electron-tracking Compton camera comprised of a gaseous electron tracker as a Compton-scattering target and a scintillation camera as an absorber. The balloon carrying the SMILE-I detector was launched from the Sanriku Balloon Center of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency on 2006 September 1, and the flight lasted for 6.8 hr, including level flight for 4.1 hr at an altitude of 32-35 km. During the level flight, we successfully detected 420 downward gamma rays between 100 keV and 1 MeV at zenith angles below 60°. To obtain the flux of diffuse cosmic gamma rays, we first simulated their scattering in the atmosphere using Geant4, and for gamma rays detected at an atmospheric depth of 7.0 g cm-2 we found that 50% and 21% of the gamma rays at energies of 150 keV and 1 MeV, respectively, were scattered in the atmosphere prior to reaching the detector. Moreover, by using Geant4 simulations and the QinetiQ atmospheric radiation model, we estimated that the detected events consisted of diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays (79%), secondary photons produced in the instrument through the interaction between cosmic rays and materials surrounding the detector (19%), and other particles (2%). The obtained growth curve was comparable to Ling's model, and the fluxes of diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays were consistent with the results of previous experiments. The expected detection sensitivity of a future SMILE experiment measuring gamma rays between 150 keV and 20 MeV was estimated from our SMILE-I results and was found to be 10 times better than that of other experiments at around 1 MeV.

  19. New approach to low energy virtual Compton scattering and generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Gorchtein, M. [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Virtual Compton scattering off the nucleon (VCS) is studied in the regime of low energy of the outgoing real photon. This regime allows one to directly access the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon in a VCS experiment. In the derivation of the low energy theorem for VCS that exists in the literature, the low energy limit taken for virtual initial photons does not match on that for real photons, when one approaches the initial photon's mass shell. While this problem has for a long time been attributed to the nonanalyticity of the Compton amplitude with respect to the photon virtuality, I demonstrate that it is merely due to an ill-defined low energy limit for VCS, on one hand, and to a particular way of constructing the VCS amplitude, used in the literature, on the other. I provide a uniform description of low energy Compton scattering with real and virtual photons by defining a Lorentz-covariant operator sub-basis for Compton scattering in that regime, which has six independent structures. Correspondingly, six new generalized polarizabilities are introduced in the Breit frame. These polarizabilities are defined as continuous functions of the photon virtuality and at the real photon point match onto the nucleon polarizabilities known from real Compton scattering.

  20. Calibration of the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) for the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Thompson; D. L. Bertsch; C. E. Fichtel; R. C. Hartman; R. Hofstadter; E. B. Hughes; S. D. Hunter; B. W. Hughlock; G. Kanbach; D. A. Kniffen; Y. C. Lin; J. R. Mattox; H. A. Mayer-Hasselwander; C. von Montigny; P. L. Nolan; H. I. Nel; K. Pinkau; H. Rothermel; E. J. Schneid; M. Sommer; P. Sreekumar; D. Tieger; A. H. Walker

    1993-01-01

    The calibration of the (EGRET) prior to its launch aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the continuing calibration after launch, and instrument-performance results based on calibrations and early postlaunch data, are described. Particular attention is given to the effective area, the annular resolution, and the energy resolution.

  1. Compton Imaging Algorithms for Position-Sensitive Gamma-Ray Detectors in the

    E-print Network

    He, Zhong

    Compton Imaging Algorithms for Position-Sensitive Gamma-Ray Detectors in the Presence of Motion of Doctor of Philosophy (Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences) in The University of Michigan 2013 guidance and dis- cussions on model-based image reconstructions. I am grateful for the comments

  2. Techniques and use of a tunable, laser-based, MeV-Class Compton scattering light source

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M; Semenov, V; Shverdin, M Y; Rusnak, B; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P

    2009-06-30

    A Compton scattering {gamma}-ray source, capable of producing photons with energies ranging from 0.1 MeV to 0.9 MeV has been commissioned and characterized, and then used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments. The key source parameters are the size (0.01 mm{sup 2}), horizontal and vertical divergence (6 x 10 mrad{sup 2}), duration (10 ps), spectrum and intensity (10{sup 5} photons/shot). These parameters are summarized by the peak brightness, 1.5 x 10{sup 15} photons/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/s/0.1%bandwidth, measured at 478 keV. Additional measurements of the flux as a function of the timing difference between the drive laser pulse and the relativistic photoelectron bunch, {gamma}-ray beam profile, and background evaluations are presented. These results are systematically compared to theoretical models and computer simulations. NRF measurements performed on {sup 7}Li in LiH demonstrate the potential of Compton scattering photon sources to accurately detect isotopes in situ.

  3. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: highlights from the first three years of the mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Shrader, C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray observatory is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. It has been in operation for over three years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments continue to function nearly flawlessly, and many significant discoveries have been made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and highlight some of the results from the first three years of the mission.

  4. Supernova remnants and plerions in the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory era

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ocker C. de Jager; Matthew G. Baring

    1997-01-01

    Due to observations made by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory over the last six years, it appears that a number of galactic supernova remnants may be candidates for sources of cosmic gamma-rays. These include shell-type remnants such as IC443 and ? Cygni, which have no known parent pulsars, but have significant associations with unidentified EGRET sources, and others that appear to

  5. SIMULATIONS AND STUDIES OF ELECTRON BEAM DYNAMICS UNDER COMPTON BACK-SCATTERING FOR THE COMPACT X-RAY

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    SIMULATIONS AND STUDIES OF ELECTRON BEAM DYNAMICS UNDER COMPTON BACK-SCATTERING FOR THE COMPACT X. Loulergue, SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France Abstract In this article are presented beam dynamics investiga] is a project of a compact high flux X-ray source based on the Compton scattering of laser photons

  6. A New 3He-Target Design for Compton Scattering Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalchick, S.; Gao, H.; Laskaris, G.; Weir, W.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q. J.

    2011-10-01

    The neutron spin polarizabilities describe the stiffness of the neutron spin to external electric and magnetic fields. A double-polarized elastic Compton Scattering experiment will try to determine the neutron spin polarizabilities using a new polarized 3He target and the circularly polarized ?-beam of HI ?S facility at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL). To polarize the 3He target, a newly constructed solenoid is being used which can provide a very uniform magnetic field around the target area and allows to place High Intensity Gamma Source NaI Detector Arrays (HINDA) closer to the target. The ideal target polarization is 40-60% and will be measured using the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. A prototype of the polarized 3He target is being constructed in the Medium Energy Physics Group laboratories at Duke and is currently being tested. The experiment is expected to take place in 2013 after the DFELL upgrade. I will be presenting details of the construction process, including design specifications and data from the magnetic field mapping, as well as preliminary target polarization results. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, under contract number DE-FG02-03ER41231, and by the National Science Foundation, grant number NSF-PHY-08-51813.

  7. Radon transforms on generalized Cormack's curves and a new Compton scatter tomography modality

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Radon transforms on generalized Cormack's curves and a new Compton scatter tomography modality T. T that Radon transforms defined on two remarkable families of curves in the plane are invertible and admit is invariant under geometric inversion. A derivation of the analytic inverse formula of the corresponding Radon

  8. High-Accuracy Analysis of Compton Scattering in Chiral Effective Field Theory: Status and Future

    E-print Network

    Harald W. Griesshammer; Daniel R. Phillips; Judith A. McGovern

    2013-08-19

    Theory and prospects of Compton scattering on nucleons and light nuclei below 500 MeV are outlined; cf. Refs. [1-3]. Invited contribution at the Workshop to Explore Physics Opportunities with Intense, Polarized Electron Beams with Energy up to 300 MeV, MIT, Cambridge (USA), 14th-16th March 2013.

  9. A Compton scattering based system for the examination of nuclear fuel cladding interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Yaar; A. Givon; B. Magoz; I. Orion

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a concept of a Compton scattering based system for the examination of nuclear fuel-cladding interface is presented. The geometry of the system is optimized using MCNP simulation, the performance of the optimized system are examined and a prototype laboratory system is presented.

  10. Compton scattering study of water versus ice Ih : Intra- and intermolecular structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nygård; M. Hakala; S. Manninen; A. Andrejczuk; M. Itou; Y. Sakurai; L. G. M. Pettersson; K. Hämäläinen

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen-bond geometries in water and polycrystalline ice Ih are studied using synchrotron radiation-based Compton scattering data of unprecedented statistical accuracy and consistency. By combining the experimental data with model calculations utilizing density functional theory, we show that the technique provides unique and complementary information on hydrogen bonding in water. The comparison of water and ice indicates the necessity of

  11. The results of the in-flight attitude sensor calibration for the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Davis; A. H. Eudell; L. S. Kulp; L. A. Lindrose; R. R. Harman

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was launched by the shuttle Atlantis in April 1991. This paper presents the results of the attitude sensor calibration that was performed during the early mission. The GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) performed an alignment calibration of the two fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and two fine Sun sensors (FSS's) on board Compton

  12. Observations of gamma radiation between 0.4 MeV and 7 MeV at balloon altitudes using a Compton telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, J. A.; Webber, W. R.; Friling, L. A.; Macri, J.; Hsieh, L.

    1981-09-01

    Balloon-borne measurements of the atmospheric and diffuse gamma-ray flux in the energy range 0.4-7.0 MeV with a Compton telescope, which included pulse-shape discrimination of the first scattering detector and a time-of-flight system between the first and second detector elements, are reported. Comparison of the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux to the atmospheric gamma rays indicates that 0.2-5.0 MeV is the optimum energy range for measurements made at the top of the earth's atmosphere. The measured total atmospheric gamma-ray flux between zero and 40 deg has an energy spectrum that agrees with the calculations of Ling (1975). Observations indicate that the ratio of the diffuse to atmospheric gamma ray fluxes at 3.5 g/sq cm is a maximum, about 1.0, between 0.7 and 3.0 MeV.

  13. Electromagnetic Form Factors of the Nucleon and Compton Scattering

    E-print Network

    Charles Earl Hyde-Wright; Kees de Jager

    2005-07-01

    We review the experimental and theoretical status of elastic electron scattering and elastic low-energy photon scattering (with both real and virtual photons) from the nucleon. As a consequence of new experimental facilities and new theoretical insights, these subjects are advancing with unprecedented precision. These reactions provide many important insights into the spatial distributions and correlations of quarks in the nucleon.

  14. Compton dragged gamma-ray bursts: the spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Ghisellini; Davide Lazzati; Annalisa Celotti; Martin J. Rees

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum resulting from the interaction of a fireball with ambient soft photons. These photons are assumed to be produced by the walls of a funnel in a massive star. By parametrizing the radial dependence of the funnel temperature we calculate the deceleration of the fireball self-consistently, taking into account the absorption of high energy gamma-rays arising from

  15. One- and two-photon Compton scattering in strong magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussard, R. W.; Alexander, S. B.; Meszaros, P.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations are made of the Compton scattering cross section in a very strong magnetic field, such as encountered in pulsars, for arbitrary photon and electron energies. The effect of the vacuum polarization in the weak-field limit is included as well as the plasma polarizability. Radiative transitions between any pair of Landau levels are included as well as two-photon scattering. The latter process, due to the presence of the cyclotron resonance, becomes comparable to nonresonant one-photon scattering when excited final states are allowed, and acts as a source of photons which is more important than bremsstrahlung at low plasma densities.

  16. Three-Dimensional Compton Imaging Using List-Mode Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn R. Tornga; Mohini W. Rawool Sullivan; John P. Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    Compton imaging is a gamma ray imaging technique that has many possible applications including homeland security and medical imaging. Using the Compton scattering formula the origin of a scattered gamma-ray can be localized to a point on the surface of a cone using a minimum of two position and energy measurements. List-mode Maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) is an iterative

  17. Compact x-ray source based on burst-mode inverse Compton scattering at 100 kHz

    E-print Network

    Bessuille, J.

    A design for a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) with flux and brilliance orders of magnitude beyond existing laboratory scale sources is presented. The source is based on inverse Compton scattering of a high brightness ...

  18. Dispersion theory of proton Compton scattering in the first and second resonance regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lvov, A.I.; Petrunkin, V.A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 117924 (Russia)] [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 117924 (Russia); Schumacher, M. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Bunsenstrasse 7-9, D-37073, Goettingen (Germany)] [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Bunsenstrasse 7-9, D-37073, Goettingen (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    Dispersion theory of proton Compton scattering is extended to energies up to {approximately}1 GeV where excitations of higher resonances and nonresonance double-pion photoproduction become important photoabsorption mechanisms. To saturate s-channel dispersion relations, the VPI partial-wave analysis of single-pion photoproduction and resonance photocouplings is used. Models for double-pion photoproduction and dispersion asymptotic contributions are constructed. The latter are mainly given by {pi}{sup 0} and {sigma}(600) exchanges. Being used in dispersion calculations, they result in a reasonable agreement with all available data on both differential cross sections and polarization observables in Compton scattering. Some unsolved problems are outlined. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Study of the proton structure by measurements of polarization transfers in real Compton scattering at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Cristiano Fanelli; Cisbani, Evarostp; Hamilton, David; Salme, G.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B. [JLAB

    2014-03-01

    A preliminary analysis of polarization-transfer data at large scattering angle (70°), obtained in an experiment of real Compton scattering on proton, performed in Hall-C of Jefferson Lab, is presented. It is also discussed the relevance of this kind of experiments for shedding light on the non-perturbative structure of the proton, at low energy, and on the transition from the non-perturbative regime to the perturbative one, that occurs at high energy. Moreover, the possibility to extract Compton form factors and the Generalized Parton Distributions, one of the most promising theoretical tool to determine the total angular momentum contribution of quarks and gluons to nucleon spin, is emphasized.

  20. Compton Scattering by the Proton using a Large-Acceptance Arrangement

    E-print Network

    S. Wolf; V. Lisin; R. Kondratiev; A. M. Massone; G. Galler; J. Ahrens; H. -J. Arends; R. Beck; M. Camen; G. P. Capitani; P. Grabmayr; F. Härter; T. Hehl; P. Jennewein; K. Kossert; A. I. L'vov; C. Molinari; P. Ottonello; R. O. Owens; J. Peise; I. Preobrajenskij; S. Proff; A. Robbiano; M. Sanzone; M. Schumacher; M. Schmitz; F. Wissmann

    2001-09-19

    Compton scattering by the proton has been measured using the tagged-photon facility at MAMI (Mainz) and the large-acceptance arrangement LARA. The new data are interpreted in terms of dispersion theory based on the SAID-SM99K parameterization of photo-meson amplitudes. It is found that two-pion exchange in the t-channel is needed for a description of the data in the second resonance region. The data are well represented if this channel is modeled by a single pole with mass parameter m(sigma)=600 MeV. The asymptotic part of the spin dependent amplitude is found to be well represented by pi-0-exchange in the t-channel. A backward spin-polarizability of gamma(pi)=(-37.1+-0.6(stat+syst)+-3.0(model))x10^{-4}fm^4 has been determined from data of the first resonance region below 455 MeV. This value is in a good agreement with predictions of dispersion relations and chiral pertubation theory. From a subset of data between 280 and 360 MeV the resonance pion-photoproduction amplitudes were evaluated leading to a E2/M1 multipole ratio of the p-to-Delta radiative transition of EMR(340 MeV)=(-1.7+-0.4(stat+syst)+-0.2(model))%. It was found that this number is dependent on the parameterization of photo-meson amplitudes. With the MAID2K parameterization an E2/M1 multipole ratio of EMR(340 MeV)=(-2.0+-0.4(stat+syst)+-0.2(model))% is obtained.

  1. Development of compact coherent EUV source based on laser Compton scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kashiwagi; R. Kato; G. Isoyama; K. Sakaue; A. Masuda; T. Nomoto; T. Gowa; M. Washio; R. Kuroda; J. Urakawa

    2009-01-01

    High-power extreme ultra-violet (EUV) sources are required for next generation semiconductor lithography. We start to develop a compact EUV source in the spectral range 13–14nm, which is based on a laser Compton scattering between a 7MeV micro-bucnhed electron beam and a high-intensity CO2 laser pulse. The electron beam extracted from a DC photocathode gun is micro-bunched using a laser modulation

  2. Coherent inverse Compton scattering with attosecond electron bunches accelerated and compressed by radially polarized laser pulses

    E-print Network

    Sell, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of direct laser driven electron acceleration and scaling of attosecond bunch compression in unbound vacuum. Simple analytical expressions and detailed three-dimensional numerical calculations including space charge reveal the conditions for compression to attosecond electron sheets. Intermediate emittance minima suitable for brilliant x-ray generation via coherent inverse Compton scattering (ICS) are predicted. We verify the coherent emission properties of the resulting x-ray fields and demonstrate feasability for realistic laser parameters.

  3. Compton-Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Danagoulian; V. H. Mamyan; M. Roedelbronn; K. A. Aniol; J. R. M. Annand; P. Y. Bertin; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; J. R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; C. C. Chang; T.-H. Chang; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; P. Degtyarenko; C. W. de Jager; A. Deur; D. Dutta; K. Egiyan; H. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; D. J. Hamilton; J.-O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D. W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; C. Howell; T. Hunyady; C. E. Hyde-Wright; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; M. Khandaker; A. Ketikyan; V. Koubarovski; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissière; J. Lerose; R. A. Lindgren; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; D. G. Meekins; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; P. Moussiegt; S. Nanda; A. M. Nathan; D. M. Nikolenko; V. Nelyubin; B. E. Norum; K. Paschke; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. A. Punjabi; I. Rachek; A. Radyushkin; B. Reitz; R. Roche; G. Ron; F. Sabatié; A. Saha; N. Savvinov; A. Shahinyan; Y. Shestakov; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; P. Stoler; S. Tajima; V. Sulkosky; L. Todor; B. Vlahovic; L. B. Weinstein; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; H. Voskanyan; H. Xiang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s=5 11 and -t=2 7GeV2 with a statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s dependence of the cross section at fixed center-of-mass angle was found to be 8.0±0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed

  4. ON THE SPECTRAL SHAPE OF RADIATION DUE TO INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING CLOSE TO THE MAXIMUM CUTOFF

    SciTech Connect

    Lefa, E.; Kelner, S. R.; Aharonian, F. A., E-mail: eva.lefa@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-10

    The spectral shape of radiation due to inverse Compton scattering is analyzed in the Thomson and the Klein-Nishina regime for electron distributions with exponential cutoff. We derive analytical, asymptotic expressions for the spectrum close to the maximum cutoff region. We consider monoenergetic, Planckian, and synchrotron photons as target photon fields. These approximations provide a direct link between the distribution of parent electrons and the upscattered spectrum at the cutoff region.

  5. Dual-Energy X-Ray CT by Compton Scattering Hard X-Ray Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kaneyasu; M. Uesaka; K. Dobashi; M. Torikoshi

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a compact Compton scattering hard X-ray source by the X-band linac and YAG lasers at Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo. The compact hard X-ray source can produce tunable monochromatic hard X-rays for 10 - 40 keV. The monochromatic hard X-rays are very useful in large fields of medical and biological sciences. We are planning to carry

  6. First measurement of Z\\/? ? production in Compton scattering of quasi-real photons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Abbiendi; K. Ackerstaff; Gideon Alexander; J. Allison; N. Altekamp; K. J. Anderson; S. Anderson; S. Arcelli; S. F. Ashby; D A Axen; Georges Azuelos; A. H. Ball; E. Barberio; R. J. Barlow; R. Bartoldus; J Richard Batley; S. Baumann; J. Bechtluft; T. Behnke; K. W. Bell; G. Bella; A. Bellerive; Stanislaus Cornelius Maria Bentvelsen; S. Bethke; O. Biebel; A. Biguzzi; S. D. Bird; Volker Blobel; Ian J Bloodworth; M. Bobinski; P. Bock; J. Böhme; D. Bonacorsi; M. Boutemeur; S. Braibant; P G Bright-Thomas; L. Brigliadori; R. M. Brown; Helfried J Burckhart; C. Burgard; R. Bürgin; P. Capiluppi; R. K. Carnegie; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; C. Y. Chang; D. G. Charlton; D. Chrisman; C. Ciocca; P. E. L. Clarke; E. Clay; I. Cohen; J. E. Conboy; O. C. Cooke; C. Couyoumtzelis; R. L. Coxe; M. Cuffiani; S. Dado; G. M. Dallavalle; R. Davis; S. De Jong; L. A. del Pozo; A. de Roeck; Klaus Desch; B. Dienes; M. S. Dixit; J. Dubbert; E. Duchovni; G. Duckeck; I. P. Duerdoth; D. Eatough; P. G. Estabrooks; E. Etzion; H. G. Evans; Franco Luigi Fabbri; M. Fanti; A. A. Faust; F. Fiedler; M. Fierro; I. Fleck; R. Folman; A. Fürtjes; D. I. Futyan; P. Gagnon; J. W. Gary; J. Gascon; S. M. Gascon-Shotkin; G. Gaycken; C. Geich-Gimbel; G. Giacomelli; P. Giacomelli; V. Gibson; W. R. Gibson; D. M. Gingrich; D A Glenzinski; J. Goldberg; W. Gorn; C. Grandi; E. Gross; Jacob Grunhaus; M. Gruwé; G. G. Hanson; M. Hansroul; K. Harder; C. K. Hargrove; C. Hartmann; M. Hauschild; C. M. Hawkes; R. Hawkings; Richard J Hemingway; M. Herndon; G. Herten; R. D. Heuer; M. D. Hildreth; J. C. Hill; S. J. Hillier; P. R. Hobson; A. Hocker; R James Homer; A. K. Honma; D. Horváth; K. R. Hossain; P. Hüntemeyer; P. Igo-Kemenes; D. C. Imrie; K. Ishii; F. R. Jacob; A. Jawahery; H. Jeremie; Martin Paul Jimack; C. R. Jones; P. Jovanovic; T. R. Junk; D A Karlen; V G Kartvelishvili; K. Kawagoe; T. Kawamoto; P. I. Kayal; Richard K Keeler; R. G. Kellogg; B. W. Kennedy; A. Klier; S. Kluth; T. Kobayashi; M. Kobel; D. S. Koetke; T. P. Kokott; M. Kolrep; S. Komamiya; R. V. Kowalewski; T. Kress; P. Krieger; J. von Krogh; T. Kuhl; P. Kyberd; G. D. Lafferty; G. D. Lafferty; J. Lauber; S. R. Lautenschlager; I. Lawson; J. G. Layter; D. Lazic; A. M. Lee; Daniel Lellouch; J. Letts; L. Levinson; R. Liebisch; B. List; C. Littlewood; A. W. Lloyd; S. L. Lloyd; F. K. Loebinger; G. D. Long; Michael J Losty; D. Liu; A. Macchiolo; A L MacPherson; W F Mader; M. Mannelli; S. Marcellini; C. Markopoulos; A. J. Martin; G. Martinez; T. Mashimo; P. Mättig; W. J. McDonald; E. A. Mckigney; T. J. McMahon; R. A. McPherson; F. Meijers; S. Menke; F. S. Merritt; H. Mes; J. Meyer; Aldo Michelini; S. Mihara; G. Mikenberg; D. J. Miller; R. Mir; W. Mohr; A. Montanari; T. Mori; K. Nagai; I. Nakamura; H. A. Neal; B. Nellen; R. Nisius; S. W. O'Neale; F. G. Oakham; F. Odorici; H. O. Ogren; M. J. Oreglia; S. Orito; J. Pálinkás; G. Pásztor; J. R. Pater; G. N. Patrick; J. Patt; R. Perez-Ochoa; S. Petzold; P. Pfeifenschneider; J. E. Pilcher; James L Pinfold; D. E. Plane; P R Poffenberger; J. Polok; M B Przybycien; C. Rembser; Hartmut Rick; S. Robertson; S. Robertson; N L Rodning; J. M. Roney; K. Roscoe; A. M. Rossi; Y. Rozen; K. Runge; O. Runolfsson; D. R. Rust; K. Sachs; T. Saeki; O. Sahr; W. M. Sang; E Sarkisyan-Grinbaum; C. Sbarra; A. D. Schaile; O. Schaile; F. Scharf; P. Scharff-Hansen; J. Schieck; B. Schmitt; S. Schmitt; A. Schöning; M. Schröder; M. Schumacher; C. Schwick; W. G. Scott; T. Seiler; R. Seuster; T. G. Shears; B. C. Shen; C. H. Shepherd-Themistocleous; P. Sherwood; G. P. Siroli; A. Sittler; A. Sittler; A. M. Smith; G. A. Snow; Randall J Sobie; S. Söldner-Rembold; M. Sproston; A. Stahl; K. Stephens; J. Steuerer; K. Stoll; D. Strom; R. Ströhmer; B. Surrow; S. D. Talbot; S. Tanaka; P. Taras; S. Tarem; R. Teuscher; M. Thiergen; E. von Törne; E. Torrence; S. Towers; I. Trigger; Z L Trócsányi; E. Tsur; A. S. Turcot; M. F. Turner-Watson; R. Van Kooten; P. Vannerem; M. Verzocchi; H. Voss; F. Wäckerle; A. Wagner; C. P. Ward; D. R. Ward; P. M. Watkins; A. T. Watson; N. K. Watson; P. S. Wells; N. Wermes; J. S. White; G. W. Wilson; J. A. Wilson; T. R. Wyatt; S. Yamashita; G. Yekutieli; V. Zacek; D. Zer-Zion

    1998-01-01

    We report the first observation of Z\\/?? production in Compton scattering of quasi-real photons. This is a subprocess of the reaction e+e??e+e?Z\\/??, where one of the final state electrons is undetected. Approximately 55pb?1 of data collected in the year 1997 at an e+e? centre-of-mass energy of 183 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP have been analysed. The Z\\/?? from

  7. Status of the Polarized Nonlinear Inverse Compton Scattering Experiment at UCLA

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, O.; Doyuran, A.; England, R. J.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travish, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Joshi, C.; Tochitsky, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2006-11-27

    An Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) experiment investigating the polarized harmonic production in the nonlinear regime has begun which will utilize the existing terawatt CO2 laser system and 15 MeV photoinjector in the Neptune Laboratory at UCLA. A major motivation for a source of high brightness polarized x-rays is the production of polarized positrons for use in future linear collider experiments. We report on the experimental set-up and status.

  8. Effective theory of the Delta(1232) resonance in Compton scattering off the nucleon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Pascalutsa; Daniel R. Phillips

    2003-01-01

    We formulate a new power-counting scheme for a chiral effective-field theory of nucleons, pions, and Deltas. This extends chiral perturbation theory into the Delta-resonance region. We calculate nucleon Compton scattering up to next-to-leading order in this theory. The resultant description of existing gammap cross-section data is very good for photon energies up to about 300 MeV. We also find reasonable

  9. Development of a High-Average-Power Compton Gamma Source for Lepton Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelsky, Igor; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.; Yakimenko, Vitaliy; Platonenko, Viktor T.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma- (??) ray beams of high average power and peak brightness are of demand for a number of applications in high-energy physics, material processing, medicine, etc. One of such examples is gamma conversion into polarized positrons and muons that is under consideration for projected lepton colliders. A ?-source based on the Compton backscattering from the relativistic electron beam is a promising candidate for this application. Our approach to the high-repetition ?-source assumes placing the Compton interaction point inside a CO2 laser cavity. A laser pulse interacts with periodical electron bunches on each round-trip inside the laser cavity producing the corresponding train of ?-pulses. The round-trip optical losses can be compensated by amplification in the active laser medium. The major challenge for this approach is in maintaining stable amplification rate for a picosecond CO2-laser pulse during multiple resonator round-trips without significant deterioration of its temporal and transverse profiles. Addressing this task, we elaborated on a computer code that allows identifying the directions and priorities in the development of such a multi-pass picosecond CO2 laser. Proof-of-principle experiments help to verify the model and show the viability of the concept. In these tests we demonstrated extended trains of picosecond CO2 laser pulses circulating inside the cavity that incorporates the Compton interaction point.

  10. Determination of Copper by Neutron Activation Analysis in Conjunction with Compton Suppression Gamma Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    W. H. Zhang; A. Chatt

    2000-06-04

    Copper is considered to be an essential element. Its accurate determination in tissues, foods, and other biological materials is needed to study the effect of copper on human nutrition and health. Using and Advance Prediction Computer Program, it has been shown that short-lived {sup 66}Cu (half-life = 5.09 min) can be used to determine copper in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). However, it is seldom done in practice-in particular, for low copper content in high-salt biological materials-because of the Compton background interference from nuclides such as {sup 28}Al, {sup 38}Cl, and {sup 24}Na. To eliminate the Compton interference, a preconcentration NAA method has recently been developed in our laboratory using reversed-phase extraction chromatography of copper followed by short irradiation and conventional gamma-spectrometric counting of {sup 66}Cu; the detection limit is {approx}5 ppb.

  11. Structured x-ray beams from twisted electrons by inverse Compton scattering of laser light

    E-print Network

    D. Seipt; A. Surzhykov; S. Fritzsche

    2014-07-28

    The inverse Compton scattering of laser light on high-energetic twisted electrons is investigated with the aim to construct spatially structured x-ray beams. In particular, we analyze how the properties of the twisted electrons, such as the topological charge and aperture angle of the electron Bessel beam, affects the energy and angular distribution of scattered x-rays. We show that with suitably chosen initial twisted electron states one can synthesize tailor-made x-ray beam profiles with a well-defined spatial structure, in a way not possible with ordinary plane-wave electron beams.

  12. Deeply virtual Compton scattering at small-$x$ in future Electron - Ion Colliders

    E-print Network

    Goncalves, V P

    2015-01-01

    The study of exclusive processes in the future electron-ion ($eA$) colliders will be an important tool to investigate the QCD dynamics at high energies as they are in general driven by the gluon content of the target which is strongly subject to parton saturation effects. In this paper we compute the coherent and incoherent cross sections for the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process relying on the color dipole approach and considering different models for the dipole - proton scattering amplitude. The dependencies of the cross sections with the energy, photon virtuality, nuclear mass number and squared momentum transfer are analysed in detail.

  13. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on an unpolarized deuterium target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Ball, B.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, N.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; López Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, X.-G.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; de La Ossa, A. Martinez; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Muccifora, V.; Müller, D.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Pickert, N.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanftl, F.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van Haarlem, Y.; van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Vogel, C.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.; Hermes Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from an unpolarized deuterium target are measured with respect to beam helicity and charge. They appear in the distribution of these photons in the azimuthal angle ? around the virtual-photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The extracted asymmetries are attributed to either the deeply virtual Compton scattering process or its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. They are compared with earlier results on the proton target. In the measured kinematic region, the beam-charge asymmetry amplitudes and the leading amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetries on an unpolarized deuteron target are compatible with the results from unpolarized protons.

  14. A 3D point-kernel multiple scatter model for parallel-beam SPECT based on a gamma-ray buildup factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Predrag Marinkovic; Radovan Ilic; Rajko Spaic

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) point-kernel multiple scatter model for point spread function (PSF) determination in parallel-beam single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), based on a dose gamma-ray buildup factor, is proposed. This model embraces nonuniform attenuation in a voxelized object of imaging (patient body) and multiple scattering that is treated as in the point-kernel integration gamma-ray shielding problems. First-order Compton scattering is

  15. A Cryogenic Target for Compton Scattering Experiments at HI ?S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendellen, David; Ahmed, Mohammad; Weller, Henry; Feldman, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    We have designed, constructed, and tested a cryogenic target for use at the High Intensity ?-ray Source (HI ?S). The target is able to liquefy helium (LHe), hydrogen (LH2), and deuterium (LD2). It precools room-temperature gas in two stages with a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The precooled gas condenses onto a series of copper fins and drips down to fill a 0.25 L Kapton target cell. The cryotarget will be used to measure nuclear and nucleon electromagnetic polarizabilities. The electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons, ? and ?, will be probed by scattering a ?-ray beam on unpolarized LD2 and LH2 targets. Scattered photons will be detected by the HI ?S NaI Detector Array (HINDA). We have tested the target with LHe at 3 K and are preparing for LD2 testing and production running. Work supported by US Department of Energy Contracts DE-FG02-97ER41033, DE-FG02-06ER41422, and DE-SCOO0536.

  16. Neutron Compton scattering from water studied with the double-difference technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Redah, T. [Physics Laboratory, The University of Kent at Canterbury, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR (United Kingdom); Krzystyniak, M.; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C.A. [Institute of Chemistry, Stranski Laboratory, Technical University of Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    A shortfall of the scattering intensity from protons has been observed in liquids (water, benzene, etc.) and solids (metal hydrogen systems, organic polymers, etc.) using neutron Compton scattering (NCS). The standard analysis of NCS data has been subject to severe criticism, e.g., it was claimed that it is the way the energy resolution function is incorporated in the data reduction scheme that leads to an underestimation of the scattering intensity. Here we present NCS experimental results utilizing a technique--referred to as double difference--which significantly improves the energy resolution function. Specifically, the ratio of the scattering cross-section density of H and D in mixtures of light and heavy water are presented. The experimental data reveal that the results published earlier remain unchanged upon the significant improvement of the energy resolution function.

  17. Compton Scattering from the Deuteron below Pion-Production Threshold

    E-print Network

    Luke Myers; John Annand; Jason Brudvik; Gerald Feldman; Kevin Fissum; Harald Grießhammer; Kurt Hansen; Seth Henshaw; Lennart Isaksson; Ramsey Jebali; Michael Kovash; Magnus Lundin; Duncan Middleton; Alan Nathan; Bent Schröder; Sean Stave

    2015-03-27

    Differential cross sections for elastic scattering of photons from the deuteron have recently been measured at the Tagged-Photon Facility at the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund, Sweden. These first new measurements in more than a decade further constrain the isoscalar electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and provide the first-ever results above 100 MeV, where the sensitivity to the polarizabilities is increased. We add 23 points between 70 and 112 MeV, at angles 60deg, 120deg and 150deg. Analysis of these data using a Chiral Effective Field Theory indicates that the cross sections are both self-consistent and consistent with previous measurements. Extracted values of \\alpha_s = [12.1 +/- 0.8(stat) +/- 0.2(BSR) +/- 0.8(th)] X 10^{-4} fm^3 and \\beta_s = [2.4 +/- 0.8(stat) +/- 0.2(BSR) +/- 0.8(th)] X 10^{-4} fm^3 are obtained from a fit to these 23 new data points. This paper presents in detail the experimental conditions and the data analysis used to extract the cross sections.

  18. Response of doped alkali iodides measured with gamma-ray absorption and Compton electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiderski, Lukasz; Moszynski, Marek; Czarnacki, Wieslaw; Szawlowski, Marek; Szczesniak, Tomasz; Pausch, Guntram; Plettner, Cristina; Roemer, Katja; Schotanus, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Relative light yield and intrinsic energy resolution of NaI:Tl, CsI:Na and CsI:Tl crystals were investigated by means of the wide angle Compton coincidence technique in wide energy range from several keV up to 1 MeV. The experimental setup consisted of a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the tested scintillators were put at a close separation from the HPGe detector. The tested samples were cylinders of 25 mm diameter and height coupled to a photomultiplier. Compton electron responses were compared to the results obtained with ?-ray absorption peaks. A correlation between intrinsic resolution of the tested scintillation materials and their nonproportionality was observed. Substantial differences in intrinsic resolution measured for ?-ray absorption peaks and Compton electrons were registered in the energy range between 50 keV and 200 keV. The results were discussed in terms of electron scattering, pointing to ?-ray production as an important contribution for determination of scintillator intrinsic resolution.

  19. Study of Generalized Parton Distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the nucleon with the CLAS and CLAS12 detectors at the Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Baptiste Guegan

    2012-11-01

    The exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon is considered to be the "cleanest" way to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). This process is called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) lN {yields} lN{gamma} , and is sensitive to all the four GPDs. Measuring the DVCS cross section is one of the main goals of this thesis. In this thesis, we present the work performed to extract on a wide phase-space the DVCS cross-section from the JLab data at a beam energy of 6 GeV.

  20. Temporal synchronization of GHz repetition rate electron and laser pulses for the optimization of a compact inverse-Compton scattering x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadmack, M. R.; Szarmes, E. B.; Madey, J. M. J.; Kowalczyk, J. M. D.

    2015-02-01

    The operation of an inverse-Compton scattering source of x-rays or gamma-rays requires the precision alignment and synchronization of highly focused electron bunches and laser pulses at the collision point. The arrival times of electron and laser pulses must be synchronized with picosecond precision. We have developed an RF synchronization technique that reduces the initial timing uncertainty from 350 ps to less than 2 ps, greatly reducing the parameter space to be optimized while commissioning the x-ray source. We describe the technique and present measurements of its performance.

  1. Experiments in Special Relativity Using Compton Scattering of Gamma Rays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelstaff, P. A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Some simple undergraduate laboratory experiments are described, which verify the energy-momentum relationship of special relativity. These experiments have been designed either to be used as classroom demonstrations or to be carried out by second-year students. (Author/JN)

  2. POST-PERIASTRON GAMMA-RAY FLARE FROM PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 AS A RESULT OF COMPTONIZATION OF THE COLD PULSAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Khangulyan, Dmitry [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Aharonian, Felix A. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Bogovalov, Sergey V. [Department of Molecular Physics, National Research Nuclear University (MEPHI), Kashirskoe shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Ribo, Marc, E-mail: khangul@astro.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: felix.aharonian@dias.ie, E-mail: svbogovalov@mephi.ru, E-mail: mribo@am.ub.es [Departament d'Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciences del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-06-10

    We argue that the bright flare of the binary pulsar PSR B1259-63/LS2883 detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is due to the inverse Compton scattering of the unshocked electron-positron pulsar wind with a Lorentz factor {Gamma}{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4}. The combination of two effects both linked to the circumstellar disk (CD) is a key element in the proposed model. The first effect is related to the impact of the surrounding medium on the termination of the pulsar wind. Inside the disk, the 'early' termination of the wind results in suppression of its gamma-ray luminosity. When the pulsar escapes the disk, the conditions for termination of the wind undergo significant changes. This would lead to a dramatic increase of the pulsar wind zone, and thus to the proportional increase of the gamma-ray flux. On the other hand, if the parts of the CD disturbed by the pulsar can supply infrared photons of density high enough for efficient Comptonization of the wind, almost the entire kinetic energy of the pulsar wind would be converted to radiation, thus the gamma-ray luminosity of the wind could approach the level of the pulsar's spin-down luminosity as reported by the Fermi Collaboration.

  3. Polarization Transfer in Wide-Angle Compton Scattering and Single-Pion Photoproduction from the Proton

    E-print Network

    C. Fanelli; E. Cisbani; D. J. Hamilton; G. Salme; B. Wojtsekhowski; A. Ahmidouch; J. R. M. Annand; H. Baghdasaryan; J. Beaufait; P. Bosted; E. J. Brash; C. Butuceanu; P. Carter; E. Christy; E. Chudakov; S. Danagoulian; D. Day; P. Degtyarenko; R. Ent; H. Fenker; M. Fowler; E. Frlez; D. Gaskell; R. Gilman; T. Horn; G. M. Huber; C. W. de Jager; E. Jensen; M. K. Jones; A. Kelleher; C. Keppel; M. Khandaker; M. Kohl; G. Kumbartzki; S. Lassiter; Y. Li; R. Lindgren; H. Lovelace; W. Luo; D. Mack; V. Mamyan; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; J. Maxwell; G. Mbianda; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; J. Miller; A. Mkrtchyan; H. Mkrtchyan; J. Mulholland; V. Nelyubin; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; Y. Prok; A. J. R. Puckett; V. Punjabi; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; K. Slifer; G. Smith; P. Solvignon; R. Subedi; F. R. Wesselmann; S. Wood; Z. Ye; X. Zheng

    2015-06-12

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The WACS polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of \\cma$= 70^\\circ$. The longitudinal transfer \\KLL, measured to be $0.645 \\pm 0.059 \\pm 0.048$, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is $\\sim$3 times larger than predicted by the GPD-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  4. Time-resolved Compton scattering for a model fermion-boson system

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R. E.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R. [Intense Laser Physics Theory Unit and Department of Physics, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois 61790-4560 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We study the scattering of a boson with a fermion with full spatial and temporal resolution based on the one-dimensional Yukawa Hamiltonian. In quantum field theory this interaction is described by the annihilation and creation of bosons with intermediate virtual particle states. We show that this process can be modeled in the center-of-mass frame by a scattering potential, permitting us to interpret the absorption and re-emission processes in quantum mechanical terms of a characteristic force. This Compton force between the fermion and boson is repulsive for large distances and attractive for shorter spacings. We also examine the periodic dynamics of a fermion and a boson that are spatially confined to a ring cavity in which they counterpropagate, enabling us to study interactions independent of the transients that characterize the (one-time) scattering event of two wave packets.

  5. Polarization Transfer in Wide-Angle Compton Scattering and Single-Pion Photoproduction from the Proton

    E-print Network

    Fanelli, C; Hamilton, D J; Salme, G; Wojtsekhowski, B; Ahmidouch, A; Annand, J R M; Baghdasaryan, H; Beaufait, J; Bosted, P; Brash, E J; Butuceanu, C; Carter, P; Christy, E; Chudakov, E; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Degtyarenko, P; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Fowler, M; Frlez, E; Gaskell, D; Gilman, R; Horn, T; Huber, G M; de Jager, C W; Jensen, E; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Khandaker, M; Kohl, M; Kumbartzki, G; Lassiter, S; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Lovelace, H; Luo, W; Mack, D; Mamyan, V; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Maxwell, J; Mbianda, G; Meekins, D; Meziane, M; Miller, J; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Mulholland, J; Nelyubin, V; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Prok, Y; Puckett, A J R; Punjabi, V; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Slifer, K; Smith, G; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S; Ye, Z; Zheng, X

    2015-01-01

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The WACS polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of \\cma$= 70^\\circ$. The longitudinal transfer \\KLL, measured to be $0.645 \\pm 0.059 \\pm 0.048$, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is $\\sim$3 times larger than predicted by the GPD-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  6. Wide angle Compton scattering on the proton: study of power suppressed corrections

    E-print Network

    N. Kivel; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2015-04-04

    We study the wide angle Compton scattering process on a proton within the soft collinear factorization (SCET) framework. The main purpose of this work is to estimate the effect due to certain power suppressed corrections. We consider all possible kinematical power corrections and also include the subleading amplitudes describing the scattering with nucleon helicity flip. Under certain assumptions we present a leading-order factorization formula for these amplitudes which includes the hard- and soft-spectator contributions. We apply the formalism and perform a phenomenological analysis of the cross section and asymmetries in the wide angle Compton scattering on a proton. We assume that in the relevant kinematical region where $-t,-u>2.5$~GeV$^{2}$ the dominant contribution is provided by the soft-spectator mechanism. The hard coefficient functions of the corresponding SCET operators are taken in the leading-order approximation. The analysis of existing cross section data shows that the contribution of the helicity flip amplitudes to this observable is quite small and comparable with other expected theoretical uncertainties. We also show predictions for double polarization observables for which experimental information exists.

  7. Inelastic Scatterings of Entangled Mossbauer Gammas

    E-print Network

    Yao Cheng; Zhongming Wang

    2006-10-12

    We report the observation of the temperature-dependent inelastic scattering of three entangled Mossbauer gammas in the time-resolved Mossbauer spectroscopy. Recently, the long-lived E3 Mossbauer transition of rhodium generated by bremsstrahlung irradiation has been reported. Two kinds of X-rays with the fast decay are attributed to the tri-photon effect. They are tri-photon pile-up of rhodium K X-rays and the high-Z impurity K X-rays. Energy of the particular K emission is higher than the sum energy of two Mossbauer gammas. This letter reports new discoveries by cooling down the sample using liquid nitrogen, namely the collective anomalous emission of entangled Mossbauer gammas. The enhancement of inelastic scatterings at low temperature such as rhodium K satellites is attributed to this entanglement.

  8. Compton Scattering off Polarized Electrons with a High Finesse Fabry-Perot Cavity at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas Falletto; M. Authier; G. Bardin; Maud Baylac; M. Boyer; F. Bugeon; Etienne Burtin; Christian Cavata; N. Colombel; G. Congretel; R. Coquillard; G. Coulloux; B. Couzy; P. Deck; A. Delbart; D. Desforges; A. Donati; B. Duboue; Stephanie Escoffier; F. Farci; Bernard Frois; P. Girardot; J. Guillotau; C. Henriot; J. Jardillier; C. Jeanney; M. Juillard; J.P. Jorda; P. Legou; David Lhuillier; Y. Lussignol; P. Mangeot; X. Martin; F. Marie; Jacques Martino; M. Maurier; B. Mazeau; J.F. Millot; F. Molinie; J.P. Mols; J.P. Mouly; M. Mur; Damian Neyret; T. Pedrol; Stephane Platchkov; G. Pontet; Thierry Pussieux; Y. Queinec; P. Rebourgeard; J.C. Sellier; G. Tarte; C. Veyssiere; A. Zakharian; Pierre Bertin; Joseph Mitchell; J.M. Mackowski; L. Pinard

    2000-08-01

    We built and commissioned a new type of Compton polarimeter to measure the electron beam polarization at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Virginia, USA). The heart of this polarimeter is a high-finesse monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. Its purpose is to amplify a primary 300 mW laser beam in order to improve the signal to noise ratio of the polarimeter. It is the first time that a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity is enclosed in the vacuum of a particle accelerator to monitor the beam polarization by Compton polarimetry. The measured finesse and amplification gain of the cavity are F=26000 and G=7300. The electron beam crosses this high-power photon source at an angle of 23 mrad in the middle of the cavity where the photon beam power density is estimated to be 0.85MW/cm2. We have used this facility during the HAPPEX experiment (April-July 1999) and we give a preliminary measurement of Compton scattering asymmetry.

  9. Inverse Compton Scattering as the Source of Diffuse EUV Emission in the Coma Cluster of Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Stuart Bowyer; Thomas W. Berghoefer

    1998-04-28

    We have examined the hypothesis that the majority of the diffuse EUV flux in the Coma cluster is due to inverse Compton scattering of low energy cosmic ray electrons (0.16 < epsilon < 0.31 GeV) against the 3K black-body background. We present data on the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the EUV flux and show that these data provide strong support for a non-thermal origin for the EUV flux. However, we show that this emission cannot be produced by an extrapolation to lower energies of the observed synchrotron radio emitting electrons and an additional component of low energy cosmic ray electrons is required.

  10. Deeply virtual Compton scattering on longitudinally polarized protons and neutrons at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Silvia Niccolai

    2012-04-01

    This paper focuses on a measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly-6-GeV polarized electron beam, two longitudinally polarized (via DNP) solid targets of protons (NH{sub 3}) and deuterons (ND{sub 3}) and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Here, preliminary results for target-spin asymmetries and double (beam-target) asymmetries for proton DVCS, as well as a very preliminary extraction of beam-spin asymmetry for neutron DVCS, are presented and linked to Generalized Parton Distributions.

  11. Compton Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    A. Danagoulian; V.H. Mamyan; M. Roedelbronn; K.A. Aniol; J.R.M. Annand; P.Y. Bertin; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; J.R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; C.C. Chang; T.-H. Chang; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; P. Degtyarenko; C.W. de Jager; A. Deur; D. Dutta; K. Egiyan; H. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; D.J. Hamilton; J.-O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D.W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; C. Howell; T. Hunyady; C.E. Hyde-Wright; X. Jiang; M.K. Jones; M. Khandaker; A. Ketikyan; V. Koubarovski; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissiere; J. LeRose; R.A. Lindgren; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; P. Moussiegt; S. Nanda; A.M. Nathan; D.M. Nikolenko; V. Nelyubin; B.E. Norum; K. Paschke; L. Pentchev; C.F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; V.A. Punjabi; I. Rachek; A. Radyushkin; B. Reitz; R. Roche; G. Ron; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; N. Savvinov; A. Shahinyan; Y. Shestakov; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; P. Stoler; S. Tajima; V. Sulkosky; L. Todor; B. Vlahovic; L.B. Weinstein; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; H. Voskanyan; H. Xiang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2007-01-29

    Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s = 5-11 and -t = 2-7 GeV2 with statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s-dependence of the cross section at fixed center of mass angle was found to be 8.0 +/- 0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed cross section values are in fair agreement with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which the external photons couple to a single quark.

  12. Time evolution analysis of the electron distribution in Thomson/Compton back-scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Maroli, C.; Serafini, L.; Rossi, A. R.

    2013-07-01

    We present the time evolution of the energy distribution of a relativistic electron beam after the Compton back-scattering with a counter-propagating laser field, performed in the framework of the Quantum Electrodynamics, by means of the code CAIN. As the correct angular distribution of the spontaneous emission is accounted, the main effect is the formation of few stripes, followed by the diffusion of the more energetic particles toward lower values in the longitudinal phase space. The Chapman-Kolmogorov master equation gives results in striking agreement with the numerical ones. An experiment on the Thomson source at SPARC-LAB is proposed.

  13. Compton-Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Danagoulian, A.; Roedelbronn, M.; Chang, T.-H.; Nathan, A. M. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Mamyan, V. H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Aniol, K. A.; Margaziotis, D. J. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90032 (United States); Annand, J. R. M.; Hamilton, D. J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bertin, P. Y.; Camsonne, A.; Laveissiere, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Bimbot, L. [IPN Orsay, Boite Postale n1 F-91406, Orsay (France); Bosted, P.; Paschke, K. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Calarco, J. R. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Chang, C. C.; Horn, T.; Savvinov, N. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Chen, J.-P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-04-13

    Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s=5-11 and -t=2-7 GeV{sup 2} with a statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s dependence of the cross section at fixed center-of-mass angle was found to be 8.0{+-}0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed cross-section values are in fair agreement with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which the external photons couple to a single quark.

  14. Directional Stand-off Detection of Fast Neutrons and Gammas Using Angular Scattering Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier P. e.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.; Forman, L.

    2009-10-25

    We have investigated the response of a DoubleScatter Neutron Spectrometer (DSNS) for sources at long distances (gr than 200 meters). We find that an alternative method for analyzing double scatter data avoids some uncertainties introduced by amplitude measurements in plastic scintillators.Time of flight is used to discriminate between gamma and neutron events, and the kinematic distributions of scattering angles are assumed to apply. Non-relativistic neutrons are most likely to scatter at 45°, while gammas with energies greater than 2 MeV are most likely to be forward scattered. The distribution of scattering angles of fission neutrons arriving from a distant point source generates a 45° cone, which can be back-projected to give the source direction. At the same time, the distribution of Compton-scattered gammas has a maximum in the forward direction, and can be made narrower by selecting events that deposit minimal energy in the first scattering event. We have further determined that the shape of spontaneous fission neutron spectra at ranges gr than 110 m is still significantly different from thecosmic ray background.

  15. Supernova Remnants and Plerions in the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory Era

    E-print Network

    De Jager, O C; Jager, Ocker C. de; Baring, Matthew G.

    1997-01-01

    Due to observations made by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory over the last six years, it appears that a number of galactic supernova remnants may be candidates for sources of cosmic gamma-rays. These include shell-type remnants such as IC443 and $\\gamma$ Cygni, which have no known parent pulsars, but have significant associations with unidentified EGRET sources, and others that appear to be composite, where a pulsar is embedded in a shell (e.g. W44 and Vela), or are purely pulsar-driven, such as the Crab Nebula. This review discusses our present understanding of gamma-ray production in plerionic and non-plerionic supernova remnants, and explores the relationship between such emission and that in other wavebands. Focuses include models of the Crab and Vela nebulae, the composite nature of W44, the relationship of shell-type remnants to cosmic ray production, the relative importance of shock-accelerated protons and electrons, constraints on models placed by TeV, X-ray and radio observations, and the role of el...

  16. Supernova Remnants and Plerions in the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory Era

    E-print Network

    Ocker C. de Jager; Matthew G. Baring

    1997-11-19

    Due to observations made by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory over the last six years, it appears that a number of galactic supernova remnants may be candidates for sources of cosmic gamma-rays. These include shell-type remnants such as IC443 and $\\gamma$ Cygni, which have no known parent pulsars, but have significant associations with unidentified EGRET sources, and others that appear to be composite, where a pulsar is embedded in a shell (e.g. W44 and Vela), or are purely pulsar-driven, such as the Crab Nebula. This review discusses our present understanding of gamma-ray production in plerionic and non-plerionic supernova remnants, and explores the relationship between such emission and that in other wavebands. Focuses include models of the Crab and Vela nebulae, the composite nature of W44, the relationship of shell-type remnants to cosmic ray production, the relative importance of shock-accelerated protons and electrons, constraints on models placed by TeV, X-ray and radio observations, and the role of electrons injected directly into the remnants by parent pulsars.

  17. Local two-photon couplings and the J=0 fixed pole in real and virtual Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Theory Group, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, 94025 Menlo Park, California (United States); Departmento Fisica Teorica I, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Department of Physics and Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The local coupling of two photons to the fundamental quark currents of a hadron gives an energy-independent contribution to the Compton amplitude proportional to the charge squared of the struck quark, a contribution which has no analog in hadron scattering reactions. We show that this local contribution has a real phase and is universal, giving the same contribution for real or virtual Compton scattering for any photon virtuality and skewness at fixed momentum transfer squared t. The t dependence of this J=0 fixed Regge pole is parameterized by a yet unmeasured even charge-conjugation form factor of the target nucleon. The t=0 limit gives an important constraint on the dependence of the nucleon mass on the quark mass through the Weisberger relation. We discuss how this 1/x form factor can be extracted from high-energy deeply virtual Compton scattering and examine predictions given by models of the H generalized parton distribution.

  18. Understanding spin structure in metallacrown single-molecule magnets using magnetic compton scattering.

    PubMed

    Deb, Aniruddha; Boron, Thaddeus T; Itou, Masayoshi; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Mallah, Talal; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Penner-Hahn, James E

    2014-04-01

    The 3d-4f mixed metallacrowns frequently show single-molecule magnetic behavior. We have used magnetic Compton scattering to characterize the spin structure and orbital interactions in three isostructural metallacrowns: Gd2Mn4, Dy2Mn4, and Y2Mn4. These data allow the direct determination of the spin only contribution to the overall magnetic moment. We find that the lanthanide 4f spin in Gd2Mn4 and Dy2Mn4 is aligned parallel to the Mn 3d spin. For Y2Mn4 (manganese-only spin) we find evidence for spin delocalization into the O 2p orbitals. Comparing the magnetic Compton scattering data with SQUID studies that measure the total magnetic moment suggests that Gd2Mn4 and Y2Mn4 have only a small orbital contribution to the moment. In contrast, the total magnetic moment for Dy2Mn4 MCs is much larger than the spin-only moment, demonstrating a significant orbital contribution to the overall magnetic moment. Overall, these data provide direct insight into the correlation of molecular design with molecular magnetic properties. PMID:24625070

  19. Stability analysis of implicit time discretizations for the Compton-scattering Fokker-Planck equation

    SciTech Connect

    Densmore, Jeffery D. [Computational Physics and Methods Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS D409, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: jdd@lanl.gov; Warsa, James S. [Computational Physics and Methods Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS D409, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: warsa@lanl.gov; Lowrie, Robert B. [Computational Physics and Methods Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS D409, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: lowrie@lanl.gov; Morel, Jim E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)], E-mail: morel@tamu.edu

    2009-09-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation is a widely used approximation for modeling the Compton scattering of photons in high energy density applications. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of three implicit time discretizations for the Compton-Scattering Fokker-Planck equation. Specifically, we examine (i) a Semi-Implicit (SI) scheme that employs backward-Euler differencing but evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their beginning-of-time-step values, (ii) a Fully Implicit (FI) discretization that instead evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their end-of-time-step values, and (iii) a Linearized Implicit (LI) scheme, which is developed by linearizing the temperature dependence of the FI discretization within each time step. Our stability analysis shows that the FI and LI schemes are unconditionally stable and cannot generate oscillatory solutions regardless of time-step size, whereas the SI discretization can suffer from instabilities and nonphysical oscillations for sufficiently large time steps. With the results of this analysis, we present time-step limits for the SI scheme that prevent undesirable behavior. We test the validity of our stability analysis and time-step limits with a set of numerical examples.

  20. Stability analysis of implicit time discretizations for the Compton-scattering Fokker-Planck equation

    SciTech Connect

    Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Warsa, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morel, Jim E [TEXAS A& M UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation is a widely used approximation for modeling the Compton scattering of photons in high energy density applications. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of three implicit time discretizations for the Compton-Scattering Fokker-Planck equation. Specifically, we examine (i) a Semi-Implicit (SI) scheme that employs backward-Euler differencing but evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their beginning-of-time-step values, (ii) a Fully Implicit (FI) discretization that instead evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their end-of-time-step values, and (iii) a Linearized Implicit (LI) scheme, which is developed by linearizing the temperature dependence of the FI discretization within each time step. Our stability analysis shows that the FI and LI schemes are unconditionally stable and cannot generate oscillatory solutions regardless of time-step size, whereas the SI discretization can suffer from instabilities and nonphysical oscillations for sufficiently large time steps. With the results of this analysis, we present time-step limits for the SI scheme that prevent undesirable behavior. We test the validity of our stability analysis and time-step limits with a set of numerical examples.

  1. Testing Models of Resonant Compton Scattering in X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, Jerome J.

    2000-01-01

    Over the performance period covered by the grant, the principal investigator modified a Monte Carlo Compton scattering code to model the propagation of x-rays through the magnetosphere of accreting neutron stars. These modifications were made to enable the author to compare the observations of x-ray pulsars to theoretical models of the system. The original code was designed to study relativistic plasmas with one of two geometries: a plane parallel plasma with a differential relativistic bulk velocity, and a static spherically symmetric plasma.- This code did not treat gravitational bending or bulk motion in the magnetosphere of a neutron star. Under the grant, the author incorporated code to trace light paths in a Schwarzschild metric. The code was modified to keep track of the photon polarization during propagati on. The investigator also modified the code so that bulk motion in an axisymmetric system is treated properly. An approximate treatment for resonant Compton scattering was added to the code. Finally, code was added that creates model observables that can be compared to observations, such as projected x-ray emission maps and energy-dependent light curves. Comparison to observations is now commencing.

  2. First measurement of Z/?* production in compton scattering of quasi-real photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OPAL Collaboration; Abbiendi, G.; Ackerstaff, K.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K. J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S. F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A. H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J. R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S. D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Böhme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, R. M.; Burckhart, H. J.; Burgard, C.; Bürgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J. E.; Cooke, O. C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R. L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Davis, R.; de Jong, S.; del Pozo, L. A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M. S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H. G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A. A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fürtjes, A.; Futyan, D. I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S. M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwé, M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Hargrove, C. K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R. J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R. D.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Hobson, P. R.; Hocker, A.; Homer, R. J.; Honma, A. K.; Horváth, D.; Hossain, K. R.; Howard, R.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D. C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F. R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C. R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T. R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P. I.; Keeler, R. K.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D. S.; Kokott, T. P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, R. V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S. R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J. G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A. M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A. W.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Long, G. D.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Liu, D.; Macchiolo, A.; MacPherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; McDonald, W. J.; McKenna, J.; McKigney, E. A.; McMahon, T. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H. A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S. W.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H. O.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Pálinkás, J.; Pásztor, G.; Pater, J. R.; Patrick, G. N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, D. E.; Poffenberger, P.; Polok, J.; Przybycie? , M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S. A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J. M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A. M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D. R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W. M.; Sarkisyan, E. K. G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, M.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W. G.; Seiler, T.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Snow, G. A.; Sobie, R.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, D.; Ströhmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S. D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M. A.; von Törne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trócsányi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A. S.; Turner-Watson, M. F.; van Kooten, R.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wäckerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; White, J. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1998-10-01

    We report the first observation of Z/?* production in Compton scattering of quasi-real photons. This is a subprocess of the reaction e+e--->e+e- Z/?*, where one of the final state electrons is undetected. Approximately 55 pb-1 of data collected in the year 1997 at an e+e- centre-of-mass energy of 183 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP have been analysed. The Z/?* from Compton scattering has been detected in the hadronic decay channel. Within well defined kinematic bounds, we measure the product of cross-section and Z/?* branching ratio to hadrons to be (0.9+/-0.3+/-0.1) pb for events with a hadronic mass larger than 60 GeV, dominated by (e)eZ production. In the hadronic mass region between 5 GeV and 60 GeV, dominated by (e)e?* production, this product is found to be (4.1+/-1.6+/-0.6) pb. Our results agree with the predictions of two Monte Carlo event generators, grc4f and PYTHIA.

  3. Deeply virtual Compton scattering and its beam charge asymmetry in e±p collisions at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H1 Collaboration; Aaron, F. D.; Martin, M. Aldaya; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J. C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deák, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jönsson, L.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wünsch, E.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2009-11-01

    A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering ??p??p using e+p and e-p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 306 pb-1, almost equally shared between both beam charges. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q2 of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the ??p system in the kinematic domain 6.5Compton scattering processes. Experimental results are discussed in the context of two different models, one based on generalised parton distributions and one based on the dipole approach.

  4. Deeply virtual Compton scattering and its beam charge asymmetry in e± p collisions at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Martin, M. Aldaya; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J. C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deák, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jönsson, L.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wünsch, E.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.; H1 Collaboration

    2009-11-01

    A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering ?? p ? ?p using e+ p and e- p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 306 pb-1, almost equally shared between both beam charges. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q2 of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the ?? p system in the kinematic domain 6.5 Compton scattering processes. Experimental results are discussed in the context of two different models, one based on generalised parton distributions and one based on the dipole approach.

  5. Unifying "soft" and "hard" diffractive exclusive vector meson production and deeply virtual Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, S.; Fiore, R.; Jenkovszky, L.; Salii, A.

    2014-07-01

    A Pomeron model applicable to both "soft" and "hard" processes is suggested and tested against the high-energy data from virtual photon-induced reactions. The Pomeron is universal, containing two terms, a soft and a hard one, whose relative weight varies with Q2˜=Q2+MV2, where Q2 is the virtuality of the incoming photon and MV is the mass of the produced vector particle. With a small number of adjustable parameters, the model fits all available data on vector meson production and deeply virtual Compton scattering from HERA. Furthermore, we attempt to apply the model to hadron-induced reactions, by using high-energy data on proton-proton scattering.

  6. Beam-helicity asymmetry arising from deeply virtual Compton scattering measured with kinematically complete event reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Belostotski, S.; Blok, H. P.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; De Leo, R.; De Nardo, L.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Etzelmüller, E.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Golembiovskaya, M.; Gregor, I. M.; Guler, H.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Ruiz, A. López; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; de la Ossa, A. Martinez; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrosyan, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stewart, J.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Truty, R.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Zagrebelnyy, V.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2012-10-01

    The beam-helicity asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of real photons by the longitudinally polarized Hera positron beam scattering off an unpolarized hydrogen target is measured at Hermes. The asymmetry arises from deeply virtual Compton scattering and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. Azimuthal amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry are extracted from a data sample consisting of ep ? ep? events with detection of all particles in the final state including the recoiling proton. The installation of a recoil detector, while reducing the acceptance of the experiment, allows the elimination of background from ep ? eN ?? events, which was estimated to contribute an average of about 12% to the signal in previous Hermes publications. The removal of this background from the present data sample is shown to increase the magnitude of the leading asymmetry amplitude by 0 .054 ± 0 .016 to -0 .328 ± 0 .027 (stat .) ± 0 .045 (syst .).

  7. Compton scattering for spectroscopic detection of ultra-fast, high flux, broad energy range X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiccia, S.; Wiggins, S. M.; Brunetti, E.; Vieux, G.; Yang, X.; Welsh, G. H.; Anania, M.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Jaroszynski, D. A. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)] [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Maneuski, D.; Montgomery, R.; Smith, G.; Hoek, M.; Hamilton, D. J.; Shea, V. O. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)] [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Issac, R. C. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom) [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Research Department of Physics, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam 686666, Kerala (India); Lemos, N. R. C.; Dias, J. M. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas eFusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)] [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas eFusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Symes, D. R. [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom)] [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-11-15

    Compton side-scattering has been used to simultaneously downshift the energy of keV to MeV energy range photons while attenuating their flux to enable single-shot, spectrally resolved, measurements of high flux X-ray sources to be undertaken. To demonstrate the technique a 1 mm thick pixelated cadmium telluride detector has been used to measure spectra of Compton side-scattered radiation from a Cobalt-60 laboratory source and a high flux, high peak brilliance X-ray source of betatron radiation from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator.

  8. Compton scattering of an X-ray photon by an open-shell atom

    SciTech Connect

    Hopersky, A. N., E-mail: hopersky_vm_1@rgups.ru; Nadolinsky, A. M. [Rostov State University of Transport Communication (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    A nonrelativistic quantum theory for the nonresonant Compton scattering of an X-ray photon by a free many-electron atom with an open shell in the ground state has been constructed in the single-configuration Hartree-Fock approximation outside the impulse approximation widely used in the literature. The transition to an atom with closed shells reproduces the results obtained previously in [6, 7]. The results of a test calculation for atoms with open (Ti, Fe) and closed (Zn) 3d core shells are presented. The effects of the radial relaxation of one-electron states in the field of core vacancies have been taken into account. The results of the calculation agree well with the experimental results [15, 16]. It has been established that the results of the impulse approximation in the investigated X-ray photon energy ranges disagree with those of our theory not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. In particular, the impulse approximation near the elastic (Thomson and Rayleigh) scattering line leads to a gross overestimation of the contributions from the deep atomic shells involved in the inelastic photon scattering only virtually to the scattering probability. The presented theory is general in character and its applicability to a particular element of the Mendeleev table with an open core shell or to a many-electron atomic ion is limited only by the requirement that the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock approximation be properly used in describing the scattering-state wave functions.

  9. Low-noise double-sided silicon strip detector for multiple-compton gamma-ray telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyasu Tajima; Tuneyoshi Kamae; Shingo Uno; Tatsuya Nakamoto; Yasushi Fukazawa; Takefumi Mitani; Tadayuki Takahashi; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Yu Okada; Masaharu Nomachi

    2003-01-01

    The Semiconductor Multiple-Compton Telescope (SMCT) is being developed to explore the gamma-ray universe in an energy band 0.1--20 MeV, which is not well covered by the present or near-future gamma-ray telescopes. The key feature of the SMCT is the high energy resolution that is crucial for high angular resolution and high background rejection capability. We have developed prototype modules for

  10. Femtosecond laser clocked compact X-band high gradient photoinjector and accelerator for Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefano, Christopher A.

    High brightness and low emittance electron beams have found application throughout a variety of scientific research. The ability to produce such beams in the MeV range has previously been restricted to National Laboratory size facilities. While these sources have been successful, the reduction in size could provide valuable access for further scientific endeavors. One such application is the production of monochromatic x-rays through Compton scattering with a high intensity laser pulse. These x-rays would be tunable from 10 keV to more than 100 keV. A compact source of synchrotron type radiation capable of installation in medical institutions would be desirable for further investigation. A combination of X-band microwave and vacuum technologies developed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) was assembled. The system uses a pair of X-band klystrons. The first provides the microwave drive power for a 5.5 cell RF gun capable of operating with an accelerating gradient of 200 MV/m. Following the RF gun is a 1.05 m linac capable of accelerating the electron bunches to over 60 MeV with an energy spread of less than 1%. Using a novel frequency selection scheme a Titantium:Sapphire femtosecond laser oscillator serves as both the master clock for the microwave components and optical seed for the following amplifiers. This insures the tabletop laser amplifiers are inherently synchronized to the RF sources. A regenerative amplifier provides the first boost in energy. Half of the output is used for producing UV light for photo injection of the RF gun. The other half is sent to a multi-pass amplifier capable of producing 100 mJ pulses compressed to 50 fs for the Compton scattering. This interaction laser is then focused inside the electron beam vacuum system. The final timing between the optical pulses and the electron beam is achieved with a physical delay line placed after the final amplifier compressor. Background Bremsstrahlung radiation due to interception of the electron beam limited initial detection of the Compton x-rays. The first evidence of Compton x-rays was demonstrated through a scan of the time delay between the electron bunch and the optical pulse at the point of collision.

  11. Risk management approach for de-orbiting of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Mangus, David; Burch, Preston

    2001-10-01

    De-orbiting of space debris into Earth is one of the methods to control and minimize the degradation of the space environment. The de-orbiting scenario poses a challenge of providing safety for the Earth population and other space-based assets below the orbit track of the spacecraft being de-orbited. Rigorous risk management is needed to provide the necessary safety margin for de-orbit operations. These challenges were faced during the controlled de-orbit of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) into the Pacific Ocean on June 4, 2000. This paper presents a risk management approach utilized at various stages of this mission; processes used to identify credible contingencies; and planned responses to contingencies for use during mission execution.

  12. Non Linear Compton Scattering of Strong Laser Radiation on Channeled Particles in a Crystal

    E-print Network

    A. K. Avetissian; K. Z. Hatsagortsian; G. F. Mkrtchian; Kh. V. Sedrakian

    2001-08-31

    A version for intense $\\gamma $-ray radiation based on the multiphoton scattering of strong laser radiation on relativistic particle beam channeled in a crystal is proposed. The scheme is considered when the incident laser beam and charged paricles beam are counter-propagating and the laser radiation is resonant to the energy levels of transversal motion of channeled particles.

  13. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on a longitudinally polarized deuterium target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Golembiovskaya, M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, N.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; López Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, X.-G.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; de La Ossa, A. Martinez; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Müller, D.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Pickert, N.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanftl, F.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van Haarlem, Y.; van Hulse, C.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Vogel, C.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.; Hermes Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from a longitudinally polarized deuterium target are measured with respect to target polarization alone and with respect to target polarization combined with beam helicity and/or beam charge. The asymmetries appear in the distribution of the real photons in the azimuthal angle ? around the virtual photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. The results for the beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries from a tensor polarized deuterium target with vanishing vector polarization are shown to be compatible with those from an unpolarized deuterium target, which is expected for incoherent scattering dominant at larger momentum transfer. Furthermore, the results for the single target-spin asymmetry and for the double-spin asymmetry are found to be compatible with the corresponding asymmetries previously measured on a hydrogen target. For coherent scattering on the deuteron at small momentum transfer to the target, these findings imply that the tensor contribution to the cross section is small. Furthermore, the tensor asymmetry is found to be compatible with zero.

  14. Mobile, hybrid Compton/coded aperture imaging for detection, identification and localization of gamma-ray sources at stand-off distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornga, Shawn R.

    The Stand-off Radiation Detection System (SORDS) program is an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) project through the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) with the goal of detection, identification and localization of weak radiological sources in the presence of large dynamic backgrounds. The Raytheon-SORDS Tri-Modal Imager (TMI) is a mobile truck-based, hybrid gamma-ray imaging system able to quickly detect, identify and localize, radiation sources at standoff distances through improved sensitivity while minimizing the false alarm rate. Reconstruction of gamma-ray sources is performed using a combination of two imaging modalities; coded aperture and Compton scatter imaging. The TMI consists of 35 sodium iodide (NaI) crystals 5x5x2 in3 each, arranged in a random coded aperture mask array (CA), followed by 30 position sensitive NaI bars each 24x2.5x3 in3 called the detection array (DA). The CA array acts as both a coded aperture mask and scattering detector for Compton events. The large-area DA array acts as a collection detector for both Compton scattered events and coded aperture events. In this thesis, developed coded aperture, Compton and hybrid imaging algorithms will be described along with their performance. It will be shown that multiple imaging modalities can be fused to improve detection sensitivity over a broader energy range than either alone. Since the TMI is a moving system, peripheral data, such as a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) must also be incorporated. A method of adapting static imaging algorithms to a moving platform has been developed. Also, algorithms were developed in parallel with detector hardware, through the use of extensive simulations performed with the Geometry and Tracking Toolkit v4 (GEANT4). Simulations have been well validated against measured data. Results of image reconstruction algorithms at various speeds and distances will be presented as well as localization capability. Utilizing imaging information will show signal-to-noise gains over spectroscopic algorithms alone.

  15. Proposal for an advanced hybrid K-edge/XRF densitometry (HKED) using a monochromatic photon beam from laser Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hajima, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Sonoda, Takashi; Seya, Michio

    2011-10-01

    The general purpose Monte Carlo electron-gamma shower computer code (EGS5) was used to obtain the U, Np, and Pu X-ray response from the hybrid K-edge/XRF densitometry (HKED). In the present simulation, we adopt a monochromatic, linearly polarized photon beam generated by using inverse Compton scattering of laser light with high-energy electrons from an energy recovery linac. The simulation has been carried out under various conditions of the U, Np, and Pu concentrations to investigate the effect of counting rates as well as counting precision. The results of the simulation show that the assessment time for low concentration Pu input solutions is reduced by improving the signal-to-background ratios. It is also shown that the Np concentration is determined with the counting precision of 0.67-1.8% in standard deviation during 1 h live time measurement for a 3N HNO 3 sample solution (1.1-1.3 g/cm 2) including U (10-200 g/L), Np (0.1 g/L), and Pu (10 g/L).

  16. Search for periodic gamma-ray emission from Cygnus X-3 by the EGRET telescope on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory observed the Cygnus region of the Galaxy during the periods 1991 May 30-June 8 and 1991 August 8-15. We report on a periodicity analysis of the gamma rays originating from the direction of Cygnus X-3. This analysis showed no evidence of periodic modulation during these observations of the gamma-ray emission at the approximately 4.8 hr period observed at X-ray wavelengths.

  17. Compton Scattering Focused X-Ray Source for Advanced Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, T. S.; Hartemann, F. V.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The generation of tunable, focused X-ray pulses via ultrahigh intensity Compton backscattering is a subject of considerable importance, with numerous potential applications ranging from biology and medicine to basic research and microchip technology. The practical realization of such a revolutionary light source, however, has been hampered by three serious problems : the lack of ultrahigh intensity sources at optical wavelengths, the absence of focusing optics in the X-ray range, and the nonlinear Doppler shift associated with ultrahigh intensity Compton scattering, which distributes the X-ray energy over many spectral lines. The first issue has now been resolved through the pioneering of laser chirped pulse amplification (CPA). The remaining issues are addressed by two novel ideas : electron beam lensing of the X-rays, and holographic filtering at the Fourier plane of a CPA laser to generate flat-top laser pulses with constant Doppler shift during the interaction. Combined together, these ideas alleviate the major potential problems for the production of focused X-rays.

  18. The NarrowDelta Transition from Simultaneous Measurements of p(gamma,gamma) and p(gamma,pi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James I. Tonnison

    1997-01-01

    Elastic (Compton) scattering of intermediate energy photons from the proton is a rich source of information on nucleon structure. Of particular interest are the gamma N Delta coupling constants, with the electric coupling related to nucleon deformation, and the electric baralpha and magnetic barbeta nucleon polarizabilities. Compton scattering is tied to both pi-photoproduction and pi N elastic scattering through a

  19. Avalanche Photon Cooling by Induced Compton Scattering: Higher-Order Kompaneets Equation

    E-print Network

    Tanaka, Shuta J; Terasawa, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Induced Compton scattering (ICS) is an interaction between intense electro-magnetic radiations and plasmas, where ICS transfers the energy from photons to plasmas. Although ICS is important for laser plasma interactions in laboratory experiments and for radio emission from pulsars propagating in pulsar wind plasmas, the detail of photon cooling process has not been understood. The problem is that, when ICS dominates, evolution of photon spectra is described as a nonlinear convection equation, which makes photon spectra to be multi-valued. Here, we propose a new approach to treat evolution of photon spectra affected by ICS. Starting from the higher-order Kompaneets equation, we find a new equation that resolves the unphysical behavior of photon spectra. In addition, we find the steady-state analytic solution, which is linearly stable. We also successfully simulate the evolution of photon spectra without artificial viscosity. We find that photons rapidly lose their energy by ICS with continuously forming solita...

  20. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and Meson Production at Jlab/CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Hyon-Suk Jo

    2012-04-01

    This report reviews the recent experimental results from the CLAS collaboration (Hall B of Jefferson Lab, or JLab) on Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP) and discusses their interpretation in the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). The impact of the experimental data on the applicability of the GPD mechanism to these exclusive reactions is discussed. Initial results obtained from JLab 6 GeV data indicate that DVCS might already be interpretable in this framework while GPD models fail to describe the exclusive meson production (DVMP) data with the GPD parameterizations presently used. An exception is the {phi} meson production for which the GPD mechanism appears to apply. The recent global analyses aiming to extract GPDs from fitting DVCS CLAS and world data are discussed. The GPD experimental program at CLAS12, planned with the upcoming 12 GeV upgrade of JLab, is briefly presented.

  1. Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering and its t-dependence at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H1 Collaboration; Aaron, F. D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering ?p??p using ep collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 145 pb. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the ?p system in the kinematic domain 6.5

  2. Spin polarizabilities and polarizabilities of the nucleon studied by free and quasi-free Compton scattering at MAMI (Mainz)

    E-print Network

    Martin Schumacher

    2003-09-15

    In addition to the E2/M1 ratio of the N->$\\Delta$ transition, the electromagnetic polarizabilities and spin-polarizabilities are important structure constants of the nucleon which serve as sensitive tests of chiral perturbation theory and of models of the nucleon. Recently, these quantities have been investigated experimentally at MAMI (Mainz) by high-precision Compton scattering using hydrogen and deuterium targets, where for the latter the method of quasi-free scattering has been applied.

  3. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, and ULYSSES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laros, J. G.; Hurley, K. C.; Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Briggs, M. S.; Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Cline, T. L.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.

    1998-10-01

    Between the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) launch in 1991 April and the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) demise in 1992 October, concurrent coverage by CGRO, PVO, and Ulysses was obtained for several hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the PVO and Ulysses thresholds, 37 were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to ~2° accuracy by the CGRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), and three were also localized by COMPTEL. We computed arrival-time error boxes, whose larger dimensions range from about 2' to several degrees and whose smaller dimensions are in the arcminute range. Twelve have areas less than 10 arcmin2, and only four have areas greater than 1 deg2. The area of the smallest box is 0.44 arcmin2. We find that the overall BATSE localization accuracy for these events is consistent with the most recent stated uncertainties. This work indicates that the ROSAT soft X-ray source found within a preliminary IPN error box for GB920501 (Trig 1576) (Hurley et al.) is less likely to be the GRB counterpart than previously reported.

  4. 500 MW X-Band RF System of a 0.25 GeV Electron LINAC for Advanced Compton Scattering Source Application

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Tak Sum; /LLNL, Livermore; Anderson, Scott; /LLNL, Livermore; Barty, Christopher; /LLNL, Livermore; Gibson, David; /LLNL, Livermore; Hartemann, Fred; /LLNL, Livermore; Marsh, Roark; /LLNL, Livermore; Siders, Craig; /LLNL, Livermore; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC; Wang, Juwen; /SLAC

    2012-07-03

    A Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering light source is being developed at LLNL in collaboration with the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The electron beam for the Compton scattering interaction will be generated by a X-band RF gun and a X-band LINAC at the frequency of 11.424 GHz. High power RF in excess of 500 MW is needed to accelerate the electrons to energy of 250 MeV or greater for the interaction. Two high power klystron amplifiers, each capable of generating 50 MW, 1.5 msec pulses, will be the main high power RF sources for the system. These klystrons will be powered by state of the art solid-state high voltage modulators. A RF pulse compressor, similar to the SLED II pulse compressor, will compress the klystron output pulse with a power gain factor of five. For compactness consideration, we are looking at a folded waveguide setup. This will give us 500 MW at output of the compressor. The compressed pulse will then be distributed to the RF gun and to six traveling wave accelerator sections. Phase and amplitude control are located at the RF gun input and additional control points along the LINAC to allow for parameter control during operation. This high power RF system is being designed and constructed. In this paper, we will present the design, layout, and status of this RF system.

  5. Magnetism of CaRu{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3}: Magnetic Compton scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Mizusaki, S.; Taniguchi, T.; Okada, N.; Nagata, Y. [College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 157-8572 (Japan); Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/Spring-8), Sayo, Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ozawa, T. C. [Nanoscale Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Noro, Y. [Kawazoe Frontier Technologies, Co., Ltd., Kuden, Sakae, Yokohama, Kanagawa 931-113 (Japan); Samata, H. [Faculty of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukaeminami, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-0022 (Japan)

    2008-04-01

    The magnetism of CaRu{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} was studied using magnetic Compton scattering measurements for polycrystalline specimens at 10 K under 2.5 T using a synchrotron-radiation x ray. The spin moment deduced from the magnetic Compton profiles has a maximum at x=0.7 and the value agrees with the result of the magnetization measurement. The magnetic Compton profiles indicate that the Mn spin moment is dominant in magnetization and that Ru moment, which is induced with Mn doping, couples with Mn spin moment antiferromagnetically. The results suggest that a sort of ferrimagnetism is established in the CaRu{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} system.

  6. A new data treatment scheme for integrated intensities in neutron Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzystyniak, M.; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C. A.

    2008-03-01

    A new data reduction scheme is presented for time-of-flight data collected in neutron Compton scattering experiments with the aim of obtaining the scattering intensities. The method proposed is a single number approach as it makes use of the count rates detected in the individual time-of-flight channels. The most convenient seems to be the variant of the method where time-of-flight channels are chosen corresponding to centers of recoil peaks of individual masses. With such a choice of time-of-flight channels, the method presented is more robust against unwanted background signals and noise than the method widely used in NCS studies based on fitting entire time-of-flight band shapes in the framework of the convolution approximation. Moreover, it should perform better than the model-free Dorner method as it does not require the numerical integration of the signal, which is also sensitive to baseline and noise. As an example of the performance of the new method, polyethylene data are treated and compared to results obtained previously using conventional data reduction and the model-free method proposed by Dorner. It is shown that all three data reduction schemes lead to the same results for the scattering intensities of protons in polyethylene, thus strengthening the conclusion about the anomalous scattering cross-section of protons in this substance. In the future the new data reduction scheme can be used to treat the data from other experiments where the conventional NCS data treatment and/or Dorner method fail due to noise and/or unwanted background signals present in the time-of-flight spectra.

  7. The Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera of the ASTRO-H Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shin; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ichinohe, Yuto; Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Enoto, Teruaki; Fukuyama, Taro; Furui, Shunya; Genba, Kei; Hagino, Kouichi; Harayama, Atsushi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu; Matsuura, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ryo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Noda, Hirofumi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohta, Masayuki; Onishi, Mitsunobu; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Goro; Sato, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Togo, Atsushi; Tomizuka, Shinji

    2014-11-01

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) is one of the instrument payloads onboard ASTRO-H, and will cover a wide energy band (60-600 keV) at a background level 10 times better than instruments currently in orbit. The SGD achieves low background by combining a Compton camera scheme with a narrow field-of-view active shield. The Compton camera in the SGD is realized as a hybrid semiconductor detector system which consists of silicon and cadmium telluride (CdTe) sensors. The design of the SGD Compton camera has been finalized and the final prototype, which has the same configuration as the flight model, has been fabricated for performance evaluation. The Compton camera has overall dimensions of 12 cm×12 cm×12 cm, consisting of 32 layers of Si pixel sensors and 8 layers of CdTe pixel sensors surrounded by 2 layers of CdTe pixel sensors. The detection efficiency of the Compton camera reaches about 15% and 3% for 100 keV and 511 keV gamma rays, respectively. The pixel pitch of the Si and CdTe sensors is 3.2 mm, and the signals from all 13,312 pixels are processed by 208 ASICs developed for the SGD. Good energy resolution is afforded by semiconductor sensors and low noise ASICs, and the obtained energy resolutions with the prototype Si and CdTe pixel sensors are 1.0-2.0 keV (FWHM) at 60 keV and 1.6-2.5 keV (FWHM) at 122 keV, respectively. This results in good background rejection capability due to better constraints on Compton kinematics. Compton camera energy resolutions achieved with the final prototype are 6.3 keV (FWHM) at 356 keV and 10.5 keV (FWHM) at 662 keV, which satisfy the instrument requirements for the SGD Compton camera (better than 2%). Moreover, a low intrinsic background has been confirmed by the background measurement with the final prototype.

  8. Performance of a low noise front-end ASIC for Si\\/CdTe detectors in Compton gamma-ray telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyasu Tajima; Tatsuya Nakamoto; Takaaki Tanaka; Shingo Uno; Takefumi Mitani; Ed. Ce. Silva; Yasushi Fukazawa; Tuneyoshi Kamae; Grzegorz Madejski; Daniel Marlow; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Masaharu Nomachi; Y. Okada; Tadayuki Takahashi

    2004-01-01

    Compton telescopes based on semiconductor technologies are being developed to explore the gamma-ray universe in an energy band 0.1-20 MeV, which is not well covered by the present or near-future gamma-ray telescopes. The key feature of such Compton telescopes is the high energy resolution that is crucial for high angular resolution and high background rejection capability. The energy resolution around

  9. Performance of a low noise front-end ASIC for Si\\/CdTe detectors in Compton gamma-ray telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyasu Tajima; Tatsuya Nakamoto; Takaaki Tanaka; Shingo Uno; Takefumi Mitani; E. do Couto e Silva; Y. Fukazawa; T. Kamae; G. Madejski; D. Marlow; K. Nakazawa; M. Nomachi; Y. Okada; T. Takahashi

    2003-01-01

    Compton telescopes based on semiconductor technologies are being developed to explore the gamma-ray universe in an energy band 0.1-20 MeV, which is not well covered by the present or near-future gamma-ray telescopes. The key feature of such Compton telescopes is the high energy resolution that is crucial for high angular resolution and high background rejection capability. The energy resolution around

  10. Deeply virtual Compton scattering at small x in future electron-ion colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Pires, D. S.

    2015-05-01

    The study of exclusive processes in the future electron-ion (e A ) colliders will be an important tool to investigate the QCD dynamics at high energies as they are in general driven by the gluon content of the target which is strongly subject to parton saturation effects. In this paper we compute the coherent and incoherent cross sections for the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process relying on the color dipole approach and considering different models for the dipole-proton scattering amplitude. The dependencies of the cross sections with the energy, photon virtuality, nuclear mass number, and squared momentum transfer are analyzed in detail. We demonstrate that the ratio between the incoherent and coherent cross sections decreases at smaller values of Q2 and increases at smaller values of A . We show that the coherent cross section dominates at small t and exhibits the typical diffractive pattern, with the number of dips in the range |t | ?0.3 GeV2 increasing with the mass atomic number. Our results indicate that the position of the dips are independent of the model used to treat the dipole-proton interaction as well as of the center-of-mass energy.

  11. Experimental Results of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Capability With a Si\\/CdTe Semiconductor Compton Camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin'ichiro Takeda; Hiroyuki Aono; Sho Okuyama; Shin-Nosuke Ishikawa; Hirokazu Odaka; Shin Watanabe; Motohide Kokubun; Tadayuki Takahashi; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Hiroyasu Tajima; Naoki Kawachi

    2009-01-01

    A semiconductor Compton camera that combines silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors was developed, and its imaging capability was examined with various kinds of gamma-ray targets such as a point source, arranged point sources and an extended source. The camera consists of one double-sided Si strip detector and four layers of CdTe pad detectors, and was designed to minimize

  12. Determination of Vanadium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in Conjunction with Compton Suppression Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    W. H. Zhang; A. Chatt

    2000-11-12

    The toxicity of vanadium has been known for a long time. It is only recently that vanadium has been recognized as an essential trace element. The determination of vanadium with high precision and accuracy in tissues, foods, and other biological materials is needed for the purpose of studying its effect on human nutrition and health. Several techniques such as spectrophotometry, atomic absorption, X-ray fluorescence, and neutron activation analysis (NAA) can be used for its determination. Vanadium can be determined by NAA through its short-lived nuclide {sup 52}V produced via the {sup 51}V(n, {gamma}){sup 52}V reaction; it has a 1434.2-keV gamma ray and a half-life of 3.74 min. It has been reported that {sup 52}V has sufficient sensitivity for its measurement down to nanogram levels. However, it is seldom assayed in practice by instrumental NAA (INAA) in conjunction with conventional gamma-ray spectrometry, in particular for low vanadium content in high-salt biological materials, due to the Compton background interference from nuclides such as {sup 28}Al, {sup 38}Cl, {sup 56}Mn, and {sup 24}Na. Alternatively, radiochemical NAA or preconcentration NAA methods are used to separate vanadium from the major and interfering elements. A Compton suppression counting technique can be beneficially used under such situations. One of the objectives of this work was to fully explore the advantages of Compton suppression counting for the determination of vanadium in biological samples.

  13. Radon transforms on generalized Cormack's curves and a new Compton scatter tomography This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Nguyen-Verger, Maï K.

    Radon transforms on generalized Cormack's curves and a new Compton scatter tomography modality:10.1088/0266-5611/27/12/125001 Radon transforms on generalized Cormack's curves and a new Compton/125001 Abstract In his seminal work of 1981, Cormack established that Radon transforms defined on two remarkable

  14. Trajectory Design and Control for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Re-Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, Susan; Vaughn, Frank; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) controlled re-entry operation was successfully conducted in June of 2000. The surviving parts of the spacecraft landed in the Pacific Ocean within the predicted footprint. The design of the maneuvers to control the trajectory to accomplish this re-entry presented several challenges. These challenges included timing and duration of the maneuvers, fuel management, post maneuver position knowledge, collision avoidance with other spacecraft, accounting for the break-up of the spacecraft into several pieces with a wide range of ballistic coefficients, and ensuring that the impact footprint would remain within the desired landing area in the event of contingencies. This paper presents the initial re-entry trajectory design and the evolution of the design into the maneuver sequence used for the re-entry. The paper discusses the constraints on the trajectory design, the modifications made to the initial design and the reasons behind these modifications. Data from the re-entry operation are presented.

  15. The detector response matrices of the burst and transient source experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Paciesas, William S.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Koshut, Tom M.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Horack, John M.; Lestrade, John Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The detector response matrices for the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) are described, including their creation and operation in data analysis. These response matrices are a detailed abstract representation of the gamma-ray detectors' operating characteristics that are needed for data analysis. They are constructed from an extensive set of calibration data coupled with a complex geometry electromagnetic cascade Monte Carlo simulation code. The calibration tests and simulation algorithm optimization are described. The characteristics of the BATSE detectors in the spacecraft environment are also described.

  16. Inverse Compton Origin of the Hard X-ray and Soft gamma-ray Emission from the Galactic Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Troy A.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Orlando, Elena; Bouchet, Laurent

    2008-09-30

    A recent re-determination of the non-thermal component of the hard X-ray to soft {gamma}-ray emission from the Galactic ridge, using the SPI instrument on the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) Observatory, is shown to be well reproduced as inverse-Compton emission from the interstellar medium. Both cosmic-ray primary electrons and secondary electrons and positrons contribute to the emission. The prediction uses the GALPROP model and includes a new calculation of the interstellar radiation field. This may solve a long-standing mystery of the origin of this emission, and potentially opens a new window on Galactic cosmic rays.

  17. Inversion of a new circular-arc Radon transform for Compton scattering tomography This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Nguyen-Verger, Maï K.

    Inversion of a new circular-arc Radon transform for Compton scattering tomography This article has:10.1088/0266-5611/26/6/065005 Inversion of a new circular-arc Radon transform for Compton scattering-arc Radon transform arising from the mathematical modeling of image formation in a new modality of Compton

  18. Evaluation of Compton gamma camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe detectors

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Y.; Chmeissani, M.; Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A proposed Compton camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe is simulated and evaluated in order to establish its feasibility and expected performance in real laboratory tests. The system is based on module units containing a 2×4 array of square CdTe detectors of 10×10 mm2 area and 2 mm thickness. The detectors are pixelated and stacked forming a 3D detector with voxel sizes of 2 × 1 × 2 mm3. The camera performance is simulated with Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations(GAMOS) and the Origin Ensemble(OE) algorithm is used for the image reconstruction. The simulation shows that the camera can operate with up to 104 Bq source activities with equal efficiency and is completely saturated at 109 Bq. The efficiency of the system is evaluated using a simulated 18F point source phantom in the center of the Field-of-View (FOV) achieving an intrinsic efficiency of 0.4 counts per second per kilobecquerel. The spatial resolution measured from the point spread function (PSF) shows a FWHM of 1.5 mm along the direction perpendicular to the scatterer, making it possible to distinguish two points at 3 mm separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8. PMID:24932209

  19. Evaluation of Compton gamma camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe detectors.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Y; Chmeissani, M; Kolstein, M; De Lorenzo, G

    2014-06-01

    A proposed Compton camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe is simulated and evaluated in order to establish its feasibility and expected performance in real laboratory tests. The system is based on module units containing a 2×4 array of square CdTe detectors of 10×10 mm(2) area and 2 mm thickness. The detectors are pixelated and stacked forming a 3D detector with voxel sizes of 2 × 1 × 2 mm(3). The camera performance is simulated with Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations(GAMOS) and the Origin Ensemble(OE) algorithm is used for the image reconstruction. The simulation shows that the camera can operate with up to 10(4) Bq source activities with equal efficiency and is completely saturated at 10(9) Bq. The efficiency of the system is evaluated using a simulated (18) F point source phantom in the center of the Field-of-View (FOV) achieving an intrinsic efficiency of 0.4 counts per second per kilobecquerel. The spatial resolution measured from the point spread function (PSF) shows a FWHM of 1.5 mm along the direction perpendicular to the scatterer, making it possible to distinguish two points at 3 mm separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8. PMID:24932209

  20. Virtual Compton Scattering and the Generalized Polarizabilities of the Proton at Q^2=0.92 and 1.76 GeV^2

    SciTech Connect

    Helene Fonvieille, Geraud Laveissiere, Natalie Degrande, Stephanie Jaminion, Christophe Jutier, Luminita Todor, L. Van Hoorebeke, Bryon Anderson, Konrad Aniol, Kathleen Arundell, Gerard Audit, Leonard Auerbach, F. Baker, Maud Baylac, J. Berthot, Pierre Bertin, William Bertozzi, Louis Bimbot, Werner Boeglin, Edward Brash, Vincent Breton, Herbert Breuer, Etienne Burtin, John Calarco, Lawrence Cardman, Christian Cavata, Jian-Ping Chen, Eugene Chudakov, Evaristo Cisbani, Daniel Dale, Cornelis De Jager, Raffaele De Leo, Alexandre Deur, Nicole D'Hose, Gail Dodge, John Domingo, Latifa Elouadrhiri, Martin Epstein, Lars Ewell, John Finn, Kevin Fissum, Guy Fournier, Bernhard Frois, Salvatore Frullani, Christophe Furget, Haiyan Gao, Juncai Gao, Franco Garibaldi, Ashot Gasparian, Shalev Gilad, Ronald Gilman, Oleksandr Glamazdin, Charles Glashausser, Javier Gomez, Viktor Gorbenko, Pierre Guichon, Jens-Ole Hansen, Richard Holmes, Maurik Holtrop, Calvin Howell, Garth Huber, Charles Hyde, Sebastien Incerti, Mauro Iodice, Johann Jardillier, Mark Jones, Seigo Kato, James Kelly, Armen Ketikyan, Mohammad Khayat, Kouichi Kino, Serge Kox, Laird Kramer, Krishna Kumar, Gerfried Kumbartzki, Michael Kuss, Antonio Leone, John LeRose, Richard Lindgren, Nilanga Liyanage, George Lolos, Kazushige Maeda, Sergey Malov, D. Manley, Claude Marchand, Dominique Marchand, Demetrius Margaziotis, Pete Markowitz, Jacques Marroncle, Jacques Martino, Kathy McCormick, James McIntyre, Surik Mehrabyan, Fernand Merchez, Zein-Eddine Meziani, Robert Michaels, Jean Mougey, Sirish Nanda, Amra Offermann, Zisis Papandreou, Charles Perdrisat, R. Perrino, Gerassimos Petratos, Stephane Platchkov, Roman Pomatsalyuk, David Prout, Vina Punjabi, Thierry Pussieux, Gilles Quemener, Ronald Ransome, Oliver Ravel, Jean-Sebastien Real, Yves Roblin, David Rowntree, Gary Rutledge, Paul Rutt, Arunava Saha, Teijiro Saito, Adam Sarty, Tim Smith, Paul Souder, Riad Suleiman, Jeffrey Templon, Tatsuo Terasawa, Raphael Tieulent, Egle Tomasi, Hiroaki Tsubota, Hiroaki Ueno, Paul Ulmer, Guido Urciuoli, Marc Vanderhaeghen, Rob van der Meer, R.Van De Vyver, Pascal Vernin, Branislav Vlahovic, Hakob Voskanyan, Eric Voutier, John Watson, Lawrence Weinstein, Krishni Wijesooriya, Richard Wilson, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Dan Zainea, Zilu Zhou, Rachele Di Salvo

    2012-07-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) on the proton has been studied at Jefferson Lab using the exclusive photon electroproduction reaction (e p --> e p gamma). This paper gives a detailed account of the analysis which has led to the determination of the structure functions P{sub LL}-P{sub TT}/epsilon and P{sub LT}, and the electric and magnetic generalized polarizabilities (GPs) alpha{sub E}(Q{sup 2}) and beta{sub M}(Q{sup 2}) at values of the four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} = 0.92 and 1.76 GeV{sup 2}. These data, together with the results of VCS experiments at lower momenta, help building a coherent picture of the electric and magnetic GPs of the proton over the full measured Q{sup 2}-range, and point to their non-trivial behavior.

  1. Virtual Compton Scattering and the Generalized Polarizabilities of the Proton at Q^2=0.92 and 1.76 GeV^2

    E-print Network

    H. Fonvieille; G. Laveissiere; N. Degrande; S. Jaminion; C. Jutier; L. Todor; R. Di Salvo; L. Van Hoorebeke; L. C. Alexa; B. D. Anderson; K. A. Aniol; K. Arundell; G. Audit; L. Auerbach; F. T. Baker; M. Baylac; J. Berthot; P. Y. Bertin; W. Bertozzi; L. Bimbot; W. U. Boeglin; E. J. Brash; V. Breton; H. Breuer; E. Burtin; J. R. Calarco; L. S. Cardman; C. Cavata; C. -C. Chang; J. -P. Chen; E. Chudakov; E. Cisbani; D. S. Dale; C. W. deJager; R. De Leo; A. Deur; N. d'Hose; G. E. Dodge; J. J. Domingo; L. Elouadrhiri; M. B. Epstein; L. A. Ewell; J. M. Finn; K. G. Fissum; G. Fournier; B. Frois; S. Frullani; C. Furget; H. Gao; J. Gao; F. Garibaldi; A. Gasparian; S. Gilad; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; V. Gorbenko; P. Grenier; P. A. M. Guichon; J. O. Hansen; R. Holmes; M. Holtrop; C. Howell; G. M. Huber; C. E. Hyde; S. Incerti; M. Iodice; J. Jardillier; M. K. Jones; W. Kahl; S. Kato; A. T. Katramatou; J. J. Kelly; S. Kerhoas; A. Ketikyan; M. Khayat; K. Kino; S. Kox; L. H. Kramer; K. S. Kumar; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; A. Leone; J. J. LeRose; M. Liang; R. A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G. J. Lolos; R. W. Lourie; R. Madey; K. Maeda; S. Malov; D. M. Manley; C. Marchand; D. Marchand; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; J. Marroncle; J. Martino; K. McCormick; J. McIntyre; S. Mehrabyan; F. Merchez; Z. E. Meziani; R. Michaels; G. W. Miller; J. Y. Mougey; S. K. Nanda; D. Neyret; E. A. J. M. Offermann; Z. Papandreou; B. Pasquini; C. F. Perdrisat; R. Perrino; G. G. Petratos; S. Platchkov; R. Pomatsalyuk; D. L. Prout; V. A. Punjabi; T. Pussieux; G. Quemener; R. D. Ransome; O. Ravel; J. S. Real; F. Renard; Y. Roblin; D. Rowntree; G. Rutledge; P. M. Rutt; A. Saha; T. Saito; A. J. Sarty; A. Serdarevic; T. Smith; G. Smirnov; K. Soldi; P. Sorokin; P. A. Souder; R. Suleiman; J. A. Templon; T. Terasawa; R. Tieulent; E. Tomasi-Gustaffson; H. Tsubota; H. Ueno; P. E. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; M. Vanderhaeghen; R. L. J. Van der Meer; R. Van De Vyver; P. Vernin; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; E. Voutier; J. W. Watson; L. B. Weinstein; K. Wijesooriya; R. Wilson; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; D. G. Zainea; W. -M. Zhang; J. Zhao; Z. -L. Zhou

    2012-06-28

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) on the proton has been studied at Jefferson Lab using the exclusive photon electroproduction reaction (e p --> e p gamma). This paper gives a detailed account of the analysis which has led to the determination of the structure functions P_LL-P_TT/epsilon and P_LT, and the electric and magnetic generalized polarizabilities (GPs) alpha_E(Q^2) and beta_M(Q^2) at values of the four-momentum transfer squared Q^2= 0.92 and 1.76 GeV^2. These data, together with the results of VCS experiments at lower momenta, help building a coherent picture of the electric and magnetic GPs of the proton over the full measured Q^2-range, and point to their non-trivial behavior.

  2. Compton scattering and charge transfer in Er substituted DyAl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, B. L.; Mohammad, F. M.; Mohammed, S. F.; Sahariya, Jagrati; Mund, H. S.; Heda, N. L.

    2015-02-01

    A unique applicability of Compton spectroscopy in probing the electronic states of rare earth aluminides using high energy (662 keV) ?-rays is reported. We have measured first-ever Compton profiles of Dy1-xErxAl2 (x=0, 0.2) using 20Ci 137Cs Compton spectrometer. The charge reorganization in Dy1-xErxAl2 (x=0, 0.2), on the formation of compound, has been discussed using the valence band Compton profile data. The experimental Compton profile data unambiguously establish charge transfer from Al to Dy (Dy and Er) on formation of x=0.0 (0.2) compound, which is in tune with spin polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (SPR-KKR) calculations. A reasonable agreement between SPR-KKR based Compton profiles and the experimental data show applicability of the Green function method in predicting the electronic properties of rare earth compounds.

  3. Compton-scattering contribution to the double ionization of He in the {ital A}{sup 2} approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Kornberg, M.A.; Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-06-01

    We study the Compton-scattering contribution to the double ionization of helium within the {ital A}{sup 2} approximation. We present results for the final-photon energy distribution for incoming photon energies of 6 and 20 keV using two alternative forms for the {ital A}{sup 2} operator, named in the literature as the length and velocity forms. It is shown that, although there is a form dependence of the results, these differences tend to cancel at the level of the total cross section as the incoming photon energy increases. Our results support the conclusion that the asymptotic limit for the ratio of double-to-single ionization by Compton scattering is about 0.8{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Visualizing the mixed bonding properties of liquid boron with high-resolution x-ray compton scattering.

    PubMed

    Okada, J T; Sit, P H-L; Watanabe, Y; Barbiellini, B; Ishikawa, T; Wang, Y J; Itou, M; Sakurai, Y; Bansil, A; Ishikawa, R; Hamaishi, M; Paradis, P-F; Kimura, K; Ishikawa, T; Nanao, S

    2015-05-01

    Bonding characteristics of liquid boron at 2500 K are studied by using high-resolution Compton scattering. An excellent agreement is found between the measurements and the corresponding Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. Covalent bond pairs are clearly shown to dominate in liquid boron along with the coexistence of diffuse pairs. Our study reveals the complex bonding pattern of liquid boron and gives insight into the unusual properties of this high-temperature liquid. PMID:25978262

  5. Fermi-Compton scattering due to magnetopause surface fluctuations in Jupiter's magnetospheric cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of boundary surface fluctuations on a spectrum of electromagnetic radiation trapped in a high Q (quality) cavity are considered. Undulating walls introduce small frequency shifts at reflection to the radiation, and it is argued that the process is entirely analogous to both Fermi (particle) acceleration and inverse Compton scattering. A Fokker-Planck formalism is pursued; it yields a diffusion equation in frequency for which the Green's function and steady-state solutions are found. Applying this analysis to the Jovian continuum radiation discovered by Voyager spacecraft, it is suggested that characteristic diffusion times are greater than 1 year, and that in order to account for the steep frequency spectra observed, an unidentified loss mechanism must operate in the cavity with a decay time constant approximately equal to the characteristic diffusion time divided by 28. A radiator-reactor model of the cavity is investigated to provide an estimate for the intrinsic luminosity of the low frequency (approximately 100 Hz) continuum source whose power is approximately 7 x 10 to the 6th W.

  6. A New High-Accuracy Analysis of Compton Scattering in Chiral EFT: Neutron Polarisabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesshammer, Harald W.; McGovern, Judith A.; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2015-04-01

    Low-energy Compton scattering tests the symmetries and interaction strengths of a target's internal degrees of freedom in the electric and magnetic fields of a real, external photon. In the single-nucleon sector, information is often compressed into the static scalar dipole polarisabilities which are experimentally not directly accessible but encode information on the pion cloud and the ?(1232) excitation. The interaction of the photon with the charged pion-exchange also provides a conceptually clean probe of few-nucleon binding. After demonstrating the statistical consistency of the world's ?d dataset including the new data from the MAX-IV collaboration described in the preceding talk, we present a new extraction of the neutron polarisabilities in Chiral Effective Field Theory: ?n = [ 11 . 55 +/- 1 . 25(stat) +/- 0 . 2(BSR) +/- 0 . 8(th) ] and ?n = [ 3 . 65 -/+ 1 . 25(stat) +/- 0 . 2(BSR) -/+ 0 . 8(th) ] , in 10-4 fm3, with ?2 = 45 . 2 for 44 degrees of freedom. The new data reduced the statistical uncertainties by 30%. We discuss data accuracy and consistency, the role of the ?(1232) , and an estimate of residual theoretical uncertainties. Within statistical and systematic errors, proton and neutron polarisabilities remain identical. Supported in part by UK STFC and US DOE.

  7. CONSTRAINT ON THE PARAMETERS OF THE INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING MODEL FOR RADIO PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, M.; Wang, H. G. [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lee, K. J. [Max-Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Bonn 53121 (Germany); Qiao, G. J.; Xu, R. X., E-mail: hgwang@gzhu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-11-01

    The inverse Compton scattering (ICS) model can explain various pulse profile shapes and the diversity of the pulse profile evolution based on the mechanism where the radio emission is generated through ICS between secondary relativistic particles and radio waves from polar gap avalanches. In this paper, we study the parameter space of the ICS model for 15 pulsars that share the common pulse profile evolution phenomenon, where the pulse profiles are narrower at higher observing frequencies. Two key parameters, the initial Lorentz factor and the energy loss factor of secondary particles, are constrained using the least-squares fitting method, where we fit the theoretical curve of the 'beam-frequency mapping' of the ICS model to the observed pulse widths at multiple frequencies. The uncertainty of the inclination and viewing angles are taken into account in the fitting process. It is found that the initial Lorentz factor is larger than 4000, and the energy loss factor is between 20 and 560. The Lorentz factor is consistent with the prediction of the inner vacuum gap model. Such high-energy loss factors suggest significant energy loss for secondary particles at altitudes of a few tens to hundreds of kilometers.

  8. Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering and its t-dependence at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; H1 Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering ?? p ? ?p using e- p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 145pb-1. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q2 of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the ?? p system in the kinematic domain 6.5

  9. SCATTERING OF GAMMA-RAYS. I. SCATTERED GAMMA-RAYS IN THE LABYRINTH OF SHIELDED Co⁶° IRRADIATION FACILITIES. II. RADIOGRAPHY USING THE SCATTERED $gamma$-RAYS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaminishi

    1961-01-01

    The intensities and energy spectra of scattered gamma rays in the ; labyrinth of a 3000-C Co⁶° irradiation facilities were measured by means of ; chamber-type detectors and a scintillation spectrometer. Problems concerning the ; radiation differences between the 2 labyrinth sections, the contribution of the ; scattered-rays to the special dosage rate, and the estimation of the dosage rate

  10. Magnetic Compton scattering study of Ni2+xMn1-xGa ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, B. L.; Sharma, B. K.; Mathur, S.; Heda, N. L.; Itou, M.; Andrejczuk, A.; Sakurai, Y.; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Banik, S.; Awasthi, A. M.; Barman, S. R.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we report the spin-polarized momentum densities of Ni2+xMn1-xGa ( x=0.03 , 0.26, and 0.35) Heusler alloys at various temperatures and magnetic fields using magnetic Compton scattering technique. Magnetization studies are also performed for comparison. It is seen that the variation of magnetic effect (ratio of magnetic to charge intensities) is consistent with the martensitic transition, as shown by the differential scanning calorimetry data. The magnetic Compton profiles have been analyzed mainly in terms of the contributions from the 3d electrons of Mn to determine their role in the formation of total spin moment. The full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method has been used to calculate the spin-polarized energy bands and the spin moments of Ni2MnGa and Ni2.25Mn0.75Ga . Ni2MnGa exhibits half metallicity along certain high-symmetry directions of the Brillouin zone. For Ni2MnGa , the total and Mn local moments obtained from Compton scattering are in excellent agreement with theory.

  11. Measurement of double-spin asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on a transversely polarized hydrogen target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HERMES Collaboration; Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Golembiovskaya, M.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; López Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, X.-G.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Martinez de La Ossa, A.; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stinzing, F.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Truty, R.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; van Haarlem, Y.; van Hulse, C.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Zagrebelnyy, V.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2011-10-01

    Double-spin asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of real photons from a transversely polarized hydrogen target are measured with respect to the product of target polarization with beam helicity and beam charge, and with respect to the product of target polarization with beam helicity alone. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. They are related to the real part of the same combination of Compton form factors as that determining the previously published transverse target single-spin asymmetries through the imaginary part. The results for the double-spin asymmetries are found to be compatible with zero within the uncertainties of the measurement, and are not incompatible with the predictions of the only available GPD-based calculation.

  12. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Assay Using Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Naeem, Syed F.; Chouffani, Khalid; Wells, Douglas P. [Idaho State University, Idaho Accelerator Center, Campus Box 8263, Pocatello ID 83209 (United States)

    2009-03-10

    Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X-rays are produced as a result of the interaction between accelerated electrons and a laser beam. The yield of LCS X-rays is dependent on the laser power, angle of collision between interacting particles, and the electron linear accelerator's (linac) electron beam energy and its current. One of our research goals at the Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) focuses on applications such as detection and imaging of fissionable isotopes for nuclear non-proliferation, safeguards and homeland security. Quasi monochromatic LCS X-rays offer much better signal-to-noise ratios for such applications. The energy of LCS X-rays is tunable, that enable element-specific analysis. Two sharp 36.5 keV and 98.4 keV LCS peaks were observed in two separate experiments based on electron beams tuned at 32 MeV and 37 MeV, that were brought in collision with the (Power){sub peak} = 4 GW Nd.YAG laser operating at 532 nm and 266 nm wavelengths. The linac was operating at 60 Hz with an electron beam pulse length of about 50 ps and a peak current of about 7 A. We exploited X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques to identify elemental K{alpha}{sub 1}, K{alpha}{sub 2}, and K{beta}{sub 1} lines in a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, with a 0.5 mm thick Beryllium (Be) absorbing layer, emitted from tin (Sn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), gold (Au), and lead (Pb) foils with thicknesses ranging from 25-500 {mu}m, following absorption of 36.1 keV and 98.4 keV LCS X-rays. These reference foils were used for the proof of principle, and some have atomic numbers near to that of relevant fission products.

  13. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Assay Using Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Syed F.; Chouffani, Khalid; Wells, Douglas P.

    2009-03-01

    Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X-rays are produced as a result of the interaction between accelerated electrons and a laser beam. The yield of LCS X-rays is dependent on the laser power, angle of collision between interacting particles, and the electron linear accelerator's (linac) electron beam energy and its current. One of our research goals at the Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) focuses on applications such as detection and imaging of fissionable isotopes for nuclear non-proliferation, safeguards and homeland security. Quasi monochromatic LCS X-rays offer much better signal-to-noise ratios for such applications. The energy of LCS X-rays is tunable, that enable element-specific analysis. Two sharp 36.5 keV and 98.4 keV LCS peaks were observed in two separate experiments based on electron beams tuned at 32 MeV and 37 MeV, that were brought in collision with the (Power)peak = 4 GW Nd.YAG laser operating at 532 nm and 266 nm wavelengths. The linac was operating at 60 Hz with an electron beam pulse length of about 50 ps and a peak current of about 7 A. We exploited X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques to identify elemental K?1, K?2, and K?1 lines in a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, with a 0.5 mm thick Beryllium (Be) absorbing layer, emitted from tin (Sn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), gold (Au), and lead (Pb) foils with thicknesses ranging from 25-500 ?m, following absorption of 36.1 keV and 98.4 keV LCS X-rays. These reference foils were used for the proof of principle, and some have atomic numbers near to that of relevant fission products.

  14. The results of the in-flight attitude sensor calibration for the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W. S.; Eudell, A. H.; Kulp, L. S.; Lindrose, L. A.; Harman, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was launched by the shuttle Atlantis in April 1991. This paper presents the results of the attitude sensor calibration that was performed during the early mission. The GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) performed an alignment calibration of the two fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and two fine Sun sensors (FSS's) on board Compton GRO. The results show a 27-arcsecond shift between the bore sights of the FHST's with respect to prelaunch measurements. The alignments of the two FSS's shifted by 0.20 and 0.05 degree. During the same time period, the Compton GRO science teams performed an alignment calibration of the science instruments with respect to the attitude reported by the on board computer (OBC). In order to preserve these science alignments, FDF adjusted the overall alignments of the FHST's and FSS's, obtained by the FDF calibration, such that when up linked to the OBC, the shift in the OBC-determined attitude is minimized. FDF also calibrated the inertial reference unit (IRU), which consists of three dual-axis gyroscopes. The observed gyro bias matched the bias that was solved for by the OBC. This bias drifted during the first 6 days after release. The results of the FDF calibration of scale factor and alignment shifts showed changes that were of the same order as their uncertainties.

  15. The results of the in-flight attitude sensor calibration for the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, W. S.; Eudell, A. H.; Kulp, L. S.; Lindrose, L. A.; Harman, R. R.

    1993-02-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was launched by the shuttle Atlantis in April 1991. This paper presents the results of the attitude sensor calibration that was performed during the early mission. The GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) performed an alignment calibration of the two fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and two fine Sun sensors (FSS's) on board Compton GRO. The results show a 27-arcsecond shift between the bore sights of the FHST's with respect to prelaunch measurements. The alignments of the two FSS's shifted by 0.20 and 0.05 degree. During the same time period, the Compton GRO science teams performed an alignment calibration of the science instruments with respect to the attitude reported by the on board computer (OBC). In order to preserve these science alignments, FDF adjusted the overall alignments of the FHST's and FSS's, obtained by the FDF calibration, such that when up linked to the OBC, the shift in the OBC-determined attitude is minimized. FDF also calibrated the inertial reference unit (IRU), which consists of three dual-axis gyroscopes. The observed gyro bias matched the bias that was solved for by the OBC. This bias drifted during the first 6 days after release. The results of the FDF calibration of scale factor and alignment shifts showed changes that were of the same order as their uncertainties.

  16. Compton-scattering measurement of diagnostic x-ray spectrum using high-resolution Schottky CdTe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Koji; Matsumoto, Masao; Taniguchi, Akira [Department of Clinical Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima International University, 555-36 Gakuen-dai, Kurose-cho, Kamo-gun, Hiroshima 724-0695 (Japan); Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 1-7 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Environment Technology Division, Toyo Medic Co. Ltd., 1-17-22 Kitahorie, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0014 (Japan)

    2005-06-15

    The analysis of x-ray spectra is important for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of radiographic systems. The aim of this study is to measure the diagnostic x-ray spectra under clinical conditions using a high-resolution Schottky CdTe detector. Under clinical conditions, the direct measurement of a diagnostic spectrum is difficult because of the high photon fluence rates that cause significant detector photon pile-up. An alternative way of measuring the output spectra from a tube is first to measure the 90 deg Compton scattered photons from a given sample. With this set-up detector, pile-up is not a problem. From the scattered spectrum one can then use an energy correction and the Klein-Nishina function to reconstruct the actual spectrum incident upon the scattering sample. The verification of whether our spectra measured by the Compton method are accurate was accomplished by comparing exposure rates calculated from the reconstructed spectra to those measured with an ionization chamber. We used aluminum (Al) filtration ranging in thickness from 0 to 6 mm. The half value layers (HVLs) obtained for a 70 kV beam were 2.78 mm via the ionization chamber measurements and 2.93 mm via the spectral measurements. For a 100 kV beam we obtained 3.98 and 4.32 mm. The small differences in HVLs obtained by both techniques suggest that Compton scatter spectroscopy with a Schottky CdTe detector is suitable for measuring the diagnostic x-ray spectra and useful for QA and QC of clinical x-ray equipment.

  17. Gamma ray imaging of the Crab and Vale regions with the UCR double-Compton telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmouk, Abderrezak

    Results are presented for a new imaging technique applied to the reconstruction of celestial gamma-ray source images. This algorithm uses an expectation maximization maximum likelihood method (EMML) and is applied to the UCR double Compton telescope. First, this technique is used with simulated data and preflight calibration data. It is then applied to the Crab pulsar/Nebula, and Vela regions. These data were collected in 1988 from Alice Springs, Australia and in 1989 from Fort Summer, NM. An excess of 1200 counts from the Crab has been detected at 4 sigma in the energy range 1-30 MeV, 920 counts at 3.1 sigma in the energy range1-5 MeV and 202 counts at 7 sigma in the energy range 5-10 MeV. The total measured flux from 1-30 MeV is (2.0 +/- 0.5) x 10-3 photons/(sq cm.s). Pulsar analysis was also performed. The pulsed flux in the energy range 1-30 MeV is equal to (1.4 plus or minus 0.4) x 10-4 photons/(sq cm.s) Only upper limits for the pulsed flux have been placed in the individual energy ranges of 5-10 MeV and 10-30 MeV. Our results are compared with other experiments. The Vela region image shows an excess of 575 counts in the energy range 1.1-30 MeV at 2.7 sigma 340 counts at 2.4 sigma in the energy range 1.1-5 MeV and 130 counts from 5 to 10 MeV at 2.2 sigma. No excess is seen above 10 MeV.The total flux for the energy range 1.1 to 30 MeV is equal to (1.0 plus or minus 0.4) x 10-3 photons/(sq cm.s). The Vela pulsed flux in the energy range 1.1 to 30 MeV is equal to (3.5 +/- 1.4) x 10-4 photons/( sq cm.s). The ratio is pulsed flux to total flux in the energy range 1.3-30 MeV, is found to be equal to 0.35 plus or minus 0.2.

  18. Simulation study for the higher sensitivity of an Electron-Tracking Compton Camera at over 1 MeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Takada; T. Tanimori; H. Kubo; K. Miuchi; S. Kabuki; J. D. Parker; Y. Kishimoto; T. Mizumoto; K. Ueno; S. Kurosawa; S. Iwaki; T. Sawano; K. Taniue; K. Nakamura; N. Higashi; Y. Matsuoka; S. Komura; Y. Sato

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an Electron-Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) as a next-generation MeV gamma-ray telescope. Our detector consists of a gaseous electron tracker as a Compton-scattering target and a position sensitive scintillation camera as a scattered gamma ray absorber. We launched a small size (10 cm cubic) ETCC loaded on a balloon in 2006, and obtained the fluxes of diffuse cosmic

  19. Beam-helicity asymmetry measurements in the Virtual Compton Scattering reaction in the g*N-Delta transition at Q2=0.20 (GeV\\/c)^2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Sparveris

    2008-01-01

    We report on new beam-helicity asymmetry measurements (A_h) of the H(\\\\vec{e},e'p)\\\\gamma reaction in the Delta(1232)$ resonance at Q2=0.20 (GeV\\/c)2. The measurements were performed at MAMI and were carried out simultaneously with the measurement of the H(\\\\vec{e},e'p)\\\\pi^0 reaction channel. It is the lowest Q2 for which the $A_h$ for the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) reaction has been measured in the first

  20. Virtual Compton scattering and neutral pion electroproduction in the resonance region up to the deep inelastic region at backward angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laveissière, G.; Degrande, N.; Jaminion, S.; Jutier, C.; Todor, L.; Salvo, R. Di; Hoorebeke, L. Van; Alexa, L. C.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K. A.; Arundell, K.; Audit, G.; Auerbach, L.; Baker, F. T.; Baylac, M.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P. Y.; Bertozzi, W.; Bimbot, L.; Boeglin, W. U.; Brash, E. J.; Breton, V.; Breuer, H.; Burtin, E.; Calarco, J. R.; Cardman, L. S.; Cavata, C.; Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Dale, D. S.; de Jager, C. W.; de Leo, R.; Deur, A.; D'Hose, N.; Dodge, G. E.; Domingo, J. J.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Epstein, M. B.; Ewell, L. A.; Finn, J. M.; Fissum, K. G.; Fonvieille, H.; Fournier, G.; Frois, B.; Frullani, S.; Furget, C.; Gao, H.; Gao, J.; Garibaldi, F.; Gasparian, A.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, A.; Glashausser, C.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V.; Grenier, P.; Guichon, P. A. M.; Hansen, J. O.; Holmes, R.; Holtrop, M.; Howell, C.; Huber, G. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Incerti, S.; Iodice, M.; Jardillier, J.; Jones, M. K.; Kahl, W.; Kamalov, S.; Kato, S.; Katramatou, A. T.; Kelly, J. J.; Kerhoas, S.; Ketikyan, A.; Khayat, M.; Kino, K.; Kox, S.; Kramer, L. H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Leone, A.; Lerose, J. J.; Liang, M.; Lindgren, R. A.; Liyanage, N.; Lolos, G. J.; Lourie, R. W.; Madey, R.; Maeda, K.; Malov, S.; Manley, D. M.; Marchand, C.; Marchand, D.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marroncle, J.; Martino, J.; McCormick, K.; McIntyre, J.; Mehrabyan, S.; Merchez, F.; Meziani, Z. E.; Michaels, R.; Miller, G. W.; Mougey, J. Y.; Nanda, S. K.; Neyret, D.; Offermann, E. A. J. M.; Papandreou, Z.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Perrino, R.; Petratos, G. G.; Platchkov, S.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Prout, D. L.; Punjabi, V. A.; Pussieux, T.; Quémenér, G.; Ransome, R. D.; Ravel, O.; Real, J. S.; Renard, F.; Roblin, Y.; Rowntree, D.; Rutledge, G.; Rutt, P. M.; Saha, A.; Saito, T.; Sarty, A. J.; Serdarevic, A.; Smith, T.; Smirnov, G.; Soldi, K.; Sorokin, P.; Souder, P. A.; Suleiman, R.; Templon, J. A.; Terasawa, T.; Tiator, L.; Tieulent, R.; Tomasi-Gustaffson, E.; Tsubota, H.; Ueno, H.; Ulmer, P. E.; Urciuoli, G. M.; de Vyver, R. Van; der Meer, R. L. J. Van; Vernin, P.; Vlahovic, B.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watson, J. W.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wijesooriya, K.; Wilson, R.; Wojtsekhowski, B. B.; Zainea, D. G.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, Z.-L.

    2009-01-01

    We have made the first measurements of the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) process via the H(e, e'p)? exclusive reaction in the nucleon resonance region, at backward angles. Results are presented for the W-dependence at fixed Q2=1GeV2 and for the Q2 dependence at fixed W near 1.5 GeV. The VCS data show resonant structures in the first and second resonance regions. The observed Q2 dependence is smooth. The measured ratio of H(e, e'p)? to H(e, e'p)?0 cross sections emphasizes the different sensitivity of these two reactions to the various nucleon resonances. Finally, when compared to real Compton scattering (RCS) at high energy and large angles, our VCS data at the highest W (1.8-1.9 GeV) show a striking Q2 independence, which may suggest a transition to a perturbative scattering mechanism at the quark level.

  1. Virtual Compton scattering and neutral pion electroproduction in the resonance region up to the deep inelastic region at backward angles

    SciTech Connect

    Laveissiere, Geraud; Degrande, Natalie; Jaminion, Stephanie; Jutier, Christophe; Todor, Luminita; Di Salvo, Rachele; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Alexa, L.C.; Anderson, Brian; Aniol, Konrad; Arundell, Kathleen; Audit, Gerard; Auerbach, Leonard; Baker, F.; Baylac, Maud; Berthot, J.; Bertin, Pierre; Bertozzi, William; Bimbot, Louis; Boeglin, Werner; Brash, Edward; Breton, Vincent; Breuer, Herbert; Burtin, Etienne; Calarco, John; Cardman, Lawrence; Cavata, Christian; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Dale, Daniel; De Jager, Cornelis; De Leo, Raffaele; Deur, Alexandre; D'Hose, Nicole; Dodge, Gail; Domingo, John; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Epstein, Martin; Ewell, Lars; Finn, John; Fissum, Kevin; Fonvieille, Helene; Fournier, Guy; Frois, Bernard; Frullani, Salvatore; Furget, Christophe; Gao, Haiyan; Gao, Juncai; Garibaldi, Franco; Gasparian, Ashot; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Glashausser, Charles; Gomez, Javier; Gorbenko, Viktor; Grenier, Philippe; Guichon, Pierre; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Holmes, Richard; Holtrop, Maurik; Howell, Calvin; Huber, Garth; Hyde, Charles; Incerti, Sebastien; Iodice, Mauro; Jardillier, Johann; Jones, Mark; Kahl, William; Kamalov, Sabit; Kato, Seigo; Katramatou, A.T.; Kelly, James; Kerhoas, Sophie; Ketikyan, Armen; Khayat, Mohammad; Kino, Kouichi; Kox, Serge; Kramer, Laird; Kumar, Krishna; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Kuss, Michael; Leone, Antonio; LeRose, John; Liang, Meihua; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Lolos, George; Lourie, Robert; Madey, Richard; Maeda, Kazushige; Malov, Sergey; Manley, D.; Marchand, Claude; Marchand, Dominique; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marroncle, Jacques; Martino, Jacques; McCormick, Kathy; McIntyre, Justin; Mehrabyan, Surik; Merchez, Fernand; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Miller, Gerald; Mougey, Jean; Nanda, Sirish; Neyret, Damien; Offermann, Edmond; Papandreou, Zisis; Perdrisat, Charles; Perrino, R.; Petratos, Gerassimos; Platchkov, Stephane; Pomatsalyuk, Roman; Prout, David; Punjabi, Vina; Pussieux, Thierry; Quemener, Gilles; Ransome, Ronald; Ravel, Oliver; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Renard, F.; Roblin, Yves; Rowntree, David; Rutledge, Gary; Rutt, Paul; Saha, Arunava; Saito, Teijiro; Sarty, Adam; Serdarevic, A.; Smith, T.; Smirnov, G.; Soldi, K.; Sorokin, Pavel; Souder, Paul; Suleiman, Riad; Templon, Jeffrey; Terasawa, Tatsuo; Tiator, Lothar; Tieulent, Raphael; Tomasi-Gustaffson, E.; Tsubota, Hiroaki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Ulmer, Paul; Urciuoli, Guido; Van De Vyver, R.; van der Meer, Rob; Vernin, Pascal; Vlahovic, B.; Voskanyan, Hakob; Voutier, Eric; Watson, J.W.; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Wilson, R.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Zainea, Dan; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Zhao, Jie; Zhou, Z.-L.

    2009-01-01

    We have made the first measurements of the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) process via the H(e,e'p)? exclusive reaction in the nucleon resonance region, at backward angles. Results are presented for the W-dependence at fixed Q2=1 GeV2, and for the Q2-dependence at fixed W near 1.5 GeV. The VCS data show resonant structures in the first and second resonance regions. The observed Q2-dependence is smooth. The measured ratio of H(e,e'p)? to H(e,e'p)?0 cross sections emphasizes the different sensitivity of these two reactions to the various nucleon resonances. Finally, when compared to Real Compton Scattering (RCS) at high energy and large angles, our VCS data at the highest W (1.8-1.9 GeV) show a striking Q2-independence, which may suggest a transition to a perturbative scattering mechanism at the quark level.

  2. New Measurement of Compton Scattering from the Deuteron and an Improved Extraction of the Neutron Electromagnetic Polarizabilities

    E-print Network

    L. S. Myers; J. R. M. Annand; J. Brudvik; G. Feldman; K. G. Fissum; H. W. Grießhammer; K. Hansen; S. S. Henshaw; L. Isaksson; R. Jebali; M. A. Kovash; M. Lundin; J. A. McGovern; D. G. Middleton; A. M. Nathan; D. R. Phillips; B. Schröder; S. C. Stave

    2014-11-13

    The electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon are fundamental properties that describe its response to external electric and magnetic fields. They can be extracted from Compton-scattering data --- and have been, with good accuracy, in the case of the proton. In contradistinction, information for the neutron requires the use of Compton scattering from nuclear targets. Here we report a new measurement of elastic photon scattering from deuterium using quasimonoenergetic tagged photons at the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund, Sweden. These first new data in more than a decade effectively double the world dataset. Their energy range overlaps with previous experiments and extends it by 20 MeV to higher energies. An analysis using Chiral Effective Field Theory with dynamical \\Delta(1232) degrees of freedom shows the data are consistent with and within the world dataset. After demonstrating that the fit is consistent with the Baldin sum rule, extracting values for the isoscalar nucleon polarizabilities and combining them with a recent result for the proton, we obtain the neutron polarizabilities as \\alpha_n = [11.55 +/- 1.25(stat) +/- 0.2(BSR) +/- 0.8(th)] X 10^{-4} fm^3 and \\beta_n = [3.65 -/+ 1.25(stat) +/- 0.2(BSR) -/+ 0.8(th)] X 10^{-4} fm3, with \\chi^2 = 45.2 for 44 degrees of freedom.

  3. Nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal beam-helicity and beam-charge asymmetries in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Airapetian, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Elbakian, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Karyan, G.; Marukyan, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Taroian, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z.; Avetisyan, E.; Borissov, A.; Hartig, M.; Holler, Y.; Rostomyan, A.; Schueler, K. P.; Varanda, M.; Ye, Z.; Zihlmann, B. [DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross-section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and the deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found.

  4. Using effective field theory to analyse low-energy Compton scattering data from protons and light nuclei

    E-print Network

    Harald W. Griesshammer; Judith A. McGovern; Daniel R. Phillips; Gerald Feldman

    2012-05-04

    Compton scattering provides important insight into the structure of the nucleon. For photons up to about 300 MeV, it is parameterised by six dynamical dipole polarisabilities which characterise the response of the nucleon to a monochromatic photon of fixed frequency and multipolarity. Their zero-energy limit yields the well-known static electric and magnetic dipole polarisabilities \\alpha and \\beta, and the four dipole spin polarisabilities. Chiral Effective Field Theory (ChiEFT) describes nucleon, deuteron and 3-He Compton scattering, using consistent nuclear currents, rescattering and wave functions. It can thus also be used to extract useful information on the neutron amplitude from Compton scattering on light nuclei. We summarise past work in ChiEFT on all of these reactions and compare with other theoretical approaches. We also discuss all proton experiments up to about 400 MeV, as well as the three modern elastic deuteron data sets, paying particular attention to precision and accuracy of each set. Constraining the Delta(1232) parameters from the resonance region, we then perform new fits to the proton data up to omega(lab)=170 MeV, and a new fit to the deuteron data. After checking in each case that a two-parameter fit is compatible with the respective Baldin sum rules, we obtain, using the sum-rule constraints in a one-parameter fit, \\alpha=10.7\\pm0.3(stat)\\pm0.2(Baldin)\\pm0.8(theory), \\beta=3.1\\mp0.3(stat)\\pm0.2(Baldin)\\pm0.8(theory), for the proton polarisabilities, and \\alpha =10.9\\pm 0.9(stat)\\pm0.2(Baldin)\\pm0.8(theory), \\beta =3.6\\mp 0.9(stat)\\pm0.2(Baldin)\\pm0.8(theory), for the isoscalar polarisabilities, each in units of 10^(-4) fm^3. We discuss plans for polarised Compton scattering, their promise as tools to access spin polarisabilities, and other future avenues for theoretical and experimental investigation.

  5. Nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal beam-helicity and beam-charge asymmetries in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Ball, B.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; Leo, R. De; Nardo, L. De; Sanctis, E. De; Diefenthaler, M.; Nezza, P. Di; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Guler, H.; Guzey, V.; Haan, S.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; López Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, X.-G.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; de La Ossa, A. Martinez; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Shanidze, R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Haarlem, Y. Van; Hulse, C. Van; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.; sHERMES Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross-section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and the deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found.

  6. The radiative transfer equations for Compton scattering of polarized low frequency radiation on a hot electron gas

    E-print Network

    Frode K. Hansen; Per B. Lilje

    1999-01-07

    We deduce the equations that describe how polarized radiation is Comptonized by a hot electron gas. Low frequencies are considered, and the equations are expanded to second order in electron velocities. Induced scattering terms are included and a Maxwellian velocity distribution for the electrons is assumed. The special case of an axisymmetric radiation field is also considered, and the corresponding radiative transfer equations are found. Our results correct errors and misprints in previosly published transfer equations. The extension to a moving electron gas is made, and the radiative transfer equations are deduced to second order in gas velocity. We use the equations to study polarization in the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect.

  7. Use of coincident and non-coincident gamma-rays in Compton suppression neutron activation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Landsberger; S. R. Biegalski; D. J. O’Kelly; M. S. Basunia

    2005-01-01

    Summary  In the last decade Compton suppressed neutron activation analysis has had increasing popularity as a powerful method to significantly lower backgrounds and reduce overlapping peaks caused by spectral or nuclear interferences. We give a detailed descriptive evaluation of the unique features of this technique and its usefulness in many areas of research employing non-destructive neutron activation analysis.

  8. Compton ring for nuclear waste management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyak, Eugene; Gladkikh, Peter; Omori, Tsunehiko; Skomorokhov, Vladislav; Urakawa, Junji

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes an intense gamma-ray source based on the Compton scattering of laser photons by the electrons circulating in the storage ring. Gamma-ray energies fall in the range from 1 to 5 MeV. This source is an ideal tool for nuclear waste management by the nuclear resonance fluorescence method. The Compton ring is also a very promising tool for application in novel technologies for express cargo inspection to prevent nuclear terrorism. A crab-crossing scheme in the ring lattice can be expected to permit a gamma-beam intensity of up to 5×10 13 gammas/s with the latest laser and accelerator technologies.

  9. Electron density of Rhizophora spp. wood using Compton scattering technique at 15.77, 17.48 and 22.16 keV XRF energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhreet, B. Z.; Bauk, S.; Shukri, A.

    2015-02-01

    Compton (incoherently) scattered photons which are directly proportional to the electron density of the scatterer, have been employed in characterizing Rhizophora spp. as breast tissue equivalent. X-ray fluorescent scattered incoherently from Rhizophora spp. sample was measured using Si-PIN detector and three XRF energy values 15.77, 17.48 and 22.16 keV. This study is aimed at providing electron density information in support of the introduction of new tissue substitute materials for mammography phantoms.

  10. Quasar X-ray jets: Gamma-ray diagnostics of the synchrotron and inverse Compton hypotheses, the case of 3C 273

    E-print Network

    Markos Georganopoulos; Eric S. Perlman; Demosthenes Kazanas; Julie McEnery

    2006-10-27

    The process responsible for the Chandra-detected X-ray emission from the large scale jets of powerful quasars is a matter of ongoing debate. The two main contenders are external Compton (EC) scattering off the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons (EC/CMB) and synchrotron emission from a population of electrons separate from those producing the radio - IR emission. So far, no clear diagnostics have been presented to distinguish which of the two, if any, is the actual X-ray emission mechanism. Here we present such diagnostics based on a fundamental difference between these two models: the production of synchrotron X-rays requires multi - TeV electrons, while the EC/CMB model requires a cutoff in the electron energy distribution (EED) below TeV energies. This has significant implications for the gamma-ray emission predicted by these two models, that can be tested through GeV and TeV observations of the nearby bright quasar 3C 273. We show how existing and future GeV and TeV observations can confirm or refute one or both of the above hypotheses.

  11. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) cross sections with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Hyon-Suk Jo

    2012-04-01

    Extraction of DVCS unpolarized and polarized cross sections in the largest kinematic domain ever explored in the valence region. Results are in good agreement with GPD model (VGG) predictions. Extraction of Compton Form Factors (M. Guidal) by fitting simultaneously these unpolarizedand polarized cross sections gives a large set of results in a very large kinematic domain for Re(H ) and Im(H ). Analysis of the data from the second part of the e1-DVCS experiment underway.

  12. Inverse Compton conversion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weitz, R.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1990-11-19

    Inverse Compton conversion has been proposed as an alternative to the bremsstrahlung conversion process as a method of transforming the kinetic energy of an electron beam into a directed beam of photons. An electron beam with incident electron kinetic energy E{sub o} enters a volume of dimension L containing a photon gas, which is characterized by a blackbody temperature E{sub bb} and a density {rho}{sub {gamma}}. The electrons will inverse-Compton scatter with individual photons in the photon gas. In this process, energy is transferred to the photons, which are then emitted in the forward direction. The resultant photon beam could be used to deliver a radiation dose to a distant target. This report discusses the theoretical formulation of the problem, presents sample results, and describes the computer code developed to analyze this concept.

  13. The Advanced Compton Telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven E. Boggs; J. Kurfess; J. Ryan; E. Aprile; N. Gehrels; S. Hunter; M. Kippen; M. Leising; U. Oberlack; C. Wunderer; A. C. Zoglauer; A. Zych

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) is a NASA Vision Mission designed to survey the gamma-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity (about 50 times better than the Compton Observatory or INTEGRAL), probing the fires where chemical elements are formed by performing high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear gamma rays from extragalactic Type Ia supernovae. Dozens of Type 1A SN per year will be detected

  14. Compton profile of polycrystalline tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, U.; Sharma, B.K.; Mohammad, F.M.; Ahuja, B.L.

    1988-12-15

    In this paper we report the experimental Compton profile of polycrystalline tungsten. The measurements have been made by scattering 59.54-keV ..gamma.. rays and are compared with the band-structure calculation of Papanicolaou et al. These results have also been compared with our calculation based on the renormalized-free-atom model with different 5d-6s configurations. Best agreement with experiment is found for the 5d/sup 5.4/6s/sup 0.6/ electron configuration.

  15. A new transportable instrument for in-situ void and corrosion imaging in thick structural sections by three dimensional Compton scatter imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, B.

    2000-05-01

    When X Gamma or other kinds of subatomic particle radiation are being used for NDE, measurements are almost always made on the primary beam after transmission through the object under test. Cases are described where better results, i.e., image quality or cost effectiveness can be obtained from measurements on scattered radiation rather than the primary beam. Compton imaging of high volume resolution in thick structures has previously been achieved only by fixed laboratory installations involving massive primary beam shields (collimators) between source and detectors. Here the design of a relatively portable collimator (98 kg mass) for a cobalt 60 source is given. It permits three dimensional material density imaging, with voxel (3-dimensional pixel) volumes small enough to permit the detection of voids down to 10 cubic mm in up to 30 mm thickness of steel or 250 mm of wood (for example, a 500 mm diameter tree trunk). Using a 370 GBq source, typical results of thickness measurements to a precision of 1 mm over cross sections down to 10 square mm are presented. The collimator mass is reducible to about 68 kg with the use of depleted uranium instead of lead. The means of deploying such a collimator in a mobile way are discussed. A typical in-situ application is the detection of inner wall corrosion and flooding of tubular members of underwater offshore oil platforms and ship hulls without the need to remove hard marine growth. Another case is the detection of telegraph pole and tree rot below ground level.

  16. The E00-110 experiment in Jefferson Lab's Hall A: Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the Proton at 6 GeV

    E-print Network

    M. Defurne; M. Amaryan; K. A. Aniol; M. Beaumel; H. Benaoum; P. Bertin; M. Brossard; A. Camsonne; J. -P. Chen; E. Chudakov; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; C. W. de Jager; A. Deur; R. Feuerbach; C. Ferdi; J. -M. Fieschi; S. Frullani; E. Fuchey; M. Garcon; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; G. Gavalian; R. Gilman; J. Gomez; P. Gueye; P. A. M. Guichon; B. Guillon; O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C. E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; R. Igarashi; X. Jiang; H. S. Jo; L. J. Kaufman; A. Kelleher; C. Keppel; A. Kolarkar; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissière; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; H. -J. Lu; D. J. Margaziotis; M. Mazouz; Z. -E. Meziani; K. McCormick; R. Michaels; B. Michel; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; C. Muñoz Camacho; S. Nanda; V. Nelyubin; R. Paremuzyan; M. Potokar; Y. Qiang; R. D. Ransome; J. -S. Réal; B. Reitz; Y. Roblin; J. Roche; F. Sabatié; A. Saha; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; R. Subedi; V. Sulkosky; P. E. Ulmer; E. Voutier; K. Wang; L. B. Weinstein; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2015-04-21

    We present final results on the photon electroproduction ($\\vec{e}p\\rightarrow ep\\gamma$) cross section in the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) regime and the valence quark region from Jefferson Lab experiment E00-110. Results from an analysis of a subset of these data were published before, but the analysis has been improved which is described here at length, together with details on the experimental setup. Furthermore, additional data have been analyzed resulting in photon electroproduction cross sections at new kinematic settings, for a total of 588 experimental bins. Results of the $Q^2$- and $x_B$-dependences of both the helicity-dependent and helicity-independent cross sections are discussed. The $Q^2$-dependence illustrates the dominance of the twist-2 handbag amplitude in the kinematics of the experiment, as previously noted. Thanks to the excellent accuracy of this high luminosity experiment, it becomes clear that the unpolarized cross section shows a significant deviation from the Bethe-Heitler process in our kinematics, compatible with a large contribution from the leading twist-2 DVCS$^2$ term to the photon electroproduction cross section. The necessity to include higher-twist corrections in order to fully reproduce the shape of the data is also discussed. The DVCS cross sections in this paper represent the final set of experimental results from E00-110, superseding the previous publication.

  17. Instrument description and performance of the Imaging Gamma-Ray Telescope COMPTEL aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Schoenfelder; H. Aarts; K. Bennett; H. de Boer; J. Clear; W. Collmar; A. Connors; A. J. M. Deerenberg; R. Diehl; A. von Dordrecht; J. W. den Herder; W. Hermsen; M. Kippen; L. Kuiper; G. Lichti; J. Lockwood; J. Macri; M. McConnell; D. Morris; R. Much; J. Ryan; G. Simpson; M. Snelling; G. Stacy; H. Steinle; A. W. Strong; B. N. Swanenburg; B. G. Taylor; C. de Vries; C. Winkler

    1993-01-01

    The COMPTEL instrument aboard the COMPTEL Gamma-Ray Observatory and its performance capabilities are described. Calibration data are used to determine the angular and energy response, and the effective detection area. The imaging properties of COMPTEL are demonstrated, and the sensitivity of Comptel to celestial gamma-ray sources are estimated from flight data.

  18. Kernel-Integration Scatter Model for the Characterization of Nuclear Waste Drums by Gamma Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinkovic, Predrag M.; Ljubenov, Vladan Lj.

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study is the determination of the distribution of the activity of radio-elements contained in radioactive waste packages by means of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A three- dimensional (3D) projector simulator for a parallel hole collimator and NaI(Tl) scintillator, based on the point kernel integration method, is proposed. The model takes into account the attenuation and scatter of gamma rays. Primary scattered photons are treated by the Compton process and Klein-Nishina formula, and the multiple scattering is accounted for by means of the dose buildup factor normally used in shielding problems. An advantage of the proposed model is that it offers the possibility of generating a full two-dimensional point-spread function (PSF) that can be used for 3D reconstruction. The developed model is convenient in those situations where more exact techniques (such as Monte Carlo simulation) are not economical. The model has been evaluated for the package having homogenous density with the Cs-137 point source inside.

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL.47, NO. 1,JUNE 2000 RRC Effects of Mechanical Alignment Errors on Compton Scatter Imaging

    E-print Network

    He, Zhong

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL.47, NO. 1,JUNE 2000 RRC Effects of Mechanical Alignment Errors on Compton Scatter Imaging Y.F. Du', Z. He, G.F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe Departmcnt of Nuclear detectors is iindcrway in our laboratory. As a practical problem, the mechanical alignmcnt error may

  20. Diagnostics for the optimization of an 11 keV inverse Compton scattering x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Chauchat, A.-S.; Brasile, J.-P [Thales Communications and Security, 4 avenue des Louvresses 92230 Gennevilliers (France); Le Flanchec, V.; Negre, J.-P.; Binet, A. [CEA DAM DIF, Bruyeres-le-Chatel 91290 Arpajon (France); Ortega, J.-M. [LCP Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 201, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2013-04-19

    In a scope of a collaboration between Thales Communications and Security and CEA DAM DIF, 11 keV Xrays were produced by inverse Compton scattering on the ELSA facility. In this type of experiment, X-ray observation lies in the use of accurate electron and laser beam interaction diagnostics and on fitted X-ray detectors. The low interaction probability between < 100 {mu}m width, 12 ps [rms] length electron and photon pulses requires careful optimization of pulse spatial and temporal covering. Another issue was to observe 11 keV X-rays in the ambient radioactive noise of the linear accelerator. For that, we use a very sensitive detection scheme based on radio luminescent screens.

  1. Microscopic magnetic properties of an oxygen-doped Tb-Fe thin film by magnetic Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Agui, Akane, E-mail: agui@spring8.or.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Unno, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Sayaka; Suzuki, Kousuke; Sakurai, Hiroshi [Department of Production Science and Technology, Gunma University, Ota, Gunma 373-0057 (Japan); Koizumi, Akihisa [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2013-11-14

    The magnetic Compton scattering of a Tb{sub 32}Fe{sub 55}O{sub 13} film was measured in order to investigate the microscopic magnetization processes (i.e., the spin moment, orbital moment, and element specific moments). The trend of the spin magnetic moment was the same as that of the total magnetic moment but opposite to the orbital magnetic moment. In the low magnetic field region, the magnetic moments were not perfectly aligned perpendicular to the film surface, and the perpendicular components were found to mainly arise from the magnetic moment of Tb. Oxygen atoms hinder long range magnetic interaction and hence also affect the magnetization process of the magnetic moments of Tb and Fe.

  2. Rayleigh, Compton and K-shell radiative resonant Raman scattering in 83Bi for 88.034 keV ?-rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev Kumar; Veena Sharma; D. Mehta; Nirmal Singh

    2007-01-01

    The Rayleigh, Compton and K-shell radiative resonant Raman scattering cross-sections for the 88.034keV ?-rays have been measured in the 83Bi (K-shell binding energy=90.526keV) element. The measurements have been performed at 130° scattering angle using reflection-mode geometrical arrangement involving the 109Cd radioisotope as photon source and an LEGe detector. Computer simulations were exercised to determine distributions of the incident and emission

  3. Anisotropy of the electron momentum distribution in ?-quartz investigated by Compton scattering and ab initio simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisani, Cesare; Erba, Alessandro; Casassa, Silvia; Itou, Masayoshi; Sakurai, Yoshiharu

    2011-12-01

    The Compton profiles of ?-quartz have been measured along 30 crystallographically independent directions with an experimental resolution of 0.11 atomic units in full width at half maximum. They are critically compared to those obtained from periodic quantum-chemical simulations based on the use of density-functional, Hartree-Fock, and post-Hartree-Fock approximations. The anisotropy of the electron momentum distribution, which clearly emerges from both the experiment and the theory, is analyzed and explained in terms of contributions from the localized Wannier functions associated with the Si-O bonds and with the lone pairs on the oxygen atoms.

  4. Compact x-ray source based on burst-mode inverse Compton scattering at 100 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, W. S.; Bessuille, J.; Brown, P.; Carbajo, S.; Dolgashev, V.; Hong, K.-H.; Ihloff, E.; Khaykovich, B.; Lin, H.; Murari, K.; Nanni, E. A.; Resta, G.; Tantawi, S.; Zapata, L. E.; Kärtner, F. X.; Moncton, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    A design for a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) with flux and brilliance orders of magnitude beyond existing laboratory scale sources is presented. The source is based on inverse Compton scattering of a high brightness electron bunch on a picosecond laser pulse. The accelerator is a novel high-efficiency standing-wave linac and rf photoinjector powered by a single ultrastable rf transmitter at X-band rf frequency. The high efficiency permits operation at repetition rates up to 1 kHz, which is further boosted to 100 kHz by operating with trains of 100 bunches of 100 pC charge, each separated by 5 ns. The entire accelerator is approximately 1 meter long and produces hard x rays tunable over a wide range of photon energies. The colliding laser is a Yb ?YAG solid-state amplifier producing 1030 nm, 100 mJ pulses at the same 1 kHz repetition rate as the accelerator. The laser pulse is frequency-doubled and stored for many passes in a ringdown cavity to match the linac pulse structure. At a photon energy of 12.4 keV, the predicted x-ray flux is 5 ×1 011 photons /second in a 5% bandwidth and the brilliance is 2 ×1 012 photons /(sec mm2 mrad2 0.1 %) in pulses with rms pulse length of 490 fs. The nominal electron beam parameters are 18 MeV kinetic energy, 10 microamp average current, 0.5 microsecond macropulse length, resulting in average electron beam power of 180 W. Optimization of the x-ray output is presented along with design of the accelerator, laser, and x-ray optic components that are specific to the particular characteristics of the Compton scattered x-ray pulses.

  5. Gamma ray astrophysics. [emphasizing processes and absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    Gamma ray production processes are reviewed, including Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung interactions, meson decay, nucleon-antinucleon annihilations, and pion production. Gamma ray absorption mechanisms through interactions with radiation and with matter are discussed, along with redshifts and gamma ray fluxes.

  6. Forward Compton scattering with weak neutral current: Constraints from sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Zhang, Xilin

    2015-07-01

    We generalize forward real Compton amplitude to the case of the interference of the electromagnetic and weak neutral current, formulate a low-energy theorem, relate the new amplitudes to the interference structure functions and obtain a new set of sum rules. We address a possible new sum rule that relates the product of the axial charge and magnetic moment of the nucleon to the 0th moment of the structure function g5 (? , 0). For the dispersive ?Z-box correction to the proton's weak charge, the application of the GDH sum rule allows us to reduce the uncertainty due to resonance contributions by a factor of two. The finite energy sum rule helps addressing the uncertainty in that calculation due to possible duality violations.

  7. GPU-accelerated 3D Bayesian image reconstruction from Compton scattered data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van-Giang; Lee, Soo-Jin; Lee, Mi No

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the development of fast Bayesian reconstruction methods for Compton cameras using commodity graphics hardware. For fast iterative reconstruction, not only is it important to increase the convergence rate, but also it is equally important to accelerate the computation of time-consuming and repeated operations, such as projection and backprojection. Since the size of the system matrix for a typical Compton camera is intractably large, it is impractical to use a conventional caching scheme that stores the pre-calculated elements of a system matrix and uses them for the calculation of projection and backprojection. In this paper we propose GPU (graphics processing unit)-accelerated methods that can rapidly perform conical projection and backprojection on the fly. Since the conventional ray-based backprojection method is inefficient for parallel computing on GPUs, we develop voxel-based conical backprojection methods using two different approximation schemes. In the first scheme, we approximate the intersecting chord length of the ray passing through a voxel by the perpendicular distance from the center to the ray. In the second scheme, each voxel is regarded as a dimensionless point rather than a cube so that the backprojection can be performed without the need for calculating intersecting chord lengths or their approximations. Our simulation studies show that the GPU-based method dramatically improves the computational speed with only minor loss of accuracy in reconstruction. With the development of high-resolution detectors, the difference in the reconstruction accuracy between the GPU-based method and the CPU-based method will eventually be negligible.

  8. The development of a Compton lung densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Madden, N.W.; Simon, D.S.

    1989-02-01

    A field instrument is being developed for the non-invasive determination of absolute lung density using unique Compton backscattering techniques. A system consisting of a monoenergetic gamma-ray beam and a shielded high resolution high-purity-germanium (HPGe) detector in a close-coupled geometry is designed to minimize errors due to multiple scattering and uncontrollable attenuation in the chestwall. Results of studies on system performance with phantoms, the optimization of detectors, and the fabrication of a practical gamma-ray source are presented.

  9. Quasielastic gamma-ray scattering from polydimethylsiloxane in benzene solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hammouda, B.; Schupp, G.; Maglic, S. (Research Reactor, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (USA) Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (USA))

    1990-10-15

    Quasielastic gamma-ray scattering of 46.5-keV Moessbauer photons by polydimethylsiloxane has been studied at room temperature as a function of dilution in benzene. The high energy resolution of this novel technique allowed the separation of the scattering signal into a narrow component associated with stiff motions along the polymer chain backbone and a quasielastic component associated with softer side group motions. The narrow component disappears upon dilution in benzene while the intensity of the quasielastic component grows proportionately. This result is interpreted as a softening of the backbone normal modes upon dilution.

  10. Compton Profile Study of Intermetallic Ti{sub 3}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, V.; Sharma, G. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Banasthali-304022 (India); Mishra, M. C.; Sharma, B. K. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India); Joshi, K. B. [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L.Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313 002 (India)

    2011-10-20

    The Compton scattering measurement on intermetallic alloy Ti{sub 3}Al is reported in this work. The measurement is made using 59.54 keV gamma-rays from Am{sup 241} source. Theoretical calculation of Compton profile is also performed employing CRYSTAL code within the framework of density functional theory to compare with the measurement. The theoretical profile of the alloy is also synthesized following the superposition model taking the published Compton profiles of elemental solids from the APW method. The experimental study of charge transfer in the alloys has also been done by performing the experimental Compton profile measurements on Ti and Al following the superposition model and charge transfer from Al to Ti is clearly seen on the alloy formation.

  11. Compton diode development program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conrad

    1974-01-01

    Compton diodes (CD's) have been used for a number of years for ; diagnostic gamma measurements. About 1965 the demand increased for their use as ; gamma sensors to trigger oscilloscopes on nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. ; This report covers the steps taken in developing the Mod 3 family of low-cost ; CD's for trigger signal sensors.

  12. A new measurement of the structure functions $P_{LL}-P_{TT}/epsilon$ and $P_{LT}$ in virtual Compton scattering at $Q^2=$ 0.33 (GeV/c)$^2$

    E-print Network

    Janssens, P; Achenbach, P; Gayoso, C Ayerbe; Baumann, D; Bernauer, J C; Bensafa, I K; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Burtin, E; D'Hose, N; Defaÿ, X; Ding, M; Distler, M O; Fonvieille, H; Friedrich, J; Friedrich, J M; Laveissière, G; Makek, M; Marroncle, J; Merkel, H; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Pasquini, B; Pochodzalla, J; Postavaru, O; Potokar, M; Ryckbosch, D; Majos, S Sanchez; Schlimme, B S; Seimetz, M; Å irca, S; Tamas, G; Van de Vyver, R; Van Hoorebeke, L; Van Overloop, A; Walcher, Th; Weinriefer, M

    2008-01-01

    The cross section of the $ep \\to e' p' \\gamma$ reaction has been measured at $Q^2 = 0.33$ (GeV/c)$^2$. The experiment was performed using the electron beam of the MAMI accelerator and the standard detector setup of the A1 Collaboration. The cross section is analyzed using the low-energy theorem for virtual Compton scattering, yielding a new determination of the two structure functions $P_LL}-P_{TT}/epsilon$ and $P_{LT}$ which are linear combinations of the generalized polarizabilities of the proton. We find somewhat larger values than in the previous investigation at the same $Q^2$. This difference, however, is purely due to our more refined analysis of the data. The results tend to confirm the non-trivial $Q^2$-evolution of the generalized polarizabilities and call for more measurements in the low-$Q^2$ region ($\\le$ 1 (GeV/c)$^2$).

  13. A new measurement of the structure functions $P_{LL}-P_{TT}/epsilon$ and $P_{LT}$ in virtual Compton scattering at $Q^2=$ 0.33 (GeV/c)$^2$

    E-print Network

    The MAMI-A1 Collaboration; :; P. Janssens; L. Doria; P. Achenbach; C. Ayerbe Gayoso; D. Baumann; J. C. Bernauer; I. K. Bensafa; R. Böhm; D. Bosnar; E. Burtin; N. D'Hose; X. Defaÿ; M. Ding; M. O. Distler; H. Fonvieille; J. Friedrich; J. M. Friedrich; G. Laveissière; M. Makek; J. Marroncle; H. Merkel; U. Müller; L. Nungesser; B. Pasquini; J. Pochodzalla; O. Postavaru; M. Potokar; D. Ryckbosch; S. Sanchez Majos; B. S. Schlimme; M. Seimetz; S. Širca; G. Tamas; R. Van de Vyver; L. Van Hoorebeke; A. Van Overloop; Th. Walcher; M. Weinriefer

    2008-05-16

    The cross section of the $ep \\to e' p' \\gamma$ reaction has been measured at $Q^2 = 0.33$ (GeV/c)$^2$. The experiment was performed using the electron beam of the MAMI accelerator and the standard detector setup of the A1 Collaboration. The cross section is analyzed using the low-energy theorem for virtual Compton scattering, yielding a new determination of the two structure functions $P_LL}-P_{TT}/epsilon$ and $P_{LT}$ which are linear combinations of the generalized polarizabilities of the proton. We find somewhat larger values than in the previous investigation at the same $Q^2$. This difference, however, is purely due to our more refined analysis of the data. The results tend to confirm the non-trivial $Q^2$-evolution of the generalized polarizabilities and call for more measurements in the low-$Q^2$ region ($\\le$ 1 (GeV/c)$^2$).

  14. A practical method for position-dependent Compton-scatter correction in single photon emission CT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Ogawa; Yasuo Harata; Takashi Ichihara; Atsushi Kubo; Shozo Hashimoto

    1991-01-01

    A new method is proposed to subtract the count of scattered photons from that acquired with a photopeak window at each pixel in each planar image of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The subtraction is carried out using two sets of data: one set is acquired with a main window centered at photopeak energy and the other is acquired with

  15. AN UP-SCATTERED COCOON EMISSION MODEL OF GAMMA-RAY BURST HIGH-ENERGY LAGS

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, Kenji; Wu Xuefeng; Meszaros, Peter, E-mail: toma@astro.psu.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope recently detected the most energetic gamma-ray burst so far, GRB 080916C, and reported its detailed temporal properties in an extremely broad spectral range: (1) the time-resolved spectra are well described by broken power-law forms over the energy range of 10 keV-10 GeV, (2) the high-energy emission (at epsilon>100 MeV) is delayed by approx5 s with respect to the epsilon approx< 1 MeV emission, and (3) the emission onset times shift toward later times in higher energy bands. We show that this behavior of the high-energy emission can be explained by a model in which the prompt emission consists of two components: one is the emission component peaking at epsilon approx 1 MeV due to the synchrotron-self-Compton radiation of electrons accelerated in the internal shock of the jet and the other is the component peaking at epsilon approx 100 MeV due to up-scattering of the photospheric X-ray emission of the expanding cocoon (i.e., the hot bubble produced by dissipation of the jet energy inside the progenitor star) off the same electrons in the jet. Based on this model, we derive some constraints on the radius of the progenitor star and the total energy and mass of the cocoon of this GRB, which may provide information on the structure of the progenitor star and the physical conditions of the jet propagating in the star. The up-scattered cocoon emission could be important for other Fermi GRBs as well. We discuss some predictions of this model, including a prompt bright optical emission and a soft X-ray excess.

  16. Evaluation of list-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction for pixelated solid-state compton gamma camera with large number of channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated solid-state technology for nuclear medicine applications. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). For Compton camera, especially with a large number of readout channels, image reconstruction presents a big challenge. In this work, results are presented for the List-Mode Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (LM-OSEM) image reconstruction algorithm on simulated data with the VIP Compton camera design. For the simulation, all realistic contributions to the spatial resolution are taken into account, including the Doppler broadening effect. The results show that even with a straightforward implementation of LM-OSEM, good images can be obtained for the proposed Compton camera design. Results are shown for various phantoms, including extended sources and with a distance between the field of view and the first detector plane equal to 100 mm which corresponds to a realistic nuclear medicine environment.

  17. Measurement of the Generalized Polarizabilities of the Proton in Virtual Compton Scattering at Q2=0.92 and 1.76 GeV2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Laveissière; L. Todor; N. Degrande; S. Jaminion; C. Jutier; Rachele Di Salvo; L. van Hoorebeke; L. C. Alexa; B. D. Anderson; K. A. Aniol; K. Arundell; G. Audit; L. Auerbach; F. T. Baker; M. Baylac; J. Berthot; P. Y. Bertin; W. Bertozzi; L. Bimbot; W. U. Boeglin; E. J. Brash; V. Breton; H. Breuer; E. Burtin; J. R. Calarco; L. S. Cardman; C. Cavata; C.-C. Chang; J.-P. Chen; E. Chudakov; E. Cisbani; D. S. Dale; C. W. de Jager; R. de Leo; A. Deur; N. D'Hose; G. E. Dodge; J. J. Domingo; L. Elouadrhiri; M. B. Epstein; L. A. Ewell; J. M. Finn; K. G. Fissum; H. Fonvieille; G. Fournier; B. Frois; S. Frullani; C. Furget; H. Gao; J. Gao; F. Garibaldi; A. Gasparian; S. Gilad; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; V. Gorbenko; P. Grenier; P. A. Guichon; J. O. Hansen; R. Holmes; M. Holtrop; C. Howell; G. M. Huber; C. E. Hyde-Wright; S. Incerti; M. Iodice; J. Jardillier; M. K. Jones; W. Kahl; S. Kato; A. T. Katramatou; J. J. Kelly; S. Kerhoas; A. Ketikyan; M. Khayat; K. Kino; S. Kox; L. H. Kramer; K. S. Kumar; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; A. Leone; J. J. Lerose; M. Liang; R. A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G. J. Lolos; R. W. Lourie; R. Madey; K. Maeda; S. Malov; D. M. Manley; C. Marchand; D. Marchand; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; J. Marroncle; J. Martino; K. McCormick; J. McIntyre; S. Mehrabyan; F. Merchez; Z. E. Meziani; R. Michaels; G. W. Miller; J. Y. Mougey; S. K. Nanda; D. Neyret; E. A. Offermann; Z. Papandreou; B. Pasquini; C. F. Perdrisat; R. Perrino; G. G. Petratos; S. Platchkov; R. Pomatsalyuk; D. L. Prout; V. A. Punjabi; T. Pussieux; G. Quémenér; R. D. Ransome; O. Ravel; J. S. Real; F. Renard; Y. Roblin; D. Rowntree; G. Rutledge; P. M. Rutt; A. Saha; T. Saito; A. J. Sarty; A. Serdarevic; T. Smith; G. Smirnov; K. Soldi; P. Sorokin; P. A. Souder; R. Suleiman; J. A. Templon; T. Terasawa; R. Tieulent; E. Tomasi-Gustaffson; H. Tsubota; H. Ueno; P. E. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; M. Vanderhaeghen; R. van de Vyver; R. L. van der Meer; P. Vernin; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; E. Voutier; J. W. Watson; L. B. Weinstein; K. Wijesooriya; R. Wilson; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; D. G. Zainea; W.-M. Zhang; J. Zhao; Z.-L. Zhou

    2004-01-01

    We report a virtual Compton scattering study of the proton at low c.m. energies. We have determined the structure functions PLL-PTT\\/? and PLT, and the electric and magnetic generalized polarizabilities (GPs) alphaE(Q2) and betaM(Q2) at momentum transfer Q2=0.92 and 1.76 GeV2. The electric GP shows a strong falloff with Q2, and its global behavior does not follow a simple dipole

  18. Beam spin asymmetries in deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) with CLAS at 4.8 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavalian, G.; Burkert, V. D.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Holtrop, M.; Stepanyan, S.; Abrahamyan, D.; Adams, G.; Amaryan, M. J.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Baillie, N.; Ball, J. P.; Baltzell, N. A.; Barrow, S.; Batourine, V.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Bonner, B. E.; Bouchigny, S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Carnahan, B.; Chen, S.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Collins, P.; Coltharp, P.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Crede, V.; Cummings, J. P.; Dashyan, N.; de Masi, R.; de Vita, R.; de Sanctis, E.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Deur, A.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dhuga, K. S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Donnelly, J.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Fassi, L. El; Empl, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedotov, G.; Feldman, G.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Forest, T. A.; Funsten, H.; Garçon, M.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gonenc, A.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hakobyan, R. S.; Hardie, J.; Hassall, N.; Heddle, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hleiqawi, I.; Hu, J.; Huertas, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kalantarians, N.; Kellie, J. D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Lima, A. C. S.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, M.; Manak, J. J.; Markov, N.; McAleer, S.; McKinnon, B.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mibe, T.; Mikhailov, K.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Moriya, K.; Morrow, S. A.; Moteabbed, M.; Mueller, J.; Mutchler, G. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Napolitano, J.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Niroula, M. R.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Paterson, C.; Philips, S. A.; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Popa, I.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabatié, F.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Santoro, J. P.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Shaw, J.; Shvedunov, N. V.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stokes, B. E.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Tkabladze, A.; Tkachenko, S.; Tur, C.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.; Yurov, M.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

    2009-09-01

    We report measurements of the beam spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) at an electron beam energy of 4.8 GeV using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The DVCS beam spin asymmetry has been measured in a wide range of kinematics, 1.0

  19. Compton scattering by internal shields based on melanin-containing mushrooms provides protection of gastrointestinal tract from ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Bryan, Ruth A; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9 Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors. PMID:23113595

  20. Inhomogeneities in Type Ib/c Supernovae: An Inverse Compton Scattering Origin of the X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnsson, C.-I.

    2013-05-01

    Inhomogeneities in a synchrotron source can severely affect the conclusions drawn from observations regarding the source properties. However, their presence is not always easy to establish, since several other effects can give rise to similar observed characteristics. It is argued that the recently observed broadening of the radio spectra and/or light curves in some Type Ib/c supernovae is a direct indication of inhomogeneities. As compared to a homogeneous source, this increases the deduced velocity of the forward shock and the observed correlation between total energy and shock velocity could in part be due to a varying covering factor. The X-ray emission from at least some Type Ib/c supernovae is unlikely to be synchrotron radiation from an electron distribution accelerated in a nonlinear shock. Instead it is shown that the observed correlation during the first few hundred days between the radio, X-ray, and bolometric luminosities indicates that the X-ray emission is inverse Compton scattering of the photospheric photons. Inhomogeneities are consistent with equipartition between electrons and magnetic fields in the optically thin synchrotron emitting regions.

  1. Compton Scattering by Internal Shields Based on Melanin-Containing Mushrooms Provides Protection of Gastrointestinal Tract from Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C.; Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Bryan, Ruth A.; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9?Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors. PMID:23113595

  2. Polarized ? source based on Compton backscattering in a laser cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimenko, V.; Pogorelsky, I. V.

    2006-09-01

    We propose a novel gamma source suitable for generating a polarized positron beam for the next generation of electron-positron colliders, such as the International Linear Collider (ILC), and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). This 30-MeV polarized gamma source is based on Compton scattering inside a picosecond CO2 laser cavity generated from electron bunches produced by a 4-GeV linac. We identified and experimentally verified the optimum conditions for obtaining at least one gamma photon per electron. After multiplication at several consecutive interaction points, the circularly polarized gamma rays are stopped on a target, thereby creating copious numbers of polarized positrons. We address the practicality of having an intracavity Compton-polarized positron source as the injector for these new colliders.

  3. Performance of a Low Noise Front-end ASIC for Si/CdTe Detectors in Compton Gamma-ray Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, H

    2004-03-29

    Compton telescopes based on semiconductor technologies are being developed to explore the gamma-ray universe in an energy band 0.1-20 MeV, which is not well covered by the present or near-future gamma-ray telescopes. The key feature of such Compton telescopes is the high energy resolution that is crucial for high angular resolution and high background rejection capability. The energy resolution around 1 keV is required to approach physical limit of the angular resolution due to Doppler broadening. We have developed a low noise front-end ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit), VA32TA, to realize this goal for the readout of Double-sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSD) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) pixel detector which are essential elements of the semiconductor Compton telescope. We report on the design and test results of the VA32TA. We have reached an energy resolution of 1.3 keV (FWHM) for 60 keV and 122 keV at 0 C with a DSSD and 1.7 keV (FWHM) with a CdTe detector.

  4. Performance of a Low Noise Front-end ASIC for Si/CdTe Detectors in Compton Gamma-ray Telescope

    E-print Network

    H. Tajima; T. Nakamoto; T. Tanaka; S. Uno; T. Mitani; E. do Couto e Silva; Y. Fukazawa; T. Kamae; G. Madejski; D. Marlow; K. Nakazawa; M. Nomachi; Y. Oakada; T. Takahashi

    2004-04-01

    Compton telescopes based on semiconductor technologies are being developed to explore the gamma-ray universe in an energy band 0.1--20 MeV, which is not well covered by the present or near-future gamma-ray telescopes. The key feature of such Compton telescopes is the high energy resolution that is crucial for high angular resolution and high background rejection capability. The energy resolution around 1 keV is required to approach physical limit of the angular resolution due to Doppler broadening. We have developed a low noise front-end ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit), VA32TA, to realize this goal for the readout of Double-sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSD) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) pixel detector which are essential elements of the semiconductor Compton telescope. We report on the design and test results of the VA32TA. We have reached an energy resolution of 1.3 keV (FWHM) for 60 keV and 122 keV at 0 degree C with a DSSD and 1.7 keV (FWHM) with a CdTe detector.

  5. Geant4 simulations on Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipescu, D.; Utsunomiya, H.; Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-01

    Using Geant4, a complex simulation code of the interaction between laser photons and relativistic electrons was developed. We implemented physically constrained electron beam emittance and spacial distribution parameters and we also considered a Gaussian laser beam. The code was tested against experimental data produced at the ?-ray beam line GACKO (Gamma Collaboration Hutch of Konan University) of the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. Here we will discuss the implications of transverse missallignments of the collimation system relative to the electron beam axis.

  6. A current generation by Compton scattering in a relativistic plasma with velocity shear and temperature gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinata, S.

    1984-01-01

    Current generation by Thomson scattering in a non-relativistic plasma with the velocity shear and the temperature gradient (Hinata and Daneshvar, 1983) is extended to a relativistic plasma by replacing Thomson cross section by the Klein-Nishina formula. Because of the energy dependence of the cross-section, a numerical rather than analytic result is presented. The present calculation may be applied to a supernova implosion where the temperature may reach several MeV and a strong differential rotation is expected. It may also find applications in the early universe, and laser-pellet interaction.

  7. First Determination of Generalized Polarizabilities of the Proton by a Virtual Compton Scattering Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, J. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, (France)] [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, (France); Friedrich, J. M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany)] [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany); Lhuillier, D. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, (France)] [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, (France); Bartsch, P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany)] [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany); Baumann, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany)] [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany); Berthot, J. [LPC de Clermont-Fd, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex, (France)] [LPC de Clermont-Fd, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex, (France); Bertin, P. Y. [LPC de Clermont-Fd, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex, (France)] [LPC de Clermont-Fd, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex, (France); Breton, V. [LPC de Clermont-Fd, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex, (France)] [LPC de Clermont-Fd, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex, (France); Boeglin, W. U. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany)] [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany); Boehm, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany)] (and others) [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany)

    2000-07-24

    Absolute differential cross sections for the reaction ep{yields}ep{gamma} have been measured at a four-momentum transfer with virtuality Q{sup 2}=0.33 GeV{sup 2} and polarization {epsilon}=0.62 in the range 33.6 to 111.5 MeV/c for the momentum of the outgoing photon in the photon-proton center of mass frame. The experiment has been performed with the high-resolution spectrometers at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. From the photon angular distributions, two structure functions which are a linear combination of the generalized polarizabilities have been determined for the first time. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  8. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 by the Egret telescope on the Compton Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma radiation in the energy range from 50 MeV to well over 1 GeV has been observed from the direction of the BL Lac object Markarian 421 by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope on the Compton Observatory during the period 1991 June 27-July 11. The source flux is weak, but still statistically significant at the level of 10 exp -5; the integrated photon flux above 100 MeV is (1.4 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -7/sq cm s. The differential photon energy spectrum can be represented by a power law with exponent 1.96 +/- 0.14. This is the first detection of gamma-ray emission from a BL Lac object.

  9. Exclusive meson pair production in {gamma}*{gamma} scattering at small momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Lansberg, J.P. [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Physique Theorique Fondamentale, Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du 6 Aout, Bat. B5, B-4000 Liege-1 (Belgium); Pire, B. [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Physique Theorique Fondamentale, Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du 6 Aout, Bat. B5, B-4000 Liege-1 (Belgium); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay (France)

    2006-04-01

    We study the exclusive production of {pi}{pi} and {rho}{pi} in hard {gamma}*{gamma} scattering in the forward kinematical region where the virtuality of one photon provides us with a hard scale in the process. The newly introduced concept of Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA) is used to perform a QCD calculation of these reactions thanks to two simple models for TDAs. Cross sections for {rho}{pi} and {pi}{pi} production are evaluated and compared to the possible background from the Bremsstrahlung process. This picture may be tested at intense electron-positron colliders such as CLEO and B factories. The cross section e{gamma}{yields}e{sup '}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} is finally shown to provide a possible determination of the {pi}{sup 0} axial form factor, F{sub A}{sup {pi}{sup 0}}, at small t, which seems not to be measurable elsewhere.

  10. Constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism of TeV gamma ray emission from the Milagro TeV source MGRO J2019+37 within the pulsar wind nebula scenario

    E-print Network

    Lab Saha; Pijushpani Bhattacharjee

    2015-05-22

    Origin of the TeV gamma ray emission from MGRO J2019+37 discovered by the Milagro experiment is investigated within the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) scenario using multiwavelength information on sources suggested to be associated with this object. We find that the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) mechanism of origin of the observed TeV gamma rays within the PWN scenario is severely constrained by the upper limit on the radio flux from the region around MGRO J2019+37 given by the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) as well as by the x-ray flux upper limit from SWIFT/XRT. Specifically, for the SSC mechanism to explain the observed TeV flux from MGRO J2019+37 without violating the GMRT and/or Swift/XRT flux upper limits in the radio and x-ray regions, respectively, the emission region must be extremely compact with the characteristic size of the emission region restricted to $\\lsim{\\mathcal O}(10^{-4}\\pc)$ for an assumed distance of $\\sim$ few kpc to the source. This is at least four orders of magnitude less than the characteristic size of the emission region typically invoked in explaining the TeV emission through the SSC mechanism within the PWN scenario. On the other hand, inverse Compton (IC) scattering of the nebular high energy electrons on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons can, for reasonable ranges of values of various parameters, explain the observed TeV flux without violating the GMRT and/or SWIFT/XRT flux bounds.

  11. The Compton Observatory in perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. A. Kniffen

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 15 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range and order of magnitude better than

  12. Magnetic ground states of CaRu1-xMnxO3(0.2 <= x <= 0.9): a magnetic Compton scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizusaki, S.; Taniguchi, T.; Okada, N.; Nagata, Y.; Hiraoka, N.; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Noro, Y.; Ozawa, T. C.; Samata, H.

    2009-07-01

    The magnetism of CaRu1-xMnxO3(0.2<=x<=0.9) was studied by the magnetic Compton scattering experiment. The result of the spin-polarized electron momentum density distributions (magnetic Compton profiles) and the absolute value of spin moment indicate that Mn doping introduces magnetic moments on Ru ions, and the Ru and Mn spin moments were antiferromagnetically coupled. Moreover the spin moment of Ru ions increased proportionally in the x range. These results were explained by a mixed valence model and inhomogeneous magnetic structure, where the inhomogeneous magnetic ground state in CaRu1-xMnxO3 would be formed by a ferrimagnetic network from the Mn3.5+ and Ru4.5+ clusters in the paramagnetic matrix CaRuO3 for x<0.5 and in the antiferromagnetic matrix CaMnO3 for x>0.5.

  13. Quantum mechanical model for nuclear-resonant scattering of gamma radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert R. Hoy

    1997-01-01

    A one-dimensional quantum mechanical model for nuclear-resonant scattering of gamma radiation from matter is developed assuming the source radiation is gamma decay. A closed-form, finite-sum solution for the radiated intensity is obtained by restricting the calculation to coherent forward scattering. The solution provides a unified microscopic picture of nuclear-resonant scattering processes in which the radiation undergoes sequential scattering from one

  14. Detection of a long-duration solar gamma-ray flare on Jun. 11, 1991 with EGRET on Compton-GRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanbach, G.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fitchel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.; Mayer-Hasslewander, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    On 11 Jun. 1991, the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Comption-GRO) observed high energy gamma radiation above 30 MeV from the Sun following an intense flare around 2:00 Universal Time (UT). After the decay of most of the x ray flare, which caused nearly complete deadtime losses in EGRET, high energy emission was registered during the interval from about 3:30 UT to at least 10:30 UT. Gamma rays were detected up to energies above 1 GeV. The solar origin of the emission is assured by the time profile of the gamma ray count rate and by time resolved sky maps, which show a clear maximum at the position of the sun. The gamma ray lightcurve of the flare can be described with two components: a fast decaying emission with an e-folding time constant of about 25 minutes and a slow decay with about 255 minutes. There are indications for a spectral evolution with time, such that the emission below 100 MeV fades away earlier than the 100 to 300 MeV radiation, roughly in the time scale of the fast component. The spectrum of the flare can be fitted with a composite of a proton generated pion neutral spectrum and an electron bremsstrahlung component. The latter can be identified with the fast decaying component of the lightcurve.

  15. A 3D point-kernel multiple scatter model for parallel-beam SPECT based on a gamma-ray buildup factor.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, Predrag; Ilic, Radovan; Spaic, Rajko

    2007-10-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) point-kernel multiple scatter model for point spread function (PSF) determination in parallel-beam single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), based on a dose gamma-ray buildup factor, is proposed. This model embraces nonuniform attenuation in a voxelized object of imaging (patient body) and multiple scattering that is treated as in the point-kernel integration gamma-ray shielding problems. First-order Compton scattering is done by means of the Klein-Nishina formula, but the multiple scattering is accounted for by making use of a dose buildup factor. An asset of the present model is the possibility of generating a complete two-dimensional (2D) PSF that can be used for 3D SPECT reconstruction by means of iterative algorithms. The proposed model is convenient in those situations where more exact techniques are not economical. For the proposed model's testing purpose calculations (for the point source in a nonuniform scattering object for parallel beam collimator geometry), the multiple-order scatter PSF generated by means of the proposed model matched well with those using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Discrepancies are observed only at the exponential tails mostly due to the high statistic uncertainty of MC simulations in this area, but not because of the inappropriateness of the model. PMID:17881800

  16. A 3D point-kernel multiple scatter model for parallel-beam SPECT based on a gamma-ray buildup factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinkovic, Predrag; Ilic, Radovan; Spaic, Rajko

    2007-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) point-kernel multiple scatter model for point spread function (PSF) determination in parallel-beam single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), based on a dose gamma-ray buildup factor, is proposed. This model embraces nonuniform attenuation in a voxelized object of imaging (patient body) and multiple scattering that is treated as in the point-kernel integration gamma-ray shielding problems. First-order Compton scattering is done by means of the Klein-Nishina formula, but the multiple scattering is accounted for by making use of a dose buildup factor. An asset of the present model is the possibility of generating a complete two-dimensional (2D) PSF that can be used for 3D SPECT reconstruction by means of iterative algorithms. The proposed model is convenient in those situations where more exact techniques are not economical. For the proposed model's testing purpose calculations (for the point source in a nonuniform scattering object for parallel beam collimator geometry), the multiple-order scatter PSF generated by means of the proposed model matched well with those using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Discrepancies are observed only at the exponential tails mostly due to the high statistic uncertainty of MC simulations in this area, but not because of the inappropriateness of the model.

  17. An investigation of the electronic wave functions in solids by the Compton scattering of gamma rays 

    E-print Network

    Nha, Sang Kyun

    1968-01-01

    . The detector system consists of one lithium-drifted germanium detector with area 4 cm and drifted depth 2 5 'mm, one cryostat, and one 23 liter liquid nitrogen dewar. The detector is a lithium-drifted germanium diode in the form of right circular cylinder...

  18. Measurement of the Generalized Polarizabilities of the Proton in Virtual Compton Scattering at Q2=0.92 and 1.76 Gev2: II. Dispersion Relation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geraud Laveissiere; Luminita Todor; Natalie Degrande; Stephanie Jaminion; Christophe Jutier; Rachele Di Salvo; L. Van Hoorebeke; et al

    2003-12-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering is studied at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in the energy domain below pion threshold and in the Delta(1232) resonance region. The data analysis is based on the Dispersion Relation (DR) approach. The electric and magnetic Generalized Polarizabilities (GPs) of the proton and the structure functions Pll-Ptt/epsilon and Plt are determined at four-momentum transfer squared Q2=0.92 and 1.76 GeV2. The DR analysis is consistent with the low-energy expansion analysis. The world data set indicates that neither the electric nor magnetic GP follows a simple dipole form.

  19. (Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    There are four areas where major progress has occurred this year. We have applied the Fourier-transform method of describing and analyzing Moessbauer effect (ME) line shapes to make measurements of the temperature dependence of the recoilless fraction in tungsten. We have carried out quasi-elastic measurements of the gamma scattering from viscous liquids, learning about diffusive motion in polydimethylsiloxane, pentadecane, and glycerol. We have made major progress in fundamental physics, having shown for the first time how to determine precise quantum interference parameters, obtaining experimental results on the 46.5 keV line of {sup 183}W and the 129 keV line of {sup 191}Ir. Finally, we have continued our development of MICE detectors, with a theoretical analysis of the MICE lineshape and its relation to the lineshape of conventional transmission ME spectroscopy. 12 refs.

  20. Helium Compton Form Factor Measurements at CLAS

    E-print Network

    Eric Voutier

    2013-06-30

    The distribution of the parton content of nuclei, as encoded via the generalized parton distributions (GPDs), can be accessed via the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process contributing to the cross section for leptoproduction of real photons. Similarly to the scattering of light by a material, DVCS provides information about the dynamics and the spatial structure of hadrons. The sensitivity of this process to the lepton beam polarization allows to single-out the DVCS amplitude in terms of Compton form factors that contain GPDs information. The beam spin asymmetry of the $^4$He($\\vec {\\mathrm e}$,e$' \\gamma ^4$He) process was measured in the experimental Hall B of the Jefferson Laboratory to extract the real and imaginary parts of the twist-2 Compton form factor of the $^4$He nucleus. The experimental results reported here demonstrate the relevance of this method for such a goal, and suggest the dominance of the Bethe-Heitler amplitude to the unpolarized process in the kinematic range explored by the experiment.

  1. Helium Compton Form Factor Measurements at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Voutier, Eric J.-M. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of the parton content of nuclei, as encoded via the generalized parton distributions (GPDs), can be accessed via the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process contributing to the cross section for leptoproduction of real photons. Similarly to the scattering of light by a material, DVCS provides information about the dynamics and the spatial structure of hadrons. The sensitivity of this process to the lepton beam polarization allows to single-out the DVCS amplitude in terms of Compton form factors that contain GPDs information. The beam spin asymmetry of the $^4$He($\\vec {\\mathrm e}$,e$' \\gamma ^4$He) process was measured in the experimental Hall B of the Jefferson Laboratory to extract the real and imaginary parts of the twist-2 Compton form factor of the $^4$He nucleus. The experimental results reported here demonstrate the relevance of this method for such a goal, and suggest the dominance of the Bethe-Heitler amplitude to the unpolarized process in the kinematic range explored by the experiment.

  2. {gamma}Z exchange corrections in parity-violating electron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Blunden, P. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2011-10-24

    I report on recent work on two-boson exchange contributions ({gamma}{gamma} and {gamma}Z) and their implications for parity-violating electron scattering measurements. These calculations are particularly relevant for high precision measurements of the strange electric and magnetic form factors, and the weak charge of the proton.

  3. Noise evaluation of Compton camera imaging for proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Ortega, P G; Torres-Espallardo, I; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Gillam, J E; Lacasta, C; Llosá, G; Oliver, J F; Sala, P R; Solevi, P; Rafecas, M

    2015-03-01

    Compton Cameras emerged as an alternative for real-time dose monitoring techniques for Particle Therapy (PT), based on the detection of prompt-gammas. As a consequence of the Compton scattering process, the gamma origin point can be restricted onto the surface of a cone (Compton cone). Through image reconstruction techniques, the distribution of the gamma emitters can be estimated, using cone-surfaces backprojections of the Compton cones through the image space, along with more sophisticated statistical methods to improve the image quality. To calculate the Compton cone required for image reconstruction, either two interactions, the last being photoelectric absorption, or three scatter interactions are needed. Because of the high energy of the photons in PT the first option might not be adequate, as the photon is not absorbed in general. However, the second option is less efficient. That is the reason to resort to spectral reconstructions, where the incoming ? energy is considered as a variable in the reconstruction inverse problem. Jointly with prompt gamma, secondary neutrons and scattered photons, not strongly correlated with the dose map, can also reach the imaging detector and produce false events. These events deteriorate the image quality. Also, high intensity beams can produce particle accumulation in the camera, which lead to an increase of random coincidences, meaning events which gather measurements from different incoming particles. The noise scenario is expected to be different if double or triple events are used, and consequently, the reconstructed images can be affected differently by spurious data. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of false events in the reconstructed image, evaluating their impact in the determination of the beam particle ranges. A simulation study that includes misidentified events (neutrons and random coincidences) in the final image of a Compton Telescope for PT monitoring is presented. The complete chain of detection, from the beam particle entering a phantom to the event classification, is simulated using FLUKA. The range determination is later estimated from the reconstructed image obtained from a two and three-event algorithm based on Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization. The neutron background and random coincidences due to a therapeutic-like time structure are analyzed for mono-energetic proton beams. The time structure of the beam is included in the simulations, which will affect the rate of particles entering the detector. PMID:25658644

  4. Beam-helicity asymmetry measurements in the Virtual Compton Scattering reaction in the g*N-Delta transition at Q2=0.20 (GeV/c)^2

    E-print Network

    N. F. Sparveris

    2008-11-13

    We report on new beam-helicity asymmetry measurements (A_h) of the H(\\vec{e},e'p)\\gamma reaction in the Delta(1232)$ resonance at Q2=0.20 (GeV/c)2. The measurements were performed at MAMI and were carried out simultaneously with the measurement of the H(\\vec{e},e'p)\\pi^0 reaction channel. It is the lowest Q2 for which the $A_h$ for the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) reaction has been measured in the first resonance region. The measured asymmetries have been compared and have been found to be well described by dispersion-relation (DR) calculations for VCS. The sensitivity of the data to the Generalized Polarizabilities (GPs) of the proton and to the amplitudes associated with the nucleon excitation to the Delta(1232) has been explored through the DR formalism. The measured asymmetries have been found to exhibit a much higher sensitivity to the GPs while it is suggested that future measurements of higher statistical precision will offer stronger constraints to theoretical calculations and will provide valuable insight towards a more complete understanding of the GPs of the proton and of the pi-N amplitudes.

  5. Measurement of the Generalized Polarizabilities of the Proton in Virtual Compton Scattering at Q2= 0.92 and 1.76 GeV2

    SciTech Connect

    Geraud Laveissiere; Natalie Degrande; Stephanie Jaminion; Christophe Jutier; Luminita Todor; Rachele Di Salvo; L. Van Hoorebeke; Et. Al.

    2004-09-01

    We report a Virtual Compton Scattering study of the proton at low CM energies. We have determined the structure functions P{sub LL} - P{sub TT}/{epsilon} and P{sub LT}, and the electric and magnetic Generalized Polarizabilities (GPs) {alpha}{sub E}(Q{sup 2}) and {beta}{sub M}(Q{sup 2}) at momentum transfer Q{sup 2} = 0.92 and 1.76 GeV{sup 2}. The electric GP shows a strong fall-off with Q{sup 2}, and its global behavior does not follow a simple dipole form. The magnetic GP shows a rise and then a fall-off; this can be interpreted as the dominance of a long-distance diamagnetic pion cloud at low Q{sup 2}, compensated at higher Q{sup 2} by a paramagnetic contribution from {pi}N intermediate states.

  6. A new measurement of the structure functions PLL - PTT/ ? and PLT in virtual Compton scattering at Q2 = 0.33 (GeV/c)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens, P.; Doria, L.; Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Baumann, D.; Bernauer, J. C.; Bensafa, I. K.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Burtin, E.; D'Hose, N.; Defaÿ, X.; Ding, M.; Distler, M. O.; Fonvieille, H.; Friedrich, J.; Friedrich, J. M.; Laveissière, G.; Makek, M.; Marroncle, J.; Merkel, H.; Müller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pasquini, B.; Pochodzalla, J.; Postavaru, O.; Potokar, M.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sanchez Majos, S.; Schlimme, B. S.; Seimetz, M.; Širca, S.; Tamas, G.; van de Vyver, R.; van Hoorebeke, L.; van Overloop, A.; Walcher, Th.; Weinriefer, M.

    2008-07-01

    The cross-section of the ep ? e'p'? reaction has been measured at Q 2 = 0.33 (GeV/ c)2. The experiment was performed using the electron beam of the MAMI accelerator and the standard detector setup of the A1 Collaboration. The cross-section is analyzed using the low-energy theorem for virtual Compton scattering, yielding a new determination of the two structure functions PLL - PTT/ ? and PLT which are linear combinations of the generalized polarizabilities of the proton. We find somewhat larger values than in the previous investigation at the same Q 2. This difference, however, is purely due to our more refined analysis of the data. The results tend to confirm the non-trivial Q 2-evolution of the generalized polarizabilities and call for more measurements in the low- Q 2 region (? 1 (GeV/ c)2).

  7. Development of a laser pulse storage technique in an optical super-cavity for a compact X-ray source based on laser-Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Araki, Sakae; Fukuda, Masafumi; Higashi, Yasuo; Honda, Yosuke; Sasao, Noboru; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Taniguchi, Takashi; Urakawa, Junji; Washio, Masakazu

    2011-05-01

    With the ongoing progress of pulse laser storage technology, a compact X-ray source based on laser-Compton scattering, with sufficient photon flux for practical use, is soon to be realized. The super-cavity is one of the most feasible sources for the production of both high-average-power and high-peak-power laser pulses. Our group has been developing a continuous pulse storage and quasi-continuous interaction scheme with a multi-bunch electron linac. We have demonstrated a burst storage technique that enhances the laser pulse energy synchronized with the electron bunch train by using a quasi-continuous-wave laser amplifier. This laser pulse storage technique has achieved an average power of 2.45 kW and a pulse energy of 112 ?J at the interaction timing in a super-cavity. In this paper, we describe the principle and recent progress of laser pulse storage in an optical super-cavity.

  8. Virtual Compton scattering and the generalized polarizabilities of the proton at Q2=0.92 and 1.76 GeV2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonvieille, H.; Laveissière, G.; Degrande, N.; Jaminion, S.; Jutier, C.; Todor, L.; Di Salvo, R.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Alexa, L. C.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K. A.; Arundell, K.; Audit, G.; Auerbach, L.; Baker, F. T.; Baylac, M.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P. Y.; Bertozzi, W.; Bimbot, L.; Boeglin, W. U.; Brash, E. J.; Breton, V.; Breuer, H.; Burtin, E.; Calarco, J. R.; Cardman, L. S.; Cavata, C.; Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Dale, D. S.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deur, A.; d'Hose, N.; Dodge, G. E.; Domingo, J. J.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Epstein, M. B.; Ewell, L. A.; Finn, J. M.; Fissum, K. G.; Fournier, G.; Frois, B.; Frullani, S.; Furget, C.; Gao, H.; Gao, J.; Garibaldi, F.; Gasparian, A.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, A.; Glashausser, C.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V.; Grenier, P.; Guichon, P. A. M.; Hansen, J. O.; Holmes, R.; Holtrop, M.; Howell, C.; Huber, G. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Incerti, S.; Iodice, M.; Jardillier, J.; Jones, M. K.; Kahl, W.; Kato, S.; Katramatou, A. T.; Kelly, J. J.; Kerhoas, S.; Ketikyan, A.; Khayat, M.; Kino, K.; Kox, S.; Kramer, L. H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Leone, A.; LeRose, J. J.; Liang, M.; Lindgren, R. A.; Liyanage, N.; Lolos, G. J.; Lourie, R. W.; Madey, R.; Maeda, K.; Malov, S.; Manley, D. M.; Marchand, C.; Marchand, D.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marroncle, J.; Martino, J.; McCormick, K.; McIntyre, J.; Mehrabyan, S.; Merchez, F.; Meziani, Z. E.; Michaels, R.; Miller, G. W.; Mougey, J. Y.; Nanda, S. K.; Neyret, D.; Offermann, E. A. J. M.; Papandreou, Z.; Pasquini, B.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Perrino, R.; Petratos, G. G.; Platchkov, S.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Prout, D. L.; Punjabi, V. A.; Pussieux, T.; Quémenér, G.; Ransome, R. D.; Ravel, O.; Real, J. S.; Renard, F.; Roblin, Y.; Rowntree, D.; Rutledge, G.; Rutt, P. M.; Saha, A.; Saito, T.; Sarty, A. J.; Serdarevic, A.; Smith, T.; Smirnov, G.; Soldi, K.; Sorokin, P.; Souder, P. A.; Suleiman, R.; Templon, J. A.; Terasawa, T.; Tieulent, R.; Tomasi-Gustaffson, E.; Tsubota, H.; Ueno, H.; Ulmer, P. E.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vanderhaeghen, M.; Van der Meer, R. L. J.; Van De Vyver, R.; Vernin, P.; Vlahovic, B.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watson, J. W.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wijesooriya, K.; Wilson, R.; Wojtsekhowski, B. B.; Zainea, D. G.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, Z.-L.

    2012-07-01

    Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) on the proton has been studied at the Jefferson Laboratory using the exclusive photon electroproduction reaction ep?ep?. This paper gives a detailed account of the analysis which has led to the determination of the structure functions PLL-PTT/? and PLT and the electric and magnetic generalized polarizabilities (GPs) ?E(Q2) and ?M(Q2) at values of the four-momentum transfer squared Q2=0.92 and 1.76 GeV2. These data, together with the results of VCS experiments at lower momenta, help building a coherent picture of the electric and magnetic GPs of the proton over the full measured Q2 range and point to their nontrivial behavior.

  9. Forward Scatter Dose Effect at Metallic Interfaces Irradiated by X and Gamma Ray Therapy Beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manickam Ravikumar; Ramamoorthy Ravichandran; Sanjay Sudhakar Supe

    2001-01-01

    Aim: In this study forward scattering effects near different metallic interfaces are measured for Co-60 gamma and 6 and 18 MV photon beams. The studied effects are the transport of secondary electrons across the metallic interface and the scattering of photons by the metallic inhomogeneity. Materials and Methods: All measurements were carried out with a PTW thin-window, parallel plate ionisation

  10. The Advanced Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Steven E.; Kurfess, J.; Ryan, J.; Aprile, E.; Gehrels, N.; Hunter, S.; Kippen, M.; Leising, M.; Oberlack, U.; Wunderer, C.; Zoglauer, A. C.; Zych, A.; ACT Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) is a NASA Vision Mission designed to survey the gamma-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity (about 50 times better than the Compton Observatory or INTEGRAL), probing the fires where chemical elements are formed by performing high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear gamma rays from extragalactic Type Ia supernovae. Dozens of Type 1A SN per year will be detected in nuclear lines gamma rays from 56-Co and 56-Ni, where no definitive gamma ray observations of these have been achieved at this time. The more intense Type 1A events should enable an understanding of the mechanisms in the white dwarf stars responsible for the explosions. ACT also enables a wealth of other science objectives. It will also study the physics of accretion disks in AGN and Galactic compact objects, particle outflows from black holes, nuclear burning in novae, particle acceleration in solar flares, and global nucleosynthesis revealed in the radioactive Milky Way. It will also achieve very sensitive observations of gamma ray bursts with a broad field-of-view instrument. We will review the ACT science goals and results of the previous concept study, and present the goals of our Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study in preparation for the upcoming Decadal Survey.

  11. Statistical properties of the time histories of cosmic gamma-ray bursts detected by the BATSE experiment of the Compton gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagdeev, Roald

    1995-01-01

    The main scientific objectives of the project were: (1) Calculation of average time history for different subsets of BATSE gamma-ray bursts; (2) Comparison of averaged parameters and averaged time history for different Burst And Transient Source Experiments (BASTE) Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB's) sets; (3) Comparison of results obtained with BATSE data with those obtained with APEX experiment at PHOBOS mission; and (4) Use the results of (1)-(3) to compare current models of gamma-ray bursts sources.

  12. Hadronic gamma-Z box corrections in M\\oller scattering

    E-print Network

    N. L. Hall; P. G. Blunden; W. Melnitchouk; A. W. Thomas; R. D. Young

    2014-03-13

    The possibility of measuring the parity-violating asymmetry in M\\oller scattering with sufficient accuracy to determine sin^2 theta_W to 0.1% offers a complementary path to the discovery of new physics to that followed at high energy colliders. We present a new calculation of the gamma-Z box contribution to parity-violating electron-proton scattering, which constitutes an important uncertainty in computing the background to this process. We show that while the gamma-Z correction grows rapidly with energy, it can be relatively well constrained by data from parity-violating inelastic scattering and parton distribution functions.

  13. Hadronic light-by-light scattering in the muon g-2: impact of proposed measurements of the (pi^0 -> gamma gamma) decay width and the (gamma^* gamma -> pi^0) transition form factor with the KLOE-2 experiment

    E-print Network

    Andreas Nyffeler

    2012-12-04

    We discuss, how planned measurements at KLOE-2 of the (pi^0 -> gamma gamma) decay width and the (gamma^* gamma -> pi^0) transition form factor can improve estimates for the numerically dominant pion-exchange contribution to hadronic light-by-light scattering in the muon g-2 and what are the limitations related to the modelling of the off-shellness of the pion.

  14. Quark-hadron duality constraints on \\gamma Z box corrections to parity-violating elastic scattering

    E-print Network

    Hall, N L; Melnitchouk, W; Thomas, A W; Young, R D

    2015-01-01

    We examine the interference \\gamma Z box corrections to parity-violating elastic electron--proton scattering in the light of the recent observation of quark-hadron duality in parity-violating deep-inelastic scattering from the deuteron at low Q^2. Using the similarity of electromagnetic and \\gamma Z structure function moments and those extracted from leading twist parton distributions down to Q^2 \\approx 1 GeV^2, we find that duality constrains the \\gamma Z box correction to \\Re e\\, \\square_{\\gamma Z}^V = (5.4 \\pm 0.4) \\times 10^{-3} at the kinematics of the Q_{\\text{weak}} experiment. Within the same model we also provide estimates of the \\gamma Z corrections for future experiments, such as MOLLER at Jefferson Lab and MESA at Mainz.

  15. Compton Polarimetry at ELSA

    SciTech Connect

    Hillert, Wolfgang; Aurand, Bastian; Wittschen, Juergen [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2009-08-04

    Part of the future polarization program performed at the Bonn accelerator facility ELSA will rely on precision Compton polarimetry of the stored transversely polarized electron beam. Precise and fast polarimetry poses high demands on the light source and the detector which were studied in detail performing numerical simulations of the Compton scattering process. In order to experimentally verify these calculations, first measurements were carried out using an argon ion laser as light source and a prototype version of a counting silicon microstrip detector. Calculated and measured intensity profiles of backscattered photons are presented and compared, showing excellent agreement. Background originating from beam gas radiation turned out to be the major limitation of the polarimeter performance. In order to improve the situation, a new polarimeter was constructed and is currently being set up. Design and expected performance of this polarimeter upgrade are presented.

  16. Cyclotron resonant scattering in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Wang, J. C. L.; Loredo, T. J.; Wasserman, I.; Fenimore, E. E.

    1989-01-01

    Data on the GB880205 gamma-ray bursts are presented that have implications for the nature of gamma-ray burst sources. It is shown that cyclotron resonant scattering and Raman scattering account well for the positions, strengths, and shapes of the relative strengths of the first and second harmonics and their narrow widths. These results imply the existence of a superstrong (B of about 2 x 10 to the 12th G) magnetic field in the vicinity of the X-ray emission region of GB880205. Such a superstrong magnetic field points to a strongly magnetic neutron star as the origin of gamma-ray bursts, and to the fact that the gamma-ray sources belong to the Galaxy.

  17. Double Scatter Telescope for Medium Energy Gamma Ray Astronomy from a Satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen D. Zych; Robert B. Wilson; Eddie Zanrosso; R. Stephen White; Bruce Dayton; James Simone

    1979-01-01

    A large area (1 m2) medium energy (1-30 MeV) telescope for gamma ray astronomy is discussed. This telescope utilizes the double scattering of gamma rays between two scintillator arrays with directionial discrimination by means of time-of-flight. The first and second arrays consist of a series of plastic and NaI(Tl) scintillators, respectively, in the shape of long (1 m) linear elements

  18. A library least-squares approach for scatter correction in gamma-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meric, Ilker; Anton Johansen, Geir; Valgueiro Malta Moreira, Icaro

    2015-03-01

    Scattered radiation is known to lead to distortion in reconstructed images in Computed Tomography (CT). The effects of scattered radiation are especially more pronounced in non-scanning, multiple source systems which are preferred for flow imaging where the instantaneous density distribution of the flow components is of interest. In this work, a new method based on a library least-squares (LLS) approach is proposed as a means of estimating the scatter contribution and correcting for this. The validity of the proposed method is tested using the 85-channel industrial gamma-ray tomograph previously developed at the University of Bergen (UoB). The results presented here confirm that the LLS approach can effectively estimate the amounts of transmission and scatter components in any given detector in the UoB gamma-ray tomography system.

  19. The GSFC Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R.; Fichtel, C.; Kniffen, D.; Trombka, J.; Stacy, G.

    1983-01-01

    A new telescope is being developed at GSFC for the study of point sources of gamma rays in the energy range 1-30 MeV. Using the detection principle of a Compton scatter in a 2.5 cm thick NaI(Tl) detector followed by absorption in a 15 cm thick NaI(Tl) detector, the telescope uses a rocking collimator for field-of-view reduction and background subtraction. Background reduction techniques include lead-plastic scintillator shielding, pulse shape discrimination and Anger camera operation to both NaI detectors, as well as a time-of-flight measurement between them. The instrument configuration and status is described.

  20. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by {ital Pioneer} {ital V}{ital enus} {ital Orbiter}, {ital Compton} {ital Gamma}-{ital Ray} {ital Observatory}, and {ital Ulysses}

    SciTech Connect

    Laros, J.G. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hurley, K.C. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Briggs, M.S. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)] [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M.L. [USRA, at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)] [USRA, at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Fishman, G.J.; Meegan, C.A. [NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)] [NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Cline, T.L. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Boer, M.; Niel, M. [CESR, F-31029 Toulouse Cedex (France)] [CESR, F-31029 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    1998-10-01

    Between the {ital Compton} {ital Gamma} {ital Ray} {ital Observatory} ({ital CGRO}) launch in 1991 April and the {ital Pioneer} {ital V}{ital enus} {ital Orbiter} ({ital PVO}) demise in 1992 October, concurrent coverage by {ital CGRO}, {ital PVO}, and {ital Ulysses} was obtained for several hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the {ital PVO} and {ital Ulysses} thresholds, 37 were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to {approximately}2{degree} accuracy by the {ital CGRO} Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), and three were also localized by COMPTEL. We computed arrival-time error boxes, whose larger dimensions range from about 2{prime} to several degrees and whose smaller dimensions are in the arcminute range. Twelve have areas less than 10 arcmin{sup 2}, and only four have areas greater than 1 deg{sup 2}. The area of the smallest box is 0.44 arcmin{sup 2}. We find that the overall BATSE localization accuracy for these events is consistent with the most recent stated uncertainties. This work indicates that the {ital ROSAT} soft X-ray source found within a preliminary IPN error box for GB920501 (Trig 1576) (Hurley et al.) is less likely to be the GRB counterpart than previously reported. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  1. A simple algorithm for estimation of source-to-detector distance in Compton imaging.

    PubMed

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W; Sullivan, John P; Tornga, Shawn R; Brumby, Steven P

    2008-12-01

    Compton imaging is used to predict the location of gamma-emitting radiation sources. The X and Y coordinates of the source can be obtained using a back-projected image and a two-dimensional peak-finding algorithm. The emphasis of this work is to estimate the source-to-detector distance (Z). The algorithm presented uses the solid angle subtended by the reconstructed image at various source-to-detector distances. This algorithm was validated using both measured data from the prototype Compton imager (PCI) constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and simulated data of the same imager. Results show this method can be applied successfully to estimate Z, and it provides a way of determining Z without prior knowledge of the source location. This method is faster than the methods that employ maximum likelihood method because it is based on simple back projections of Compton scatter data. PMID:18693115

  2. Analysis of the electronic structure of ZrO{sub 2} by Compton spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mahammad, F. M.; Mahammed, S. F. [University of Tikrit 42, Department of Physics (Iraq)] [University of Tikrit 42, Department of Physics (Iraq); Kumar, R.; Vijay, Y. K.; Sharma, B. K. [University of Rajasthan, Department of Physics (India)] [University of Rajasthan, Department of Physics (India); Sharma, G., E-mail: gsphysics@gmail.com [University of Kota, Department of Pure and Applied Physics (India)

    2013-07-15

    The electronic structure of ZrO{sub 2} is studied using the Compton scattering technique. The first-ever Compton profile measurement on polycrystalline ZrO{sub 2} was obtained using 59.54 keV gamma-rays emanating from the {sup 241}Am radioisotope. To explain the experimental data, we compute theoretical Compton profile values using the method of linear combination of atomic orbitals in the framework of density functional theory. The correlation scheme proposed by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof and the exchange scheme of Becke are considered. The ionic-model-based calculations for a number of configurations, i.e., Zr{sup +x}(O{sup -x/2}){sub 2} (0 {<=} x {<=} 2), are also performed to estimate the charge transfer on compound formation, and the study supports transfer of 1.5 electrons from Zr to O atoms.

  3. Compton scattering from 12C using tagged photons in the energy range 65 - 115 MeV

    E-print Network

    L. S. Myers; K. Shoniyozov; M. F. Preston; M. D. Anderson; J. R. M. Annand; M. Boselli; W. J. Briscoe; J. Brudvik; J. I. Capone; G. Feldman; K. G. Fissum; K. Hansen; S. S. Henshaw; L. Isaksson; R. Jebali; M. A. Kovash; K. Lewis; M. Lundin; I. J. D. MacGregor; D. G. Middleton; D. E. Mittelberger; M. Murray; A. M. Nathan; S. Nutbeam; G. V. O'Rielly; B. Schröder; B. Seitz; S. C. Stave; H. R. Weller

    2014-01-16

    Elastic scattering of photons from 12C has been investigated using quasi-monoenergetic tagged photons with energies in the range 65 - 115 MeV at laboratory angles of 60 deg, 120 deg, and 150 deg at the Tagged-Photon Facility at the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund, Sweden. A phenomenological model was employed to provide an estimate of the sensitivity of the 12C(g,g)12C cross section to the bound-nucleon polarizabilities.

  4. A Prototype Si/CdTe Compton Camera and the Polarization Measurement

    E-print Network

    Takefumi Mitani; Takaaki Tanaka; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Tadayuki Takahashi; Takeshi Takashima; Hiroyasu Tajima; Hidehito Nakamura; Masaharu Nomachi; Tatsuya Nakamoto; Yasushi Fukazawa

    2004-10-05

    A Compton camera is the most promising approach for gamma-ray detection in the energy region from several hundred keV to MeV, especially for application in high energy astrophysics. In order to obtain good angular resolution, semiconductor detectors such as silicon, germanium and cadmium telluride(CdTe) have several advantages over scintillation detectors, which have been used so far. Based on the recent advances of high resolution CdTe and silicon imaging detectors, we are working on a Si/CdTe Compton camera. We have developed 64-pixel CdTe detectors with a pixel size of 2mmx2mm and double-sided Si strip detectors(DSSDs) with a position resolution of 800 micron. As a prototype Si/CdTe Compton camera, we use a DSSD as a scatterer and two CdTe pixel detectors as an absorber. In order to verify its performance, we irradiate the camera with 100% linearly polarised 170keV gamma-rays and demonstrate the system works properly as a Compton camera. The resolution of the reconstructed scattering angle is 22 degrees(FWHM). Measurement of polarization is also reported. The polarimetric modulation factor is obtained to be 43%, which is consistent with the prediction of Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Measurement of the polarization resulting from the scattering of 1250-keV gamma rays from bound electrons in lead 

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Michael Clinton

    1966-01-01

    keV 12 Range of Angular Acceptance d&& for the 600-keV Region 35 13 Range of Angular Acceptance 68 for the 900-keV Region 36 14 Percent Polarization of Gamma Rays Resulting from the Scattering of 1250-keV Gamma Rays through 90' from Lead . 37... Measurement of S' to be Used with the Measure- ment for 1250-keV Gamma Rays Scattered through 90' in the 900-keV Region 40 IV Measurement of S for 600-keV Photons Resulting from the Scattering of 1250-keV Gamma Rays through 56' by Aluminum 41 V...

  6. An iterative three-dimensional electron density imaging algorithm using uncollimated Compton scattered x rays from a polyenergetic primary pencil beam

    SciTech Connect

    Van Uytven, Eric; Pistorius, Stephen; Gordon, Richard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada) and Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Ave., Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3A 1R9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Ave., Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9 (Canada) and Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, HSC Room GA216, 820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9 (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, HSC Room GA216, 820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9 (Canada) and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, HSC Room GA216, 820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9 (Canada)

    2007-01-15

    X-ray film-screen mammography is currently the gold standard for detecting breast cancer. However, one disadvantage is that it projects a three-dimensional (3D) object onto a two-dimensional (2D) image, reducing contrast between small lesions and layers of normal tissue. Another limitation is its reduced sensitivity in women with mammographically dense breasts. Computed tomography (CT) produces a 3D image yet has had a limited role in mammography due to its relatively high dose, low resolution, and low contrast. As a first step towards implementing quantitative 3D mammography, which may improve the ability to detect and specify breast tumors, we have developed an analytical technique that can use Compton scatter to obtain 3D information of an object from a single projection. Imaging material with a pencil beam of polychromatic x rays produces a characteristic scattered photon spectrum at each point on the detector plane. A comparable distribution may be calculated using a known incident x-ray energy spectrum, beam shape, and an initial estimate of the object's 3D mass attenuation and electron density. Our iterative minimization algorithm changes the initially arbitrary electron density voxel matrix to reduce regular differences between the analytically predicted and experimentally measured spectra at each point on the detector plane. The simulated electron density converges to that of the object as the differences are minimized. The reconstruction algorithm has been validated using simulated data produced by the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system. We applied the imaging algorithm to a cylindrically symmetric breast tissue phantom containing multiple inhomogeneities. A preliminary ROC analysis scores greater than 0.96, which indicate that under the described simplifying conditions, this approach shows promise in identifying and localizing inhomogeneities which simulate 0.5 mm calcifications with an image voxel resolution of 0.25 cm and at a dose comparable to mammography.

  7. The Compton Observatory Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrader, Chris R. (editor); Gehrels, Neil (editor); Dennis, Brian (editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Compton Observatory Science Workshop was held in Annapolis, Maryland on September 23-25, 1991. The primary purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and information among scientists with interests in various areas of high energy astrophysics, with emphasis on the scientific capabilities of the Compton Observatory. Early scientific results, as well as reports on in-flight instrument performance and calibrations are presented. Guest investigator data products, analysis techniques, and associated software were discussed. Scientific topics covered included active galaxies, cosmic gamma ray bursts, solar physics, pulsars, novae, supernovae, galactic binary sources, and diffuse galactic and extragalactic emission.

  8. Measurements of Rayleigh, Compton and resonant Raman scattering cross-sections for 59.536 keV ?-rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prem Singh; D. Mehta; N. Singh; S. Puri; J. S. Shahi

    2004-01-01

    The K–L and K–M resonant Raman scattering (RRS) cross-sections have been measured for the first time at the 59.536 keV photon energy in the 70Yb (BK=61.332 keV), 71Lu (BK=63.316 keV) and 72Hf (BK=65.345 keV) elements; BK being the K-shell binding energy. The K–L and K–M RRS measurements have been performed at the 59° and 133° angles, respectively, to avoid interference

  9. Neutron-neutron scattering length from the reaction gamma d --> pi^+ nn employing chiral perturbation theory

    E-print Network

    V. Lensky; V. Baru; E. Epelbaum; C. Hanhart; J. Haidenbauer; A. Kudryavtsev; Ulf-G. Meißner

    2007-04-03

    We discuss the possibility to extract the neutron-neutron scattering length a_{nn} from experimental spectra on the reaction gamma d --> pi^+ nn. The transition operator is calculated to high accuracy from chiral perturbation theory. We argue that for properly chosen kinematics, the theoretical uncertainty of the method can be as low as 0.1 fm.

  10. Level density and gamma strength function in 162-Dy from inelastic 3-He scattering

    E-print Network

    A. Schiller; M. Guttormsen; E. Melby; J. Rekstad; S. Siem

    1999-12-02

    Complementary measurements have been performed for the level density and gamma strength function in 162-Dy using inelastic 3-He scattering. Comparing these results to previous measurements using the 163-Dy(3-He,alpha) reaction, reveals that the measured quantities above 1.5 MeV do not depend significantly on the nuclear reaction chosen.

  11. Cyclotron resonant scattering in gamma-ray bursts - Line strengths and signature of neutron star rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Wang, J. C. L.; Wasserman, I.

    1992-01-01

    We explain the relative line strengths in gamma-ray bursts in terms of cyclotron resonant scattering. We describe the line signature of neutron star rotation and discuss the possibility that variations seen in the strengths and widths of the lines in GB780325 and GB870303 are due to rotation.

  12. Development of Gamma-Ray Nondestructive Detection and Assay Systems for Nuclear Safeguards and Security at JAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajima, Ryoichi

    2015-10-01

    Nondestructive detection and assay of nuclide is one of the promising applications of energy-tunable gamma-rays from laser Compton scattering. In JAEA, we are developing technologies relevant to the gamma-ray non-destructive assay, which include a high-brightness gamma-ray source based on advanced laser and accelerator technologies and gamma-ray measurement techniques optimized for highly radioactive samples. In this paper, the status of the above R&D's is reviewed.

  13. Inelastic neutron scatter iron concentrations of the moon from orbital gamma ray data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. A., Jr.; Bielefeld, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation is concerned with the relation between KREEP and thermal neutron flux depression. The Fe(n, n-prime gamma) concentrations of selected lunar regions were calculated by energy-band analysis of the 0.803-0.872 MeV band. The result of the investigation will be used to evaluate the reliability of the previously determined Fe(n, gamma) values. A 0.803-0.872 MeV band was isolated from the Apollo 15 and 16 orbital gamma ray spectra. Preliminary regression analysis of regional ground truth count rates and Fe concentrations showed this energy interval to be optimum for the 0.8467 MeV inelastic scatter (n, n-prime gamma)Fe peak.

  14. Gamma-Z box contributions to parity violating elastic e-p scattering

    E-print Network

    Benjamin C. Rislow; Carl E. Carlson

    2010-11-15

    Parity-violating (PV) elastic electron-proton scattering measures Q-weak for the proton, $Q_W^p$. To extract $Q_W^p$ from data, all radiative corrections must be well-known. Recently, disagreement on the gamma-Z box contribution to $Q_W^p$ has prompted the need for further analysis of this term. Here, we support one choice of a debated factor, go beyond the previously assumed equality of electromagnetic and gamma-Z structure functions, and find an analytic result for one of the gamma-Z box integrals. Our numerical evaluation of the gamma-Z box is in agreement within errors with previous reports, albeit somewhat larger in central value, and is within the uncertainty requirements of current experiments.

  15. Influence of humidity on the scattering of {gamma}-rays in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cortes, M. L.; Melo, L. M.; Cristancho, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Colombia); Centro Internacional de Fisica, Bogota (Colombia)

    2010-08-04

    Transmission and backscattering of {gamma}-rays have been used to study soil properties such as its porosity, hydraulic conductivity and also for the detection of organic material buried in soil. These applications require a deeper understanding of the interaction of {gamma}-rays with soil. In the present work a study of the interaction of 511 keV {gamma}-rays with layers of sand varying both its humidity and thickness is presented. The experimental set-up uses the positron decay of a {sup 22}Na source, and two gamma detectors connected in fast time-coincidence. Both transmitted and backscattered spectra are obtained. For transmission, the photopeak and the low angle scattered photons are studied, and for backscattering we analyze the number of single and multiple backscattered photons as a function of thickness. Finally, a theoretical model for the derivative of the number of backscattered photons as a function of depth is presented.

  16. EGS5 simulations to design a Ce:GAGG scintillator based Compton camera.

    PubMed

    Malik, Azhar H; Shimazoe, Kenji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Ce(+3): Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) is expected to be promising scintillator for PET, SPECT, and gamma camera applications because of its attractive properties. We designed a Compton camera based on Ce:GAGG, both as scatterer and absorber, for imaging and radioactivity measurement of point sources. The two important parameters sensitivity and spatial resolution are determined for 4 × 4 pixels, each pixel of size 1 × 1 cm(2), for both scatterer and absorber. Our main focus in this paper is to image a distant source for which sensitivity is of prime importance. High sensitivity and light weight are two important advantages of Compton camera for distant source imaging and the availability of Ce:GAGG 3 × 3 mm(2) pixel size is expected to give a spatial resolution of ~ 5 mm for medical applications as well. PMID:24110894

  17. \\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma

    E-print Network

    Laske, Gabi

    \\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma yyy yyy \\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma yyy

  18. A double photomultiplier Compton camera and its readout system for mice imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino [Physics Department Galileo Galilei, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy) and INFN Padova, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy); Atroshchenko, Kostiantyn [Physics Department Galileo Galilei, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy) and INFN Legnaro, Viale dell'Universita 2, Legnaro PD 35020 (Italy); Baldazzi, Giuseppe [Physics Department, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, Bologna 40127, Italy and INFN Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Bello, Michele [INFN Legnaro, Viale dell'Universita 2, Legnaro PD 35020 (Italy); Uzunov, Nikolay [Department of Natural Sciences, Shumen University, 115 Universitetska str., Shumen 9712, Bulgaria and INFN Legnaro, Viale dell'Universita 2, Legnaro PD 35020 (Italy); Di Domenico, Giovanni [Physics Department, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, Ferrara 44122 (Italy) and INFN Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, Ferrara 44122 (Italy)

    2013-04-19

    We have designed a Compton Camera (CC) to image the bio-distribution of gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in mice. A CC employs the 'electronic collimation', i.e. a technique that traces the gamma-rays instead of selecting them with physical lead or tungsten collimators. To perform such a task, a CC measures the parameters of the Compton interaction that occurs in the device itself. At least two detectors are required: one (tracker), where the primary gamma undergoes a Compton interaction and a second one (calorimeter), in which the scattered gamma is completely absorbed. Eventually the polar angle and hence a 'cone' of possible incident directions are obtained (event with 'incomplete geometry'). Different solutions for the two detectors are proposed in the literature: our design foresees two similar Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Each PMT has 64 output channels that are reduced to 4 using a charge multiplexed readout system, i.e. a Series Charge Multiplexing net of resistors. Triggering of the system is provided by the coincidence of fast signals extracted at the last dynode of the PMTs. Assets are the low cost and the simplicity of design and operation, having just one type of device; among drawbacks there is a lower resolution with respect to more sophisticated trackers and full 64 channels Readout. This paper does compare our design of our two-Hamamatsu CC to other solutions and shows how the spatial and energy accuracy is suitable for the inspection of radioactivity in mice.

  19. Beam-helicity asymmetry measurements in the Virtual Compton Scattering reaction in the g*N-Delta transition at Q2=0.20 (GeV\\/c)^2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Sparveris

    2008-01-01

    We report on new beam-helicity asymmetry measurements (A_h) of the\\u000aH(\\\\vec{e},e'p)\\\\gamma reaction in the Delta(1232)$ resonance at Q2=0.20\\u000a(GeV\\/c)2. The measurements were performed at MAMI and were carried out\\u000asimultaneously with the measurement of the H(\\\\vec{e},e'p)\\\\pi^0 reaction\\u000achannel. It is the lowest Q2 for which the $A_h$ for the virtual Compton\\u000ascattering (VCS) reaction has been measured in the first

  20. Performance study of Si\\/CdTe semiconductor Compton telescopes with Monte Carlo simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirokazu Odaka; Shin’ichiro Takeda; Shin Watanabe; Shin-Nosuke Ishikawa; Masayoshi Ushio; Takaaki Tanaka; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Tadayuki Takahashi; Hiroyasu Tajima; Yasushi Fukazawa

    2007-01-01

    A Compton telescope with high angular resolution and high energy resolution is a promising detector for the next generation of astrophysics space missions aiming at hard X-rays and sub-MeV\\/MeV gamma-rays. We have been working on a semiconductor Compton camera based on silicon and cadmium telluride (Si\\/CdTe Compton telescope). The soft gamma-ray detector (SGD) employs a Si\\/CdTe Compton camera combined with

  1. Incoherent scattering of gamma rays in C, Al, Cu, Sn and Pb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gopal; B. Sanjeevaiah

    1973-01-01

    The total atomic cross sections are determined in carbon, aluminium, copper, tin and lead at gamma ray energies of 84, 129, 145.41, 279.12, 322, 411.8 and 661.6 keV by a new method reported by the authors earlier. The values of bound electron incoherent scattering cross sections sigma b are extracted from the total atomic cross sections by subtracting the theoretical

  2. Range verification of passively scattered proton beams using prompt gamma-ray detection.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Joost M; Testa, Mauro; Seco, Joao

    2015-02-01

    We performed an experimental study to verify the range of passively scattered proton beams by detecting prompt gamma-rays emitted from proton-nuclear interactions. A method is proposed using a single scintillation detector positioned near the distal end of the irradiated target. Lead shielding was used to attenuate gamma-rays emitted along most of the entrance path of the beam. By synchronizing the prompt gamma-ray detector to the rotation of the range modulation wheel, the relation between the gamma emission from the distal part of the target and the range of the incident proton beam was determined. In experiments with a water phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom, this relation was found to be sensitive to range shifts that were introduced. The wide opening angle of the detector enabled a sufficient signal-to-background ratio to be achieved in the presence of neutron-induced background from the scattering and collimating devices. Uniform range shifts were detected with a standard deviation of 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm at a dose level of 30 cGy to 50 cGy (RBE). The detectable magnitude of a range shift limited to a part of the treatment field area was approximately proportional to the ratio between the field area and the area affected by the range shift. We conclude that it is feasible to detect changes in the range of passively scattered proton beams using a relatively simple prompt gamma-ray detection system. The method can be employed for in vivo verification of the consistency of the delivered range in fractionated treatments. PMID:25585521

  3. Range verification of passively scattered proton beams using prompt gamma-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Joost M.; Testa, Mauro; Seco, Joao

    2015-02-01

    We performed an experimental study to verify the range of passively scattered proton beams by detecting prompt gamma-rays emitted from proton-nuclear interactions. A method is proposed using a single scintillation detector positioned near the distal end of the irradiated target. Lead shielding was used to attenuate gamma-rays emitted along most of the entrance path of the beam. By synchronizing the prompt gamma-ray detector to the rotation of the range modulation wheel, the relation between the gamma emission from the distal part of the target and the range of the incident proton beam was determined. In experiments with a water phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom, this relation was found to be sensitive to range shifts that were introduced. The wide opening angle of the detector enabled a sufficient signal-to-background ratio to be achieved in the presence of neutron-induced background from the scattering and collimating devices. Uniform range shifts were detected with a standard deviation of 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm at a dose level of 30 cGy to 50 cGy (RBE). The detectable magnitude of a range shift limited to a part of the treatment field area was approximately proportional to the ratio between the field area and the area affected by the range shift. We conclude that it is feasible to detect changes in the range of passively scattered proton beams using a relatively simple prompt gamma-ray detection system. The method can be employed for in vivo verification of the consistency of the delivered range in fractionated treatments.

  4. Measurement of the polarization resulting from the scattering of 1250-keV gamma rays from bound electrons in lead

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Michael Clinton

    1966-01-01

    MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION RESULTING FROM THE SCATTERING OF 1250 KEY GAMMA RAYS FROM BOUND ELECTRONS IN LEAD A Thesis By Michael Clinton Hamilton Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1966 Major Subject: Physics MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION RESULTING FROM THE SCATTERING OF 1250"KEY GAMMA RAYS FROM BOUND ELECTRONS IN LEAD A Thesis By Michael Clinton Hamilton Approved...

  5. Discrimination of gamma rays due to inelastic neutron scattering in AGATA

    E-print Network

    A. Ataç; A. Ka?ka?; S. Akkoyun; M. ?enyi?it; T. Hüyük; S. O. Kara; J. Nyberg

    2009-06-10

    Possibilities of discriminating neutrons and gamma rays in the AGATA gamma-ray tracking spectrometer have been investigated with the aim of reducing the background due to inelastic scattering of neutrons in the high-purity germanium crystals. This background may become a serious problem especially in experiments with neutron-rich radioactive ion beams. Simulations using the Geant4 toolkit and a tracking program based on the forward tracking algorithm were carried out by emitting neutrons and gamma rays from the center of AGATA. Three different methods were developed and tested in order to find 'fingerprints' of the neutron interaction points in the detectors. In a simulation with simultaneous emission of six neutrons with energies in the range 1-5 MeV and ten gamma rays with energies between 150 and 1450 keV, the peak-to-background ratio at a gamma-ray energy of 1.0 MeV was improved by a factor of 2.4 after neutron rejection with a reduction of the photopeak efficiency at 1.0 MeV of only a factor of 1.25.

  6. Shock geometry and inverse Compton emission from the wind of a binary pulsar

    E-print Network

    Lewis Ball; Jennifer Dodd

    2000-11-16

    PSR B1259-63 is a 47ms radio pulsar with a high spin-down luminosity which is in a close, highly eccentric 3.5-year orbit about a bright stellar companion. The binary system may be a detectable source of hard gamma-rays produced by inverse Compton scattering of photons from the B2e star SS2883 by electrons and positrons in the pulsar wind. The star provides an enormous density of optical photons in the vicinity of the pulsar, particularly at epochs near periastron. We calculate the emission from the unshocked region of the pulsar wind, assuming that it terminates at a shock where it attains pressure balance with the companion's wind. The spectra and light curves for the inverse Compton emission from the shock-terminated wind are compared with those for an unterminated wind. If the pulsar's wind is weaker than that from the companion star, the termination of the wind decreases the inverse Compton flux, particularly near periastron. The termination shock geometry has the effect of decreasing the asymmetry of the gamma-ray light curve around periastron, which arises because of the asymmetrical variation of the scattering angle.

  7. A confocal three-dimensional micro X-ray scattering technology based on Rayleigh to Compton ratio for identifying materials with similar density and different weight percentages of low-Z elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Yang, Chaolin; Sun, Xuepeng; Sun, Weiyuan; He, Jialin; Ding, Xunliang

    2015-07-01

    A point-by-point Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) imaging for two polymer materials with similar density and different weight percentages of low-Z elements was carried out by using the confocal three-dimensional (3D) micro X-ray scatter tomographic technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics. This confocal 3D micro X-ray scatter tomographic technique was based on the confocal configuration of a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) in the excitation channel and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) in the detection channel, which let only the X-rays scattered from the confocal micro-volume overlapped by the input focal spot of the PPXRL and the output focal spot of the PFXRL be detected by the detector. The main scope of this study was using the confocal 3D micro X-ray scattering tomography based on the R/C ratio to characterize and identify materials with nearly equal low density and different weight percentages of low-Z elements, as other radiological techniques are difficult to discriminate them for their very close attenuation coefficients ? . A mapping of R/C ratios for two thermoplastic polymer materials was obtained, which provided the spatially resolved distribution of their effective atom numbers, and their differences were accordingly presented. This confocal 3D micro X-ray scatter tomographic technique has potential applications in fields such as material identification, dosimetry, medical imaging, carbonation cancer, and so on.

  8. Gamma rays from extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, Charles D.; Schlickeiser, Reinhard; Mastichiadis, Apostolos

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed that the important connection between 3C 273 and 3C 279, the first two extragalactic sources detected at greater than 100 MeV energies, is their superluminal nature. In support of this conjecture, we propose a radiation mechanism that focuses gamma rays in the superluminal direction, due to Compton scattering of accretion-disk photons by relativistic nonthermal electrons in the jet.

  9. Spectral measurements of direct and scattered gamma radiation at a boiling-water reactor site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, R. C.; Preiss, I. L.; Ryan, R. M.; Vargo, G. J.

    1990-12-01

    Quantitative surveys of direct and scattered gamma radiation emitted from the steam-power conversion systems of a boiling-water reactor and other on-site radiation sources were made using a directionally shielded HPGe gamma spectrometry system. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the relative contributions and energy distributions of direct and scattered gamma radiation in the site environs. The principal radionuclide of concern in this study is 16N produced by the 16O(n,p) 16N reaction in the reactor coolant. Due to changes in facility operation resulting from the implementation of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), the amount of 16N transported from the reactor to the main steam system under full power operation is excepted to increase by a factor of 1.2 to 5.0. This increase in the 16N source term in the nuclear steam must be considered in the design of new facilities to be constructed on site as well as the evaluation of existing facilities with repect to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) dose limits in unrestricted areas. This study consisted of base-line measurements taken under normal BWR chemistry conditions in October, 1987 and a corresponding set taken under HWC conditions in July, 1988. Ground-level and elevated measurements, corresponding to second-story building height, were obtained. The primary conclusion of this study is that direct radiation from the steam-power conversion system is the predominant source of radiation in the site environs of this reactor and that air scattering (i.e. skyshine) does not appear to be significant.

  10. Electron scattering off the ground-state band and the. gamma. band in sup 150 Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Sandor, R.K.J.; Blok, H.P.; Garg, U.; Girod, M.; Harakeh, M.N.; de Jager, C.W.; de Vries, H. (Faculteit Natuurkunde en Sterrenkunde, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1081, 1081HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands (NL) Service de Physique et Techniques Nucleaires, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Boite Postale 12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, France Nationaal Instituut voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica, sectie K (NIKHEF-K), P.O. Box 4395, 1009AJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556)

    1991-05-01

    Inelastic electron scattering to levels of the ground-state band and the {gamma} band in {sup 150}Nd was studied in a momentum transfer range of 0.5 to 2.8 fm{sup {minus}1}. The extracted transition charge densities were compared to microscopic Hartree-Fock-Boguliubov calculations. The overall agreement between the data and the calculations is good, indicating that the dynamic properties of the rotational collective degrees of freedom in statically deformed nuclei can be well described in this microscopic model.

  11. The role of photon scattering in shaping the lightcurves and spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    E-print Network

    Davide Lazzati

    2002-09-01

    We analyze the power spectra of the lightcurves of long gamma-ray bursts, dividing the sample in bins of luminosity, using the recently discovered variability-luminosity correlation. We find that the value of the variability parameter strongly correlates with the frequency that contains most of the power in the burst comoving frame. We compute the average power spectra in luminosity bins. The average power spectrum is well described by a broken power-low and the break frequency is a function of the variability parameter, while the two slopes are roughly constant. This allow us to conclude that scattering processes do not play a relevant role in modelling the lightcurves. We finally discuss in which conditions scattering may still play a relevant role in shaping the spectra of GRBs.

  12. System modeling, sampling, interpolation and iterative reconstruction for the 3D Compton SPECT camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauve, Anne C.

    2000-10-01

    In the past twenty five years, efforts have been made to develop Compton Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) cameras for medical imaging. The Compton camera consists of a pair of position sensitive detectors, a Compton scatter detector and a detector to absorb the scattered photons. The energy and position information from these detectors gives information about the energy, position, and incident direction of the incoming gamma-ray. This "electronic" collimation is superior to conventional mechanical collimation since it utilizes as many emitted photons as possible from all directions, improves the solid angle of detection and therefore provides improved detection efficiency and increased sensitivity. Better sensitivity will have a positive impact on image noise and resolution. Development of practical Compton SPECT faces many new challenges. First, Compton SPECT acquires the projection data directly in 3D and requires storage of three sets of coordinates, two spatial coordinates and the angular coordinates. Therefore Compton SPECT cameras have to deal with very large amount of data leading to difficulties in computation. Hence, simplification of Compton SPECT camera is necessary. Second, new reconstruction methods need to be developed for the Compton SPECT conical projection geometry. This dissertation presents a method for reducing storage and computation which is based on an analytical model that has the potential to permit tractable fully 3D reconstructions. A mathematical model is proposed for the camera which exploits hemispherical symmetries by using an adapted spatial sampling pattern in the object domain. For each projection angle, the sampling pattern is uniform over a set of equispaced nested hemispheres. By using this sampling pattern the system matrix is reduced to a product of an (approximately) block circulant matrix and a sparse interpolation matrix. This representation reduces the very high storage and computation requirement inherent to 3D reconstruction. We consider a simple method for designing the detector pair trajectory around the field of view using a sinogram sampling diagram to guarantee proper object sampling. As the exploitation of hemispherical symmetries requires interpolation, we develop a 3D volumetric interpolation between hemispherical and cartesian coordinates. Finally, we present a 3D image reconstruction method using the 2D Fourier transform for which there exists a fast algorithm because of the block circulant structure of the transition matrix. These methods are simply illustrated for the noiseless case with implementation of a fully 3D penalized least squares reconstruction algorithm.

  13. Ground calibrations of Nuclear Compton Telescope Jeng-Lun Chiu*a

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , gamma-ray imaging, Compton imaging, germanium radiation detectors 1. INTRODUCTION The Nuclear ComptonGround calibrations of Nuclear Compton Telescope Jeng-Lun Chiu*a , Zong-Kai Liub , Mark S Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529; g Detector Group, DESY Photon Science, Hamburg

  14. Modeled Performance of a Compton Telescope Based on Planar Germanium Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Bradley L.

    A Monte Carlo technique for modeling the gamma-ray background spectra in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The background spectrum is one of the key factors to the ultimate sensitivity that gamma-ray telescopes can achieve. The major sources of background are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and the decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondary particles, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. All of these sources are included in the model. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit primary proton and neutron flux, the production of secondary hadrons with GEANT, the spallation cross sections from Alice91 and YieldX, nuclear decay data from National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data Files (ENSDF) database, and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta particle transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) using MORSE-CG. The background in the High Energy Astrophysics Observatory 3 (HEAO 3) gamma-ray instrument was modeled and compared to the measured background to validate the code. HEAO 3 is a space-based germanium spectrometer surrounded by active scintillators that provide shielding. Both the active and passive components of the HEAO 3 instrument are included in the simulation. The measured background from the HEAO 3 space instrument is compared with the simulation. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, beta-, beta+, meta-stable isotopes and short lived meta-stable decay products, and isotopes that have branchings to both beta- and beta+. The code follows a cascade of photons to the ground state of the decay product, and propagates these photons and appropriate accompanying beta simultaneously. This model was applied to the design of an advanced Compton telescope (proposed as the ATHENA mission) to predict its performance capabilities. The effective area, background, and point spread function (the imaged response to a point source) were modeled for several configurations of this Compton telescope. Thus, the sensitivity of these different configurations of this Compton telescope were compared. The sensitivity of the best configurations of this advanced Compton telescope are ~3×10-7 gamma-rays s-1 cm-2 which is nearly 100 times more sensitivity than previous gamma-ray instruments.

  15. The X-Ray Jet of PKS 0637-752: Inverse Compton Radiation from the Cosmic Microwave Background ?

    E-print Network

    F. Tavecchio; L. Maraschi R. M. Sambruna; C. M. Urry

    2000-07-28

    We propose that the X-ray emission detected by Chandra from the 100-kiloparsec-scale jet of PKS 0637-752 is produced through inverse Compton scattering of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We analyze the physical state of the jet and show that inverse Compton scattering from the CMB is consistent with equipartition for a moderate beaming of the emission, with Doppler factor delta~10. The power transported by the jet is then similar to that of other powerful blazars, Lj~10^{48} erg/s and the jet has low radiative efficiency. The radiative cooling times of the electrons are a few thousand years, compatible with the size of the knot. The low-energy cutoff of the electron distribution is constrained to be gamma_min~10, the first such constraint from spectral considerations. A parallel analysis for the SSC model yields far less reasonable physical conditions.

  16. Exact Solutions of the Kompaneets Equation for Photon "Comptonization" Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinov, A. E.; Kitayev, I. N.

    2014-09-01

    The nonlinear Kompaneets equation for the evolution of the spectrum of a photon gas with Compton scattering in a rarefied nonrelativistic electron plasma (i.e., the "comptonization" of the radiation) is examined. Exact solutions of this equation are obtained by separation of variables. The solutions are expressed in terms of transcendental Heun and Bessel functions.

  17. Mod 3 family of production Compton diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conrad

    1974-01-01

    Compton diodes (CDs) have become increasingly popular as gamma sensors ; to trigger oscilloscopes on nuclear tests. Mechanical and electrical details of ; a family of four types of production CDs which are economical to produce and ; should fill many needs for this sensor are given. At Sandia these are onthe-; shelf items. (auth)

  18. Curvature and non-resonance Compton gamma-ray emission of a radio pulsar with a non-dipolar magnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Barsukov; E. M. Kantor; A. I. Tsygan

    2007-01-01

    We consider the influence of a non-dipolar magnetic field on the gamma-ray emission from the polar regions of a radio pulsar. The pulsar is treated in a Goldreich-Julian model with a free flow of charge from the surface of the neutron star. When finding the intensity of the gamma-ray radiation of the pulsar tube, both curvature gamma-ray radiation from the

  19. Curvature and non-resonance Compton gamma-ray emission of a radio pulsar with a non-dipolar magnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Barsukov; E. M. Kantor; A. I. Tsygan

    2007-01-01

    We consider the influence of a non-dipolar magnetic field on the gamma-ray emission from the polar regions of a radio pulsar.\\u000a The pulsar is treated in a Goldreich-Julian model with a free flow of charge from the surface of the neutron star. When finding\\u000a the intensity of the gamma-ray radiation of the pulsar tube, both curvature gamma-ray radiation from the

  20. Erratum to: Energy calibration of gamma spectra in plastic scintillators using Compton kinematics [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 594 (2008) 232–243

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Schweppe, John E.; Strachan, Denis M.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-11-01

    In recent work at our laboratory, we were re-examining our data and found an inconsistency between the values listed for 137Cs in Table 2 (Siciliano et al. 2008) and results plotted for that source in Figures 11 and 12. In the course of fitting the parabolic function (Equation 4) to the Compton maxima, two ranges of channels were used when determining the parameters for 137Cs. The parabolic fit curve shown in Figure 11 resulted from fitting channels 50 to 70. The parameters for that fit are: are: A = 0.972(12), B = 1.42(24) ? 10-3, and CNO = 60.2(5). The parameters for 137Cs listed in Table 2 (and also used to determine the calibration relations in Figure 12—the main result of this paper) came from fitting the 137Cs data in channels 40 to 80. Although the curves plotted from these two different sets of parameters would be visually distinguishable in Figure 11, when incorporated with the other isotope values shown in Figure 12 to obtain the linear energy-channel fit, the 50-70 channel parameter set plus the correction from the Compton maximum to the Compton edge gives a negligible change in the slope [6.470(41) as opposed to the reported 6.454(15) keV/channel] and a small change in the intercept [41(8) as opposed to 47(3) keV] for the dashed line. The conclusions of the article therefore do not change as a result of this inconsistency.

  1. Range verification of passively scattered proton beams based on prompt gamma time patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Mauro; Min, Chul Hee; Verburg, Joost M.; Schümann, Jan; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Paganetti, Harald

    2014-07-01

    We propose a proton range verification technique for passive scattering proton therapy systems where spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) fields are produced with rotating range modulator wheels. The technique is based on the correlation of time patterns of the prompt gamma ray emission with the range of protons delivering the SOBP. The main feature of the technique is the ability to verify the proton range with a single point of measurement and a simple detector configuration. We performed four-dimensional (time-dependent) Monte Carlo simulations using TOPAS to show the validity and accuracy of the technique. First, we validated the hadronic models used in TOPAS by comparing simulations and prompt gamma spectrometry measurements published in the literature. Second, prompt gamma simulations for proton range verification were performed for the case of a water phantom and a prostate cancer patient. In the water phantom, the proton range was determined with 2?mm accuracy with a full ring detector configuration for a dose of ~2.5?cGy. For the prostate cancer patient, 4?mm accuracy on range determination was achieved for a dose of ~15?cGy. The results presented in this paper are encouraging in view of a potential clinical application of the technique.

  2. HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY AFTERGLOWS FROM LOW-LUMINOSITY GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    He Haoning; Wang Xiangyu; Yu Yunwei [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Meszaros, Peter [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) such as 980425, 031203 and 060218, with luminosities much lower than those of other classic bursts, lead to the definition of a new class of GRBs-LL-GRBs. The nature of the outflow responsible for them is not yet clear. Two scenarios have been suggested: one is the conventional relativistic outflow with initial Lorentz factor of order of GAMMA{sub 0} approx> 10 and the other is a trans-relativistic outflow with GAMMA{sub 0} approx = 1-2. Here, we compare the high-energy gamma-ray afterglow emission from these two different models, taking into account both synchrotron self-inverse Compton (SSC) scattering and the external inverse Compton scattering due to photons from the cooling supernova or hypernova envelope (SNIC). We find that the conventional relativistic outflow model predicts a relatively high gamma-ray flux from SSC at early times (<10{sup 4} s for typical parameters) with a rapidly decaying light curve, while in the trans-relativistic outflow model, one would expect a much flatter light curve of high-energy gamma-ray emission at early times, which could be dominated by both the SSC emission and the SNIC emission, depending on the properties of the underlying supernova and the shock parameter epsilon{sub e} and epsilon{sub B}. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope should be able to distinguish between the two models in the future.

  3. Positron-gamma angular correlation measurements on the decays of 84Rb, 74As, 124I and 102Rh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. de Beer; J. H. Stuivenberg; B. Meindersma; J. Blok

    1969-01-01

    Positron-gamma angular correlations have been measured using a plastic scintillator to detect the positrons. The disturbance of the positron spectrum due to Compton scattering of the annihilation quanta in the plastic has been avoided by counting these quanta simultaneously in two large NaI(Tl) crystals. Measurements were performed on 2- --> 2+ nonunique first order forbidden transitions from the ground states

  4. Gamma ray production cross-sections associated with multiple inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, P. C.; Cox, A. J.

    1985-11-01

    The gamma ray angular distributions and differential production cross-sections have been measured for the inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in lead, using a gamma ray spectrometer based on an associated particle time-of-flight gating technique. The variation of cross-section with sample thickness was measured and the results compared with the predictions of the Monte Carlo computer code MORSE.

  5. The Advanced Compton Telescope Mission

    E-print Network

    Steven E. Boggs; James Kurfess; James Ryan; Elena Aprile; Neil Gehrels; Marc Kippen; Mark Leising; Uwe Oberlack; Cornelia Wunderer; Allen Zych; Peter Bloser; Michael Harris; Andrew Hoover; Alexei Klimenk; Dan Kocevski; Mark McConnell; Peter Milne; Elena I. Novikova; Bernard Phlips; Mark Polsen; Steven Sturner; Derek Tournear; Georg Weidenspointner; Eric Wulf; Andreas Zoglauer; Matthew Baring; John Beacom; Lars Bildsten; Charles Dermer; Dieter Hartmann; Margarita Hernanz; David Smith; Sumner Starrfield; for the larger ACT collaboration

    2006-08-24

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the next major step in gamma-ray astronomy, will probe the fires where chemical elements are formed by enabling high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear emission from supernova explosions. During the past two years, our collaboration has been undertaking a NASA mission concept study for ACT. This study was designed to (1) transform the key scientific objectives into specific instrument requirements, (2) to identify the most promising technologies to meet those requirements, and (3) to design a viable mission concept for this instrument. We present the results of this study, including scientific goals and expected performance, mission design, and technology recommendations.

  6. Performance of a new electron-tracking Compton camera under intense radiations from a water target irradiated with a proton beam

    E-print Network

    Matsuoka, Yatsuoka; Kubo, H; Takada, A; Parker, J D; Mizumoto, T; Mizumura, Y; Iwaki, S; Sawano, T; Komura, S; Kishimoto, T; Oda, M; Takemura, T; Miyamoto, S; Sonoda, S; Tomono, D; Miuchi, K; Kabuki, S; Kurosawa, S

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) for use in next-generation MeV gamma ray telescopes. An ETCC consists of a gaseous time projection chamber (TPC) and pixel scintillator arrays (PSAs). Since the TPC measures the three dimensional tracks of Compton-recoil electrons, the ETCC can completely reconstruct the incident gamma rays. Moreover, the ETCC demonstrates efficient background rejection power in Compton-kinematics tests, identifies particle from the energy deposit rate (dE/dX) registered in the TPC, and provides high quality imaging by completely reconstructing the Compton scattering process. We are planning the "Sub-MeV gamma ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment" (SMILE) for our proposed all-sky survey satellite. Performance tests of a mid-sized 30 cm-cubic ETCC, constructed for observing the Crab nebula, are ongoing. However, observations at balloon altitudes or satellite orbits are obstructed by radiation background from the atmosphere and the detector itself. The background ...

  7. Quasi-thermal comptonization and GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Celotti, A.

    1999-09-01

    Quasi-thermal Comptonization in internal shocks formed between relativistic shells can account for the high energy emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRB). This is the dominant cooling mechanism if the typical energy of the emitting particles is achieved either through the balance between heating and cooling or as a result of electron-positron (e(+/-) ) pair production. Both processes yield sub/mildly relativistic energies. In this case the synchrotron spectrum is self-absorbed, providing the seed photons for the Comptonization process, whose spectrum is flat [F(nu ) ~ const], ending either in an exponential cutoff or a Wien peak.

  8. A Study of Compton Form Factors in Scalar QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Bernard L. G.; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2014-06-01

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering has been proposed as a tool to study the structure of hadrons in an exclusive process. The Compton-scattering amplitude can be expressed in terms of scalar quantities, the Compton form factors. Their number depends on the spin of the target as well as the virtuality of the incoming and outgoing photons. For high values of the virtuality Q 2 of the incoming photon, these form factors are expected to scale with inverse powers of Q 2. In this paper these features are studied for a scalar target hadron.

  9. A Monte Carlo evaluation of three Compton camera absorbers.

    PubMed

    Uche, C Z; Round, W H; Cree, M J

    2011-09-01

    We present a quantitative study on the performance of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and germanium (Ge) detectors as potential Compton camera absorbers. The GEANT4 toolkit was used to model the performance of these materials over the nuclear medicine energy range. CZT and Ge demonstrate the highest and lowest efficiencies respectively. Although the best spatial resolution was attained for Ge, its lowest ratio of single photoelectric to multiple interactions suggests that it is most prone to inter-pixel cross-talk. In contrast, CZT, which demonstrates the least positioning error due to multiple interactions, has a comparable spatial resolution with Ge. Therefore, we modelled a Compton camera system based on silicon (Si) and CZT as the scatterer and absorber respectively. The effects of the detector parameters of our proposed system on image resolution were evaluated and our results show good agreement with previous studies. Interestingly, spatial resolution which accounted for the least image degradation at 140.5 keV became the dominant degrading factor at 511 keV, indicating that the absorber parameters play some key roles at higher energies. The results of this study have validated the predictions by An et al. which state that the use of a higher energy gamma source together with reduction of the absorber segmentation to sub-millimetre could achieve the image resolution of 5 mm required in medical imaging. PMID:21710232

  10. Large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne studies of neutrons and gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zych, A. D.; Herzo, D.; Koga, R.; Millard, W. A.; Moon, S.; Ryan, J.; Wilson, R.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1975-01-01

    A large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne research is described. It measures the flux, energy and direction of 2-100 MeV neutrons and 0.5-30 MeV gamma rays. These measurements are made using time-of-flight and pulse height analysis techniques with two large tanks of mineral oil liquid scintillator. Results from Monte Carlo calculations of the efficiency, energy resolution and angular resolution are presented and the electronics implementation for the processing of 80 photomultiplier tubes signals will be discussed. The detector weighs 800 kg with a large part of this weight being the liquid scintillator (320 kg). It will be flown at 3 mbars for flight durations up to 40 hours. The first flight is planned for Spring, 1975.

  11. Three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation of gamma-ray scattering and production in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.J. (Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 03824 (US))

    1989-05-15

    Monte Carlo codes have been developed to simulate gamma-ray scattering and production in the atmosphere. The scattering code simulates interactions of low-energy gamma rays (20 to several hundred keV) from an astronomical point source in the atmosphere; a modified code also simulates scattering in a spacecraft. Four incident spectra, typical of gamma-ray bursts, solar flares, and the Crab pulsar, and 511 keV line radiation have been studied. These simulations are consistent with observations of solar flare radiation scattered from the atmosphere. The production code simulates the interactions of cosmic rays which produce high-energy (above 10 MeV) photons and electrons. It has been used to calculate gamma-ray and electron albedo intensities at Palestine, Texas and at the equator; the results agree with observations in most respects. With minor modifications this code can be used to calculate intensities of other high-energy particles. Both codes are fully three-dimensional, incorporating a curved atmosphere; the production code also incorporates the variation with both zenith and azimuth of the incident cosmic-ray intensity due to geomagnetic effects. These effects are clearly reflected in the calculated albedo by intensity contrasts between the horizon and nadir, and between the east and west horizons.

  12. Rayleigh scattering of 145- and 279keV gamma rays in Al, Cu, Sn, and Pb at forward angles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari Gowda; S. J. Anasuya; K. S. Puttaswamy

    1986-01-01

    The integral Rayleigh scattering (RS) cross sections of gamma rays for Al, Cu, and Sn at 145 keV energy and for Al, Cu, Sn, and Pb at 279 keV energy have been determined at angles below 7° by a new method, and are compared with the theoretical integral RS cross sections computed using the non- relativistic form factors (NRFF) of

  13. THE GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA PRODUCED BY INELASTIC FAST NEUTRON SCATTERING IN Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, Sn, AND Sb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. F. Barchuk; M. V. Pasechnik; Iu. A. Tsybulko

    1958-01-01

    Measurements were made of gamma -ray spectra in Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, Sn, and ; Sb produced by inelastic neutron scattering at 2.8 Mev. The measurements were ; carried out with a scintillation spectrometer with NaI crystal detector, ; photoelectron multiplier, and 50 channel pulse analyzer with a magnetic drum ; recorder. The spectrometer resolution was 6.5 to 7% for

  14. Cyclotron resonant scattering in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. C. L.; Lamb, D. Q.; Loredo, T. J.; Wasserman, I. M.; Salpeter, E. E.

    1989-01-01

    Fits of theoretical spectra from Monte Carlo radiation-transfer calculations to dips at approximately 20 and 40 keV in a spectrum of the gamma-ray burst source GB 880 205 give best-fit values and 68 percent-confidence intervals for the magnetic field of (1.71 + or - 0.07) x 10 to the 12th G, the electron density of (1.2 + or - 0.6) x 10 to the 21st electrons/cm-squared, and the cosine of the viewing angle relative to the field of 0.31 + or - 0.05. The dips observed at approximately 20 keV in the spectra are interpreted as cyclotron resonant scattering, in which electrons undergo radiative 0 to 1 to 0 Landau transitions initiated by photons near the first harmonic. Physical self-consistency fixes the temperature, and the equilibrium temperature equals 5.3 + 0.3 or - 0.2 keV. These results suggest that this gamma-ray burst and many others which exhibit a low-energy dip originate from strongly magnetic neutron stars and are galactic in origin.

  15. Compton Radiation for Nuclear Waste Management and Transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyak, E.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    Compton inverse radiation is emitted in the process of backscattering of the laser pulses off the relativistic electrons. This radiation possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons--in hard x-ray up to gammaray energy range--with moderate electron energies (hundreds of MeV up to 1 GeV) due to short wavelength of the laser radiation. The Compton radiation is well collimated: emitting within a narrow cone along the electron beam. A distinct property of the Compton inverse radiation is a steep high-energy cutoff of the spectrum and the maximal intensity just below the cutoff. The Compton sources can attain: spectral density up to 1014 gammas/(s 0.1%bandwidth) in MeV range of energies, and spectral brightness up to 1020 gammas/(smm2mr2 0.1% bw). Applicability of Compton sources for nuclear waste management and detection of radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides are discussed in the report. Also application limits of Compton gamma sources for transmutation of radioactive isotopes are estimated. A recently proposed subtracting method, in which two sets of data obtained by irradiating the object by the Compton beams with slightly different maximal energies are compared, will enhance resolution of detection radioactive elements at the 'atomic' (hundreds of keV) and the 'nuclear' (a few MeV) photon energies.

  16. Evaluation of the Doppler-Broadening of Gamma-Ray Spectra from Neutron Inelastic Scattering on Light Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip C.; Barzilov, Alexander; Novikov, Ivan; Howard, Joseph; Musser, Jason

    2009-03-01

    Neutron-induced gamma-ray reactions are extensively used in the nondestructive analysis of materials and other areas where the information about the chemical composition of a substance is crucial. The common technique to find the intensity of the gamma ray is to fit gamma-ray line shape with an analytical function, for example, a Gaussian. However, the Gaussian fitting may fail if the gamma-ray peak is Doppler-broadened since this leads to the miscalculation of the area of the peak and, therefore, to misidentification of the material. Due to momentum considerations, Doppler-broadening occurs primarily with gamma rays from neutron-induced inelastic scattering reactions with light nuclei. The recoiling nucleus of interest must have excited states whose lifetimes are much smaller than the time of flight in the material. We have examined various light nuclei bombarded by 14 MeV neutrons to predict when the peak shape of a neutron-induced gamma ray emitted from these nuclei will be Doppler-broadened. We have found that nearly all the gamma rays from neutron-induced gamma-ray reactions on light elements (A<20) are Doppler-broadened with only a few exceptions. This means that utilization of resolution curves derived from isotopic sources or thermal neutron capture reactions have little value in the analysis.

  17. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  18. Fermi gamma-ray imaging of a radio galaxy.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Davis, D S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Finke, J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Georganopoulos, M; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sambruna, R; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stawarz, ?; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M; Hardcastle, M J; Kazanas, D

    2010-05-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the gamma-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved gamma-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy gamma-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of the total source emission. The gamma-ray emission from the lobes is interpreted as inverse Compton-scattered relic radiation from the cosmic microwave background, with additional contribution at higher energies from the infrared-to-optical extragalactic background light. These measurements provide gamma-ray constraints on the magnetic field and particle energy content in radio galaxy lobes, as well as a promising method to probe the cosmic relic photon fields. PMID:20360067

  19. Geant4 Model Validation of Compton Suppressed System for Process monitoring of Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Sarah; Unlu, Kenan; Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-05-01

    Nuclear material accountancy is of continuous concern for the regulatory, safeguards, and verification communities. In particular, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities pose one of the most difficult accountancy challenges: monitoring highly radioactive, fluid sample streams in near real-time. The Multi-Isotope Process monitor will allow for near-real-time indication of process alterations using passive gamma-ray detection coupled with multivariate analysis techniques to guard against potential material diversion or to enhance domestic process monitoring. The Compton continuum from the dominant 661.7 keV 137Cs fission product peak obscures lower energy lines which could be used for spectral and multivariate analysis. Compton suppression may be able to mitigate the challenges posed by the high continuum caused by scattering. A Monte Carlo simulation using the Geant4 toolkit is being developed to predict the expected suppressed spectrum from spent fuel samples to estimate the reduction in the Compton continuum. Despite the lack of timing information between decay events in the particle management of Geant4, encouraging results were recorded utilizing only the information within individual decays without accounting for accidental coincidences. The model has been validated with single and cascade decay emitters in two steps: as an unsuppressed system and with suppression activated. Results of the Geant4 model validation will be presented.

  20. Gamma-X intervalley-scattering time constant for GaAs estimated from hot-electron noise spectroscopy data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Aninkevicius; V. Bareikis; R. Katilius; J. Liberis; I. Matulioniene; A. Matulionis; P. Sakalas; R. Saltis

    1996-01-01

    The technique to investigate hot-electron noise in doped semiconductors at electric fields over 25 kV\\/cm is developed. The intervalley noise temperature at room temperature is found to saturate in GaAs at 15 000 K at fields over 100 kV\\/cm. From electric-field dependence of noise temperature, the intervalley scattering time of high-energy electrons from the Gamma valley into the X valleys

  1. Performance of a new Electron-Tracking Compton Camera under intense radiations from a water target irradiated with a proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Takada, A.; Parker, J. D.; Mizumoto, T.; Mizumura, Y.; Iwaki, S.; Sawano, T.; Komura, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Oda, M.; Takemura, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Sonoda, S.; Tomono, D.; Miuchi, K.; Kabuki, S.; Kurosawa, S.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) for use in next-generation MeV gamma ray telescopes. An ETCC consists of a gaseous time projection chamber (TPC) and pixel scintillator arrays (PSAs). Since the TPC measures the three dimensional tracks of Compton-recoil electrons, the ETCC can completely reconstruct the incident gamma rays. Moreover, the ETCC demonstrates efficient background rejection power in Compton-kinematics tests, identifies particle from the energy deposit rate (dE/dX) registered in the TPC, and provides high quality imaging by completely reconstructing the Compton scattering process. We are planning the ``Sub-MeV gamma ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment'' (SMILE) for our proposed all-sky survey satellite. Performance tests of a mid-sized (30 cm)3 ETCC, constructed for observing the Crab nebula, are ongoing. However, observations at balloon altitudes or satellite orbits are obstructed by radiation background from the atmosphere and the detector itself [1]. The background rejection power was checked using proton accelerator experiments conducted at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. To create the intense radiation fields encountered in space, which comprise gamma rays, neutrons, protons, and other energetic entities, we irradiated a water target with a 140 MeV proton beam and placed a SMILE-II ETCC near the target. In this situation, the counting rate was five times than that expected at the balloon altitude. Nonetheless, the ETCC stably operated and identified particles sufficiently to obtain a clear gamma ray image of the checking source. Here, we report the performance of our detector and demonstrate its effective background rejection based in electron tracking experiments.

  2. Measurement of the gamma+D*+\\/- Cross Section in p¯p Collisions at &surd;s = 1.8 TeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Abe; H. Akimoto; A. Akopian; M. G. Albrow; S. R. Amendolia; D. Amidei; J. Antos; C. Anway-Wiese; S. Aota; G. Apollinari; T. Asakawa; W. Ashmanskas; M. Atac; F. Azfar; P. Azzi-Bacchetta; N. Bacchetta; W. Badgett; S. Bagdasarov; M. W. Bailey; J. Bao; P. de Barbaro; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; E. Barzi; G. Bauer; T. Baumann; F. Bedeschi; S. Behrends; S. Belforte; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; D. Benjamin; J. Benlloch; J. Bensinger; D. Benton; A. Beretvas; J. P. Berge; J. Berryhill; S. Bertolucci; B. Bevensee; A. Bhatti; K. Biery; M. Binkley; D. Bisello; R. E. Blair; C. Blocker; A. Bodek; W. Bokhari; V. Bolognesi; G. Bolla; D. Bortoletto; J. Boudreau; L. Breccia; C. Bromberg; N. Bruner; E. Buckley-Geer; H. S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; A. Byon-Wagner; K. L. Byrum; J. Cammerata; C. Campagnari; M. Campbell; A. Caner; W. Carithers; D. Carlsmith; A. Castro; D. Cauz; Y. Cen; F. Cervelli; P. S. Chang; P. T. Chang; H. Y. Chao; J. Chapman; M.-T. Cheng; G. Chiarelli; T. Chikamatsu; C. N. Chiou; L. Christofek; S. Cihangir; A. G. Clark; M. Cobal; E. Cocca; M. Contreras; J. Conway; J. Cooper; M. Cordelli; C. Couyoumtzelis; D. Crane; D. Cronin-Hennessy; R. Culbertson; T. Daniels; F. Dejongh; S. Delchamps; S. dell'Agnello; M. dell'Orso; R. Demina; L. Demortier; B. Denby; M. Deninno; P. F. Derwent; T. Devlin; J. R. Dittmann; S. Donati; J. Done; T. Dorigo; A. Dunn; N. Eddy; K. Einsweiler; J. E. Elias; R. Ely; E. Engels Jr.; D. Errede; S. Errede; Q. Fan; C. Ferretti; I. Fiori; B. Flaugher; G. W. Foster; M. Franklin; M. Frautschi; J. Freeman; J. Friedman; H. Frisch; T. A. Fuess; Y. Fukui; S. Funaki; G. Gagliardi; S. Galeotti; M. Gallinaro; M. Garcia-Sciveres; A. F. Garfinkel; C. Gay; S. Geer; D. W. Gerdes; P. Giannetti; N. Giokaris; P. Giromini; G. Giusti; L. Gladney; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; J. Gonzalez; A. Gordon; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; H. Grassmann; L. Groer; C. Grosso-Pilcher; G. Guillian; R. S. Guo; C. Haber; E. Hafen; S. R. Hahn; R. Handler; R. M. Hans; K. Hara; A. D. Hardman; B. Harral; R. M. Harris; S. A. Hauger; J. Hauser; C. Hawk; E. Hayashi; J. Heinrich; K. D. Hoffman; M. Hohlmann; C. Holck; R. Hollebeek; L. Holloway; A. Hölscher; S. Hong; G. Houk; P. Hu; B. T. Huffman; R. Hughes; J. Huston; J. Huth; J. Hylen; H. Ikeda; M. Incagli; J. Incandela; G. Introzzi; J. Iwai; Y. Iwata; H. Jensen; U. Joshi; R. W. Kadel; E. Kajfasz; H. Kambara; T. Kamon; T. Kaneko; K. Karr; H. Kasha; Y. Kato; T. A. Keaffaber; L. Keeble; K. Kelley; R. D. Kennedy; R. Kephart; P. Kesten; D. Kestenbaum; R. M. Keup; H. Keutelian; F. Keyvan; B. Kharadia; B. J. Kim; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; L. Kirsch; P. Koehn; K. Kondo; J. Konigsberg; S. Kopp; K. Kordas; A. Korytov; W. Koska; E. Kovacs; W. Kowald; M. Krasberg; J. Kroll; M. Kruse; T. Kuwabara; S. E. Kuhlmann; E. Kuns; A. T. Laasanen; N. Labanca; S. Lammel; J. I. Lamoureux; T. Lecompte; S. Leone; J. D. Lewis; P. Limon; M. Lindgren; T. M. Liss; N. Lockyer; O. Long; C. Loomis; M. Loreti; J. Lu; D. Lucchesi; P. Lukens; S. Lusin; J. Lys; K. Maeshima; A. Maghakian; P. Maksimovic; M. Mangano; J. Mansour; M. Mariotti; J. P. Marriner; A. Martin; J. A. Matthews; R. Mattingly; P. McIntyre; P. Melese; A. Menzione; E. Meschi; S. Metzler; C. Miao; T. Miao; G. Michail; R. Miller; H. Minato; S. Miscetti; M. Mishina; H. Mitsushio; T. Miyamoto; S. Miyashita; N. Moggi; Y. Morita; J. Mueller; A. Mukherjee; T. Muller; P. Murat; H. Nakada; I. Nakano; C. Nelson; D. Neuberger; C. Newman-Holmes; M. Ninomiya; L. Nodulman; S. H. Oh; K. E. Ohl; T. Ohmoto; T. Ohsugi; R. Oishi; M. Okabe; T. Okusawa; R. Oliveira; J. Olsen; C. Pagliarone; R. Paoletti; V. Papadimitriou; S. P. Pappas; N. Parashar; A. Parri; J. Patrick; G. Pauletta; M. Paulini; A. Perazzo; L. Pescara; M. D. Peters; T. J. Phillips; G. Piacentino; M. Pillai; K. T. Pitts; R. Plunkett; L. Pondrom; J. Proudfoot; F. Ptohos; G. Punzi; K. Ragan; D. Reher; A. Ribon; F. Rimondi; L. Ristori; W. J. Robertson; T. Rodrigo; S. Rolli; J. Romano; L. Rosenson; R. Roser; W. K. Sakumoto; D. Saltzberg; A. Sansoni; L. Santi; H. Sato; P. Schlabach; E. E. Schmidt; M. P. Schmidt; A. Scribano; S. Segler; S. Seidel; Y. Seiya; G. Sganos; M. D. Shapiro; N. M. Shaw; Q. Shen; P. F. Shepard; M. Shimojima; M. Shochet; J. Siegrist; A. Sill; P. Sinervo; P. Singh; J. Skarha; K. Sliwa; F. D. Snider; T. Song; J. Spalding; T. Speer; P. Sphicas; F. Spinella; M. Spiropulu; L. Spiegel; L. Stanco; J. Steele; A. Stefanini; K. Strahl; J. Strait; R. Ströhmer; D. Stuart; G. Sullivan; A. Soumarokov; K. Sumorok; J. Suzuki; T. Takada; T. Takahashi; T. Takano; K. Takikawa; N. Tamura; F. Tartarelli; W. Taylor; P. K. Teng; Y. Teramoto; S. Tether; D. Theriot; T. L. Thomas; R. Thun; M. Timko; P. Tipton; A. Titov; S. Tkaczyk; D. Toback; K. Tollefson; A. Tollestrup; J. F. de Troconiz; S. Truitt; J. Tseng; N. Turini; T. Uchida; N. Uemura; F. Ukegawa; G. Unal

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the cross section of gamma+D*+\\/- production in p¯p collisions at s = 1.8 TeV using the Collider Detector at Fermilab. In this kinematic region, the Compton scattering process \\\\(gc-->gammac\\\\) is expected to dominate and thus provide a direct link to the charm quark density in the proton. From the 45+\\/-18 gamma+D*+\\/- candidates in a 16.4 pb-1 data

  3. Bin mode estimation methods for Compton camera imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, S.; Odaka, H.; Uemura, M.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.; Takeda, S.

    2014-10-01

    We study the image reconstruction problem of a Compton camera which consists of semiconductor detectors. The image reconstruction is formulated as a statistical estimation problem. We employ a bin-mode estimation (BME) and extend an existing framework to a Compton camera with multiple scatterers and absorbers. Two estimation algorithms are proposed: an accelerated EM algorithm for the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and a modified EM algorithm for the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. Numerical simulations demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods.

  4. Gamma-ray imaging with a large micro-TPC and a scintillation camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Kabuki, S.; Kubo, H.; Kurosawa, S.; Miuchi, K.; Nagayoshi, T.; Nishimura, H.; Okada, Y.; Orito, R.; Sekiya, H.; Takada, A.; Takeda, A.; Tanimori, T.; Ueno, K.

    2007-10-01

    We report on the development of a large Compton camera with the full reconstruction of the Compton process based on a prototype. This camera consists of two kinds of detectors. One is a gaseous time projection chamber (micro-TPC) for measuring the energy and the track of a Compton recoil electron. The micro-TPC is based on a ?-PIC and a GEM, which are micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs). The size of the micro-TPC was 10 cm×10 cm×8 cm in the case of the prototype, and we enlarged it to 23 cm×28 cm×15 cm. The other detector part is a NaI (Tl) Anger camera for measuring the scattered gamma-ray. With these informations, we can completely reconstruct a Compton event, and determine the direction of the incident gamma-ray, event by event. We succeeded in reconstructing events of incident 662 keV gamma-rays. The measured angular resolutions of the "angular resolution measure" (ARM) and the "scatter plane deviation" (SPD) were 9.3? and 158? (FWHM), respectively.

  5. Development of a Compton imager based on bars of scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, A. M. L.; Boyle, P. J.; Hanna, D. S.; Saull, P. R. B.; Sinclair, L. E.; Seywerd, H. C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a compact Compton gamma-ray imager with a large field of view and a low channel-count that is capable of quickly localizing gamma-ray sources in the few hundred keV - several MeV range. The two detector planes (scatter and absorber) employ bars of NaI(Tl) read out by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) located at each end. The long-range imaging performance has been tested from 392 keV to 1274 keV. An angular resolution measure of 2.72±0.06° and an efficiency of (1.79 ± 0.04) ×10-3 at 662 keV is obtained. A 137Cs (662 keV) source equivalent to a 10 mCi source 40 m away can be located in 60 s with an uncertainty of about a degree. No significant degradation in imaging performance is observed for source angles up to 40° off axis.

  6. X-Rays Compton Detectors For Biomedical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Paolo; Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Moschini, Giuliano [Department of Physics of the Universityof Padua and INFN, via Marzolo 8, Padua 35131 (Italy); Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Navarria, Francesco [Department of Physics, University , Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Battistella, Andrea; Bello, Michele [National Laboratories of Legnaro, INFN, Legnaro (Padua) (Italy); Bollini, Dante [INFN, Bologna (Italy); Bonvicini, Valter; Rashevsky, Alexander; Zampa, Gianluigi; Zampa, Nicola; Vacchi, Andrea [INFN, Trieste (Italy); Gennaro, Gisella [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV - IRCCS, Padua (Italy); Uzunov, Nikolay [National Laboratories of Legnaro, INFN, Legnaro (Padua) (Italy); Faculty of Natural Sciences, Shumen University, Shumen (Bulgaria)

    2011-06-01

    Collimators are usually needed to image sources emitting X-rays that cannot be focused. Alternately, one may employ a Compton Camera (CC) and measure the direction of the incident X-ray by letting it interact with a thin solid, liquid or gaseous material (Tracker) and determine the scattering angle. With respect to collimated cameras, CCs allow higher gamma-ray efficiency in spite of lighter geometry, and may feature comparable spatial resolution. CCs are better when the X-ray energy is high and small setups are required. We review current applications of CCs to Gamma Ray Astronomy and Biomedical systems stressing advantages and drawbacks. As an example, we focus on a particular CC we are developing, which is designed to image small animals administered with marked pharmaceuticals, and assess the bio-distribution and targeting capability of these latter. This camera has to address some requirements: relatively high activity of the imaged objects; detection of gamma-rays of different energies that may range from 140 keV (Tc99m) to 511 keV; presence of gamma and beta radiation with energies up to 2 MeV in case of 188Re. The camera consists of a thin position-sensitive Silicon Drift Detector as Tracker, and a further downstream position-sensitive system employing scintillating crystals and a multi-anode photo-multiplier (Calorimeter). The choice of crystal, pixel size, and detector geometry has been driven by measurements and simulations with the tracking code GEANT4. Spatial resolution, efficiency and scope are discussed.

  7. History of gamma-ray telescopes and astronomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Pinkau

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy is devoted to study nuclear and elementary particle astrophysics and astronomical objects under extreme\\u000a conditions of gravitational and electromagnetic forces, and temperature. Because signals from gamma rays below 1 TeV cannot\\u000a be recorded on ground, observations from space are required. The photoelectric effect is dominant <100 keV, Compton scattering\\u000a between 100 keV and 10 MeV, and electron–positron pair production at energies above

  8. Gamma-ray transfer and energy deposition in supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Sutherland, Peter G.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1995-01-01

    Solutions to the energy-independent (gray) radiative transfer equations are compared to results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Ni-56 and Co-56 decay gamma-ray energy deposition in supernovae. The comparison shows that an effective, purely absorptive, gray opacity, kappa(sub gamma) approximately (0. 06 +/- 0.01)Y(sub e) sq cm/g, where Y is the total number of electrons per baryon, accurately describes the interaction of gamma-rays with the cool supernova gas and the local gamma-ray energy deposition within the gas. The nature of the gamma-ray interaction process (dominated by Compton scattering in the relativistic regime) creates a weak dependence of kappa(sub gamma) on the optical thickness of the (spherically symmetric) supernova atmosphere: The maximum value of kappa(sub gamma) applies during optically thick conditions when individual gamma-rays undergo multiple scattering encounters and the lower bound is reached at the phase characterized by a total Thomson optical depth to the center of the atmosphere tau(sub e) approximately less than 1. Gamma-ray deposition for Type Ia supernova models to within 10% for the epoch from maximum light to t = 1200 days. Our results quantitatively confirm that the quick and efficient solution to the gray transfer problem provides an accurate representation of gamma-ray energy deposition for a broad range of supernova conditions.

  9. The Compton generator revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siboni, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Compton generator, introduced in 1913 by the US physicist A H Compton as a relatively simple device to detect the Earth's rotation with respect to the distant stars, is analyzed and discussed in a general perspective. The paper introduces a generalized definition of the generator, emphasizing the special features of the original apparatus, and provides a suggestive interpretation of the way the device works. To this end, an intriguing electromagnetic analogy is developed, which turns out to be particularly useful in simplifying the calculations. Besides the more extensive description of the Compton generator in itself, the combined use of concepts and methods coming from different fields of physics, such as particle dynamics in moving references frames, continuum mechanics and electromagnetism, may be of interest to both teachers and graduate students.

  10. The Compton effect: Transition to quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuewer, R. H.

    2000-11-01

    The discovery of the Compton effect at the end of 1922 was a decisive event in the transition to the new quantum mechanics of 1925-1926 because it stimulated physicists to examine anew the fundamental problem of the interaction between radiation and matter. I first discuss Albert Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and why physicists greeted it with extreme skepticism, despite Robert A. Millikan's confirmation of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. I then follow in some detail the experimental and theoretical research program that Arthur Holly Compton pursued between 1916 and 1922 at the University of Minnesota, the Westinghouse Lamp Company, the Cavendish Laboratory, and Washington University that culminated in his discovery of the Compton effect. Surprisingly, Compton was not influenced directly by Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis, in contrast to Peter Debye and H.A. Kramers, who discovered the quantum theory of scattering independently. I close by discussing the most significant response to that discovery, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory of 1924, its experimental refutation, and its influence on the emerging new quantum mechanics.

  11. Graviton-photon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Holstein, Barry R.; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    We use the feature that the gravitational Compton scattering amplitude factorizes in terms of Abelian QED amplitudes to evaluate various gravitational Compton processes. We examine both the QED and gravitational Compton scattering from a massive spin-1 system by the use of helicity amplitude methods. In the case of gravitational Compton scattering we show how the massless limit can be used to evaluate the cross section for graviton-photon scattering and discuss the difference between photon interactions and the zero mass spin-1 limit. We show that the forward scattering cross section for graviton photoproduction has a very peculiar behavior, differing from the standard Thomson and Rutherford cross sections for a Coulomb-like potential.

  12. Inclusive and Exclusive Compton Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ales Psaker

    2005-12-31

    In our work, we describe two types of Compton processes. As an example of an inclusive process, we consider the high-energy photoproduction of massive muon pairs off the nucleon. We analyze the process in the framework of the QCD parton model, in which the usual parton distributions emerge as a tool to describe the nucleon in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. To study its exclusive version, a new class of phenomenological functions is required, namely, generalized parton distributions. They can be considered as a generalization of the usual parton distributions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) may be observed in hard exclusive reactions such as deeply virtual Compton scattering. We develop an extension of this particular process into the weak interaction sector. We also investigate a possible application of the GPD formalism to wide-angle real Compton scattering.

  13. High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission From Blazars: EGRET Observations

    E-print Network

    R. Mukherjee

    1999-01-17

    We will present a summary of the observations of blazars by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). EGRET has detected high energy gamma-ray emission at energies greater than 100 MeV from more that 50 blazars. These sources show inferred isotropic luminosities as large as $3\\times 10^{49}$ ergs s$^{-1}$. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the EGRET observations is that the gamma-ray luminosity often dominates the bolometric power of the blazar. A few of the blazars are seen to exhibit variability on very short time-scales of one day or less. The combination of high luminosities and time variations seen in the gamma-ray data indicate that gamma-rays are an important component of the relativistic jet thought to characterize blazars. Currently most models for blazars involve a beaming scenario. In leptonic models, where electrons are the primary accelerated particles, gamma-ray emission is believed to be due to inverse Compton scattering of low energy photons, although opinions differ as to the source of the soft photons. Hardronic models involve secondary production or photomeson production followed by pair cascades, and predict associated neutrino production.

  14. Large-volume Si(Li) orthogonal-strip detectors for Compton-effect-based instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Protic; E. L. Hull; T. Krings; K. Vetter

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments of large-area Si(Li) orthogonal-strip detectors have revealed their capability for applications in Compton-effect-based instruments. Some inherent advantages of silicon such as the dominance of Compton scattering in photon interactions and operation at room or somewhat lower temperature combined with the availability of large-volume Si(Li) detectors could stimulate the development of powerful Compton instruments. Several diodes 10 mm in

  15. Large-volume Si(Li) orthogonal-strip detectors for Compton effect based instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Protic; E. L. Hull; T. Krings; K. Vetter

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments of large-area Si(Li) orthogonal-strip detectors have revealed their capability for applications in Compton effect based instruments. Some inherent advantages of silicon like dominance of Compton scattering in photon interactions and operation at room or somewhat lower temperature combined with the availability of large-volume Si(Li) detectors could stimulate the development of powerful Compton instruments. Several 10 and 20 mm

  16. Cyclotron resonant scattering in gamma-ray bursts - Further analysis of GB880205

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, P. E.; Lamb, D. Q.; Wang, J. C. L.; Loredo, T. J.; Fenimore, E. E.; Murakami, T.; Yoshida, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have extended our previous work by exploring several plane-parallel slab geometries to model the formation of cyclotron line features. We calculated the Compton temperature T(C) as a function of column density Ne for each of the new geometries. We then fit the resulting spectra to GB880205 exactly as described in Wang et al. (1989). The results show that the addition of column depth below the photon source plane leads to a modest improvement in chi-squared which, although not statistically significant, is pleasing because these geometries are more physically realistic.

  17. Compton Thick AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenson, N. A.

    2014-07-01

    Compton thick active galactic nuclei (AGN), which are obscured by column density NH > 1.5 × 104 cm-2, can be difficult to identify. They are certainly cosmically significant, both in producing the observed cosmic X-ray background, and in providing a location where black hole growth is hidden from view. Here I review some recent results from surveys that provide indications of Compton thick AGN, considering X-ray, radio, and infrared selection techniques. I also offer a caution against using mid-infrared silicate features to measure line-of-sight obscuration to active galactic nuclei. Instead, these features better indicate the geometric distribution of dust that the central engine heats. I conclude that the outstanding problem of Compton thick AGN is not the cases where the obscuration is directly associated with the environment of the active nucleus itself, even in the most obscured examples. Instead, we still risk missing the completely buried AGN, which are obscured by large amounts of gas and dust over large solid angles. The solution to finding Compton thick AGN may be to begin the search based on infrared emission and star formation, and then select for nuclear activity.

  18. The gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

  19. Production of Medical Radioisotopes with High Specific Activity in Photonuclear Reactions with $\\gamma$ Beams of High Intensity and Large Brilliance

    E-print Network

    Habs, D

    2010-01-01

    We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in $(\\gamma,x{\\rm n}+y{\\rm p})$ photonuclear reactions or ($\\gamma,\\gamma'$) photoexcitation reactions with high flux [($10^{13}-10^{15}$)$\\gamma$/s], small diameter $\\sim (100 \\, \\mu$m$)^2$ and small band width ($\\Delta E/E \\approx 10^{-3}-10^{-4}$) $\\gamma$ beams produced by Compton back-scattering of laser light from relativistic brilliant electron beams. We compare them to (ion,$x$n$ + y$p) reactions with (ion=p,d,$\\alpha$) from particle accelerators like cyclotrons and (n,$\\gamma$) or (n,f) reactions from nuclear reactors. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow $\\gamma$ beam the energy deposition in the target can be managed by using a stack of thin target foils or wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton and pair electrons (positrons). $(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ isomer production via specially selected $\\gamma$ cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground st...

  20. Determination of hydrogen in niobium by cold neutron prompt gamma ray activation analysis and neutron incoherent scattering

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Paul; H.H. Cheu-Maya; G.R. Myneni

    2002-11-01

    The presence of trace amounts of hydrogen in niobium is believed to have a detrimental effect on the mechanical and superconducting properties. Unfortunately, few techniques are capable of measuring hydrogen at these levels. We have developed two techniques for measuring hydrogen in materials. Cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) has proven useful for the determination of hydrogen and other elements in a wide variety of materials. Neutron incoherent scattering (NIS), a complementary tool to PGAA, has been used to measure trace hydrogen in titanium. Both techniques were used to study the effects of vacuum heating and chemical polishing on the hydrogen content of superconducting niobium.

  1. Monte Carlo calculations of the vacuum Compton detector sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, H.H.; Lee, H. (Univ. of California, Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM (US))

    1989-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to compute the static sensitivity of the vacuum Compton detector for monoenergetic gamma rays and electrons. A similar calculation using {sup 60}Co spectrum as input is found in good agreement with measurements. The authors also calculate the detector sensitivities for bremsstrahlung spectra produced by monoenergetic e-beams and compare with experimental data.

  2. Monte Carlo calculations of the vacuum Compton detector sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu- Hsiao-Hua; Lee, Huan

    1989-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to compute the static sensitivity of the vacuum Compton detector for monoenergetic gamma rays and electrons. A similar calculation using /sup 60/Co spectrum as input is found in good agreement with measurements. We also calculate the detector sensitivities for bremsstrahlung spectra produced by monoenergetic e-beam and compare with experimental data. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  3. The Penrose Photoproduction Scenario for NGC 4151 /PCS-SSC/ - A black hole gamma-ray emission mechanism for active galactic nuclei and Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiter, D.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of general arguments, it has been suggested (Bignami et al., 1979) that a steepening of the spectrum between X-ray and gamma-ray energies may be a general, gamma-ray characteristic of Seyfert galaxies, if the diffuse gamma-ray spectrum is considered to be a superposition of unresolved contributions, from one or more classes of extragalactic objects. It is shown that the above suggestion can be given a consistent theoretical interpretation in the context of the Penrose Photoproduction Scenario (PCS-SSC). Specifically in the case of NGC 4151, the dominant process will be shown to be Penrose Compton Scattering PCS in the ergosphere of a massive, central, rapidly spinning Kerr black hole, assumed in its nucleus. It is assumed that PCS gamma-ray induced electron-position, Synchrotron-Self-Compton processes 'evolve' as the dominant source of nonthermal X-rays.

  4. Pair cascades in extragalactic jets. 1: Gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blandford, R. D.; Levinson, A.

    1995-01-01

    A model of the approximately 0.1-10 GeV gamma-ray jets observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) is developed. It is shown that the soft X-ray background in an active galactic nuclei (AGN) contributes an opacity to pair production and that a gamma-ray photosphere or 'gamma-sphere' can be defined whose radius increases with gamma-ray energy E(sub gamma). It is proposed that the observed gamma-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the ambient soft X-rays by relativistic pairs accelerated in situ by shock fronts in a relativistic jet. For a wide range of assumed physical conditions, the emission at a given E(sub gamma) originates from near the associated gamma-spheres; emission from below the gamma-sphere initiates a cascade down to the energy where the gamma-rays can escape freely. In this model, the slope of the emergent gamma-ray spectrum is determined by the scattered, soft X-ray spectrum and the variation of the particle acceleration rate with jet radius. In general it is expected that the variation in the gamma-ray flux will be either slower or later at higher energy. It is also shown that the efficiency of conversion of energy from injected high-energy pairs to 0.1-10 GeV gamma-rays is typically high so that the models are radiatively efficient. It is argued that the observed gamma-ray jets are likely to be particle-dominated, though magnetically confined. The gamma-ray spectrum should continue down to an energy approximately 5 MeV emitted from an annihilation radius within which the pair content of the jet is limited by annihilation. This is probably the site of the beamed hard X-ray emission. It is speculated that the relativistic jets associated with radio-loud AGNs are powered electromagnetically by a spinning black hole and that they are collimated by an encircling MHD wind leaving the accretion disk at a slower speed. Powerful FR2 radio sources are formed when the hole spins rapidly and the relativistic core accelerates the MHD sheath; low-power FR1 sources ensue when the opposite occurs. Finally, it is suggested that the key factor which determines whether or not a given active nucleus can form a jet and a radio to gamma-ray nonthermal continuum is the central density of mass-losing stars which, when large, precludes the formation of a super-Alfvenic, collimating wind.

  5. Calibration of the Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) at a Polarized Hard X-Ray Beam

    E-print Network

    Bloser, P F; McConnell, M L; Macri, J R; Bancroft, C M; Connor, T P; Ryan, J M

    2008-01-01

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50 - 500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module containing a single CsI(Na) calorimeter element, at the center of the MAPMT, surrounded by 60 plastic elements. The prototype has been combined with custom readout electronics and software to create a complete "engineering model" of the GRAPE...

  6. Inelastic neutron scatter iron concentrations of the moon from orbital gamma ray data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Davis Jr.; M. J. Bielefeld

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation is concerned with the relation between KREEP and thermal neutron flux depression. The Fe(n, n-prime gamma) concentrations of selected lunar regions were calculated by energy-band analysis of the 0.803-0.872 MeV band. The result of the investigation will be used to evaluate the reliability of the previously determined Fe(n, gamma) values. A 0.803-0.872 MeV band was isolated from

  7. Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Gamma-Ray Scattering for the Study of Second Phase Precipitation in Semiconductor Silicon and the Nimonic Superalloy PE16.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinder, Stephen Hugh

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The precipitation of oxygen in silicon has been investigated using SANS. A major investigation has been made using a heat treatment temperature of 750 ^circC. The measured cross-sections have been analysed using the Guinier approximation and the results linked with infrared measurements of the interstitial oxygen concentration in solid solution. Kinetic constants have been derived through a use of Ham's theory of diffusion limited precipitation (Ham (1958)). The diffusion coefficient of oxygen in silicon has been derived. Good correlation has been found between SANS and TEM measurements of precipitate dimensions. Further investigations have been made using samples heat treated at 450, 550, 650 and 850^ circC. The technique of gamma Ray diffraction has been used in an attempt to observe effects due to oxygen precipitation in silicon. Asymmetric diffuse scattering has been observed around Bragg peaks, as characteristic of interstitial type defects. Quantitative analysis of this scattering has lead to precipitate dimensions in reasonable agreement with that found by the analysis of SANS data. Changes in the integrated reflecting power have been found, both within the same sample and as a function of heat treatment temperature. These changes have been attributed to crystal defects as a result of crystal growth and precipitation. An initial investigation has been made on the combined effects of temperature and stress on the microstructure of a nickel based superalloy, the Nimonic Alloy PE16. The action of stress on top of temperature has been found to cause an increase in the size of gamma^ ' precipitates. A method has been developed for the extraction of size distribution functions from SANS data. Simulations have been performed to test the feasibility of this method, and gain experience for the use of experimental data. One set of real SANS data has also been used to extract a size distribution function.

  8. Optimizing Compton camera geometries.

    PubMed

    Chelikani, Sudhakar; Gore, John; Zubal, George

    2004-04-21

    Compton cameras promise to improve the characteristics of nuclear medicine imaging, wherein mechanical collimation is replaced with electronic collimation. This leads to huge gains in sensitivity and, consequently, a reduction in the radiation dosage that needs to be administered to the patient. Design modifications that improve the sensitivity invariably compromise resolution. The scope of the current project was to determine an optimal design and configuration of a Compton camera that strikes a balance between these two properties. Transport of the photon flux from the source to the detectors was simulated with the camera geometry serving as the parameter to be optimized. Two variations of the Boltzmann photon transport equation, with and without photon polarization, were employed to model the flux. Doppler broadening of the energy spectra was also included. The simulation was done in a Monte Carlo framework using GEANT4. Two clinically relevant energies, 140 keV and 511 keV, corresponding to 99mTc and 18F were simulated. The gain in the sensitivity for the Compton camera over the conventional camera was 100 fold. Neither Doppler broadening nor polarization had any significant effect on the sensitivity of the camera. However, the spatial resolution of the camera was affected by these processes. Doppler broadening had a deleterious effect on the spatial resolution, but polarization improved the resolution when accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. PMID:15152681

  9. G. E. M. Jauncey and the Compton Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkin, John

    In late 1922 Arthur Holly Compton (1892-1962) discovered that an X-ray quantum of radiation undergoes a discrete change in wavelength when it experiences a billiard-ball collision with a single atomic electron, a phenomenon that became known as the Compton effect and for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1927. But for more than five years before he made his discovery, Compton had analyzed X-ray scattering in terms of classical electrodynamics. I suggest that his colleague at Washington University in St. Louis, G. E. M. Jauncey (1888-1947), helped materially to persuade him to embrace the quantum interpretation of his X-ray scattering experiments.

  10. Hadronic Production of Gamma Rays and Starburst Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Niklas Karlsson

    2008-10-01

    The Milky Way has been estabished to emit gamma rays. These gamma rays are presumably dominated by decays of neutral pions, although inverse Compton scatterings and bremsstrahlung also contribute. It is plausible that other galaxies can be diffuse sources of gamma rays in a similar manner. Starburst galaxies are particularly interesting to study as they are expected to have much higher cosmic-ray fluxes and interstellar matter densities. The neutral pions are created in cosmic-ray interactions with interstellar matter. Presented here is an overview of the recent work by Karlsson and co-workers on proton-proton interactions and the resulting secondary particle inclusive cross sections and angular distributions. This model can be used to calculated the $\\pi^{0}$ component of the gamma-ray yield and spectrum from a starburst galaxy. The yield is expected to increase significantly (30% to 50%) and the spectrum to be harder than the incident proton spectrum.

  11. Hadronic Production of Gamma Rays and Starburst Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Karlsson, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    The Milky Way has been estabished to emit gamma rays. These gamma rays are presumably dominated by decays of neutral pions, although inverse Compton scatterings and bremsstrahlung also contribute. It is plausible that other galaxies can be diffuse sources of gamma rays in a similar manner. Starburst galaxies are particularly interesting to study as they are expected to have much higher cosmic-ray fluxes and interstellar matter densities. The neutral pions are created in cosmic-ray interactions with interstellar matter. Presented here is an overview of the recent work by Karlsson and co-workers on proton-proton interactions and the resulting secondary particle inclusive cross sections and angular distributions. This model can be used to calculated the $\\pi^{0}$ component of the gamma-ray yield and spectrum from a starburst galaxy. The yield is expected to increase significantly (30% to 50%) and the spectrum to be harder than the incident proton spectrum.

  12. Testing of a gamma ray imaging system at the High Intensity Gamma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Daniel A.; Barber, H. Bradford; Grim, Gary P.; Archuleta, Thomas; Fatherley, Valerie; Fastje, David

    2014-09-01

    Testing of the gamma ray imaging system will continue at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS) at Duke University. Previous testing at OMEGA gave useful information but at much lower photon energies. Utilizing HIGS 108 gammas/s and its tight beam we will be able to characterize the system in the energy regime that it was designed for namely 4.44 MeV. HIGS offers the ability to tune the beam's energy from 1-20 MeV by way of controlling the inverse Compton scattering off of a relativistic electron beam. With this feature characterization in a range of energies will be possible. Targets were made using a ray-tracing program that replicates a 12-micron ideal pinhole and a 20 cm long 300-micron gold penumbra aperture. The latter will require reconstruction of the coded images.

  13. Compton-backscattered annihilation radiation from the Galactic Center region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. M.; Lin, R. P.; Feffer, P.; Slassi, S.; Hurley, K.; Matteson, J.; Bowman, H. B.; Pelling, R. M.; Briggs, M.; Gruber, D.; Peterson, L. E.; Lingenfelter, R. E.; von Ballmoos, P.; Malet, I.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Durouchoux, P.; Wallyn, P.; Chapuis, C.; Cork, C.; Landis, D.; Luke, P.; Madden, N.; Malone, D.; Pehl, R.

    1993-09-01

    On 1989 May 22, the High Energy X-ray and Gamma-ray Observatory for Nuclear Emissions, a balloon-borne high-resolution germanium spectrometer with an 18-deg FOV, observed the Galactic Center (GC) from 25 to 2500 keV. The GC photon spectrum is obtained from the count spectrum by a model-independent method which accounts for the effects of passive material in the instrument and scattering in the atmosphere. Besides a positron annihilation line with a flux of (10.0 +/- 2.4) x 10 exp -4 photons/sq cm s and a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of (2.9 + 1.0, -1.1) keV, the spectrum shows a peak centered at (163.7 +/- 3.4) keV with a flux of (1.55 +/- 0.47) x 10 exp -3 photons/sq cm s and a FWHM of (24.4 +/- 9.2) keV. The energy range 450-507 keV shows no positronium continuum associated with the annihilation line, with a 2-sigma upper limit of 0.90 on the positronium fraction. The 164 keV feature is interpreted as Compton backscatter of broadened and redshifted annihilation radiation, possibly from the source 1E 1740.7-2942.

  14. Proton scattering from an excited nucleus (18Fm,Jpi=5+,Ex=1.1 MeV) using a gamma-ray-tagged secondary isomeric nuclear beam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Brown; F. D. Becchetti; J. Jänecke; D. A. Roberts; D. W. Litzenberg; T. W. O'donnell; R. E. Warner; N. A. Orr; R. M. Ronningen

    1995-01-01

    We have used gamma-ray tagging to identify a secondary isomeric beam of the short-lived, high-spin isomer 18Fm (Ex=1.1 MeV, Jpi=5+) produced at the K1200 cyclotron at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. Elastic scattering of p+18Fm at Ec.m.~=20 MeV was observed using the characteristic gamma decays of 18Fm (T1\\/2=163 ns) to identify the state of the projectile after the scattering, thus

  15. X-ray spectra transmitted through Compton-thick absorbers

    E-print Network

    Giorgio Matt; Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca

    1999-04-24

    X-ray spectra transmitted through matter which is optically thick to Compton scattering are computed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Applications to the BeppoSAX data of the Seyfert 2 galaxy in Circinus, and to the spectral modeling of the Cosmic X-ray Background, are discussed.

  16. Precision X-Band Linac Technologies for Nuclear Photonics Gamma-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Houck, T L; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Adolphsen, C E; Chu, T S; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, F; Wang, J W; Raubenheimer, T O; Ighigeanu, D; Toma, M; Cutoiu, D

    2011-08-31

    Nuclear photonics is an emerging field of research requiring new tools, including high spectral brightness, tunable gamma-ray sources; high photon energy, ultrahigh-resolution crystal spectrometers; and novel detectors. This presentation focuses on the precision linac technology required for Compton scattering gamma-ray light sources, and on the optimization of the laser and electron beam pulse format to achieve unprecedented spectral brightness. Within this context, high-gradient X-band technology will be shown to offer optimal performance in a compact package, when used in conjunction with the appropriate pulse format, and photocathode illumination and interaction laser technologies. The nascent field of nuclear photonics is enabled by the recent maturation of new technologies, including high-gradient X-band electron acceleration, robust fiber laser systems, and hyper-dispersion CPA. Recent work has been performed at LLNL to demonstrate isotope-specific detection of shielded materials via NRF using a tunable, quasi-monochromatic Compton scattering gamma-ray source operating between 0.2 MeV and 0.9 MeV photon energy. This technique is called Fluorescence Imaging in the Nuclear Domain with Energetic Radiation (or FINDER). This work has, among other things, demonstrated the detection of {sup 7}Li shielded by Pb, utilizing gamma rays generated by a linac-driven, laser-based Compton scattering gamma-ray source developed at LLNL. Within this context, a new facility is currently under construction at LLNL, with the goal of generating tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range, at a repetition rate of 120 Hz, and with a peak brightness in the 10{sup 20} photons/(s x mm{sup 2} x mrad{sup 2} x 0.1% bw).

  17. Gamma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Geometric Algorithms for Modeling, Motion, and Animation (GAMMA) research group is part of the Department of Computer Science at the University of North Carolina. Some of the topics of research include haptics, "robot motion planning," collision detection, and "real-time interaction with virtual environments." There are several projects that are described in detail for each of the main areas of investigation. Many recent papers are offered that describe the progress and findings of the group's research. Additionally, there is a large collection of videos demonstrating computer animation, simulation, and interactive applications. Some software can also be downloaded for the GAMMA Web site; however, access to a few of the titles must first be approved by the system administrator.

  18. Compton Positron Emission Tomography with a Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Giboni; E. Aprile; T. Doke; S. Suzuki; L. M. P. Fernandes; J. A. M. Lopes; J. M. F. dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Most background noise in medical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging originates from photons which Compton scatter before they leave the body of the patient. In only 4% of total events do both photons leave the body un-scattered and are therefore useful for current PET imaging. In an additional 8% of the events one of the photons scatters only once. This

  19. The 106Cd(alpha,alpha)106Cd elastic scattering in a wide energy range for gamma-process studies

    E-print Network

    Ornelas, A; Mohr, P; Galaviz, D; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Máté, Z; Rauscher, T; Somorjai, E; Sonnabend, K; Zilges, A

    2015-01-01

    Alpha elastic scattering angular distributions of the 106Cd(alpha,alpha)106Cd reaction were measured at three energies around the Coulomb barrier to provide a sensitive test for the alpha + nucleus optical potential parameter sets. Furthermore, the new high precision angular distributions, together with the data available from the literature were used to study the energy dependence of the locally optimized {\\alpha}+nucleus optical potential in a wide energy region ranging from E_Lab = 27.0 MeV down to 16.1 MeV. The potentials under study are a basic prerequisite for the prediction of alpha-induced reaction cross sections and thus, for the calculation of stellar reaction rates used for the astrophysical gamma process. Therefore, statistical model predictions using as input the optical potentials discussed in the present work are compared to the available 106Cd + alpha cross section data.

  20. The 106Cd(alpha,alpha)106Cd elastic scattering in a wide energy range for gamma-process studies

    E-print Network

    A. Ornelas; G. G. Kiss; P. Mohr; D. Galaviz; Zs. Fülöp; Gy. Gyürky; Z. Máté; T. Rauscher; E. Somorjai; K. Sonnabend; A. Zilges

    2015-04-29

    Alpha elastic scattering angular distributions of the 106Cd(alpha,alpha)106Cd reaction were measured at three energies around the Coulomb barrier to provide a sensitive test for the alpha + nucleus optical potential parameter sets. Furthermore, the new high precision angular distributions, together with the data available from the literature were used to study the energy dependence of the locally optimized {\\alpha}+nucleus optical potential in a wide energy region ranging from E_Lab = 27.0 MeV down to 16.1 MeV. The potentials under study are a basic prerequisite for the prediction of alpha-induced reaction cross sections and thus, for the calculation of stellar reaction rates used for the astrophysical gamma process. Therefore, statistical model predictions using as input the optical potentials discussed in the present work are compared to the available 106Cd + alpha cross section data.

  1. Statistical performance evaluation and comparison of a Compton medical imaging system and a collimated Anger camera for higher energy photon imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Li; Rogers, W. Leslie; Huh, Sam S.; Clinthorne, Neal

    2008-12-01

    In radionuclide treatment, tumor cells are primarily destroyed by charged particles emitted by the compound while associated higher energy photons are used to image the tumor in order to determine radiation dose and monitor shrinkage. However, the higher energy photons are difficult to image with conventional collimated Anger cameras, since a tradeoff exists between resolution and sensitivity, and the collimator septal penetration and scattering is increased due to the high energy photons. This research compares imaging performance of the conventional Anger camera to a Compton imaging system that can have improved spatial resolution and sensitivity for high energy photons because this tradeoff is decoupled, and the effect of Doppler broadening at higher gamma energies is decreased. System performance is analyzed by the modified uniform Cramer-Rao bound (M-UCRB) algorithms based on the developed system modeling. The bound shows that the effect of Doppler broadening is the limiting factor for Compton camera performance for imaging 364.4 keV photons emitted from 131I. According to the bound, the Compton camera outperforms the collimated system for an equal number of detected events when the desired spatial resolution for a 26 cm diameter uniform disk object is better than 12 mm FWHM. For a 3D cylindrical phantom, the lower bound on variance for the collimated camera is greater than for the Compton imaginer over the resolution range from 0.5 to 2 cm FWHM. Furthermore, the detection sensitivity of the proposed Compton imaging system is about 15-20 times higher than that of the collimated Anger camera.

  2. Bulk Comptonization of the Cosmic Microwave Background by Extragalactic Jets as a Probe of their Matter Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georganopoulos, Markos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Perlman, Eric; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a method for estimating the composition, i.e. the relative amounts of leptons and protons, of extragalactic jets which exhibit Chandra - detected knots in their kpc scale jets. The method relies on measuring, or setting upper limits on, the component of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation that is bulk-Comptonized by the cold electrons in the relativistically flowing jet. These measurements, along with modeling of the broadband knot emission that constrain the bulk Lorentz factor GAMMA of the jets, can yield estimates of the jet power carried by protons and leptons. We provide an explicit calculation of the spectrum of the bulk-Comptonized (BC) CMB component and apply these results to PKS 0637 - 752 and 3C 273, two superluminal quasars with Chandra - detected large scale jets. What makes these sources particularly suited for such a procedure is the absence of significant non-thermal jet emission in the 'bridge', the region between the core and the first bright jet knot, which guarantees that most of the electrons are cold there, leaving the BC scattered CMB radiation as the only significant source of photons in this region. At lambda = 3.6 - 8.0 microns, the most likely band to observe the BC scattered CMB emission, the Spitzer angular resolution (approximately 1" - 3") is considerably smaller than the the 'bridges' of these jets (approximately 10"), making it possible to both measure and resolve this emission.

  3. A Proposed Student Built and Operated Satellite: The Gamma Ray Burst Polarization Observer (PolOSat)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, Benjamin K.; Jernigan, J. G.; Bloom, J. S.; Boggs, S.; Butler, N. R.; Cominsky, L. R.; Doering, T. J.; Doty, J. P.; Erb, D. M.; Figer, D. F.; Hurley, K. C.; Kimel, K. W.; Lumpp, J. E.; Labov, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Polarization Observer (PolOSat) is small satellite mission whose goal is to measure the polarization of bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). A precise measurement of the polarization of GRBs will constrain the models of radiative mechanisms associated with GRBs as supermassive stars undergo collapse into black holes. The primary goal of PolOSat is the detection of strongly linearly polarized GRBs (?20; %) and/or to set upper limits on polarization for a few GRBs (?30; %). PolOSat is designed to have a sensitivity to polarization that exceeds all prior experiments. The primary scientific instrument, the Gamma-ray Polarization Monitor (GPM) is based on a CMOS hybrid array that is optimized for performance in the low energy gamma-ray band (20-200 keV). The GPM has two passive Beryllium (Be) scattering elements which provide signal gamma-rays within a large field of view (two 45 degree radius cones). Gamma-rays impinge on the Be scatterers and are then Compton scattered into the CZT arrays and detected. A bright GRB (occurring 5 times a year) will produce 100,000s of direct gamma-rays and 1000s of Compton scattered gamma-rays detected by the CZT array. The PolOSat satellite with the GPM is rotated ( 1 Hz) inducing a strong temporal component at twice the spin frequency that is proportional to the linear polarization in the GRB signal. The team includes the University of California, Berkeley, the Kentucky Space Program including the Kentucky Science and Technology Corporation, the University of Kentucky, Morehead State University, Sonoma State University, the Rochester Institute of Technology, the University of Rochester and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. PolOSat features significant participation by undergraduate and graduate students in all phases of development and operation of the spacecraft and instruments and in data analysis. PolOSat was initially proposed as a small complete NASA Mission of Opportunity and is currently seeking funding.

  4. Isotopic response with small scintillator based gamma-ray spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Norman W. (Sparks, NV); Goulding, Frederick S. (Lafayette, CA); Asztalos, Stephen J. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-01-24

    The intrinsic background of a gamma ray spectrometer is significantly reduced by surrounding the scintillator with a second scintillator. This second (external) scintillator surrounds the first scintillator and has an opening of approximately the same diameter as the smaller central scintillator in the forward direction. The second scintillator is selected to have a higher atomic number, and thus has a larger probability for a Compton scattering interaction than within the inner region. Scattering events that are essentially simultaneous in coincidence to the first and second scintillators, from an electronics perspective, are precluded electronically from the data stream. Thus, only gamma-rays that are wholly contained in the smaller central scintillator are used for analytic purposes.

  5. Diffuse continuum gamma rays from the Galaxy

    E-print Network

    A. W. Strong; I. V. Moskalenko; O. Reimer

    2000-02-24

    A new study of the diffuse Galactic gamma-ray continuum radiation is presented, using a cosmic-ray propagation model which includes nucleons, antiprotons, electrons, positrons, and synchrotron radiation. Our treatment of the inverse Compton (IC) scattering includes the effect of anisotropic scattering in the Galactic interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and a new evaluation of the ISRF itself. Models based on locally measured electron and nucleon spectra and synchrotron constraints are consistent with gamma-ray measurements in the 30-500 MeV range, but outside this range excesses are apparent. A harder nucleon spectrum is considered but fitting to gamma rays causes it to violate limits from positrons and antiprotons. A harder interstellar electron spectrum allows the gamma-ray spectrum to be fitted above 1 GeV as well, and this can be further improved when combined with a modified nucleon spectrum which still respects the limits imposed by antiprotons and positrons. A large electron/IC halo is proposed which reproduces well the high-latitude variation of gamma-ray emission. The halo contribution of Galactic emission to the high-latitude gamma-ray intensity is large, with implications for the study of the diffuse extragalactic component and signatures of dark matter. The constraints provided by the radio synchrotron spectral index do not allow all of the <30 MeV gamma-ray emission to be explained in terms of a steep electron spectrum unless this takes the form of a sharp upturn below 200 MeV. This leads us to prefer a source population as the origin of the excess low-energy gamma rays.

  6. A Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interaction with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodraski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli

    1998-01-01

    This final report outlines the progress of the contractor's support for the analysis of data under ADP (NRA 96-ADP-08; Proposal No. 167-96 adp). The primary task object was to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV-30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor was to utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, HI and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky maps from I to 240 um, and ground-based B,V, J, H and K photometry. The respective contributions to the high-latitude gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray-matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extra-galactic emission were to be determined.

  7. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodroski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contractor will provide support for the analysis of data under ADP (NRA 96-ADP- 09; Proposal No . 167-96adp). The primary task objective is to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV - 30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor will utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, H I and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIME) all-sky maps from 1 to 240 p, and ground-based B, V, J, H, and K photometry. The respective contributions to the gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray/matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extragalactic emission will be determined.

  8. Large-Area Balloon-Borne Polarized Gamma Ray Observer (PoGO)

    SciTech Connect

    Blanford, R.

    2005-04-06

    We are developing a new balloon-borne instrument (PoGO), to measure polarization of soft gamma rays (25-200 keV) using asymmetry in azimuth angle distribution of Compton scattering. PoGO will detect 10% polarization in 100mCrab sources in a 6-8 hour observation and bring a new dimension to studies on gamma ray emission/transportation mechanism in pulsars, AGNs, black hole binaries, and neutron star surface. The concept is an adaptation to polarization measurements of well-type phoswich counter technology used in balloon-borne experiments (Welcome-1) and AstroE2 Hard X-ray Detector. PoGO consists of close-packed array of 397 hexagonal well-type phoswich counters. Each unit is composed of a long thin tube (well) of slow plastic scintillator, a solid rod of fast plastic scintillator, and a short BGO at the base. A photomultiplier coupled to the end of the BGO detects light from all 3 scintillators. The rods with decay times < 10 ns, are used as the active elements; while the wells and BGOs, with decay times {approx}250 ns are used as active anti-coincidence. The fast and slow signals are separated out electronically. When gamma rays entering the field-of-view (fwhm {approx} 3deg{sup 2}) strike a fast scintillator, some are Compton scattered. A fraction of the scattered photons are absorbed in another rod (or undergo a second scatter). A valid event requires one clean fast signal of pulse-height compatible with photo-absorption (> 20keV) and one or more compatible with Compton scattering (< 10keV). Studies based on EGS4 (with polarization features) and Geant4 predict excellent background rejection and high sensitivity.

  9. Relativistic electron-positron beams in gamma-ray bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. A.; Epstein, Richard I.

    1993-01-01

    Beams of relativistic electrons and/or positrons leaving the surface of a strongly magnetized neutron star may give rise to gamma-ray bursts. The beams could be accelerated by strong, magnetically aligned electric fields that are produced by oscillations of the stellar surface. Here we investigate the particle acceleration in these electric fields, the resulting electron-positron pair cascade, and the gamma-ray emission. We find that beams of electrons and positrons moving parallel to the magnetic field are generated, with a reported differential energy distribution. These beams produce the bulk of the gamma-ray burst radiation below about 1 MeV by the resonant Compton scattering of thermal photons emitted from the stellar surface. The escaping synchrotron radiation from the cascade dominates the radiation spectrum above about 1 MeV.

  10. Compact Gamma-Beam Source for Nuclear Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    A compact gamma-beam source dedicated to the development of the nuclear security technologies by use of the nuclear resonance fluorescence is described. Besides, such source is a very promising tool for novel technologies of the express cargoes inspection to prevent nuclear terrorism. Gamma-beam with the quanta energies from 0.3MeV to 7.2MeV is generated in the Compton scattering of the "green" laser photons on the electron beam with energies from 90MeV to 430MeV. The characteristic property of the proposed gammabeam source is a narrow spectrum (less than 1%) at high average gamma-yield (of 1013?/s) due to special operation mode.

  11. Results of a Si/CdTe Compton Telescope

    E-print Network

    Kousuke Oonuki; Takaaki Tanaka; Shin Watanabe; Shin'ichiro Takeda; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Takefumi Mitani; Tadayuki Takahashi; Hiroyasu Tajima; Yasushi Fukazawa; Masaharu Nomachi

    2005-09-21

    We have been developing a semiconductor Compton telescope to explore the universe in the energy band from several tens of keV to a few MeV. We use a Si strip and CdTe pixel detector for the Compton telescope to cover an energy range from 60 keV. For energies above several hundred keV, the higher efficiency of CdTe semiconductor in comparison with Si is expected to play an important role as an absorber and a scatterer. In order to demonstrate the spectral and imaging capability of a CdTe-based Compton Telescope, we have developed a Compton telescope consisting of a stack of CdTe pixel detectors as a small scale prototype. With this prototype, we succeeded in reconstructing images and spectra by solving the Compton equation from 122 keV to 662 keV. The energy resolution (FWHM) of reconstructed spectra is 7.3 keV at 511 keV and 3.1 keV at 122 keV, respectively. The angular resolution obtained at 511 keV is measured to be 12.2 degree (FWHM).

  12. On the Location of the Acceleration and Emission Sites in Gamma-Ray Blazars

    E-print Network

    Charles D. Dermer; Reinhard Schlickeiser

    1993-12-21

    Compton scattering of external radiation by nonthermal particles in outflowing blazar jets is dominated by accretion-disk photons rather than scattered radiation to distances $\\sim 0.01-0.1$ pc from the central engine for standard parameters, thus clarifying the limits of validity of the model by the present authors and the model of Sikora, Begelman, \\& Rees. On the basis of contemporaneous Ginga X-ray and EGRET gamma-ray observations, we estimate the radius of 3C 279's gamma-ray photosphere to be smaller than estimated by Blandford. There is thus no need to require that the acceleration and emission sites of gamma-ray blazars to be located farther than $\\sim 10^{2-3}$ gravitational radii from the central engine. We argue that lineless BL Lac objects, rather than quasars, are more likely to be detected in the TeV energy range.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A PRECISION TUNABLE GAMMA-RAY SOURCE DRIVEN BY A COMPACT X-BAND LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Messerly, M J; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G

    2009-04-30

    A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by the linac interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. The source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

  14. Beam Test of a Prototype Phoswich Detector Assembly forthe PoGOLite Astronomical Soft Gamma-ray Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai, Y.; Ueno, M.; Kataoka, J.; Arimoto, M.; Kawai, N.; /Tokyo Inst. Tech.; Yamamoto, K.; Mizuno, T.; Fukazawa, Y.; /Hiroshima U.; Kiss, M.; Ylinen, T.; Bettolo,; Carlson, P.; /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; P.Chen d, B.Craig d, T.Kamae d, G.Madejski d, J.S.T.Ng; Rogers, R.; Tajima, H.; Thurston, T.S.; /SLAC; Saito, Y.; Takahashi, T. /JAXA, Sagamihara; Gunji, S.; /Yamagata U.; Bjornsson, C-I.; Larsson, S.; /Stockholm U. /Ecole Polytechnique /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-01-17

    We report about the beam test on a prototype of the balloon-based astronomical soft gamma-ray polarimeter, PoGOLite (Polarized Gamma-ray Observer--Light Version) conducted at KEK Photon Factory, a synchrotron radiation facility in Japan. The synchrotron beam was set at 30, 50, and 70 keV and its polarization was monitored by a calibrated polarimeter. The goal of the experiment was to validate the flight design of the polarimeter. PoGOLite is designed to measure polarization by detecting a Compton scattering and the subsequent photo-absorption in an array of 217 well-type phoswich detector cells (PDCs). The test setup included a first flight model PDC and a front-end electronics to select and reconstruct valid Compton scattering events. The experiment has verified that the flight PDC can detect recoil electrons and select valid Compton scattering events down to 30 keV from background. The measure azimuthal modulations (34.4 %, 35.8 % and 37.2 % at 30, 50, and 70 keV, respectively) agreed within 10% (relative) with the predictions by Geant4 implemented with dependence on the initial and final photon polarizations.

  15. The Data Readout System of the Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Che Hung; Yuan-Hann Chang; Chih-Hsun Lin; Steven E. Boggs; Hsiang-Kuang Chang; Mark S. Bandstra; Eric C. Bellm; Jeng-Lun Chiu; Jau-Shian Liang; Zong-Kai Liu; Daniel Perez-Becker; Cornelia B. Wunderer; Andreas Zoglauer; Ming-Huey Huang; Mark Amman; Paul N. Luke

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne telescope based on the 3D-positioning germanium detectors. It is designed to study astrophysical sources of gamma-ray emission in the energy range of 0.2 MeV to 10 MeV. The data readout system of NCT is designed to amplify, digitize and collect signals from a germanium detector according to a certain trigger scheme. It

  16. Soft gamma-ray emission from the region of MCG8-11-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, F.; Delle Ventura, A.; Villa, G.; di Cocco, G.; Butler, R. C.; Carter, J. N.; Dean, A. J.

    1981-07-01

    The detection of soft gamma-ray emission from the region containing the Type I Seyfert galaxy MCG8-11-11 is reported. Observations were made with the Milan/Southampton (MISO) low energy gamma-ray telescope, which consists of a Compton-coincidence detection system inside a semiactive shield, during a balloon flight from Palestine, Texas in September, 1979. A significant gamma-ray counting-rate excess was observed within an error box containing MCG8-11-11 as the only known X-ray source apart from the OSO 7 source 1M0600+46, for which the error box is not available. Evaluation of the emission spectrum in the energy range 0.02-19 MeV reveals it to be similar to that of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151, in which a spectral cutoff close to 3 MeV was observed. The spectral feature may be explained by the stochastic generation of gamma-ray bursts by the Penrose-Compton scattering mechanism in active galactic nuclei. Gamma-ray emission from Seyfert galaxies is also suggested to be capable of accounting for a large portion of the observed low-energy diffuse gamma-ray background, which is noted to exhibit a 3-MeV cutoff.

  17. Inverse Compton X-ray emission from the superluminal quasar 3C 345

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, S. C.; Wehrle, A. E.; Urry, C. M.; Gilmore, D. M.; Barton, E. J.; Kjerulf, B. C.; Zensus, J. A.; Rabaca, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    In quasars with strong radio cores, the inverse-Compton process is believed to be the dominant source X-ray emission. For objects with parsec-scale radio jets, simple models have predicted that components in the jet emerging from the quasar nucleus generate the observed X-ray emission. We have tested this hypothesis in detail for the quasar 3C 345 using a ROSAT X-ray observation in 1990 July, together with quasi-simultaneous very long base interferometry (VLBI) imaging of the parsec-scale jet at five frequencies. The ROSAT spectrum is well fitted by a power law with index alpha = -0.96 +/- -0.13, consistent with models in which the X-ray emission results from inverse-Compton scattering of radio radiation from high-energy electrons in compact components. We show that the radio properties of brightest `knot' in the jet (`C5') can be fitted with a homogeneous sphere model whose parameters require bulk relativistic motion of the emitting material; otherwise the predicted model whose parameters require bulk relativistic motion of the emitting material; otherwise the predicted inverse-Compton X-ray emission exceeds the observed flux. If C5 is the origin of the X-ray emission, then it has a Doppler factor delta = 7.5((sup +3 sub -2)). If the nucleus or other components contribute to the X-ray emission, then this becomes a firm lower limit to delta. The inhomogeneous jet model of Koenigl is a good fit both to the barely resolved (less than 1 pc) flat-spectrum nucleus in the radio, and also to the ROSAT X-ray spectrum. The synchrotron and inverse-Compton emitting fluid moves down a narrow cone (opening angle 2 phi approximately 5 deg) nucleus relativistically, with delta approximately 4.6. Doppler factors for the nucleus and C5, derived from our ROSAT observation, provide evidence for bulk relativistic motion in the jet. By combining these constraints with well-known superluminal motion of jet components, we can deduce geometry. For epoch 1990.5 we infer the Lorentz factor gamma = 7.5 ((sup +1.0 sub -1.5)) and angle to the line of sight theta = 8((sup +2 deg sub -3 deg)) for H(sub 0) = 100 km/s/Mpc. These values are the most reliable yet derived using this method, because of the near-simultaneity of our X-ray and VLBI observations and the quality of the multifrequency of VLBI images and component radio spectra.

  18. A Novel Detector for Measuring Gamma-Ray Fluxes in a Mixed Pulsed Neutron-Gamma Radiation Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoping Ouyang; Zhongbing Zhang; Qunshu Wang

    2007-01-01

    An ICI (insulator-conductor-insulator) gamma-ray detector designed for measurement of fast rising, high intensity pulsed gamma-ray fluxes has been developed. Like vacuum Compton diode (VCD) and dielectric Compton diode (DCD) devices, the ICI detector operates by utilization of the Compton effect. It has a very fast time response (rise time is less than 1 ns), a large linearity and a wide

  19. The modulation of the gamma-ray emission from the binary LS 5039

    E-print Network

    G. Dubus; B. Cerutti; G. Henri

    2007-10-04

    Gamma-ray binaries, composed of a massive star and compact object, have been established as a new class of sources of very high energy (VHE) photons. The gamma-rays are produced by inverse Compton scattering of the stellar light by VHE electrons accelerated in the vicinity of the compact object. The VHE emission from LS 5039 displays an orbital modulation. The inverse Compton spectrum depends on the angle between the incoming and outgoing photon in the electron rest frame. Since the angle at which an observer sees the star and electrons changes with the orbit, a phase dependence of the spectrum is expected. The phase-dependent spectrum of LS 5039 is calculated, assuming a continuous injection of electrons. The shape of the electron distribution depends on the injected power-law and on the magnetic field intensity. Anisotropic scattering produces hard emission at inferior conjunction, when attenuation due to pair production of the VHE gamma-rays on star light is minimum. The computed lightcurve and spectra provide good fits to the HESS and EGRET observations, except at phases of maximum attenuation where pair cascade emission may be significant for HESS. Detailed predictions are made for a modulation in the GLAST energy range. The magnetic field intensity at periastron is 0.8+-0.2 G. Anisotropic inverse Compton scattering plays a major role in LS 5039. The derived magnetic field intensity, injection energy and slope suggest a rotation-powered pulsar wind nebula. Gamma-ray binaries are promising sources to study the environment of pulsars on small scales.

  20. Gamma-ray and X-ray luminosities from spin-powered pulsars in the full polar cap cascade model

    E-print Network

    Bing Zhang; Alice K. Harding

    1999-11-03

    We modify the conventional curvature radiation (inverse Compton scattering) + synchrotron radiation polar cap cascade model by including the inverse Compton scattering of the higher generation pairs. Within the framework of the space-charge-limited-flow acceleration model with frame-dragging proposed by Harding & Muslimov (1998), such a full polar cap cascade scenario can well reproduce the $L_\\gamma \\propto (L_{\\rm sd})^{1/2}$ and the $L_x \\sim 10^{-3} L_{\\rm sd}$ dependences observed from the known spin-powered pulsars. According to this model, the ``pulsed'' soft ROSAT-band X-rays from most of the millisecond pulsars might be of thermal origin, if there are no strong multipole magnetic components near their surfaces.