Science.gov

Sample records for compulsory service programmes

  1. Compulsory service programmes for recruiting health workers in remote and rural areas: do they work?

    PubMed Central

    Mullan, Fitzhugh; Payne, Perry W; Ross, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Compulsory service programmes have been used worldwide as a way to deploy and retain a professional health workforce within countries. Other names for these programmes include ”obligatory”, ”mandatory”, ”required” and ”requisite.” All these different programme names refer to a country’s law or policy that governs the mandatory deployment and retention of a heath worker in the underserved and/or rural areas of the country for a certain period of time. This study identified three different types of compulsory service programmes in 70 countries. These programmes are all governed by some type of regulation, ranging from a parliamentary law to a policy within the ministry of health. Depending on the country, doctors, nurses, midwives and all types of professional allied health workers are required to participate in the programme. Some of the compliance-enforcement measures include withholding full registration until obligations are completed, withholding degree and salary, or imposing large fines. This paper aims to explain these programmes more clearly, to identify countries that have or had such programmes, to develop a typology for the different kinds and to discuss the programmes in the light of important issues that are related to policy concepts and implementation. As governments consider the cost of investment in health professionals’ education, the loss of health professionals to emigration and the lack of health workers in many geographic areas, they are using compulsory service requirements as a way to deploy and retain the health workforce. PMID:20461136

  2. Compulsory medical service in Ecuador: the physician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cavender, A; Albán, M

    1998-12-01

    Compulsory medical service programs for physicians and other health care professionals have been installed in developing countries around the world. The underlying assumption for the creation of these programs is that the increased presence of physicians will improve the health status of rural populations which exhibit higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared to urban populations. This assumption, however, has been challenged by recent evaluative studies of compulsory service programs in Latin America. This paper reports on the physician's perspective of Ecuador's compulsory service program, known as medicatura rural. Based on responses to a self-administered questionnaire completed by 127 physicians who had fulfilled or were currently fulfilling their medicatura rural requirement, in-depth interviews with physicians and other officials, and visits to several rural placement sites, the paper examines some of the fundamental programmatic and logistical problems that have impeded the successful implementation of the program since its inception in 1970. While the majority of the physicians reported that the medicatura rural experience was both professionally and personally rewarding, many view the program as conceptually flawed with respect to its goal of improving the health status of rural communities. The physicians' suggestions for improving the medicatura rural, which elucidate some of the program's basic conceptual flaws and reflect the criticisms of compulsory medical programs in other Latin American countries, are discussed. Finally, Ugalde's (1988) recommendation for replacing compulsory medical service programs with a "rural health corps" is considered. PMID:10075237

  3. On the Impact of Government Policy on Programme Design in New Zealand Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govers, Elly

    2010-01-01

    The impact of national education policies on programme design practice in post-compulsory education tends to be marginalised in scholarly literature. This paper reviews and analyses the literature to explore how neo-liberalist discourses introduced in tertiary education and qualifications policies in New Zealand since 1989 continue to influence…

  4. 16 CFR 1118.3 - Compulsory processes and service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Act (5 U.S.C. 552) and the Commission's regulations under that Act, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490... regulations, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977), or as amended. ... any form of compulsory process shall be the date on which the document is received by mail,...

  5. 16 CFR 1605.3 - Compulsory processes and the service thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act regulations, 16 CFR part 1015, 42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977 or as amended. .... 1605.3 Section 1605.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... inquired of. (c) The date of service of any form of compulsory process shall be the date on which...

  6. Ethnic variations in compulsory detention and hospital admission for psychosis across four UK Early Intervention Services.

    PubMed

    Mann, Farhana; Fisher, Helen L; Major, Barnaby; Lawrence, Jo; Tapfumaneyi, Andrew; Joyce, John; Hinton, Mark F; Johnson, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    BackgroundSubstantial ethnic variations have been found in incidence, pathways to care and outcomes in psychosis. It is unknown whether these remain as marked in the presence of specialist Early Intervention Services (EIS) for psychosis. We present the first UK study exploring ethnic differences in compulsory detention and hospitalization rates for EIS patients. We investigated whether the excess rates of compulsory admission for people from Black groups have persisted following nationwide introduction of EIS. We also explored variations in compulsory admission for other ethnic groups, and differences by gender and diagnosis.MethodsFour inner-city London EIS teams gathered data from first-presentation psychosis patients between 2004¿2009 using the MiData audit tool. Clinical, sociodemographic and pathways to care data were recorded regarding adult patients from eight different ethnic groups at entry to EIS and one year later.ResultsBlack African EIS service users had odds of being detained and of being hospitalised three times greater than White British patients, even after adjustment for confounders. This was most marked in Black African women (seven to eight times greater odds than White British women). A post-hoc analysis showed that pathways to care and help-seeking behaviour partially explained these differences.ConclusionThese findings suggest EIS input in its current form has little impact on higher admission and detention rates in certain Black and minority groups. There is a need to tackle these differences and engage patients earlier, focusing on the needs of men and women from the most persistently affected groups. PMID:25214411

  7. 49 CFR 510.3 - Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims for confidential treatment, and terms of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims for confidential treatment, and terms of compliance. 510.3 Section 510.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION GATHERING POWERS...

  8. Designing financial-incentive programmes for return of medical service in underserved areas: seven management functions

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E

    2009-01-01

    should prepare participants for the time in an underserved area, stay in close contact with participants throughout the different phases of enrolment and help participants by assigning them mentors, establishing peer support systems or financing education courses relevant to work in underserved areas); enforcement (programmes may use community-based monitoring or outsource enforcement to existing institutions); and evaluation (in order to broaden the evidence on the effectiveness of financial incentives in increasing the health workforce in underserved areas, programmes in developing countries should evaluate their performance; in order to improve the strength of the evidence on the effectiveness of financial incentives, controlled experiments should be conducted where feasible). In comparison to other interventions to increase the supply of health workers to medically underserved areas, financial-incentive programmes have advantages – unlike initiatives using non-financial incentives, they establish legally enforceable commitments to work in underserved areas and, unlike compulsory service policies, they will not be opposed by health workers – as well as disadvantages – unlike initiatives using non-financial incentives, they may not improve the working and living conditions in underserved areas (which are important determinants of health workers' long-term retention) and, unlike compulsory service policies, they cannot guarantee that they will supply health workers to underserved areas who would not have worked in such areas without financial incentives. Financial incentives, non-financial incentives, and compulsory service are not mutually exclusive and may positively affect each other's performance. PMID:19558682

  9. Compulsory Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinig, John

    1981-01-01

    Examines arguments for and against compulsory education in Great Britain. Arguments for include education for individual growth, government-sponsored child protection, the promotion of national socioeconomic growth, and ideological conformity. Arguments against are the inhibition of individual growth and the infringement of parents' and children's…

  10. XML does Real Programmers a Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian

    2008-09-01

    As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.

  11. Creating Effective Civic Engagement Policy for Adolescents: Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluations of Compulsory Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ailsa; Pancer, S. Mark; Brown, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    For high school community service programs to have a positive impact on subsequent civic engagement, students must volunteer in a sustained manner and must evaluate their volunteering experiences positively. Using a survey with 1,293 respondents and 100 semistructured interviews with past participants of the mandatory community service program…

  12. Programmability and service creation for multimedia networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lazar, A.A.; Lim, Koon-Seng

    1996-12-31

    The Binding Architecture is an open architecture for building multimedia networks that must guarantee Quality of Service (QOS). In this paper, we explore the notion of a service in the Binding Architecture and propose a conceptual model for building scalable multimedia distribution services based on it. We begin first by examining the relation between resources, their abstractions and the services that can be built from them and use this to derive a general model for binding. Based on this model, we identify a general set of capabilities required for building any multimedia distribution service. We also describe how these capabilities can be incorporated into our view of the service creation process. Finally, we augment our discussion with the description of an example service which we have developed using this paradigm.

  13. Self-Stigma and Quality of Life among People with Mental Illness Who Receive Compulsory Community Treatment Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-stigma and quality of life over a one year time period for 71 people with mental illness who were receiving compulsory community mental health treatment. It was hypothesized that, over time, self-stigma would have the direct effect of eroding quality of life among people with…

  14. The 'Born Bonded' programme: an antenatal service evaluation.

    PubMed

    McLackland, Brenda

    2015-05-01

    A service evaluation of an antenatal programme to improve 'bonding' with the unborn child is described. This was an attempt to see if Comfort Zone which was previously found to be useful by parents could also be helpful as part of an antenatal programme. As this was a preliminary investigation pragmatism was prioritised over a robust design. However given the limitations in the measures used all participants reported either the same or an improved bond with their unborn child. Further research is required to gather evidence for the effectiveness of Comfort Zone and its usefulness antenatally. PMID:26364335

  15. Health Problems during Compulsory Military Service Predict Disability Retirement: A Register-Based Study on Secular Trends during 40 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Frilander, Heikki; Lallukka, Tea; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Heliövaara, Markku; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Disability retirement causes a significant burden on the society and affects the well-being of individuals. Early health problems as determinants of disability retirement have received little attention. The objective was to study, whether interrupting compulsory military service is an early indicator of disability retirement among Finnish men and whether seeking medical advice during military service increases the risk of all-cause disability retirement and disability retirement due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. We also looked at secular trends in these associations. We examined a nationally representative sample of 2069 men, who had entered military service during 1967–1996. We linked military service health records with cause-specific register data on disability retirement from 1968 to 2008. Secular trends were explored in three service time strata. We used the Cox regression model to estimate proportional hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. During the follow-up time altogether 140 (6.8%) men retired due to disability, mental disorders being the most common cause. The men who interrupted service had a remarkably higher cumulative incidence of disability retirement (18.9%). The associations between seeking medical advice during military service and all-cause disability retirement were similar across the three service time cohorts (overall hazard ratio 1.40 per one standard deviation of the number of visits; 95% confidence interval 1.26–1.56). Visits due to mental problems predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders in the men who served between 1987 and 1996 and a tendency for a similar cause-specific association was seen for musculoskeletal diseases in the men who served in 1967–1976. In conclusion, health problems—in particular mental problems—during late adolescence are strong determinants of disability retirement. Call-up examinations and military service provide access to the entire age cohort of men

  16. Facilitating a transition from compulsory detention of people who use drugs towards voluntary community-based drug dependence treatment and support services in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, Pascal; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Aramrattana, Apinun; Wodak, Alex; Thomson, Nicholas; Ali, Robert; Vumbaca, Gino; Lai, Gloria; Chabungbam, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that detention of people who use drugs in compulsory centers in the name of treatment is common in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The expansion of such practices has been costly, has not generated positive health outcomes, and has not reduced supply or demand for illicit drugs. United Nations agencies have convened several consultations with government and civil society stakeholders in order to facilitate a transition to voluntary evidence- and community-based drug dependence treatment and support services. In an effort to support such efforts, an informal group of experts proposes a three-step process to initiate and accelerate national-level transitions. Specifically, the working group recommends the establishment of a national multisectoral decision-making committee to oversee the development of national transition plans, drug policy reform to eliminate barriers to community-based drug dependence treatment and support services, and the integration of community-based drug dependence treatment in existing national health and social service systems.In parallel, the working group recommends that national-level transitions should be guided by overarching principles, including ethics, human rights, meaningful involvement of affected communities, and client safety, as well as good governance, transparency, and accountability. The transition also represents an opportunity to review the roles and responsibilities of various agencies across the public health and public security sectors in order to balance the workload and ensure positive results. The need to accelerate national-level transitions to voluntary community-based drug dependence treatment and support services is compelling--on economic, medical, sustainable community development, and ethical grounds--as extensively documented in the literature. In this context, the expert working group fully endorses initiation of a transition

  17. Maintaining Adherence Programme: evaluation of an innovative service model

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Llewellyn; O'Keeffe, Christine; Smyth, Ian; Mallalieu, Judi; Baldock, Laura; Oliver, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method The Maintaining Adherence Programme (MAP) is a new model of care for patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar affective disorder which aims to encourage adherence and prevent relapse. This evaluation, conducted by retrospective and prospective data collection (including patient questionnaires and staff interviews), aimed to describe MAP's impact on healthcare resource use, clinical measures and patient and staff satisfaction, following its implementation in a university National Health Service (NHS) foundation trust in England. We included 143 consenting patients who entered MAP before 31 March 2012. Results In-patient bed days and non-MAP NHS costs reduced significantly in the 18 months post-MAP entry. At 15–18 months post-MAP, Medication Adherence Rating Scale scores had improved significantly from baseline and there was a shift towards less severe clinician-rated disease categories. Based on patient surveys, 96% would recommend MAP to friends, and staff were also overwhelmingly positive about the service. Clinical implications MAP was associated with reduced cost of treatment, improvements in clinical outcomes and very high patient and staff satisfaction. PMID:26958352

  18. Are we ready to abrogate compulsory vaccinations for children?

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Domenico; Tafuri, Silvio; Fortunato, Francesca; Cozza, Vanessa; Germinario, Cinzia A; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and hepatitis B is compulsory for infants countrywide, except in Veneto region where since 2007 Health Authorities have experimented the suspension of mandatory vaccination. In light of the recent discussion on the potential abrogation in other regions, we explored the opinion of family pediatricians who play a crucial role in promoting immunization programmes in Italy. In November 2009, we interviewed by phone the family pediatricians working in Puglia region using a standardised, ad hoc and piloted questionnaire. Of the 596 contacted, 502 (84.2%) completed the questionnaire (54% female, median age = 52 y). Among the respondents, 72 (14.3%) would agree on the hypothesis of abrogation. This judgment was associated with having a good opinion on the level of awareness of the importance of vaccinations in the general public (OR = 6.6; 95% CI: 3.6-12.1) and having the perception of adequate organization of Vaccination Services in supporting the abrogation (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7-5.9). Family pediatricians appeared really sceptical about the abrogation of compulsory vaccination that could be hypothesized only increasing public awareness, communication skills and capability of Vaccination Services personnel in offering vaccinations. PMID:25483528

  19. International Patterns in Principal Preparation: Commonalities and Variations in Pre-Service Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Bryant, Darren; Lee, Moosung

    2013-01-01

    This article illuminates major features of high-quality leadership programmes across different education systems. We do so by focusing on capturing commonalities and variations in high-quality pre-service programmes from five differing societies, all of which are high-performing education systems. To this end, we first delineate key profiles of…

  20. The satellite climate monitoring programme of the German Meteorological Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissolli, P.; Nitsche, H.; Wollenweber, G.; Benesch, W.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Rosenow, W.

    2003-04-01

    The German Meteorological Service (DWD) is host of the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF) of EUMETSAT. The CM-SAF with its international partners will provide climate data (daily and monthly means, monthly mean diurnal cycles) based on the satellite systems MSG (Meteosat Second Generation, the first MSG satellite was launched in fall 2002) and the polar orbiting satellites NOAA and EPS (the latter one is the EUMETSAT Polar Satellite System, the first satellite named METOP-1 is planned to be launched in 2005; the NOAA and METOP satellites will form the Initial Joint Polar Satellite System). The parameters to be generated by the CM-SAF are cloud parameters, components of the radiation budget at the earth’s surface and at the top of the atmosphere, ocean wind stress and water vapour in the atmosphere. The data will cover in the initial phase an area of Europe and the North Atlantic, later the area is planned to be extended to the polar regions and the whole MSG disc. The purpose of the CM-SAF is to generate, with long-term commitments on a fully operational basis, homogeneous and consistent products in high quality, which are suitable for assessments of the status of the (regional) climate system. Together with data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), which is also operated by the DWD, the CM-SAF products are suitable for monitoring components of the energy and water cycle. To establish a really powerful climate monitoring system, the German Meteorological Service additionally set up a national satellite climatology project called SAT-KLIM. This project uses the CM-SAF products for climate monitoring, but also other satellite climate data, ground based in situ and remote observations as well as model output. In SAT-KLIM, climate monitoring products will be derived from the different data sources and merged to one final high quality product. While CM-SAF can only consider present and future data, SAT-KLIM uses

  1. New Zealand's BIZ Training Programme: Service Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Claire; Tweed, David; Lewis, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Following a review of assistance provision to New Zealand small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in 1998, the government established the BIZ programme. The purpose of the new initiative was to build management capability amongst SMEs by providing them with free access to a business needs assessment, followed by training and seminars, one-on-one…

  2. Policy and Practice of Pre-Service and In-Service Teacher Training Programmes and Facilities in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyebade, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed policy provisions for "pre-service" and "in-service" teacher training programmes and facilities in Nigeria. It also presented reviews on legislations, agencies involved in teacher affairs management in Nigeria, using the historical and case study approach. Data on teaching qualifications of University of…

  3. Compulsory Attendance vs. Home Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Jerry C.

    Most states require compulsory attendance of students through age 16. Challenges to the compulsory attendance laws often derive from disputes between parents and school officials over home instruction. This paper reviews prominent court cases that address legal issues pertaining to home schooling. The landmark case of "Pierce v. Society of…

  4. Managing Tensions in a Service-Learning Programme: Some Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maistry, S. M.; Ramdhani, J.

    2010-01-01

    Service learning as a strategy for raising awareness amongst university students of their responsibilities to the community is rapidly gaining currency in higher education institutions in South Africa. High levels of unemployment and striking economic inequality have been an unfortunate feature of South African society for several decades. Since…

  5. 15 CFR 700.72 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700... DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person refuses... seek compulsory process. Compulsory process means the institution of appropriate legal...

  6. 15 CFR 700.72 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700... DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person refuses... seek compulsory process. Compulsory process means the institution of appropriate legal...

  7. 10 CFR 217.72 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compulsory process. 217.72 Section 217.72 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 217.72 Compulsory process. (a... Energy representative may seek compulsory process. Compulsory process means the institution...

  8. 15 CFR 700.72 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700... DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person refuses... seek compulsory process. Compulsory process means the institution of appropriate legal...

  9. Family planning services and programmes in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Chichakli, L O; Atrash, H K; Musani, A S; Johnson, J T; Mahaini, R; Arnaoute, S

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the findings of a 1999 survey of 19 countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region on the family planning services and programmes in the Region. Data were collected using a questionnaire which explored the following areas: the presence of population or family planning policies and family planning activities, the family planning services available, promotional and educational activities on family planning, quality assurance, family planning data collection, analysis and dissemination, and the use of such information. The results indicate that 13 of the countries have national policies on population and family planning but even in those that do not, family planning services are widely available. The scope of the services provided varied. There is still a need to implement or strengthen family planning programmes in the Region, a need which is recognized by the countries themselves. PMID:11794067

  10. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions of an Overseas Field Experience Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chi Cheung Ruby

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present a small group of pre-service English teachers' perceptions towards the overseas field experience programme jointly organised by a university in Canada and the teacher trainer institute in Hong Kong. The study involved seven Canadian Year 3 and 4 B.Ed. TESL students who participated in the investigated eight-week overseas…

  11. Evaluation of the In-Service Education and Training Programme for Kuwait Army Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mutawa, Najat; Al-Furaih, Suad

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the In-Service Education and Training (INSET) programme organised for Kuwait Army instructors. The focus is on their perceptual gain in related topics and skills, as they attended 10 courses at the College of Education--Kuwait University. Pre- and post-assessments involved 20 trainees. The analysis indicates significant…

  12. Implementation of the Care Programme Approach across Health and Social Services for Dual Diagnosis Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael; Humphrey, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Background: Care for clients with mental health problems and concurrent intellectual disability (dual diagnosis) is currently expected to be provided through the care programme approach (CPA), an approach to provide care to people with mental health problems in secondary mental health services. When CPA was originally introduced into UK mental…

  13. The Impact of the National Newborn Hearing Screening Programme on Educational Services in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Wendy; Young, Alys; Tattersall, Helen; Uus, Kai; Bamford, John

    2005-01-01

    This article presents results related to the impact on educational support services of the introduction of the first phase of the national Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) in England. This study was funded by the Department of Health and undertaken as one element of a national evaluation of NHSP across a range of domains. It presents…

  14. Supporting Pre-Service Teachers' Technology-Enabled Learning Design Thinking through Whole of Programme Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Highfield, Kate; Furney, Pam; Mowbray, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a development and evaluation project aimed at transforming two pre-service teacher education programmes at Macquarie University to more effectively cultivate students' technology-enabled learning design thinking. The process of transformation was based upon an explicit and sustained focus on developing university academics'…

  15. Assessing participation in a community-based health planning and services programme in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community participation is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for successful health service uptake. It is notoriously difficult to assess participation and little has been done to advance tools for the assessment of community participation. In this paper we illustrate an approach that combines a ‘social psychology of participation’ (theory) with ‘spider-grams’ (method) to assess participation and apply it to a Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) programme in rural Ghana. Methods We draw on data from 17 individual in-depth interviews, two focus group discussions and a community conversation with a mix of service users, providers and community health committee members. It was during the community conversation that stakeholders collectively evaluated community participation in the CHPS programme and drew up a spider-gram. Results Thematic analysis of our data shows that participation was sustained through the recognition and use of community resources, CHPS integration with pre-existing community structures, and alignment of CHPS services with community interests. However, male dominance and didactic community leadership and management styles undermined real opportunities for broad-based community empowerment, particularly of women, young people and marginalised men. Conclusion We conclude that combining the ‘spider-gram’ tool and the ‘social psychology of participation’ framework provide health professionals with a useful starting point for assessing community participation and developing recommendations for more participatory and empowering health care programmes. PMID:23803140

  16. Establishing a pharmacotherapy induced ototoxicity programme within a service-learning approach.

    PubMed

    Schellack, Natalie; Wium, Anna M; Ehlert, Katerina; van Aswegen, Yolande; Gous, Andries

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity is growing, especially in developing countries such as South Africa. This highlights the importance of ototoxicity monitoring and management of hearing loss. This article focuses on the establishment of an ototoxicity clinic as a site for the implementation of a service-learning module in the Audiology programme. The clinic offers a unique opportunity of collaboration between pharmacists and an audiologist where pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity is uniquely monitored. The Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University (SMU) provides training to both the disciplines, audiology and pharmacy. The main aim of this article is to describe how ototoxicity monitoring is implemented in the curriculum within such an academic service-learning approach. Through service learning students develop a deeper understanding of course content, acquire new knowledge and engage in civic activity. It simultaneously provides a unique opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration between the disciplines of audiology and pharmacy. The objectives for this programme are therefore to facilitate learning and to provide a service to the local community by identifying, preventing and monitoring medicine-induced hearing loss in in-hospital and out-patients; as well as to establish inter-disciplinary collaboration between the disciplines and stakeholders for more effective service delivery. The constant interdisciplinary teamwork between the audiologist, pharmacist, physician and nursing staff in the wards results in best practice and management of patients with ototoxic damage. PMID:26304216

  17. Exploring the Links Between Visual Arts and Environmental Education: Experiences of Teachers Participating in an In-Service Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savva, Andri; Trimis, Eli; Zachariou, Aravella

    2004-01-01

    An in-service teachers' training programme was designed aiming to encourage art teachers to learn through theoretical and artistic experiential activities in a specific environmental setting (Lemithou environmental education centre, Cyprus). The programme was based on the use of the environment as an educational resource, and sought to develop…

  18. Compulsory Attendance: An Analysis of Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddon, Leo Levy, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine court cases dealing with compulsory attendance laws, also known as compulsory education laws, for the purpose of establishing the issues, outcomes, and trends in compulsory attendance litigation. In this manner, school officials could be provided guidance on dealing with issues surrounding the attendance…

  19. 49 CFR 33.72 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compulsory process. 33.72 Section 33.72... Compliance § 33.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person refuses to permit a duly authorized representative of... this part, the Department of Transportation representative may seek compulsory process....

  20. Compulsory Schooling as Preventative Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    The question whether compulsory schooling is justifiable or not has been treated at considerable length by critics, defenders, and positions in-between. What these treatments--about paternalism and autonomy and institutionalization and more--have not directly analyzed is a question that precedes the issue of overall justification: the preliminary…

  1. Recent Developments in Compulsory Unionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchnick, Morton G.

    1993-01-01

    Looks at legal cases concerning the uses to which mandatory union dues are put. Considers the variety of approaches adopted in Switzerland, Spain, Belgium, and Germany and reviews how compulsory unionism has been treated in the courts in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the United States, and Canada. (JOW)

  2. Operational Copernicus services - state of programme and the role of EO research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, Peter; Rohn, Michael; Pinty, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Year 2014 is a major milestone for the EU Copernicus programme (formerly GMES), for funding Europe's operational system of satellites and geo-information services. Copernicus services shall provide accurate, up-to-date and globally-available information related to the state of land, sea/ocean, atmosphere and climate change, as well as emergency response and security in support of European policies. 2014 sees the transition of services to fully operational state, looking back on some 10 years of development, evolving through research and making "laboratory" prototypes operational for the marine and atmosphere services. First integration of capabilities in dedicated GMES service projects started in early 2004 leading to operational maturity around 2011-2013. Several scientific and research challenges have been identified along the way, addressing very different stages of evolution, which need to be tackled collaborating with different partners and in different environments. The geoscience community and their funding programmes are faced with a range of opportunities arising from the presence of an operational space data and information programme such as Copernicus, a demand which also the EU research and innovation programme is striving to meet in Horizon 2020. The last ten years have shown how the step from research prototypes to operational service chains requires specific and dedicated attention to this innovation step, shaping validated and proven products to users' demands. Special efforts are required in order for users to accept the innovative potential which new laboratory products promise. Specific attention needs to be given to processes in the users' workflows which incorporate the EO information - a step which often is underestimated in the formulation of R&D plans. Service activities in a real-life environment, and the ever advancing new sensors set new research problems for researchers. The arrival of the Sentinel satellites will challenge running

  3. Designing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) as a service: Prioritising patients over administrative logic.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Jacob; Holt, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccination rates remain well below herd immunity in regions of many countries despite huge international resources devoted to both financing and access. We draw upon service marketing theory, organisational sociology, development anthropology and cultural consumer research to conduct an ethnographic study of vaccination delivery in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia - one such region. We find that Western public health sector policies are dominated by an administrative logic. Critical failures in delivery are produced by a system that obfuscates the on-the-ground problems that mothers face in trying to vaccinate their children, while instead prioritising administrative processes. Our ethnographic analysis of 83 mothers who had not vaccinated their children reveals key barriers to vaccination from a 'customer' perspective. While mothers value vaccination, it is a 'low involvement' good compared to the acute daily needs of a subsistence life. The costs imposed by poor service - such as uncaring staff with class hostilities, unpredictable and missed schedules and long waits - are too much and so they forego the service. Our service design framework illuminates specific service problems from the mother's perspective and points towards simple service innovations that could improve vaccination rates in regions that have poor uptake. PMID:25363481

  4. Utilisation and Further Development of Space Science Results in the ESA SSA Programme Space Weather Service Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Alexi; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Keil, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    ESA SSA Programme is approaching the end of its second period. Service development activities within the current period aim at advancing the SSA SWE Service Network from the initial utilisation of existing European assets toward development of these and new assets together with the associated coordination infrastructure necessary to provide consistently reliable services. The SSA SWE Service Network is based on a federated architecture where service provision is carried out by Expert Service Centres in the Programme Member States with overall coordination and helpdesk functions provided by a central node and coordination centre located at the Space Pole in Brussels, Belgium. The SSA SWE Service Network builds on the wealth of space weather expertise available within the Member States, and consequently, as the network continues to develop, emphasis will continue to be placed on building services based on demonstrated space science advances in key areas such as those highlighted by the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap, published in 2015. Activities supported by programmes including the ESA technology programmes, EC FP7 and H2020 have all demonstrated promising results, and the SSA SWE Network is actively investigating their potential application to SSA SWE Customer Requirements, and in many cases already adopting these as part of the suite of products provided via the Network to its registered users. This presentation will provide an overview of recent advances in the SSA SWE Service Network, emphasising the utilisation of scientific results within a pre-operational context. The presentation will show the layout of the federated Expert Service Centres, highlighting ongoing and upcoming service developments and provide a perspective on the service development plans for the next phase of the programme.

  5. Estimating costs of programme services and products using information provided in standard financial statements.

    PubMed Central

    Ellwein, L. B.; Thulasiraj, R. D.; Boulter, A. R.; Dhittal, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    The financial viability of programme services and product offerings requires that revenue exceeds expenses. Revenue includes payments for services and products as well as donor cash and in-kind contributions. Expenses reflect consumption of purchased or contributed time and materials and utilization (depreciation) of physical plant facilities and equipment. Standard financial reports contain this revenue and expense information, complemented when necessary by valuation and accounting of in-kind contributions. Since financial statements are prepared using consistent and accepted accounting practices, year-to-year and organization-to-organization comparisons can be made. The use of such financial information is illustrated in this article by determining the unit cost of cataract surgery in two hospitals in Nepal. The proportion of unit cost attributed to personnel, medical supplies, administrative materials, and depreciation varied significantly by institution. These variations are accounted for by examining differences in operational structure and capacity utilization. PMID:9868836

  6. Service Quality and Students' Satisfaction with the Professional Teacher Development Programmes by Distance Mode in a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the relationship between seven factors that described dimensions of education service quality and overall service quality on one hand, and students' satisfaction with the professional teacher development programmes by distance mode in a South African University on the other. We sought to find out whether students enrolled…

  7. The Cognitive, Social and Emotional Processes of Teacher Identity Construction in a Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates how three Government-funded Normal Students constructed and reconstructed their identities in a pre-service teacher education programme in China. Drawing upon data from interviews, field observation and the pre-service teachers' written reflections, the study explores the cognitive, social and emotional processes of…

  8. Post Graduate Programme in Dietetics & Food Service Management (MSCDFSM) Programme of IGNOU: Access through the Lucknow Regional Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorothy, J. S.; Kumar, Ashwini

    2014-01-01

    Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) which was established initially as a Single mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI) in the year 1985 opened its campus to face-to-face education in the year 2008 and thus now is a Dual mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI). The Post Graduate Programme (Master of Science) in Dietetics and Food…

  9. Arguments in favour of compulsory treatment of opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Twelve agencies of the United Nations, including the World Health Organization, have issued a joint statement that calls on Member States to replace the compulsory detention of people who use opioids in treatment centres with voluntary, evidence-informed and rights-based health and social services. The arguments in favour of this position fall into three broad categories: Compulsory treatment centres infringe on an individual’s liberty, they put human beings at risk of harm, and evidence of their effectiveness against opioid dependence has not been generated. The United Nations statement underscores that although countries apply different criteria for sending individuals to compulsory treatment centres, detention often takes place without due process, legal safeguards or judicial review. This clearly violates internationally recognized human rights standards. Furthermore, people who are committed to these centres are often exposed to physical and sexual violence, forced labour and sub-standard living conditions. They are often denied health care, despite their heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and tuberculosis. Finally, there is no evidence, according to the statement, that these centres offer an environment that is conducive to recovery from opioid dependence or to the rehabilitation of commercial sex workers or of children who have suffered sexual exploitation, abuse or lack of care and protection. The author of this paper sets forth several arguments that counter the position taken by the United Nations and argues in favour of compulsory treatment within a broader harm reduction strategy aimed at protecting society as well as the individual concerned. PMID:23554527

  10. Immunization coverage in India for areas served by the Integrated Child Development Services programme. The Integrated Child Development Services Consultants.

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, B. N.; Gandhi, N.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme was launched by the Indian government in October 1975 to provide a package of health, nutrition and informal educational services to mothers and children. In 1988 we studied the impact of ICDS on the immunization coverage of children aged 12-24 months and of mothers of infants in 19 rural, 8 tribal, and 9 urban ICDS projects that had been operational for more than 5 years. Complete coverage with BCG, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) and poliomyelitis vaccines was recorded for 65%, 63%, and 64% of children, respectively, in the ICDS population. By comparison, the coverage in the non-ICDS group was only 22% for BCG, 28% for DPT, and 27% for poliomyelitis. Complete immunization with tetanus toxoid was recorded for 68% of the mothers in the ICDS group and for 40% in the non-ICDS group. Coverage was greater in the urban and lower in the tribal projects. Scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, backward communities, and minorities (groups that have a high priority for social services) had immunization coverages in ICDS projects that were similar to those of higher castes. PMID:1394779

  11. A staff support programme for rural hospitals in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sharada; Shakya, Rabina; Sundar Chansi, Bal; Shah, Kashim; Munday, Daniel; Eyal, Nir; Hayes, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem District hospitals in Nepal struggle to provide essential services such as caesarean sections. Approach Retention of health workers is critical to the delivery of long-term, quality health-care services. To promote retention and enhance performance in rural public hospitals, the Government of Nepal and the Nick Simons Institute progressively implemented a rural staff support programme in remote hospitals. After competitive selection for a compulsory-service scholarship and training, family practice doctors who could do basic surgery, orthopaedics and obstetrics were hired under a binding three-year contract in each participating hospital. Comfortable living quarters and an Internet connection were provided for the resident doctors; in-service training for all staff and capacity development for each hospital’s management committee were provided. Local setting Nepal’s mountainous landscape, poverty and inequitable rural/urban distribution of health workers pose barriers to adequate health care. Relevant changes Between 2011 and 2015 family practice doctors were maintained in all seven programme hospitals. All hospitals became providers of comprehensive emergency obstetric care and served more patients. Compared with hospitals not within the programme, deliveries increased significantly (203% versus 71% increase, respectively; P = 0.002). The programme recently expanded to 14 hospitals. Lessons learnt A package of human resource supports can improve the retention of doctors and the use of remote hospitals. Factors contributing to the success of this programme were compulsory-service scholarship, central personnel management, performance-based incentives and the provision of comfortable living quarters. PMID:26769998

  12. Research on the Costs of Running Compulsory Education Standards: Comparison of Compulsory Education Internationally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yongli; Zhang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Compulsory education is the fundamental education for citizens and is the source of state power, which radically determines thought level, political awareness, cultural sense and production ability of the entire nation. Therefore, to popularize compulsory education is the root of a country. This paper explains the meanings of compulsory education,…

  13. Impact of a Graduate Entry Programme on a medical school library service.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sam

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of library facilities by first year undergraduate medical students and Graduate Entry Programme students (GEP). More specifically it tried to determine which library services (if any) were more frequently used by GEP so that this could be taken into account in future Information Services planning. A questionnaire on the use of Library and Information Services was posted to all first year GEP students and undergraduates on the 5-year course. In addition, user statistics of library entry and borrowing were collated from gate readings and the library Unicorn management system. Overall, GEP students were found to make a greater daily/weekly use of library facilities than undergraduates on the 5-year course. The facilities most used by both sets of students were essential texts, e-mail, PCs and study facilities. Computer Aided Learning packages, journals and video facilities were least used. However, on a daily/weekly basis GEP students made 74% more use of journals (P < 0.01), 59% more use of e-journals (P < 0.05), 36% more use photocopiers (P < 0.05), 42% more use of printers (P < 0.05), 56% more use of the library catalogue (P < 0.05) and 50% more use of databases (P < 0.05). This difference in use should be taken into account by LIS providers as there is expected to be an increase in fast-track graduate courses offered by medical schools throughout the UK. PMID:12641529

  14. 46 CFR 502.286 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory process. 502.286 Section 502.286 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Nonadjudicatory Investigations § 502.286 Compulsory process. The Commission, or its designated representative...

  15. 46 CFR 502.286 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compulsory process. 502.286 Section 502.286 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Nonadjudicatory Investigations § 502.286 Compulsory process. The Commission, or its designated representative...

  16. 46 CFR 502.286 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compulsory process. 502.286 Section 502.286 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Nonadjudicatory Investigations § 502.286 Compulsory process. The Commission, or its designated representative...

  17. 46 CFR 502.286 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compulsory process. 502.286 Section 502.286 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Nonadjudicatory Investigations § 502.286 Compulsory process. The Commission, or its designated representative...

  18. 15 CFR 700.72 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person...

  19. 15 CFR 700.72 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person...

  20. Compulsory Education in Singapore--Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Compulsory education was legislated in Singapore in 2000. This came several decades after the attainment of universal primary education and after numerous assertions on the part of the government that such legislation was unnecessary. Also interesting is that the period of compulsory education was limited to six years. The article discusses the…

  1. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001) increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001) were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases). Conclusions

  2. Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

  3. Community Development Workers Programme: Mentoring for Social Transformation in the Public Service in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Motlhake, Bona

    2008-01-01

    The new public sector community development workers (CDWs) programme was established in 2004 following ineffective service delivery through chronic under-spending on annual budgets in post-apartheid South Africa. CDWs receive training in learnerships within the National Skills Development Strategy to ensure access to and spending of local…

  4. Pre-Service Teachers' Entry onto a Physical Education Teacher Education Programme, and Associated Interests and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Ann Marie; MacPhail, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the reasons for pre-service teachers (PSTs) who choose to undertake a physical education teacher education (PETE) programme can inform teacher educators on how best to define teaching tasks, organize knowledge relevant to student learning and shape the perceptions of PSTs about teaching and learning (Calderhead, 1987). In this study,…

  5. The Internet in EFL Teacher Education: Investigating the Possibilities and Challenges in a Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2011-01-01

    The paper reported on a small-scale qualitative study on EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teacher education with a two-fold objective, investigating the possibility of integrating the Internet for academic purposes in the context of a pre-service English teacher education programme in Egypt, and suggesting some guidelines based on the specific…

  6. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Their In-Service Training for the Advanced Certificate in Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndlovu, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine in-service students' perceptions of the effectiveness of the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) programme offered by Stellenbosch University, South Africa, in preparing them to be confident teachers of Mathematical Literacy, Life Sciences or Physical Sciences in the Further Education and Training…

  7. Reflections on Enhancing Pre-Service Teacher Education Programmes to Support Inclusion: Perspectives from New Zealand and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Sutherland, Dean; Lyons, Gordon; Macfarlane, Sonja; Foreman, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Positive changes to pre-service teacher education programmes (PSTEPs), driven in part by changing worldwide policy frameworks around inclusion, are occurring, albeit slowly. After briefly reviewing international trends and key policy and legislation platforms in New Zealand and Australia, this paper explores some of the challenges in enhancing…

  8. Comparison between Synchronous and Asynchronous Instructional Delivery Method of Training Programme on In-Service Physical Educators' Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Derri, Vassiliki; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kyrgiridis, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the influences of a training programme's instructional delivery method (synchronous and asynchronous) on Greek in-service physical educators' cognitive understanding on student assessment. Forty nine participants were randomly divided into synchronous, asynchronous, and control group. The experimental groups…

  9. Outreach services to improve access to health care in South Africa: lessons from three community health worker programmes

    PubMed Central

    Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Goudge, Jane; Thomas, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In South Africa, there are renewed efforts to strengthen primary health care and community health worker (CHW) programmes. This article examines three South African CHW programmes, a small local non-governmental organisation (NGO), a local satellite of a national NGO, and a government-initiated service, that provide a range of services from home-based care, childcare, and health promotion to assist clients in overcoming poverty-related barriers to health care. Methods The comparative case studies, located in Eastern Cape and Gauteng, were investigated using qualitative methods. Thematic analysis was used to identify factors that constrain and enable outreach services to improve access to care. Results The local satellite (of a national NGO), successful in addressing multi-dimensional barriers to care, provided CHWs with continuous training focused on the social determinants of ill-health, regular context-related supervision, and resources such as travel and cell-phone allowances. These workers engaged with, and linked their clients to, agencies in a wide range of sectors. Relationships with participatory structures at community level stimulated coordinated responses from service providers. In contrast, an absence of these elements curtailed the ability of CHWs in the small NGO and government-initiated service to provide effective outreach services or to improve access to care. Conclusion Significant investment in resources, training, and support can enable CHWs to address barriers to care by negotiating with poorly functioning government services and community participation structures. PMID:23364101

  10. A defense of compulsory vaccination.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    Vaccine refusal harms and risks harming innocent bystanders. People are not entitled to harm innocents or to impose deadly risks on others, so in these cases there is nothing to be said for the right to refuse vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is therefore justified because non-vaccination can rightly be prohibited, just as other kinds of harmful and risky conduct are rightly prohibited. I develop an analogy to random gunfire to illustrate this point. Vaccine refusal, I argue, is morally similar to firing a weapon into the air and endangering innocent bystanders. By re-framing vaccine refusal as harmful and reckless conduct my aim is to shift the focus of the vaccine debate from non-vaccinators' religious and refusal rights to everyone else's rights against being infected with contagious illnesses. Religious freedom and rights of informed consent do not entitle non-vaccinators to harm innocent bystanders, and so coercive vaccination requirements are permissible for the sake of the potential victims of the anti-vaccine movement. PMID:23942781

  11. Low–dose RUTF protocol and improved service delivery lead to good programme outcomes in the treatment of uncomplicated SAM: a programme report from Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    James, Philip T; Van den Briel, Natalie; Rozet, Aurélie; Israël, Anne-Dominique; Fenn, Bridget; Navarro-Colorado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) requires substantial amounts of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). In 2009, Action Contre la Faim anticipated a shortfall of RUTF for their nutrition programme in Myanmar. A low-dose RUTF protocol to treat children with uncomplicated SAM was adopted. In this protocol, RUTF was dosed according to beneficiary's body weight, until the child reached a Weight-for-Height z-score of ≥−3 and mid-upper arm circumference ≥110 mm. From this point, the child received a fixed quantity of RUTF per day, independent of body weight until discharge. Specific measures were implemented as part of this low-dose RUTF protocol in order to improve service quality and beneficiary support. We analysed individual records of 3083 children treated from July 2009 to January 2010. Up to 90.2% of children recovered, 2.0% defaulted and 0.9% were classified as non-responders. No deaths were recorded. Among children who recovered, median [IQR] length of stay and weight gain were 42 days [28; 56] and 4.0 g kg–1 day–1 [3.0; 5.7], respectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed that children older than 48 months had higher odds of non-response to treatment than younger children (adjusted odds ratio: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.67–7.42). Our results indicate that a low-dose RUTF protocol, combined with specific measures to ensure good service quality and beneficiary support, was successful in treating uncomplicated SAM in this setting. This programmatic experience should be validated by randomised studies aiming to test, quantify and attribute the effect of the protocol adaptation and programme improvements presented here. PMID:25850698

  12. Low-dose RUTF protocol and improved service delivery lead to good programme outcomes in the treatment of uncomplicated SAM: a programme report from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    James, Philip T; Van den Briel, Natalie; Rozet, Aurélie; Israël, Anne-Dominique; Fenn, Bridget; Navarro-Colorado, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) requires substantial amounts of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). In 2009, Action Contre la Faim anticipated a shortfall of RUTF for their nutrition programme in Myanmar. A low-dose RUTF protocol to treat children with uncomplicated SAM was adopted. In this protocol, RUTF was dosed according to beneficiary's body weight, until the child reached a Weight-for-Height z-score of ≥-3 and mid-upper arm circumference ≥110 mm. From this point, the child received a fixed quantity of RUTF per day, independent of body weight until discharge. Specific measures were implemented as part of this low-dose RUTF protocol in order to improve service quality and beneficiary support. We analysed individual records of 3083 children treated from July 2009 to January 2010. Up to 90.2% of children recovered, 2.0% defaulted and 0.9% were classified as non-responders. No deaths were recorded. Among children who recovered, median [IQR] length of stay and weight gain were 42 days [28; 56] and 4.0 g kg(-1) day(-1) [3.0; 5.7], respectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed that children older than 48 months had higher odds of non-response to treatment than younger children (adjusted odds ratio: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.67-7.42). Our results indicate that a low-dose RUTF protocol, combined with specific measures to ensure good service quality and beneficiary support, was successful in treating uncomplicated SAM in this setting. This programmatic experience should be validated by randomised studies aiming to test, quantify and attribute the effect of the protocol adaptation and programme improvements presented here. PMID:25850698

  13. The Romance and the Reality between Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about the Potential Benefits of a Short-Term Study Abroad Programme and Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Angela Choi Fung

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore Hong Kong pre-service teachers' beliefs about the potential benefits of a short-term study abroad programme and their practices. Pre- and post-programme semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were employed to collect data. The findings suggest that the transformation of beliefs into practices…

  14. Effects of 8Ps of Services Marketing on Student Selection of Self-Financing Sub-Degree Programmes in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Melissa May Yee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the effects of 8Ps of services marketing affect students' selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes in Hong Kong. The factors that affect students' selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes have not been studied in higher education market of Hong Kong. This research is to…

  15. The Sexuality Education Initiative: a programme involving teenagers, schools, parents and sexual health services in Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Marques, Magaly; Ressa, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In response to abstinence-only programmes in the United States that promote myths and misconceptions about sexuality and sexual behaviour, the comprehensive sexuality education community has been sidetracked from improving the sexuality education available in US schools for almost two decades now. Much work is still needed to move beyond fear-based approaches and the one-way communication of information that many programmes still use. Starting in 2008 Planned Parenthood Los Angeles developed and launched a teen-centred sexuality education programme based on critical thinking, human rights, gender equality, and access to health care that is founded on a theory of change that recognises the complex relationship between the individual and broader environment of cultural norms, socio-economic inequalities, health disparities, legal and institutional factors. The Sexuality Education Initiative is comprised of a 12-session classroom sexuality education curriculum for ninth grade students; workshops for parents; a peer advocacy training programme; and access to sexual health services. This paper describes that experience and presents the rights-based framework that was used, which seeks to improve the learning experience of students, strengthen the capacity of schools, teachers and parents to help teenagers manage their sexuality effectively and understand that they have the right to health care, education, protection, dignity and privacy. PMID:23684195

  16. Service User Involvement in Methadone Maintenance Programmes: The "Philosophy, the Ideal and the Reality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Aoibhinn

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, service user involvement has become a common feature of public policy and more specifically public health policy in the recent decades. In a general context, the involvement of service users in health services has been well documented; however, less evidence is available within the area of drug treatment service provision. This…

  17. Dermatological diseases of compulsory notification in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Domingues, Carla M A S; Siqueira Jr, João Bosco; Elkhoury, Ana Nilce S M; Cechinel, Michella P; Grossi, Maria Aparecida de Faria; Gomes, Marcia de Leite S; Sena, Joana M; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Lima Júnior, Francisco Edilson F; Segatto, Teresa Cristina Vieira; Melo, Flavia Cardoso de; Rosa, Fabiano Marques; Silva, Marcia Mesquita; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2011-01-01

    The development of a Brazilian National Surveillance System in 1975 led to a compulsory reporting of selected infectious diseases aiming to reduce the burden of these events in the country. However, shifts in the epidemiology of these diseases associated with modern life style, demand constant revision of surveillance activities. In this manuscript we present the epidemiology, trends and differential diagnosis of the following compulsory notifiable diseases in Brazil: Aids, dengue fever, hanseniasis, American tegumentary leishmaniasis, measles, rubella and congenital rubella syndrome and syphilis. Additionally, the current challenges for control and prevention of each disease are presented. PMID:22147024

  18. In-Service Training Programmes for Mathematics Teachers Nested in Transnational Policy Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erixon, Eva-Lena; Wahlström, Ninni

    2016-01-01

    Results in mathematics on international knowledge surveys like Programme for International Student Assessment and Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study have become one of the most important factors for the perceived success or failure of schools and even entire education systems in the policy arena. In this article, we explore the…

  19. English Language Teaching Management Research in Post-Compulsory Contexts: Still "Crawling Out"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the field of post-compulsory English Language Teaching (ELT) management research, enquiring into its identity, legitimacy and development, by identifying and discussing issues, problems, and controversies. It reviews the nature of the ELT sector as a predominantly commercial educational service with a significant role in "inner…

  20. Demand for Education and Labor Market Outcomes: Lessons from the Abolition of Compulsory Conscription in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurin, Eric; Xenogiani, Theodora

    2007-01-01

    Before 1997, education was a way for young French men to avoid military service in the army. After the abolition of compulsory conscription in 1997, this incentive to stay on in education disappeared. We show that the decrease in the benefit of pursuing education for men was followed by a fall in their educational achievement relative to women and…

  1. Serving the Community and Learning a Foreign Language: Evaluating a Service-Learning Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Frank A.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a service learning program in Spanish, in which learners of Spanish provide various forms of social services to native speakers in local communities in the target language, to assess its impact on learner motivation and attitudes. (Author/VWL)

  2. Reassessing the Balanced Development of Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youlu, Shen; Xinyi, Qiao

    2012-01-01

    The balanced development of compulsory education has been given due and lengthy coverage in the "Outline of China's National Plan for Medium and Long-Term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020)" which, to some extent, reflects the needs of our time and the demands of the general public. However, detailed analyses reveal that many aspects…

  3. Should We Lower the Compulsory Attendance Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Vincent J.

    In 1974 the Virginia General Assembly adopted a senate resolution directing the state board of education to study laws preventing youths from choosing alternatives to compulsory school attendance. The board appointed a committee that studied the matter and made recommendations concerning the development of graduation requirements reflecting…

  4. Students' Perceptions of a Compulsory Guidance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Dianne; Pawlovich, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Investigated students' perceptions of the primary compulsory segment of the career guidance program offered by Swift Current Comprehensive High School. Students reported positive perceptions of the total program and of counselor assistance, particularly of the CHOICES component of the program, with mixed perceptions of the Strong-Campbell Interest…

  5. Classroom Games in the Compulsory School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus-Serbic, Eva

    1976-01-01

    Keeping the pupils' interest up throughout the year in a compulsory language class is a major problem and therefore, language-teaching games are very important. Some new suggestions for games to be used in the elementary school are: (1) The Parrot; (2) The Robot; (3) Ping-Pong; and (4) Telephone. Card games such as Happy Families can be played…

  6. AIDS, essential medicines, and compulsory licensing.

    PubMed

    Berman, D

    1999-04-01

    Delegates to the AIDS and Essential Medicines and Compulsory Licensing conference examined issues related to compulsory licensing of pharmaceuticals worldwide. Compulsory licenses allow members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to use patented material when justified in the public interest. This agreement is part of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, or TRIPS. Current estimates of the HIV/AIDS pandemic show that 33 million persons worldwide are infected, with 26 million of those in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most of these people have no access to antiretroviral treatment due to its cost, and medicines for other life-threatening illnesses like tuberculosis, malaria, and meningitis are also too expensive. The U.S. government opposes the use of compulsory licenses, and has attempted to block their implementation in countries trying to obtain AIDS drugs at a lower price. The U.S. has also pressured countries to adopt stricter trade laws than those included in the TRIPS agreement. Meeting delegates were encouraged to pursue existing and legal means to increase the supply of affordable drugs. PMID:11367046

  7. Compulsory licensing and access to drugs.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulou, Charitini; Valletti, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Compulsory licensing allows the use of a patented invention without the owner's consent, with the aim of improving access to essential drugs. The pharmaceutical sector argues that, if broadly used, it can be detrimental to innovation. We model the interaction between a company in the North that holds the patent for a certain drug and a government in the South that needs to purchase it. We show that both access to drugs and pharmaceutical innovation depend largely on the Southern country's ability to manufacture a generic version. If the manufacturing cost is too high, compulsory licensing is not exercised. As the cost decreases, it becomes a credible threat forcing prices down, but reducing both access and innovation. When the cost is low enough, the South produces its own generic version and access reaches its highest value, despite a reduction in innovation. The global welfare analysis shows that the overall impact of compulsory licensing can be positive, even when accounting for its impact on innovation. We also consider the interaction between compulsory licensing and the strength of intellectual property rights, which can have global repercussions in other markets beyond the South. PMID:24408475

  8. Poor-quality health services and lack of programme support leads to low uptake of HIV testing in rural Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Audet, Carolyn M; Groh, Kate; Moon, Troy D; Vermund, Sten H; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-12-01

    Mozambique has one of the world's highest burdens of HIV infection. Despite the increase in HIV-testing services throughout the country, the uptake has been low. To identify barriers to HIV testing we conducted a study in six rural districts in Zambézia Province. We recruited a total of 124 men and women from the community through purposeful sampling to participate in gender-specific focus group discussions about barriers to HIV testing. The participants noted three main barriers to HIV testing: 1) poor conduct by clinicians, including intentional disclosure of patients' HIV status to other community members; 2) unintentional disclosure of patients' HIV status through clinical practices; and, 3) a widespread fatalistic belief that HIV infection will result in death, particularly given poor access to adequate food. Improving quality and confidentiality within clinical service delivery, coupled with the introduction of food-supplement programmes should increase people's willingness to test and remain in care for HIV disease. PMID:25860191

  9. Primary Teachers' Changing Attitudes and Cognition during a Two-Year Science In-Service Programme and Their Effect on Pupils. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Changes in 70 teachers' confidence, attitudes and science understanding were tested before and after a major in-service programme. Attitudes were assessed using a 49-item Likert-scale test that probed attitudes to practical science teaching and in-service training. Multi-choice and open-ended questions measured understanding of electricity;…

  10. Measuring quality of service for children and families: the Healthcare Commission's programme.

    PubMed

    Eardley, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Children's health services are changing and in its watchdog role the Healthcare Commission seeks to develop improved systems and data collection to measure what matters most in these services. The forthcoming Health Strategy from the Department of Health and the Department for Children, Schools and Families offers an opportunity to raise the profile of children's services and ensure that young people's health and well-being is a priority for health organisations. The Healthcare Commission welcomes views from health professionals on priorities for children's services. PMID:18642486

  11. Drop-in Services: Findings from an Evaluation of the Healthy Living Centre Programme in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, J.; Rankin, D.; Backett-Milburn, K.; Platt, S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diverse roles of drop-in services in the HLC sector; to develop further the classification of drop-in services offered by earlier studies; and to provide an example of some the challenges faced by HLCs in their attempts to tackle poor health using area-based methods with vulnerable, hard-to-reach users. Setting: Scottish…

  12. My health and theirs: clients constructing meanings for a health service programme for unemployed people.

    PubMed

    Romppainen, Katri; Saloniemi, Antti; Jähi, Rita; Virtanen, Pekka

    2012-07-01

    Health care research has been more interested in identifying reasons why people do not participate in health interventions than in trying to understand the reasons why they do. This study examined how unemployed people position themselves with regard to a new health service which was set up as part of an institutional strategy for delivering and enabling their access to health care. Positioning theory was used as a methodological framework to analyse participants' responses to the novel health service. The focus was on two main issues: the way clients' positions are established through discourse, and the range of factors that come into play in determining those positions. The analysis revealed six positions unemployed people use when encountering the studied service: the docile citizen, the rebel, the socially responsible citizen, the distinctive individual, the independent actor and the calculating client. These positions and associated discourses display the different sets of rights and duties of the client and simultaneously define the positions of the service. While illustrating how a health service engaged with the ideology of equality is integrated into the value framework of the clients, the findings contribute to the ongoing debate on need of particular health services for unemployed people. PMID:22280488

  13. Falls prevention and support: translating research, integrating services and promoting the contribution of service users for quality and innovative programmes of care.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Kevin J

    2011-12-01

    Falls are a significant threat to the safety, health and independence of older citizens. Despite the substantial evidence that is available around effective falls prevention programmes and interventions, their translation into falls reduction programmes and policies has yet to be fully realised. While hip fracture rates are decreasing, the number and incidence of fall-related hospital admissions among older people continue to rise. Given the demographic trends that highlight increasing numbers of older people in the UK, which is broadly reflected internationally, there is a financial and social imperative to minimise the rate of falls and associated injuries. Falling is closely aligned to growing older (Slips, Trips and Falls Update: From Acute and Community Hospitals and Mental Health Units in England and Wales, Department of Health, HMSO, London, 2010). According to the World Health Organization, around 30% of older people aged over 65 and 50% of those over 80 will fall each year (Falls Fact Sheet Number 344, WHO, Geneva, 2010). Falls happen as a result of many reasons and can have harmful consequences, including loss of mobility and independence, confidence and in many cases even death (Cochrane Database Syst Rev 15, 2009, 146; Slips, Trips and Falls Update: From Acute and Community Hospitals and Mental Health Units in England and Wales, Department of Health, HMSO, London, 2010; Falling Standards, Broken Promises: Report of the National Audit of Falls and Bone Health in Older People 2010, Health Care Quality Improvement Partnership, London, 2011). What is neither fair nor correct is the common belief by old and young alike that falls are just another inconvenience to put up with. The available evidence justifiably supports the view that well-organised services, based upon national standards and expert guidance, can prevent future falls among older people and reduce death and disability from fractures. This paper will draw from the UK, as an exemplar for policy

  14. Parental depression and child conduct problems: evaluation of parental service use and associated costs after attending the Incredible Years Basic Parenting Programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is co-morbidity between parental depression and childhood conduct disorder. The Incredible Years (IY) parenting programmes reduce both conduct disorder in children and depression in their parents. Recent U.K. and Ireland trials of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IY parenting programmes have assessed children’s health and social care service use, but little is known about the programme’s impact on parental service use. This paper explores whether an above clinical cut-off score on the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II) is associated with high or low parental health and social care service use in high-risk families receiving the IY Basic Programme. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a subsample (N = 119) from the first U.K. community-based randomised controlled trial of the 12-week IY Basic Programme (N = 153). Parents with children at risk of developing conduct disorder were randomised to receive the programme or to a waiting-list control group. BDI II total and BDI II clinical depression cut-off scores were compared to frequencies and costs of parents’ service use, at baseline, six, twelve and eighteen months post-baseline for the intervention group and at baseline and six months post-baseline for the control group. Results Intervention group parents who scored above the clinical cut-off on the BDI II at baseline used more health and social care services than those who scored below at baseline, six and eighteen months. Significant reductions in service use frequencies were found for the intervention group only. Conclusion Parents with higher levels or depression used more health and social care service and parenting programmes have been shown to reduce parental depression and also health and social service use. However, further exploration of depressed parents’ service use and the cost implications for publically funded health and social care services is needed. Trial registration Registration of the original RCT

  15. The Impact of In-Service Technology Training Programmes on Technology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumbo, Mishack; Makgato, Moses; Muller, Helene

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) in-service technology training program has on technology teachers' knowledge and understanding of technology. The training of technology teachers is an initiative toward teachers' professional development within the mathematics, science, and technology sphere…

  16. Overview of Integrated Child Development Services Programme in India: Some Policy Implications for Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrestha, Kishor

    This paper presents an overview of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India, discusses the context of Early Childhood Education (ECE) in Nepal, analyzes the best practices of the ICDS, and draws some policy implications for improving ECE in Nepal. The ICDS program is an integrated child development program with the…

  17. Incorporating Museum Experience into an In-Service Programme for Science and Technology Teachers in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jui-Chen; Yang, Hung-Jen

    2010-01-01

    This study presented a course on preparing in-service teachers to learn communication technology education and how to integrate museum resources into their teaching. The course was organised and conducted by a teacher educator and museum educator together. Forty-two participants enrolled in this course, including 29 elementary school teachers,…

  18. Evaluation of the population dose to the UK population from the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, K; Wallis, M G; Neilson, F; Whitaker, C J

    2008-01-01

    In the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP), women aged between 50 and 70 y are invited for mammography every 3 y. Screening histories for each woman, over four screening rounds, were analysed. Data from five screening programmes were used to select 57,425 women into the study. Cases were selected on the basis of being between the ages of 50 and 53 at the start of the NHSBSP (i.e. between 1989 and 1992). Assessment of the outcome for each screening round for each woman involved assigning a simple outcome code. Each of the possible pathways through the four screening rounds was analysed. This comprises of 500 possible pathways. This data enabled the following information to be determined: (i) The number of times a woman attended the screening programme. (ii) The number of women referred for assessment at each screening round. This information may be used to deduce the population dose to this group of women averaged over four screening rounds. Patient doses have been monitored since the programme's inception and are typically 4.5 mGy for two-view screening. It is possible to determine the mean glandular dose received by this cohort of women over four screening rounds by multiplying the number of examinations by the mean glandular dose for a typical woman. Allowance has to be made for the number of projections taken at each screening round. Once a woman has been screened, she may be invited back for further assessment if an abnormality is found on her mammogram. A stereotactic attachment is used to determine where to place the biopsy device. Although the dose received during a normal screening mammogram is well known, the dose for a stereotactic procedure and other assessment procedures is less well known, partly because only a small part of the breast is directly irradiated during stereotaxis. However, the woman may have multiple exposures during this stage. A prospective survey of doses was completed to deduce the mean glandular

  19. A community pain service solution-focused pain management programme: delivery and preliminary outcome data

    PubMed Central

    Iddon, Joanne; Barker, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Summary points 1. This article introduces a rationale for a solution-focused approach to a community-based pain management programme (PMP), describing delivery and preliminary outcome data. 2. It suggests PMPs can be feasibly run in the community without necessity for hospital care setting. 3. A community setting is also advantageous in that it allows maintenance of social networks and close third-sector links to support long-term, sustained mental well-being. 4. Solution-focused psychological approaches help the clinician tap into patient expertise and develop rich descriptions of the patient’s preferred future, enhancing self-efficacy and empowerment. 5. Evaluation found significant statistical and clinical improvements in pre–post pain self-efficacy, mental well-being and function (but findings were limited by internal and external validity and no significant effect was found on pain levels). 6. Statistically significant change was maintained at 10 weeks for self-efficacy and function (and for the latter, clinically significant change was also maintained); improvements in mental well-being showed maintenance at all measured time points (up to 12 months) in terms of both statistical and clinical significant changes. PMID:26516534

  20. Scaling up family medicine training in Gezira, Sudan – a 2-year in-service master programme using modern information and communication technology: a survey study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010 the Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) was initiated in Gezira state, Sudan, designed as an in-service training model. The project is a collaboration project between the University of Gezira, which aims to provide a 2-year master’s programme in family medicine for practicing doctors, and the Ministry of Health, which facilitates service provision and funds the training programme. This paper presents the programme, the teaching environment, and the first batch of candidates enrolled. Methods In this study a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline data at the start of the project from doctors who joined the programme. A checklist was also used to assess the health centres where they work. A total of 188 out of 207 doctors responded (91%), while data were gathered from all 158 health centres (100%) staffed by the programme candidates. Results The Gezira model of in-service family medicine training has succeeded in recruiting 207 candidates in its first batch, providing health services in 158 centres, of which 84 had never been served by a doctor before. The curriculum is community oriented. The mean age of doctors was 32.5 years, 57% were males, and 32% were graduates from the University of Gezira. Respondents stated high confidence in practicing some skills such as asthma management and post-abortion uterine evacuation. They were least confident in other skills such as managing depression or inserting an intrauterine device. The majority of health centres was poorly equipped for management of noncommunicable diseases, as only 10% had an electrocardiography machine (ECG), 5% had spirometer, and 1% had a defibrillator. Conclusions The Gezira model has responded to local health system needs. Use of modern information and communication technology is used to facilitate both health service provision and training. The GFMP represents an example of a large-volume scaling-up programme of family medicine in Africa. PMID:24443978

  1. The World Health Organization Library (Geneva) and Health Literature Services Programme.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, B

    1988-01-01

    The origins and functions of the World Health Organization (WHO) Library and the global, regional, and national objectives of the WHO Health Literature Services Program (HLSP) are reviewed. WHO is an aggregate of nations and not a supra-national body. With limited resources and unlimited needs, HLSP is involved in surveys, training, regional medical libraries, national and regional networks, bibliographic services and document delivery, promotion, coordination, and communication. The basic concept of HLSP eschews internationally-conceived, self-contained technical projects in favor of broad programs based on national planning. Small rural centers receive more attention than large urban hospitals, and preventive medicine together with health education and community involvement are of more immediate concern than curative medicine. National self-reliance implies national initiative but not necessarily national self-sufficiency. Recent planning and implementation of HLSP activities are described. PMID:3370376

  2. CRIMSON [CRisis plan IMpact: Subjective and Objective coercion and eNgagement] Protocol: A randomised controlled trial of joint crisis plans to reduce compulsory treatment of people with psychosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of compulsory treatment under the Mental Health Act (MHA) has continued to rise in the UK and in other countries. The Joint Crisis Plan (JCP) is a statement of service users' wishes for treatment in the event of a future mental health crisis. It is developed with the clinical team and an independent facilitator. A recent pilot RCT showed a reduction in the use of the MHA amongst service users with a JCP. The JCP is the only intervention that has been shown to reduce compulsory treatment in this way. The CRIMSON trial aims to determine if JCPs, compared with treatment as usual, are effective in reducing the use of the MHA in a range of treatment settings across the UK. Methods/Design This is a 3 centre, individual-level, single-blind, randomised controlled trial of the JCP compared with treatment as usual for people with a history of relapsing psychotic illness in Birmingham, London and Lancashire/Manchester. 540 service users will be recruited across the three sites. Eligible service users will be adults with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder (including bipolar disorder), treated in the community under the Care Programme Approach with at least one admission to a psychiatric inpatient ward in the previous two years. Current inpatients and those subject to a community treatment order will be excluded to avoid any potential perceived pressure to participate. Research assessments will be conducted at baseline and 18 months. Following the baseline assessment, eligible service users will be randomly allocated to either develop a Joint Crisis Plan or continue with treatment as usual. Outcome will be assessed at 18 months with assessors blind to treatment allocation. The primary outcome is the proportion of service users treated or otherwise detained under an order of the Mental Health Act (MHA) during the follow-up period, compared across randomisation groups. Secondary outcomes include overall costs, service user engagement, perceived coercion and

  3. Kenya’s emergency-hire nursing programme: a pilot evaluation of health service delivery in two districts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of utilizing a small-scale, low-cost, pilot evaluation in assessing the short-term impact of Kenya’s emergency-hire nursing programme (EHP) on the delivery of health services (outpatient visits and maternal-child health indicators) in two underserved health districts with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. Methods Six primary outcomes were assessed through the collection of data from facility-level health management forms—total general outpatient visits, vaginal deliveries, caesarean sections, antenatal care (ANC) attendance, ANC clients tested for HIV, and deliveries to HIV-positive women. Data on outcome measures were assessed both pre-and post-emergency-hire nurse placement. Informal discussions were also conducted to obtain supporting qualitative data. Findings The majority of EHP nurses were placed in Suba (15.5%) and Siaya (13%) districts. At the time of the intervention, we describe an increase in total general outpatient visits, vaginal deliveries and caesarean sections within both districts. Similar significant increases were seen with ANC attendance and deliveries to HIV-positive women. Despite increases in the quantity of health services immediately following nurse placement, these levels were often not sustained. We identify several factors that challenge the long-term sustainability of these staffing enhancements. Conclusions There are multiple factors beyond increasing the supply of nurses that affect the delivery of health services. We believe this pilot evaluation sets the foundation for future, larger and more comprehensive studies further elaborating on the interface between interventions to alleviate nursing shortages and promote enhanced health service delivery. We also stress the importance of strong national and local relationships in conducting future studies. PMID:24636052

  4. The Copernicus programme and its Climate Change Service (C3S): a European answer to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinty, Bernard; Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick

    2016-07-01

    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we measure and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its climate data store will provide global and regional climate data reanalyses; multi-model seasonal forecasts; customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. The presentation will provide an overview of this newly created Service, its various components and activities, and a roadmap towards achieving a fully operational European Climate Service at the horizon 2019-2020. It will focus on the requirements for quality-assured Observation

  5. Improving Physics Teaching through Action Research: The Impact of a Nationwide Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Marcus; Rietdijk, Willeke; Garrett, Caro; Griffiths, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an independent evaluation of the Action Research for Physics (ARP) programme, a nationwide professional development programme which trains teachers to use action research to increase student interest in physics and encourage them to take post-compulsory physics. The impact of the programme was explored from the perspective of…

  6. Use of hospital resources in the Finnish colorectal cancer screening programme: a randomised health services study

    PubMed Central

    Mäklin, Suvi; Hakama, Matti; Rissanen, Pekka; Malila, Nea

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the difference in use of hospital resources in the Finnish Colorectal Cancer (CRC) screening programme between those invited and controls, within the year of randomisation and the next year. Design CRC screening was implemented in Finland in 2004 as a population-based randomised design using biennial faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for men and women aged 60–69 years. Those randomised to screening and control groups during years 2004–2009 were included in this analysis and use of hospital resources was estimated. Data were collected from the national register on hospital discharges. Outpatient visits, inpatient episodes and colonoscopies were compared between the two groups. Results The screening group comprised of 123 149 and control group of 122 930 people. Most people in both groups had not used hospital resources at all. More people in the screening group than in the control group had at least one hospital-based outpatient visit (7.8% vs 7.4%), inpatient episode (3.9% vs 3.8%) and colonoscopy (1.5% vs 1.3%). In total, the screening group had 31 975 and control group 27 061 cumulative outpatient visits, 9260 and 7903 inpatient episodes, and 2686 and 1756 hospital colonoscopies, respectively. The proportion of those with a positive FOBT result with at least one outpatient visit, one inpatient episode or one colonoscopy, was 3.7 times, 2.5 times or 9 times that of those with a negative FOBT result, respectively. Conclusions CRC screening using the FOBT slightly increased the volume of hospital outpatient visits, inpatient episodes and hospital colonoscopies in Finland. PMID:26719814

  7. Safety in Stereotypes? The Impact of Gender and "Race" on Young People's Perceptions of Their Post-Compulsory Education and Labour Market Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Vanessa; Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of gender and "race" on young people's perceptions of the educational and labour market opportunities available to them after they complete their compulsory schooling in England. Its findings are based on a study of the views of girls and boys about the government-supported "Apprenticeships" programme, which,…

  8. What Are Effective Components of In-Service Teacher Training? A Study Examining Teacher Trainers' Perceptions of the Components of a Training Programme in Mathematics Education in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses an in-service education project, financed by the Belgium Technical Cooperation, to improve the quality of mathematics teaching in 138 primary and lower secondary schools in Cambodia. The project design drew on recent research in developing countries and prior experience of training programmes in Cambodia. The…

  9. He Waka Tino Whakarawea: A Model for Evaluating the Cultural Appropriateness and Effectiveness of Programmes and Services for Maori Learners both with and without Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a waka tino whakarawea model for evaluating programmes and services for Maori learners. It is based on a set of underlying principles identified in the author's PhD study (Bevan-Brown, 2002). Explanations are provided for eight principles: kaupapa Maori; importance, relevance and beneficence; participation; empowerment,…

  10. Learning Our Way into Communication: The Making of the Communication and Information Strategy "with" the National Agricultural Advisory Services Programme in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the making of the Communication and Information Strategy with the National Agricultural Advisory Services Programme (NAADS) in Uganda. The NAADS is a new organization in government responsible for the implementation of a demand-driven agricultural extension approach. The new extension approach calls for fundamental changes in…

  11. Nourish and Nurture: World Food Programme Assistance for Early Childhood Education in India's Integrated Child Development Services. Education Sector Monograph No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    Part of UNESCO's Action Research in Family and Early Childhood series, this monograph is based upon a technical report on the Early Childhood Education (ECE) component of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India. This document overviews the ICDS and how better use could be made of World Food Programme (WFP) food aid along…

  12. The green shoots of a novel training programme: progress and identified key actions to providing services to MSM at Kenyan health facilities

    PubMed Central

    van der Elst, Elise M; Kombo, Bernadette; Gichuru, Evans; Omar, Anisa; Musyoki, Helgar; Graham, Susan M; Smith, Adrian D; Sanders, Eduard J; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa are at high risk for HIV acquisition, access to and quality of health and HIV services within this population are negatively affected by stigma and capacity within the health sector. A recently developed online MSM training programme (www.marps-africa.org) was shown to contribute to reductions in MSM prejudice among healthcare providers (HCPs) in coastal Kenya. In this study, we used qualitative methods to explore the provision of MSM healthcare services two years post-training in coastal Kenya. Methods From February to July 2014, we held 10 focus group discussions (FGD) with 63 participants, including HCP from 25 facilities, county AIDS coordinators and MSM from local support groups. Participants discussed availability, acceptability and accessibility of HIV healthcare for MSM. HCP also discussed changes in their health service practices after completing the training. FGD were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Ritchie and Spencer's “framework approach” for qualitative data. Results HCPs described continued improvements in their ability to provide service in a non-stigmatizing way to MSM patients since completing the training programme and expressed comfort engaging MSM patients in care. Four additional recommendations for improving MSM healthcare services were identified: 1) expanding the reach of MSM sensitivity training across the medical education continuum; 2) establishing guidelines to manage sexually transmitted anal infections; 3) promoting legal and policy reforms to support integration of MSM-appropriate services into healthcare; and 4) including MSM information in national reporting tools for HIV services. Conclusions Positive impacts of this sensitivity and skills training programme were reflected in HCP attitudes two years post-intervention. Scaling-up of efforts will rely on continued policies to include MSM in healthcare programmes to reduce stigma in

  13. Accelerating reproductive and child health programme impact with community-based services: the Navrongo experiment in Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, James F.; Bawah, Ayaga A.; Binka, Fred N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and health impact of deploying health service nurses and volunteers to village locations with a view to scaling up results. METHODS: A four-celled plausibility trial was used for testing the impact of aligning community health services with the traditional social institutions that organize village life. Data from the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System that tracks fertility and mortality events over time were used to estimate impact on fertility and mortality. RESULTS: Assigning nurses to community locations reduced childhood mortality rates by over half in 3 years and accelerated the time taken for attainment of the child survival Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in the study areas to 8 years. Fertility was also reduced by 15%, representing a decline of one birth in the total fertility rate. Programme costs added 1.92 US Dollar per capita to the 6.80 US Dollar per capita primary health care budget. CONCLUSION: Assigning nurses to community locations where they provide basic curative and preventive care substantially reduces childhood mortality and accelerates progress towards attainment of the child survival MDG. Approaches using community volunteers, however, have no impact on mortality. The results also demonstrate that increasing access to contraceptive supplies alone fails to address the social costs of fertility regulation. Effective deployment of volunteers and community mobilization strategies offsets the social constraints on the adoption of contraception. The research in Navrongo thus demonstrates that affordable and sustainable means of combining nurse services with volunteer action can accelerate attainment of both the International Conference on Population and Development agenda and the MDGs. PMID:17242830

  14. Do the pre-service education programmes for midwives in India prepare confident ‘registered midwives’? A survey from India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bharati; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Johansson, Eva; Prakasamma, Malvarappu; Ramani, K.V.; Christensson, Kyllike

    2015-01-01

    Objective The graduates of the diploma and degree programmes of nursing and midwifery in India are considered skilled birth attendants (SBAs). This paper aimed to assess the confidence of final-year students from pre-service education programmes (diploma and bachelor's) in selected midwifery skills from the list of midwifery competencies of the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM). Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Gujarat, India, involving 633 final-year students from 25 educational institutions (private or government), randomly selected, stratified by the type of programme (diploma and bachelor's). Students assessed their confidence on a four-point scale, in four midwifery competency domains – antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum, and newborn care. Explorative factor analysis was used to reduce skill statements into separate subscales for each domain. Results Overall, 25–40% of students scored above the 75th percentile and 38–50% below the 50th percentile of confidence in all subscales for antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum, and newborn care. The majority had not attended the required number of births prescribed by the Indian Nursing Council. Conclusions The pre-service education offered in the diploma and bachelor's programmes in Gujarat does not prepare confident SBAs, as measured on selected midwifery competencies of the ICM. One of the underlying reasons was less clinical experience during their education. The duration, content, and pedagogy of midwifery education within the integrated programmes need to be reviewed. PMID:26649550

  15. The Development of Compulsory Education Finance in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuedong, Ding

    2008-01-01

    Compulsory education in China's rural areas has come a long way since China adopted the policy of reform and opening up to the outside world toward the end of 1978. By 2004, compulsory education had become available and illiteracy had been eliminated among 93.6 percent of the nation's total population; the enrollment rate of school-age children…

  16. Implementing Nunavut Education Act: Compulsory School Attendance Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwarteng, E. Fredua

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…

  17. 37 CFR 255.2 - Royalty payable under compulsory license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty payable under... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY PAYABLE UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE FOR MAKING AND DISTRIBUTING PHONORECORDS § 255.2 Royalty payable under compulsory...

  18. Studies of the Innovation Process in Compulsory School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekholm, Mats; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This monograph presents an overview of reports from a 4-year intensive research study of internal life among 3 Swedish compulsory schools and includes discussion of a 10-year follow-up study of 12 senior-level compulsory schools. The 4-year project sought to understand innovative processes, but because few innovations were observed, research…

  19. Free and Compulsory School Age Requirements. ECS 50-State Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers across the nation continue to push for expanded free and compulsory school age requirements. More states are considering granting students earlier access to a free education so that they can begin their academic pursuits earlier in life. Similarly, every year a number of states consider extending the upper limit for compulsory school…

  20. Implementing a successful tuberculosis programme within primary care services in a conflict area using the stop TB strategy: Afghanistan case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has faced health consequences of war including those due to displacement of populations, breakdown of health and social services, and increased risks of disease transmission for over three decades. Yet it was able to restructure its National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP), integrate tuberculosis treatment into primary health care and achieve most of its targets by the year 2011. What were the processes that enabled the programme to achieve its targets? More importantly, what were the underpinning factors that made this success possible? We addressed these important questions through a case study. Case description We adopted a processes and outcomes framework for this study, which began with examining the change in key programme indicators, followed by backwards tracing of the processes and underlying factors, responsible for this change. Methods included review of the published and grey literature along with in-depth interviews of 15 key informants involved with the care of tuberculosis patients in Afghanistan. Discussion and evaluation TB incidence and mortality per 100,000 decreased from 325 and 92 to 189 and 39 respectively, while case notification and treatment success improved during the decade under study. Efficient programme structures were enabled through high political commitment from the Government, strong leadership from the programme, effective partnership and coordination among stakeholders, and adequate technical and financial support from the development partners. Conclusions The NTP Afghanistan is an example that public health programmes can be effectively implemented in fragile states. High political commitment and strong local leadership are essential factors for such programmes. To ensure long-term effectiveness of the NTP, the international support should be withdrawn in a phased manner, coupled with a sequential increase in resources allocated to the NTP by the Government of Afghanistan. PMID:24507446

  1. Ants, Apples and the ABCs: The Use of Commercial Phonics Programmes in Prior-to-School Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Stacey; Torr, Jane; Cologon, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Commercial phonics programmes (e.g. Jolly Phonics and Letterland) are becoming widely used in the early years of school. These programmes claim to use a systematic explicit approach, considered as the preferred method of phonics instruction for teaching alphabetic code-breaking skills in Australia and the UK in the first years of school…

  2. Can programme theory be used as a 'translational tool’ to optimise health service delivery in a national early years’ initiative in Scotland: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Theory-based evaluation (TBE) approaches are heralded as supporting formative evaluation by facilitating increased use of evaluative findings to guide programme improvement. It is essential that learning from programme implementation is better used to improve delivery and to inform other initiatives, if interventions are to be as effective as they have the potential to be. Nonetheless, few studies describe formative feedback methods, or report direct instrumental use of findings resulting from TBE. This paper uses the case of Scotland’s, National Health Service, early years’, oral health improvement initiative (Childsmile) to describe the use of TBE as a framework for providing feedback on delivery to programme staff and to assess its impact on programmatic action. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders explored perceived deviations between the Childsmile programme 'as delivered’ and its Programme Theory (PT). The data was thematically analysed using constant comparative methods. Findings were shared with key programme stakeholders and discussions around likely impact and necessary actions were facilitated by the authors. Documentary review and ongoing observations of programme meetings were undertaken to assess the extent to which learning was acted upon. Results On the whole, the activities documented in Childsmile’s PT were implemented as intended. This paper purposefully focuses on those activities where variation in delivery was evident. Differences resulted from the stage of roll-out reached and the flexibility given to individual NHS boards to tailor local implementation. Some adaptations were thought to have diverged from the central features of Childsmile’s PT, to the extent that there was a risk to achieving outcomes. The methods employed prompted national service improvement action, and proposals for local action by individual NHS boards to address this. Conclusions The TBE approach

  3. Compulsory schooling reforms, education and mortality in twentieth century Europe.

    PubMed

    Gathmann, Christina; Jürges, Hendrik; Reinhold, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    Education yields substantial non-monetary benefits, but the size of these gains is still debated. Previous studies report causal effects of education and compulsory schooling on mortality ranging anywhere from zero to large and negative. Using data from 18 compulsory schooling reforms implemented in Europe during the twentieth century, we quantify the average mortality gain and explore its dispersion across gender, time and countries. We find that more education yields small mortality reductions in the short- and long-run for men. In contrast, women seem to experience no mortality reductions from compulsory schooling reforms. PMID:24560098

  4. The development of an alternative in-service programme for Korean science teachers with an emphasis on science-technology-society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jungil

    2002-10-01

    This study looks at the effects of a science-technology-society (STS) in-service programme, designed to change teachers' awareness and practice of STS/constructivist approaches, while also focusing on students' understandings and changes of perceptions of the constructivist learning environments. The STS in-service programme was developed to achieve the following features: teacher-oriented, teaching in a social context, emphasis on a 'constructivist' approach, developing STS units and their use in classrooms. A total of 20 middle and high school science teachers participated in the in-service programme in 1998; and three of the middle school teachers were selected to gain information from their implementation of a Reactions of Acids and Bases unit in their respective classrooms. The Science Education Reform Inventory was administered to all the teachers at both the opening and the end of the programme. One hundred twenty-five students of the three teachers experienced about 16 class hours of lessons comprising the new STS unit. At the beginning and the end of the unit, they completed the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey. In order to assess student understanding, teachers administered the creativity test before and after the unit; and the concept acquisition test and the application test after the unit. Students obtained at average 48% of the 35 key concepts and 6.6 additional non-key concepts after the unit was finished. Students made more relevant and creative responses on unfamiliar situations on the post-test than on the pre-test. Through several tasks including a short essay, students showed their abilities to apply various concepts related to acids and bases to daily life situation. It was found that the STS programme improved the teachers' awareness and practices of the science education reforms characterized by STS and constructivism. The middle school science teachers could develop STS units which they implemented in their own classrooms. They

  5. Feline lost: making microchipping compulsory for domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M

    2016-08-13

    The independent nature of cats means that they are more likely to become lost or injured than dogs. Maggie Roberts believes that microchipping of cats should be compulsory in the UK as is the case with dogs. PMID:27516564

  6. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and "Istanbul Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing

  7. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis. PMID:1290073

  8. [Compulsory admission to hospital in Tunisia: a necessary evolution].

    PubMed

    Ellouze, Faten; Lahmar, Aymen; Beji, Rami; Dridi, Anis; Fadhel M'rad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the legislation governing compulsory admission to hospital in Tunisia is interesting for two reasons. The country's 2011 revolution notably brought about major changes to the legislative framework, from constitutional through to ordinary laws. At the same time, the current trend for globalisation is also affecting legislation: international laws, treaties and UN charters are imposed on the laws of individual countries. This article looks at how Tunisian law governing compulsory admission to hospital has had to evolve. PMID:26143219

  9. PISA--The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Developed jointly by OECD member countries through the OECD's Directorate for Education, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) aims to measure how far students approaching the end of compulsory education have acquired some of the knowledge and skills essential for full participation in the knowledge society. The assessment is…

  10. A Model for Effective Implementation of Flexible Programme Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Carey; Littlejohn, Allison; Falconer, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    The model developed here is the outcome of a project funded by the Quality Assurance Agency Scotland to support implementation of flexible programme delivery (FPD) in post-compulsory education. We highlight key features of FPD, including explicit and implicit assumptions about why flexibility is needed and the perceived barriers and solutions to…

  11. Impact of psychiatrists' qualifications on the rate of compulsory admissions.

    PubMed

    Eytan, Ariel; Chatton, Anne; Safran, Edith; Khazaal, Yasser

    2013-03-01

    Despite efforts to reduce coercion in psychiatry, involuntary hospitalizations remain frequent, representing more than half of all admissions in some European regions. Since October 2006, only certified psychiatrists are authorized to require a compulsory admission to our facility, while before all physicians were, including residents. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of this change of procedure on the proportion compulsory admissions. All medical records of patients admitted respectively 4 months before and 4 month after the implementation of the procedure were retrospectively analyzed. This search retrieved a total of 2,227 hospitalizations for 1,584 patients. The overall proportions of compulsory and voluntary admissions were 63.9 % and 36.1 % respectively. The average length of stay was 32 days (SD ± 64.4). During the study period, 25 % of patients experienced two hospitalizations or more. The most frequent patients' diagnoses were affective disorders (30 %), psychotic disorders (18.4 %) and substance abuse disorders (15.7 %). Compared with the period before October 2006, patients hospitalized from October 2006 up were less likely to be hospitalized on a compulsory basis (OR = 0.745, 95 % CI: 0.596-0.930). Factors associated with involuntary admission were young age (20 years or less), female gender, a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and being hospitalized for the first time. Our results strongly suggest that limiting the right to require compulsory admissions to fully certified psychiatrists can reduce the rate of compulsory versus voluntary admissions. PMID:22585110

  12. Innovative Access Programme for Young Mothers Wishing to Train in Childbirth Education: From Concept to Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the conception, planning, implementation and evaluation of an access programme arising out of an innovative collaboration between two charities, Straight Talking and the National Childbirth Trust. The access programme was designed at the request of a group of young mothers who had finished compulsory education and subsequently…

  13. A qualitative study on the use of the care programme approach with individuals with borderline personality disorder: a service user perspective.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Bertha; Dunne, Emma

    2013-10-01

    A newly developed specialist personality disorder service in the United Kingdom arranged a focus group with seven service users with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) to explore their experiences of the Care Programme Approach (CPA) while under the care of a community mental health team. A thematic analysis generated seven themes. Understanding Borderline Personality Disorder and Understanding Recovery were highlighted as difficulties service users face, with a lack of staff understanding. They also spoke about the struggle of having a voice in their CPA meetings and the lack of information they received in the CPA process. They discussed the deliberation between progression versus consistency and moving on from services. Service users discussed the challenges of accessing treatment and lack of follow up in the CPA process. Greater service user involvement in the process would help address the dissatisfaction and disempowerment in care planning experienced by individuals diagnosed with BPD. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 51(10), 38-45.]. PMID:23855437

  14. 16 CFR 1118.3 - Compulsory processes and service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Act (5 U.S.C. 552) and the Commission's regulations under that Act, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490... regulations, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977), or as amended. ... Section 1118.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...

  15. 16 CFR 1118.3 - Compulsory processes and service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Act (5 U.S.C. 552) and the Commission's regulations under that Act, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490... regulations, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977), or as amended. ... known residence or business address of anyone being investigated, inspected or inquired of; or (3)...

  16. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. Methods We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. Results The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1) the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2) the growing need for comprehensive care, (3) patient empowerment, (4) and defaulter tracing; and (5) the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. Conclusions The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a potentially effective

  17. Use and Cost of Psychotropic Drugs among Recipients with Autism in a State Medicaid Fee-for-Service Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, R.; Jariwala, K.; West-Strum, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of autism in the USA in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to provide recent estimates of psychotropic drug use and costs among individuals with autism enrolled in the Medicaid programme. Method: A cross-sectional analysis of 2007 Mississippi (MS) Medicaid…

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Belief Sources about Learning and Teaching: An Exploration with the Consideration of the Educational Programme Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debreli, Emre

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that beliefs determine the ways teachers think and act in classrooms. There is now strong evidence that teachers' beliefs are formed during their previous education as students, and that they exert a powerful influence throughout their careers. However, only little has yet been done on the teacher education programmes' influence…

  19. "Thinking the unthinkable": the prospect of compulsory sterilization in India.

    PubMed

    Minkler, M

    1977-01-01

    The National Population Policy Statement adopted by the Government of India in April 1976 gave states the mandate to adopt coercive and compulsory sterilization measures toward the end of bringing under control the nation's massive population growth. Many states have since adopted stringent measures which penalize couples having three or more children, and four states additionally have proposed legislation for compulsory sterilization. While the demographic impact of compulsory sterilization after the third child is undisputed, the administrative feasibility of such and undertaking has been widely questioned, particularly in light of the inadequacy of India's medical infrastructure in the rural areas. Critics further have raised questions concerning the social and ethical implications of compulsory sterilization and of measures which penalize the poor through means which may have adverse effects on their health and welfare. Finally, opponents of the new sterilization measures have suggested that they divert attention from the need for more basic changes in the nation's economic and social structure. While the need for bringing down India's continued high birth rate is widely recognized, alternative population measures-e.g. increased abortion facilities and an enforcement of the raised age at marriage-have been advocated in lieu of the compulsory sterilization measures currently being proposed. PMID:856744

  20. Learning from practice: compulsory licensing cases and access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Stirner, Beatrice

    2012-11-01

    In March 2012, India issued its first compulsory license for a kidney cancer drug. India is one of several countries that have applied the flexibility incorporated in the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of IP rights. It is expected that the importance of compulsory licenses may grow in the future due to the loss of generic drugs sources after the introduction of pharmaceutical product patents in India, the continuing high prevalence of epidemics, such as of HIV/AIDS, in developing countries and the increase in noncommunicable diseases in these nations. This article analyses the effectiveness and feasibility of compulsory licenses to ameliorate access to medicines based on the historical, factual and legal backgrounds of case examples, such as in Thailand, Canada/Rwanda and India. It addresses challenges and controversial questions, such as the interpretation of the compulsory licensing conditions, the questions surrounding a systematic use of compulsory licenses and the lack of economic incentives for generic pharmaceutical companies' participation to export drugs to countries without manufacturing capacities. Lessons from the cases discussed and implications for policymakers are outlined. PMID:24236925

  1. The experiences of mentors on a career development and mentoring programme for female mental health nurses in the UK National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Woolnough, Helen M; Davidson, Marilyn J; Fielden, Sandra L

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the experiences of executive and non-executive UK National Health Service (NHS) Trust directors and senior managers as mentors in a career development and mentoring programme for a cohort of 27 female mental health nurses from six NHS mental health trusts. Baseline interview data was collated from 27 mentors prior to the programme. Twenty-four mentors participated in semi-structured telephone interviews investigating their experiences of being a mentor at the end of the programme. The interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Experience as a mentor impacted on mentors in a variety of ways and the common themes which emerged from the data included: increased understanding of the mentoring role, increased awareness of career barriers for female mental health nurses, improved ground-level insight in relation to nursing staff and the patients they care for, improved professional reputation, increased networks, new insights into organizational issues, personal enjoyment and fulfilment and desire to implement organizational change. All mentors interviewed stated that they would consider becoming a mentor again. The mentoring relationship was an invaluable learning experience for mentors and results from this study suggested that trained mentors have an important role to play as change agents in the NHS. PMID:16848959

  2. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057

  3. The Moral Justification for a Compulsory Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Compulsory human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls has been proposed as a public health intervention to reduce the threat of the disease. Such a program would entail a symbiotic relationship between scientific interests in reducing mortality and morbidity and philosophical interests in promoting morality. This proposal raises the issue of whether government should use its police powers to restrict liberty and parental autonomy for the purpose of preventing harm to young people. I reviewed the scientific literature that questions the value of a HPV vaccination. Applying a principle-based approach to moral reasoning, I concluded that compulsory HPV vaccinations can be justified on moral, scientific, and public health grounds. PMID:19197085

  4. The development of a patient partnership programme and its impact on quality improvements in a comprehensive haemophilia care service.

    PubMed

    Grogan, A; Coughlan, M; O' Mahony, B; McKee, G

    2012-11-01

    It has long been advocated that patient input in service quality development is essential. We have developed a model of quality evaluation and improvement within a comprehensive haemophilia service, and describe the issues and improvements that resulted from the process. The project utilized an action research methodology. Seven patients were recruited from the haemophilia service for the initial focus groups. The main themes initially explored were as follows: patient experience of the outpatient, inpatient and weekend services and provision of information. The focus group data were analysed using basic content analysis. The main themes the initial focus group identified were the need to optimize the annual review, emergency care and inpatient facilities. Following this, the haemophilia care team worked on improving these issues. At the second focus group the patients contributed at a higher level - patient participation. Patients assisted in addressing outstanding issues such as ID alert card content and the algorithm of care for emergency services. Finally, a patient panel was developed and the relationship became one of direct negotiation and partnership with the haemophilia team to address issues within the service. The expectations and needs of patients attending the haemophilia comprehensive care service are complex. The process of including patients as partners at the highest level of patient involvement evolved and proved an effective method of service evaluation and development, facilitating lateral decision-making, not only improving care directly, but also improving the user experience. PMID:22681411

  5. An Introduction to Education Research Methods: Exploring the Learning Journey of Pre-Service Teachers in a Transnational Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sonia; Hepple, Erika; Tangen, Donna; Comelli, Marlana; Alwi, Amyzar; Shaari, Zaira Abu Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Internationally there is interest in developing the research skills of pre-service teachers as a means of ongoing professional renewal with a distinct need for systematic and longitudinal investigation of student learning. The current study takes a unique perspective by exploring the research learning journey of pre-service teachers participating…

  6. The relationship between legal status, perceived pressure and motivation in treatment for drug dependence: results from a European study of Quasi-Compulsory Treatment.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Alex; Berto, Daniele; Frick, Ulrich; Hunt, Neil; Kerschl, Viktoria; McSweeney, Tim; Oeuvray, Kerrie; Puppo, Irene; Santa Maria, Alberto; Schaaf, Susanne; Trinkl, Barbara; Uchtenhagen, Ambros; Werdenich, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on intake data from Quasi-Compulsory Treatment in Europe, a study of quasi-compulsory treatment (QCT) for drug dependent offenders. It explores the link between formal legal coercion, perceived pressure to be in treatment and motivation amongst a sample of 845 people who entered treatment for drug dependence in five European countries, half of them in quasi-compulsory treatment and half 'voluntarily'. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, it suggests that those who enter treatment under QCT do perceive greater pressure to be in treatment, but that this does not necessarily lead to higher or lower motivation than 'volunteers'. Many drug-dependent offenders value QCT as an opportunity to get treatment. Motivation is mutable and can be developed or diminished by the quality of support and services offered to drug-dependent offenders. PMID:16968995

  7. Integration of antenatal care services with health programmes in low– and middle–income countries: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Jongh, Thyra E; Gurol–Urganci, Ipek; Allen, Elizabeth; Zhu, Nina Jiayue; Atun, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) presents a potentially valuable platform for integrated delivery of additional health services for pregnant women–services that are vital to reduce the persistently high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs). However, there is limited evidence on the impact of integrating health services with ANC to guide policy. This review assesses the impact of integration of postnatal and other health services with ANC on health services uptake and utilisation, health outcomes and user experience of care in LMICs. Methods Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, POPLINE and Global Health were searched for studies that compared integrated models for delivery of postnatal and other health services with ANC to non–integrated models. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) criteria and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale, depending on the study design. Due to high heterogeneity no meta–analysis could be conducted. Results are presented narratively. Findings 12 studies were included in the review. Limited evidence, with moderate– to high–risk of bias, suggests that integrated service delivery results in improved uptake of essential health services for women, earlier initiation of treatment, and better health outcomes. Women also reported improved satisfaction with integrated services. Conclusions The reported evidence is largely based on non–randomised studies with poor generalizability, and therefore offers very limited policy guidance. More rigorously conducted and geographically diverse studies are needed to better ascertain and quantify the health and economic benefits of integrating health services with ANC. PMID:27231539

  8. The CPD Needs of Mentors in Post-Compulsory Initial Teacher Training in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan; Hunt, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the compulsory professional development (CPD) needs of mentors within post-compulsory Initial Teacher Training (ITT) provision in England. The discussion applies the ideas of Weber, Foucault, Habermas and Bourdieu in interpreting the implications for post-compulsory ITT mentor CPD training. The paper's primary and secondary…

  9. Monitory Report of the Implementation of the Free Compulsory Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baicai, Sun; Mingren, Zhao; Jaiyi, Wang

    2008-01-01

    Rural compulsory education is a very weak link in the development of China's education system. For many years, an education fiscal input mechanism with the township as the main player was adopted for supporting China's rural compulsory education. In May 2001, China's rural compulsory education was placed under an administrative system of…

  10. 49 CFR 510.12 - Remedies for failure to comply with compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedies for failure to comply with compulsory... § 510.12 Remedies for failure to comply with compulsory process. Any failure to comply with compulsory... failure to comply, NHTSA may take appropriate action pursuant to the authority conferred by the...

  11. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Radiotelephone equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart R or S √ √ √ √ GMDSS equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart W √ (2) A certification that the ship has passed an inspection must be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section...

  12. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-graph operator's certificate Radiotelephone equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart R or S √ √ √ √ Radiotelegraph equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart Q √ √ GMDSS equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section...

  13. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-graph operator's certificate Radiotelephone equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart R or S √ √ √ √ Radiotelegraph equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart Q √ √ GMDSS equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section...

  14. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Radiotelephone equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart R or S √ √ √ √ GMDSS equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart W √ (2) A certification that the ship has passed an inspection must be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section...

  15. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  16. 77 FR 55783 - Mechanical and Digital Phonorecord Delivery Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 and 210 Mechanical and Digital Phonorecord Delivery Compulsory License AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking: Extension of comment and reply comment periods. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office is extending the deadline for...

  17. 77 FR 68075 - Mechanical and Digital Phonorecord Delivery Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    .... 77 FR 55783 (September 11, 2012). The Copyright Office posted all comments received by the October 25... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 and 210 Mechanical and Digital Phonorecord Delivery Compulsory License AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking: Extension of...

  18. Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatto, John Taylor

    The five essays in this book criticize the "deadening heart" of compulsory state schooling, described as a series of assumptions and structures that stamp out the self-knowledge, curiosity, concentration and solitude essential to learning--a system wherein education and schooling are mutually exclusive terms. The book argues that between schooling…

  19. What Should Be the Moral Aims of Compulsory Sex Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly explained. Promoting the virtue of respect for…

  20. Learning from practice: compulsory licensing cases and access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Stirner, Beatrice; Thangaraj, Harry

    2013-03-01

    Compulsory license is one of the safeguards that international IP law provides to address the undesired effects of pharmaceutical patents on access to important medicines. This article looks into three important case examples to analyze the mechanism's effectiveness and feasibility: the first uses of the newer compulsory license regime established in 2003 under the WTO legislative framework to export medicines to third countries, which lack pharmaceutical manufacturing capacities; and further, the first compulsory license grant in India in March 2012. The case analyses are based on the historical, factual and legal background. They reveal the main challenges of the 2003 WTO regime, including the lack of economic incentives for the generic pharmaceutical companies' participation. In the case of India's compulsory license grant, the article takes as in depth look into possible reasons for the reluctance to use the safeguard until recently, and the important aspects and implications of the Indian authorization to manufacture and sell a generic version of a patented cancer drug. PMID:24237026

  1. How to Use Technology Effectively in Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The use of technology within the lifelong learning sector brings many benefits to learners, teachers and managers. Aimed at trainee and practising teachers, this book contains clear, practical guidance on how to use technology and e-learning effectively to enhance all aspects of teaching and learning in the post-compulsory sector. Alan Clarke…

  2. Stuck in the Groove: A Critique of Compulsory Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Learning in formal schools violates several simple principles: that no one can learn on an empty spirit; that true learning requires an absence of fear or authority; that learning is the most natural of human instincts. By making schooling compulsory, we have abandoned trust in our individual and collective experience in favour of experts and…

  3. Constitutionality of Compulsory Arbitration Statutes in Public Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudohar, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state supreme court rulings on constitutionality issues raised by compulsory arbitration for public employees. Cases are reviewed for the states of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Maine, Michigan, New York, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Washington. Concludes that courts have generally upheld the constitutionality of such…

  4. Computer Mediated Communication in Post-Compulsory Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dai

    1997-01-01

    The School of Post-Compulsory Education and Training (PCET) of the University of Greenwich (London), whose main purpose is to provide initial training and professional development for teachers, trainers, and lectures, provides a distance-learning program. This article discusses the program and the piloting of a groupware product that permits…

  5. 19 CFR 210.61 - Discovery and compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... process. The presiding administrative law judge shall set all discovery deadlines. The administrative law... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery and compulsory process. 210.61 Section... administrative law judge may, but is not required to, make findings on the issues specified in sections 337...

  6. Compulsory Birth Control and Fertility Measures in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halli, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of possible applications of the microsimulation approach to analysis of population policy proposes compulsory sterilization policy for all of India. Topics covered include India's population problem, methods for generating a distribution of couples to be sterilized, model validation, data utilized, data analysis, program limitations,…

  7. Integration and Fragmentation of Post Compulsory Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin; Wheelahan, Leesa

    2012-01-01

    The boundaries between vocational and academic post compulsory education have been blurred by students combining vocational and academic studies and by students transferring increasingly between the two types of education. Institutions are also blurring the boundaries between the sectors by increasingly offering programs from two and sometimes…

  8. Providing Post-Compulsory Education Options through "Newlook" Rural Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlcek, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The tree change phenomenon started around Australia from about 2003 and continues to this day, even into places like the Western Plains area of New South Wales. Relocating from the city to rural areas for a lifestyle change is attributed to this phenomenon. An ever-growing interest in post-compulsory education solutions that run parallel to this…

  9. Medical Student Attendance at Non-Compulsory Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattick, Karen; Crocker, Graham; Bligh, John

    2007-01-01

    The General Medical Council in the UK recommends that undergraduate medical students be exposed to a variety of learning opportunities and increasingly take responsibility for their own learning. This study presents quantitative and qualitative data relating to attendance at non-compulsory plenary lectures in order to understand factors affecting…

  10. Compulsory Arbitration and Conciliation in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Harry E.

    The responsibility for education in Australia rests with the states. Teachers in the state of New South Wales, as in other Australian states, are employed by the Public Service Board, which determines working conditions. Teachers are administered, however, under the Department of Education. Labor disputes in Australia are settled not by formal…

  11. Making Euclidean Geometry Compulsory: Are We Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Putten, Sonja; Howie, Sarah; Stols, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude towards, as well as the level of understanding of Euclidean geometry in pre-service mathematics education (PME) students. In order to do so, a case study was undertaken within which a one group pre-post-test procedure was conducted around a geometry module, and a representative group of students was interviewed…

  12. Proficiency tests in the determination of activity of radionuclides in radiopharmaceutical products measured by nuclear medicine services in 8 years of comparison programmes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tauhata, Luiz; Iwahara, Akira; de Oliveira, Antonio E; Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre; Delgado, José Ubiratan; da Silva, Carlos José; Dos Santos, Joyra A; Nícoli, Ieda G; Alabarse, Frederico G; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2008-01-01

    Proficiency tests were applied to assess the performance of 74 nuclear medicine services in activity measurements of (131)I, (123)I, (99)Tc(m), (67)Ga and (201)Tl. These tests produced 913 data sets from comparison programmes promoted by the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) from 1999 to 2006. The data were evaluated against acceptance criteria for accuracy and precision and assigned as Acceptable or Not acceptable accordingly. In addition, three other statistical parameters were used as complementary information for performance evaluation which related to normative requirements and to radionuclide calibrators. The results have shown a necessity to improve quality control procedures and unsatisfactory performances of radionuclide calibrators, which incorporate Geiger-Müller detectors. PMID:18346902

  13. Enhancing In-Service Teachers' Professional Learning through a School-Based Professional Development Programme in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Writing is a complex skill that requires effective teaching practices in the classroom. One of the challenges English teachers in the English as a second language (L2) context face is the lack of teacher experience in teaching English writing. This brief paper reports on a small-scale study on helping Hong Kong in-service primary school teachers…

  14. Ethical issues evolving from patients’ perspectives on compulsory screening for syphilis and voluntary screening for cervical cancer in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In

  15. Compulsory licensing of patented pharmaceutical inventions: evaluating the options

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Jerome H.

    2010-01-01

    In this Comment, the author traces the relevant legislative history pertaining to compulsory licensing of patented pharmaceuticals from the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement of 1994 to the 2003 waiver to, and later proposed amendment of, article 31, which enables poor countries to obtain needed medicines from other countries that possess manufacturing capacity. The Comment then evaluates recent, controversial uses of the relevant legislative machinery as viewed from different critical perspectives. The Comment shows how developing countries seeking access to essential medicines can collaborate in ways that would avoid undermining incentives to innovation and other social costs attributed to compulsory licensing. It ends by defending the legality of recent measures taken to promote public health in developing countries, and by reminding developed countries that unilateral retaliation against such measures is demonstratably illegal under WTO foundational law and jurisprudence. PMID:19493070

  16. Compulsory drug treatment in Canada: historical origins and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Roberts, Julian V; Kirst, Maritt

    2002-04-01

    In Canada, illicit drug use and addiction have traditionally been considered as a criminal justice problem and have been addressed from a legal perspective. Over the past century, a medical approach to drug addiction has slowly crept into the criminal justice processing of drug offenders. This has happened through the combination of principles of punishment with principles of addiction treatment in the sentencing of drug offenders to create a distinct application of 'compulsory drug treatment' in Canada. However, this evolution has occurred sporadically over time, with punishment and coercion as predominantly the main approach to dealing with this population. This evolution has recently culminated in Canada with the development of two criminal justice approaches to dealing with the substance use problems of drug offenders that incorporate concepts of punishment and treatment more equally than ever before - conditional sentencing and drug courts. This paper outlines the historical evolution of concepts of 'compulsory treatment', discusses such examples of contemporary 'compulsory treatment' as conditional sentencing and drug courts, and analyses the implications, concerns and challenges associated with these tools currently used in the sentencing of drug offenders in the Canadian context. PMID:11979008

  17. Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Mortality: Evidence from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martin; Karlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically, there are several reasons to expect education to have a positive effect on health. Empirical research suggests that education can be an important health determinant. However, it has not yet been established whether education and health are indeed causally related, and the effects found in previous studies may be partially attributable to methodological weaknesses. Moreover, existing evidence on the education-health relationship generally uses information of fairly recent schooling reforms, implying that health outcomes are observed only over a limited time period. This paper examines the effect of education on mortality using information on a national roll-out of a reform leading to one extra year of compulsory schooling in Sweden. In 1936, the national government made a seventh school year compulsory; however, the implementation was decided at the school district level, and the reform was implemented over 12 years. Taking advantage of the variation in the timing of the implementation across school districts, by using county-level proportions of reformed districts, census data and administrative mortality data, we find that the extra compulsory school year reduced mortality. In fact, the mortality reduction is discernible already before the age of 30 and then grows in magnitude until the age of 55–60. PMID:23945539

  18. Compulsory patent licensing and local drug manufacturing capacity in Africa.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji

    2014-03-01

    Africa has the highest disease burden in the world and continues to depend on pharmaceutical imports to meet public health needs. As Asian manufacturers of generic medicines begin to operate under a more protectionist intellectual property regime, their ability to manufacture medicines at prices that are affordable to poorer countries is becoming more circumscribed. The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health gives member states of the World Trade Organization (WTO) the right to adopt legislation permitting the use of patented material without authorization by the patent holder, a provision known as "compulsory licensing". For African countries to take full advantage of compulsory licensing they must develop substantial local manufacturing capacity. Because building manufacturing capacity in each African country is daunting and almost illusory, an African free trade area should be developed to serve as a platform not only for the free movement of goods made pursuant to compulsory licences, but also for an economic or financial collaboration towards the development of strong pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity in the continent. Most countries in Africa are in the United Nations list of least developed countries, and this allows them, under WTO law, to refuse to grant patents for pharmaceuticals until 2021. Thus, there is a compelling need for African countries to collaborate to build strong pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity in the continent now, while the current flexibilities in international intellectual property law offer considerable benefits. PMID:24700981

  19. The Insidious Nature of "Hard-Core" Alternative Conceptions: Implications for the Constructivist Research Programme of Patterns in High School Students' and Pre-Service Teachers' Thinking about Ionisation Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the constructivist research programme (RP) into learning science by comparing patterns in responses from two groups of learners--senior high school students and pre-service teachers--in the same educational context (Singapore), to a diagnostic instrument relating to the topic of ionisation energies. This topic is…

  20. Web-Based New Literacies and EFL Curriculum Design in Teacher Education: A Design Study for Expanding EFL Student Teachers' Language-Related Literacy Practices in an Egyptian Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2011-01-01

    With the dominance of the Web in education and English language learning, new literacies have emerged. This thesis is motivated by the assumption that these literacies need to be integrated into the Egyptian pre-service EFL teacher education programmes so that EFL student teachers can cope with the new reality of language teaching/learning.…

  1. HIV prevalence among high school learners - opportunities for schools-based HIV testing programmes and sexual reproductive health services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young girls in sub Saharan Africa are reported to have higher rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to boys in the same age group. Knowledge of HIV status amongst high schools learners provides an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. This study aimed at determining the HIV prevalence and explored the feasibility of HIV testing among high school learners. Methods Between September 2010 and February 2011, a linked, anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted in two public sector high schools in the rural KwaZulu-Natal midlands. Following written informed consent, dried blood spot samples (DBS) were collected and tested for HIV. The overall and age-specific HIV prevalence were compared with select demographic variables. Results The HIV prevalence in learners aged 12 to 25 in school A was 4.7% (95% CI 2.8-6.5) compared to 2.5% (95% CI 1.6-3.5) in school B, (p = 0.04). Whilst the HIV prevalence was similar for boys at 1.3% (95% CI 0-2.8) in school A and 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-2.8) in school B, the prevalence in girls was consistently higher and was 7.7% (95% CI 4.5-10.9) in school A and 3.2% (95% CI 1.8-4.6) in school B. The age-specific HIV prevalence in girls increased 1.5 to 2 fold for each two year age category, while for boys the prevalence was stable across all age groups. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence in female learners underscores the importance of sexual reproductive health and schools-based HIV testing programs as an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. PMID:22439635

  2. Psychological mechanism linking abusive supervision and compulsory citizenship behavior: a moderated mediation study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Han, Yong; Sheard, Geoff; Hudson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the effect of abusive supervision on the "dark side" of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and, specifically, compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB). The study focuses on the mediating role of psychological safety underpinning the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB, and the moderating role of Chinese traditionality in influencing the mediation. The authors tested the model with data of 434 dyads (employee-coworker pairs) in a large Chinese service company. Results indicated that psychological safety fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB. The authors also found that Chinese traditionality moderated the strength of the mediated relationship between abusive supervision and CCB via psychological safety, such that the mediated relationship is weaker under high Chinese traditionality than under low Chinese traditionality. The article also discusses the implications, limitations, and future research directions. PMID:23469477

  3. Accessibility and implementation in UK services of an effective depression relapse prevention programme – mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT): ASPIRE study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a cost-effective psychosocial prevention programme that helps people with recurrent depression stay well in the long term. It was singled out in the 2009 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Depression Guideline as a key priority for implementation. Despite good evidence and guideline recommendations, its roll-out and accessibility across the UK appears to be limited and inequitably distributed. The study aims to describe the current state of MBCT accessibility and implementation across the UK, develop an explanatory framework of what is hindering and facilitating its progress in different areas, and develop an Implementation Plan and related resources to promote better and more equitable availability and use of MBCT within the UK National Health Service. Methods/Design This project is a two-phase qualitative, exploratory and explanatory research study, using an interview survey and in-depth case studies theoretically underpinned by the Promoting Action on Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. Interviews will be conducted with stakeholders involved in commissioning, managing and implementing MBCT services in each of the four UK countries, and will include areas where MBCT services are being implemented successfully and where implementation is not working well. In-depth case studies will be undertaken on a range of MBCT services to develop a detailed understanding of the barriers and facilitators to implementation. Guided by the study’s conceptual framework, data will be synthesized across Phase 1 and Phase 2 to develop a fit for purpose implementation plan. Discussion Promoting the uptake of evidence-based treatments into routine practice and understanding what influences these processes has the potential to support the adoption and spread of nationally recommended interventions like MBCT. This study could inform a larger scale implementation trial and feed into

  4. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  5. Promoting Well-Being and Preventing Burnout in Teacher Education: A Pilot Study of a Mindfulness-Based Programme for Pre-Service Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Lau, Ngar-sze

    2015-01-01

    The stress that negatively affects teachers has been found to influence the turnover rate in the teaching profession. Recent research has shown that mindfulness-based programmes effectively promote well-being while addressing psychological distress. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of a six-week mindfulness-based programme on…

  6. An update on EUMETSAT programmes and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaes, K. D.; Holmlund, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    EUMETSAT supports operational meteorology and climate monitoring with its mandatory programmes, in the geostationary and polar sun-synchronous orbits. Optional programmes support further tasks like altimetry and oceanography. Satellite data from other agencies' satellites which are of interest to the user community are provided through third party programmes. This paper provides an overview over current EUMETSAT programmes, and the status and plans of future systems. This includes the mandatory geostationary and polar systems, as well as third party and Oceanography missions. Programmes currently under development are the Meteosat Third Generation and EPS Second Generation programmes and also the Oceanography missions related to Jason and Copernicus. Related services are addressed as well.

  7. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. PMID:25727259

  8. Teacher Educators in Post-Compulsory Education: Gender, Discourse and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin; Thompson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Recent research on post-compulsory teacher educators in England suggests that there is a high degree of feminisation of this workforce, particularly where further and higher education partnerships are concerned. This process of feminisation has taken place against a background in which English post-compulsory education has increasingly been…

  9. 37 CFR 254.3 - Compulsory license fees for coin-operated phonorecord players.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phonorecord player shall be $25. (b) Commencing January 1, 1984, the annual compulsory license fee for a coin-operated phonorecord player shall be $50. (c) Commencing January 1, 1987, the annual compulsory license fee for a coin-operated phonorecord player shall be $63. (d) If performances are made available on...

  10. 37 CFR 254.3 - Compulsory license fees for coin-operated phonorecord players.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phonorecord player shall be $25. (b) Commencing January 1, 1984, the annual compulsory license fee for a coin-operated phonorecord player shall be $50. (c) Commencing January 1, 1987, the annual compulsory license fee for a coin-operated phonorecord player shall be $63. (d) If performances are made available on...

  11. 75 FR 75624 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... FR 53198 (August 31, 2010). Section 119(c)(2) requires the Judges annually to adjust these rates ``to... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The...

  12. On Financial Support System for Compulsory Education in China's Western Minority Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinyu, Qi

    2008-01-01

    China's Western Development is a policy adopted to boost its less developed Western regions, that is, a systematic project and a longterm and arduous task. The development of compulsory education in China's minority areas is the key to it. This paper attempts to use the beneficial experience of developing compulsory education support system of…

  13. 47 CFR 0.491 - Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio...

  14. 47 CFR 0.491 - Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio...

  15. 47 CFR 0.491 - Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio...

  16. 47 CFR 0.491 - Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio...

  17. 47 CFR 0.491 - Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio...

  18. 47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto...

  19. What Is the Influence of a Compulsory Attendance Policy on Absenteeism and Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jason L.; Lee-Partridge, Joo Eng; Jarmoszko, A. Tomasz; Petkova, Olga; D'Onofrio, Marianne J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across sections of managerial communication and management information systems classes (N = 212) to test the impact of compulsory attendance policies on student absenteeism and performance. Students in the compulsory attendance policy condition received an attendance policy that punished excessive…

  20. Constitutional Mandate for Free and Compulsory Education: New Light on the Intention of the "Founding Fathers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juneja, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    The original constitutional provision for free and compulsory education, granted under Article 45 stated that it was to be available for "all children until they complete the age of fourteen years", but it did not specify the lower age limit nor the stage of education (whether elementary or primary) that would be free and compulsory.…

  1. The Detrimental Effects of Social Capital on the Balanced Development of Compulsory Education and Their Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongjiao

    2009-01-01

    The balanced development of compulsory education, with a focus on the goal of educational equality, is both a matter of policy orientation and a practical educational issue. At present, people are mostly concerned with the unbalanced state of development of compulsory education, its causes, and issues regarding its administration. Various modes of…

  2. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  3. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  4. Legal Briefing: Mandated Reporters and Compulsory Reporting Duties.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2016-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column, one product of a Greenwall Foundation grant, reviews recent developments concerning compulsory reporting duties. Most licensed clinicians in the United States are "mandated reporters." When these clinicians discover certain threats to the safety of patients or the public, they are legally required to report that information to specified government officials. Over the past year, several states have legislatively expanded the scope of these reporting duties. In other states, new court cases illustrate the vigorous enforcement of already existing duties. I have organized all these legal developments into the following eight categories: 1. Overview of Mandatory Reporting Duties 2. Controversy over the Benefits of Mandatory Reporting 3. New and Expanded Duties to Report 4. Criminal Penalties for Failing to Report 5. Civil Liability for Failing to Report 6. Disciplinary Penalties for Failing to Report 7. Legal Immunity for Good-Faith Reporting 8. Protection against Employers' Retaliation. PMID:27045312

  5. Pleiotropy across academic subjects at the end of compulsory education.

    PubMed

    Rimfeld, Kaili; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that genes play an important role in educational achievement. A key question is the extent to which the same genes affect different academic subjects before and after controlling for general intelligence. The present study investigated genetic and environmental influences on, and links between, the various subjects of the age-16 UK-wide standardized GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) examination results for 12,632 twins. Using the twin method that compares identical and non-identical twins, we found that all GCSE subjects were substantially heritable, and that various academic subjects correlated substantially both phenotypically and genetically, even after controlling for intelligence. Further evidence for pleiotropy in academic achievement was found using a method based directly on DNA from unrelated individuals. We conclude that performance differences for all subjects are highly heritable at the end of compulsory education and that many of the same genes affect different subjects independent of intelligence. PMID:26203819

  6. Pleiotropy across academic subjects at the end of compulsory education

    PubMed Central

    Rimfeld, Kaili; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that genes play an important role in educational achievement. A key question is the extent to which the same genes affect different academic subjects before and after controlling for general intelligence. The present study investigated genetic and environmental influences on, and links between, the various subjects of the age-16 UK-wide standardized GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) examination results for 12,632 twins. Using the twin method that compares identical and non-identical twins, we found that all GCSE subjects were substantially heritable, and that various academic subjects correlated substantially both phenotypically and genetically, even after controlling for intelligence. Further evidence for pleiotropy in academic achievement was found using a method based directly on DNA from unrelated individuals. We conclude that performance differences for all subjects are highly heritable at the end of compulsory education and that many of the same genes affect different subjects independent of intelligence. PMID:26203819

  7. Programmable Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Lee, Clement G.; Nguyen, Huy

    2011-01-01

    A programmable oscillator is a frequency synthesizer with an output phase that tracks an arbitrary function. An offset, phase-locked loop circuit is used in combination with an error control feedback loop to precisely control the output phase of the oscillator. To down-convert the received signal, several stages of mixing may be employed with the compensation for the time-base distortion of the carrier occurring at any one of those stages. In the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), the compensation occurs in the mixing from an intermediate frequency (IF), whose value is dependent on the station and band, to a common IF used in the final stage of down-conversion to baseband. The programmable oscillator (PO) is used in the final stage of down-conversion to generate the IF, along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier, thus removing it from the final down-converted signal.

  8. [The historical development of immunization in Germany. From compulsory smallpox vaccination to a National Action Plan on Immunization].

    PubMed

    Klein, S; Schöneberg, I; Krause, G

    2012-11-01

    In the German Reich, smallpox vaccinations were organized by the state. A mandatory vaccination throughout the empire was introduced in 1874, which was continued in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1982/1983. From 1935, health departments were responsible for vaccinations. In the GDR, immunization was tightly organized: The state made great efforts to achieve high vaccination rates. Responsibilities were clearly defined at all levels and for all ages. While vaccination was initially mandatory only at the regional level, the legally mandated immunization schedule later contained compulsory vaccinations, e.g., against measles. In the beginning there were mandatory vaccinations in the FRG at the Länder level. Since 1961, the Federal Epidemics Act has impeded obligatory vaccinations. Instead, voluntary vaccinations based on recommendations were stressed. Since the 1980s, vaccinations have been shifted from the public health service sector to office-based physicians. Today, public health authorities offer mainly supplementary vaccinations. In 2007, protective immunizations were introduced as compulsory benefits of the statutory health insurance (SHI). Recently, the German federal states developed a National Vaccination Plan to support immunization strategies. PMID:23114451

  9. How is the sustainability of chronic disease health programmes empirically measured in hospital and related healthcare services?—a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Linda; Dunt, David; Cadilhac, Dominique A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Programmes to address chronic disease are a focus of governments worldwide. Despite growth in ‘implementation science’, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding the best means to measure sustainability. The aim of this review was to summarise current practice for measuring sustainability outcomes of chronic disease health programmes, providing guidance for programme planners and future directions for the academic field. Settings A scoping review of the literature spanning 1985–2015 was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and The Cochrane Library limited to English language and adults. Main search terms included chronic disease, acute care, sustainability, institutionalisation and health planning. A descriptive synthesis was required. Settings included primary care, hospitals, mental health centres and community health. Participants Programmes included preventing or managing chronic conditions including diabetes, heart disease, depression, respiratory disease, cancer, obesity, dental hygiene and multiple chronic diseases. Primary and secondary outcome measures Outcome measures included clarifying a sustainability definition, types of methodologies used, timelines for assessment, criteria levels to determine outcomes and how methodology varies between intervention types. Results Among 153 abstracts retrieved, 87 were retained for full article review and 42 included in the qualitative synthesis. Five definitions for sustainability outcome were identified with ‘maintenance of programme activities’ most frequent. Achieving sustainability was dependent on inter-relationships between various organisational and social contexts supporting a broad scale approach to evaluation. An increasing trend in use of mixed methods designs over multiple time points to determine sustainability outcomes was found. Conclusions Despite the importance and investment in chronic disease programmes, few studies are undertaken to measure sustainability. Methods to

  10. Columbus Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Frederik

    1993-03-01

    The main activities of the Columbus Programme over the last year are examined. The Attached Laboratory, after a successful achievement of the cost target by downsizing and subsystem simplification, progressed to its final configuration review, interface definition, and schedule tuning. The Free-Flyer, after the decision to abandon the complex technical and operational interface associated with servicing at the Space Station Freedom, was baselined for the Hermes servicing, supported, as a backup, by Space Shuttle servicing. Finally, the Polar Platform baseline and costs were confirmed and consolidated for the full development start. Present program activities include the start in the development of the Attached Laboratory, which is linked to space programs of the U.S.A., Japan, and Canada. Other activities investigated include studies of the potential of using Russian orbital elements to augment the Free-Flyer capabilities.

  11. 76 FR 2801 - Revocation and Establishment of Compulsory Reporting Points; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ...This action removes and establishes high altitude Alaskan compulsory reporting points in the vicinity of the United States (U.S.) and Canadian border. Specifically, the FAA is removing BORAN and establishing the TOVAD reporting...

  12. [Compulsory treatment under legal uncertainty: part 1: the current legal situation on compulsory treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders incapable of consenting].

    PubMed

    Müller, S; Walter, H; Kunze, H; Konrad, N; Heinz, A

    2012-09-01

    A series of recent court decisions have been concerned with the compulsory treatment of patients with mental disorders who are incapable of giving consent. This article describes the current legal situation on compulsory treatment for different cases to achieve the aim of internment, endangerment to third parties, self-endangerment, for intercurrent diseases and to achieve the aim of therapy. The verdicts contribute on the one hand to strengthen patient autonomy against governmental or medical paternalism. On the other hand the verdicts have effected a substantial legal uncertainty with the undesired indirect consequence that fixation will probably be used more often. PMID:22911322

  13. Exploring Service Logic in ESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2013-01-01

    ESL is both a professional educational service and, particularly in post-compulsory contexts, a commercial activity. The effective management of ESL programs can secure quality outcomes for practitioners and students. Nevertheless, writings on ESL management do not figure prominently in the literature. In particular, the association between…

  14. Medical student attendance at non-compulsory lectures.

    PubMed

    Mattick, Karen; Crocker, Graham; Bligh, John

    2007-05-01

    The General Medical Council in the UK recommends that undergraduate medical students be exposed to a variety of learning opportunities and increasingly take responsibility for their own learning. This study presents quantitative and qualitative data relating to attendance at non-compulsory plenary lectures in order to understand factors affecting the value placed by students on this component of the first 2 years of a contemporary medical curriculum. Attendance data were available for 87% first year and 78% second year plenary lectures. There was no difference in attendance at lectures that were delivered telematically to a remote site when compared with those where the speaker was present. There were markedly more students attending lectures at the beginning of the first academic year, with numbers decreasing as the year progressed. More first year students attended lectures on biomedical science and clinically focussed topics than on human science and public health whereas second year student attendance was similar across topics. Reasons given for non-attendance at plenary sessions fell into "student-related" factors (e.g. dislike of lecture-based learning) and "teaching-related" factors (e.g. perceived variable quality of lectures). This study confirms that some students value lectures highly as a method to supplement other learning opportunities, whereas others find they learn better by other means. PMID:17041787

  15. The Scientific Return of VLT Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterzik, M.; Dumas, C.; Grothkopf, U.; Kaufer, A.; Leibundgut, B.; Marteau, S.; Meakins, S.; Patat, F.; Primas, F.; Rejkuba, M.; Romaniello, M.; Stoehr, F.; Tacconi-Garman, L.; Vera, I.

    2015-12-01

    An in-depth analysis of the publications from 8414 distinct scheduled VLT observing programmes between April 1999 and March 2015 (Periods 63 to 94) is presented. The productivity by mode (Visitor or Service Mode) and type (Normal and Large, Guaranteed Time, Target of Opportunity, Director's Discretionary Time) are examined through their publication records. We investigate how Service Mode rank classes impact the scientific return. Several results derive from this study: Large Programmes result in the highest productivity, whereas only about half of all scheduled observing programmes produce a refereed publication. Programmes that result in a publication yield on average two refereed papers. B rank class Service Mode Programmes appear to be slightly less productive. Follow-up studies will investigate in more detail the parameters that influence the productivity of the Observatory.

  16. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  17. Are recent graduates enough prepared to perform obstetric skills in their rural and compulsory year? A study from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez del Hierro, Galo; Remmen, Roy; Verhoeven, Veronique; Van Royen, Paul; Hendrickx, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the possible mismatch of obstetrical skills between the training offered in Ecuadorian medical schools and the tasks required for compulsory rural service. Setting Primary care, rural health centres in Southern Ecuador. Participants A total of 92 recent graduated medical doctors during their compulsory rural year. Primary and secondary outcomes measures A web-based survey was developed with 21 obstetrical skills. The questionnaire was sent to all rural doctors who work in Loja province, Southern Ecuador, at the Ministry of Health (n=92). We measured two categories ‘importance of skills in rural practice’ with a five-point Likert-type scale (1= strongly disagree; 5= strongly agree); and ‘clerkship experience’ using a nominal scale divided in five levels: level 1 (not seen, not performed) to level 5 (performed 10 times or more). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to observe associations. Results A negative correlation was found in the skills: ‘episiotomy and repair’, ‘umbilical vein catheterisation’, ‘speculum examination’, ‘evaluation of cervical dilation during active labour’, ‘neonatal resuscitation’ and ‘vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery’. For instance ‘Episiotomy and repair’ is important (strongly agree and agree) to 100% of respondents, but in practice, only 38.9% of rural doctors performed the task three times and 8.3% only once during the internship, similar pattern is seen in the others. Conclusions In this study we have noted the gap between the medical needs of populations in rural areas and training provided during the clerkship experiences of physicians during their rural service year. It is imperative to ensure that rural doctors are appropriately trained and skilled in the performance of routine obstetrical duties. This will help to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality in rural Ecuador. PMID:25082424

  18. The compliant court--procedural fairness and social control in compulsory community care.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Liv; Sjöström, Stefan; Markström, Urban

    2014-01-01

    Compulsory community care (CCC) was introduced in Sweden in 2008. This article investigates all written court decisions regarding CCC over a 6 month period in 2009 (N=541). The purpose is to examine how the legal rights of patients are protected and what forms of social control patients are subjected to. 51% of CCC patients are women and 84% are being treated for a psychosis-related disorder. In the court decisions, only 9% of patients are described as dangerous to themselves, while 18% are regarded a danger to others. The most common special provisions that patients are subjected to are medication (79%) and a requirement that they must maintain contact with either community mental health services (51%) or social services (27%). In the decisions, both the courts and court-appointed psychiatrists agree with treating psychiatrists in 99% of cases. Decisions lack transparency and clarity, and it is often impossible to understand the conclusions of the courts. There is considerable variation between regional courts as regards the provisions to which patients are subjected and the delegation of decision-making to psychiatrists. This means that decisions fail to demonstrate clarity, transparency, consistency and impartiality, and thus fail to meet established standards of procedural fairness. Surveillance techniques of social control are more common than techniques based on therapy or sanctions. Because of the unique role of medication, social control is primarily imposed on a physical dimension, as opposed to temporal and spatial forms. The article concludes that patients are at risk of being subjected to new forms of social control of an unclear nature without proper legal protection. PMID:24656218

  19. Endorsement of Compulsory HIV Vaccination Policy among Populations at High Risk of HIV Exposure (LA VOICES)

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Peter A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rudy, Ellen T.; Diamant, Allison; Duan, Naihua; Nakazano, Terry; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Compulsory vaccination is a frequently implemented policy option for ensuring comprehensive vaccine coverage. Ongoing controversies around human papillomavirus vaccine dissemination, and suboptimal coverage, suggest the value of assessing acceptability of compulsory vaccinations—particularly among likely target populations—in advance of their public availability to support evidence-informed interventions. With the first HIV vaccine to demonstrate partial efficacy in a large-scale clinical trial, we examined individual characteristics and attitudes associated with support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy among a diverse, representative sample of adults attending probable HIV vaccine dissemination venues in a large urban county. Participants were recruited using three-stage probability sampling from likely venues for future HIV vaccine dissemination. We used Audio-CASI to administer a 60-minute structured questionnaire. Items included endorsement of compulsory HIV vaccination policy, sociodemographic characteristics, injecting drug use, vaccine attitudes and perceived HIV risk. Among 1225 participants (mean age = 36.8 years; 55.6% males, 37.6% non-English speaking Hispanic, 78.8% heterosexual, 25.7% injection drug users), almost half (48.2%) endorsed a compulsory HIV vaccination policy. Non-English speaking Hispanics compared to whites, participants with less than high school education, higher positive vaccine attitude scores and higher perceived HIV risk were significantly more likely, and people who inject drugs significantly less likely to endorse compulsory HIV vaccination. Public health interventions to promote positive vaccine attitudes and accurate perceptions of HIV risk among vulnerable populations, and strategies tailored for people who inject drugs, may build support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy and promote broad HIV vaccine coverage. PMID:24464325

  20. Endorsement of compulsory HIV vaccination policy among populations at high risk of HIV exposure (LA VOICES).

    PubMed

    Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rudy, Ellen T; Diamant, Allison; Duan, Naihua; Nakazono, Terry; Nakazano, Terry; Cunningham, William E

    2014-06-01

    Compulsory vaccination is a frequently implemented policy option for ensuring comprehensive vaccine coverage. Ongoing controversies around human papillomavirus vaccine dissemination, and suboptimal coverage, suggest the value of assessing acceptability of compulsory vaccinations-particularly among likely target populations-in advance of their public availability to support evidence-informed interventions. With the first HIV vaccine to demonstrate partial efficacy in a large-scale clinical trial, we examined individual characteristics and attitudes associated with support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy among a diverse, representative sample of adults attending probable HIV vaccine dissemination venues in a large urban county. Participants were recruited using three-stage probability sampling from likely venues for future HIV vaccine dissemination. We used Audio-CASI to administer a 60-min structured questionnaire. Items included endorsement of compulsory HIV vaccination policy, sociodemographic characteristics, injecting drug use, vaccine attitudes and perceived HIV risk. Among 1,225 participants (mean age = 36.8 years; 55.6 % males, 37.6 % non-English speaking Hispanic, 78.8 % heterosexual, 25.7 % injection drug users), almost half (48.2 %) endorsed a compulsory HIV vaccination policy. Non-English speaking Hispanics compared to whites, participants with less than high school education, higher positive vaccine attitude scores and higher perceived HIV risk were significantly more likely, and people who inject drugs significantly less likely to endorse compulsory HIV vaccination. Public health interventions to promote positive vaccine attitudes and accurate perceptions of HIV risk among vulnerable populations, and strategies tailored for people who inject drugs, may build support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy and promote broad HIV vaccine coverage. PMID:24464325

  1. The DUNDRUM Quartet: validation of structured professional judgement instruments DUNDRUM-3 assessment of programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 assessment of recovery in forensic mental health services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland's only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.911 and 0.887). Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p < 0.001). Scores also distinguished those in acute/high security units from those in medium or in low secure/pre-discharge units. Each individual item distinguished these levels of need significantly. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 correlated moderately with measures of dynamic risk and with the CANFOR staff rated unmet need (Spearman r = 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway. PMID:21722396

  2. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  3. Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. Methods We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. Results In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. Conclusion These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22014093

  4. Translating research into practice: the introduction of the INTERGROWTH-21st package of clinical standards, tools and guidelines into policies, programmes and services.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, A; Caglia, J M; Dhillon, S; Hirst, J; Cheikh Ismail, L; Abawi, K; Kac, G; Al Dhaheri, A S; Villar, J; Kennedy, S; Langer, A

    2013-09-01

    The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project has generated a package of international clinical standards, tools and guidelines. It is now necessary to plan for the next phase of the project: the translation of the research findings into practice through its global dissemination. The plan is to pre-empt barriers to implementation by drawing from the published literature; gathering views and perspectives from policy makers, programmers and practitioners; incorporating input from local 'champions', and collecting and analysing data generated by a monitoring and evaluation system. Working at the global, regional, national and local levels will enable wide dissemination of the package, as well as increase the scope for adaptation and integration in diverse clinical contexts. We seek maximum uptake of the package in policies, guidelines and clinical practice to improve the quality of care offered to mothers and newborns. The strategy will also enhance our understanding of the effectiveness of different approaches to the translation of evidence into practice. PMID:24028081

  5. Evaluation of Water Sanitation Health Education Programme: Working with the Knowledge of the Basic Sanitation Services in a Developing Community in Rural Haiti after the 2010 Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, VE; Calderón-Alicea, W; Castillo, R; Cintrón-García, JJ; Cintrón-García, JJ; Cruz, L Colón; Hernández-Muñoz, A; Irizarry-Pérez, I; Lockward, I; Neste-Laboy, C; Ortíz-León, M; Peréz-Homar, A; Pérez, J; Ramírez-López, W; Rivera, L; Scholz, D; Soto-Ortíz, M; Torres-García, A

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to measure the knowledge regarding the new sanitation water system being implemented in Dessources, a rural community in the municipality of Croix-des-Bouquets in Haiti after a two-year intervention programme. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiologic design was used to measure the knowledge of the people in the community using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data collection followed a face-to-face interview process in all houses of the community. The instrument content validity was performed by a panel of experts followed by Cronbach's alpha test to establish the reliability of knowledge scale. In addition, association measures were done using Stata 11.0 statistical package. Results: Content validity tests were performed with minimum changes and an alpha of 0.74 was obtained for the scale. Response rate was 65.57% (41/60 houses); non-participants were only those who did not meet the inclusion criteria. Most of the participants (77.5%) were 21–49 years old and 85% had been living in the community for more than 20 years. Bivariate analysis showed that the people of Dessources had adequate knowledge. Significant differences, however, were found among the zones that are not in use of the new sanitary systems and among families with more than seven members per house. Conclusions: Differences found can be explained based on the Rogers theoretical diffusion of innovation model. The evaluation shows that people of Dessources in Haiti have a high knowledge regarding the new water sanitation system and provides evidence of an adequate health education programme intervention. PMID:26237369

  6. Access to medicines and domestic compulsory licensing: learning from Canada and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kuek, V; Phillips, K; Kohler, J C

    2011-01-01

    Within the array of measures for improving medicines access for the world's neediest populations, governments of many countries have turned to compulsory licensing, a statutory mechanism to enable third parties to manufacture a product or process still under patent. In this paper, we focus on a historic case example from Canada and the present example of Thailand's use of domestic compulsory licenses as a policy tool for ensuring public access to affordable medicines. The overarching objective is to draw out policy and legislative insights that may be of value for countries with pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity and which are considering better access to patented medicines for their populations under the current global intellectual property regime. From these cases, it is apparent that although compulsory licensing is not a novel remedy, even in a post-Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights environment, it remains a powerful policy tool in improving access to medicines in a variety of domestic settings. PMID:20234967

  7. Education for All: Quasi-Experimental Estimates of the Impacts of Compulsory Primary Education in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Dongshu

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the causal impacts of Hong Kong's 1971 policy of free compulsory education on students' educational attainment. Using a regression discontinuity method and Hong Kong Census data, this study compares children born just before and just after the month in which the compulsory-education law came into effect. The results…

  8. Orphanhood and Completion of Compulsory School Education among Young People in South Africa: Findings from a National Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; Rees, Helen; MacPhail, Catherine; Pettifor, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were…

  9. ‘Our Care through Our Eyes’: a mixed-methods, evaluative study of a service-user, co-produced education programme to improve inpatient care of children and young people admitted following self-harm

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Asam; Carter, Tim; Cooper, Joanne; Horsley, Angela; Armstrong, Marie; Wharrad, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Within Europe, the UK has one of the highest rates of self-harm, with a particularly high prevalence in children and young people (CYP). CYP who are admitted to paediatric hospital wards with self-harm are cared for by registered children's nurses who have been identified to lack specific training in caring for this patient group. This may impede the delivery of high quality care. Therefore, this study aims to co-produce, implement and evaluate an education programme for registered children's nurses to improve their knowledge, attitudes and confidence when caring for CYP admitted with self-harm. Methods and analysis This mixed-methods evaluative study will involve a three-stage design. Stage 1: A priority-setting workshop will be conducted with 19 registered children's nurses. A Delphi technique will be used to establish consensus of information needs. Stage 2: An online educational intervention will be co-produced with 25 CYP and 19 registered children's nurses based on the priorities identified in Stage 1. Stage 3: The intervention will be implemented and evaluated with 250 registered children's nurses at a single hospital. Online Likert scale questionnaires will be administered at baseline and postintervention to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and confidence in caring for CYP who self-harm. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to analyse the data. Statistical significance will be assessed at the 5% (two-sided) level. One-to-one qualitative interviews will also be undertaken with approximately 25 participants to explore any perceived impact on clinical practice. An interpretive descriptive approach will guide qualitative data collection and analysis. Ethics and dissemination This study aims to develop, trial and evaluative a service-user, co-produced education programme for acute hospital registered children's nurses to improve the care of CYP admitted due to self-harm. The study has ethical approval from the National Health

  10. Determining the Need for Vocational Counselling among Different Target Groups of Young People under 28 Years of Age in the European Community. Young People's Need for Vocational Guidance in Greece. The Young Population in General. Young People Who Leave School without Completing Compulsory Education. Young Women with No Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanni-Teliopoulou, Kassandra; Stathakopoulou, Penelope

    A study examined the vocational guidance needs of young people in Greece. Available literature on the following topics was reviewed: transitions of young people to economically active life; available vocational guidance services; transitions of youth from education to work; youths who abandon compulsory education; and young women with…

  11. The Development of an Alternative In-Service Programme for Korean Science Teachers with an Emphasis on Science-Technology-Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jungil

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of a science-technology-society (STS) in-service program designed to change teachers' awareness and practice of STS/constructivist approaches while also focusing on students' understanding and changes of perceptions of the constructivist learning environment. Reports that the STS program improved teachers' awareness and…

  12. Training Information Service Specialists in the Less-Favoured Regions of the European Union (TRAIN-ISS): The Diploma/MSc Programme at the University of Sheffield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Ian; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The primary aim of the training information specialists (TRAIN-ISS) program at the University of Sheffield's Department of Information Studies was to train information service specialists from the less favored regions of the European Union. Describes the course design; selection of participants; student assessment, support, and placement; program…

  13. Can vouchers make a difference to the use of private primary care services by older people? Experience from the healthcare reform programme in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As part of its ongoing healthcare reform, the Hong Kong Government introduced a voucher scheme, intended for encouraging older patients to use primary healthcare services in the private sector, thereby, reducing burden on the overwhelmed public sector. The voucher program is also considered one of the strategies to further develop the public private partnership in healthcare, a policy direction of high political priority as indicated in the Chief Executive Policy Address in 2008-09. This study assessed whether the voucher scheme, as implemented so far, has reached its intended goals, and how it might be further improved in the context of public-private partnership. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires by face-to-face interviews with older people aged 70 or above in Hong Kong, the target group of the demand-side voucher program. Results 71.2% of 1,026 older people were aware of the new voucher scheme but only 35.0% had ever used it. The majority of the older people used the vouchers for acute curative services in the private sector (82.4%) and spent less on preventive services. Despite the provision of vouchers valued US$30 per year as an incentive to encourage the use of private primary care services, after 12-months of implementation, 66.2% of all respondents agreed with the statement that "the voucher scheme does not change their health seeking behaviours on seeing public or private healthcare professionals". The most common reasons for no change in their behaviours included "I am used to seeing doctors in the public system" and "The amount of the subsidy is too low". Those who usually used a mix of public and private doctors and those with better self-reported health condition compared to last year were more likely to perceive a change in their own health seeking behaviours. Conclusions Our study showed that despite a reasonably high awareness of the voucher scheme, its usage was low. The voucher alone was not

  14. A comparison of mean glandular dose diagnostic reference levels within the all-digital Irish National Breast Screening Programme and the Irish Symptomatic Breast Services.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Desiree; Rainford, Louise

    2013-03-01

    Data on image quality, compression and radiation dose were collected from symptomatic breast units within the Republic of Ireland. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS. Recommendations of mean glandular dose (MGD) diagnostic reference levels were made at various levels for film-screen and full field digital mammography units to match levels published worldwide. MGDs received by symptomatic breast patients within Ireland are higher than those received in the all-digital Irish Breast Screening service; 55-65 mm breast: 1.75 mGy (screening) vs. 2.4 mGy (symptomatic) at the 95th percentile; various reasons are proposed for the differences. MGDs achieved in the screening service may be lower because of the exacting requirements for radiographer training, characteristics of the patients and equipment quality assurance levels. More precise imaging guidelines, standards and training of symptomatic radiographers performing mammography are suggested to remediate MGDs delivered to the breasts of Irish women attending the symptomatic breast services. PMID:22740646

  15. The same but different: discussing the literature regarding mental health nurses' difficulty in meeting the physical health needs of service users, regardless of differing education programmes.

    PubMed

    Walker, S; McAndrew, S

    2015-10-01

    In the Western world, there is increasing concern regarding the ability of health care professionals to meet the physical health care needs of those diagnosed with mental illness. This discussion paper seeks to explore some of the issues facing mental health nurses in delivering care to those who have both mental and physical illness. Criticism of the National Health Service for failing to meet the physical health needs of people with serious mental illness has generated a number of political strategies aimed at addressing inequalities between mental and physical health care, a consequence being a change in pre-registration nurse education. It is envisaged that such changes will enable all nurses to deliver safe, effective care to service users, with adult and mental health nurses being more adept at meeting both the mental and physical health needs of those in their care. The impact of three key areas identified within the literature will be considered: the impact of co-existing physical and mental illness; the role of mental health nurses and perceptions of service users re physical health care; and education, training and learning from others in the Western world. In conclusion, the complexities of delivering such care will be addressed. PMID:26337595

  16. "Knowledge, attitude, behavior and practice (KABP) regarding HIV/AIDS among pregnant women attending PPTCT programme in New Delhi".

    PubMed

    Rahbar, T; Garg, S; Tripathi, R; Gupta, V K; Singh, M M

    2007-09-01

    In India, several thousand HIV-infected babies are expected to be born every year. Despite effective intervention, the identification of HIV infected pregnant women prior to delivery is a major problem. KABP and acceptance of rapid screening of women for HIV among pregnant women attending ANC clinic and availing Voluntary Counselling and Confidential Testing services was assessed. The study was done among 90 pregnant women. There was no significant difference between one's husbands's job and income with respect to pregnant women's awareness of risk factors except that of tattooing. Education level had significant bearing on awareness level. Attitude about PLWHA indicates that 29% of the participants believed individuals with HIV shouldn't be allowed to get married, while 31% saying that they should not be allowed to have children. Participants supported compulsory HIV testing for pregnant women (39%) and couples before marriage. Almost 96% of participants had unprotected sex, though 41% casually used condom. All denied herself or her husband indulging in extramarital sex. The country is about to embark on its prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programme. This study throws some light on the level of knowledge acceptability and adoption of VCT and other PMTCT strategies among potential beneficiaries. PMID:18697582

  17. Critical Review of Language Education Policies in Compulsory Primary and Secondary Education in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipovic, Jelena; Vuco, Julijana; Djuric, Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a comparative analysis of the status of four types of languages present in the Serbian compulsory education system is presented: (1) Serbian as L1; (2) Serbian as L2 (for ethnic minorities); (3) minority languages; as well as (4) traditionally designated "foreign languages", such as English, French, Russian and German, through the…

  18. Instructional Leadership in Compulsory Schools in Iceland and the Role of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Börkur; Lárusdóttir, Steinunn Helga

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a study of instructional leadership in 20 Icelandic compulsory schools. More specifically, the perceptions of staff concerning supervision of instruction, and the views of principals regarding their role as supervisors of instructional development. Data was collected with questionnaires from…

  19. Reconsidering Compulsory English in Developing Countries in Asia: English in a Community of Northeast Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the issue of compulsory English in the Asia-Pacific region and examines the English component of a single-site exploratory study of multilingualism in a disadvantaged ethnic minority (DEM) community of Northeast Thailand. The concept of ethnolinguistic vitality was used as a framework for an analysis of community language…

  20. 76 FR 590 - Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and Distributing Phonorecords

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ..., starting in the year 2006. A proceeding was commenced in 2006, 71 FR 1454 (January 9, 2006); on ] January... FR 4510 (January 26, 2009). Thus, in accordance with section 804(b)(4), a party may file a petition... Copyright Royalty Board Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and...

  1. The Ideology of Innovation Education and Its Emergence as a New Subject in Compulsory Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Svanborg R.; Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Page, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Innovation Education and Practical Use of Knowledge was introduced into the Icelandic National Curriculum for compulsory schools in 1999, where it is defined by the curriculum writers as a "school subject" but is not allocated any direct time in the recommended guidelines for subjects. This paper describes a master's research project…

  2. School Socioeconomic Context and Teacher Job Satisfaction in Japanese Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Sociologists in education have pointed out disparities associated with socioeconomic status (SES) in the Japanese compulsory education system that was once regarded as egalitarian. In addition to disparities between individual students, prior studies have empirically shown SES-based disparities among schools on important indicators such as…

  3. Gender differences in recovery consequences among heroin dependent patients after compulsory treatment programs

    PubMed Central

    Haifeng, Jiang; Di, Liang; Jiang, Du; Haiming, Sun; Zhikang, Chen; Liming, Fu; Min, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Studies on recovery patterns and how baseline factors influence recovery consequences among heroin dependent patients have shown mixed results. This study is aimed at describing the gender differences in long-term recovery patterns and exploring the predictors of negative recovery consequences by gender among heroin dependent patients in Shanghai, China. At baseline, this study recruited 503 heroin dependent patients discharged from Shanghai compulsory rehabilitation facilities in 2007 and 2008. In this cohort study, the baseline data was then linked with participants’ 5-year follow-up data from official records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to compare males with females in terms of the presence of negative consequences (incarceration, or readmission to compulsory treatment, or both), in the subsequent 5-years after their discharge from compulsory treatment. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to explore factors associated to the time length of negative consequences in 5 years after the discharge for males and females separately. Our findings indicate that female heroin dependent patients tend to have less negative recovery outcomes than male patients. Male patients with a life-time history of poly drug use and female patients with borderline personality disorder are especially at risk of incarceration and readmission into compulsory treatment programs. PMID:26644283

  4. A Compulsory Bioethics Module for a Large Final Year Undergraduate Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes a compulsory bioethics module delivered to [approximately] 120 biology students in their final year. The main intended learning outcome is that students should be able to analyse and reason about bioethical issues. Interactive lectures explain and illustrate bioethics. Underlying principles and example issues are used to…

  5. 18 CFR 1b.15 - Non-compliance with compulsory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-compliance with compulsory processes. 1b.15 Section 1b.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.15 Non-compliance...

  6. The Development of Reasoning Skills during Compulsory 16 to 18 Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attridge, Nina; Doritou, Maria; Inglis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The belief that studying mathematics improves reasoning skills, known as the Theory of Formal Discipline (TFD), has been held since the time of Plato. Research evidence supports this idea, at least in the context of students who had chosen to study post-compulsory mathematics. Here we examined the development of reasoning skills in 16- to…

  7. The Convergence of Compulsory Schooling in Western Europe: 1950-2000. CEE DP 95

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtin, Fabrice; Viarengo, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The expansion of compulsory schooling after the Second World War represented an important reform common to the majority of European countries. Specifically, over the period 1950-2000, the fifteen Western European countries considered in this study have extended the school-leaving age by one year or longer. Interestingly, this change in legislation…

  8. Evaluating the Impact of National Educational Policy to Reduce Retention and Increase Achievement in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, M. Clara; Calheiros, M. Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João; Lima, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence that retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful remedial strategy, several countries struggle with high levels of retention in compulsory schooling. This article provides evidence of the impact of the Portuguese national educational policy "Programa Mais Sucesso Escolar" (PMSE) using class size,…

  9. Research Engagement as Identity Construction: Hong Kong Preservice Teachers' Experiences of a Compulsory Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative study that examined the experiences of six preservice English language teachers in Hong Kong as they prepared for, engaged in, and reflected upon a compulsory research project during the final year of their Bachelor of Education degree program. Drawing upon in-depth interviews and using methods of…

  10. The Associations between Structural Treatment Characteristics and Post-Treatment Functioning in Compulsory Residential Youth Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Veerman, Jan W.; van Dam, Coleta; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2005 a new compulsory residential treatment program was developed for adolescents in need for protection against themselves or their environment. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of structural treatment characteristics of this new residential treatment program (i.e., duration of treatment,…

  11. Gendered Post-Compulsory Educational Choices of Non-Heterosexual Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Gender and socio-economic background are widely acknowledged factors influencing the educational choices of young people. Following their compulsory education, young people in Finland choose between academically oriented general upper secondary schools and vocational upper secondary schools. Gender and class intertwine in these choices in many…

  12. Measuring Determinants of Post-Compulsory Participation in Science: A Comparative Study Using National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Matt; Ryder, Jim; Banner, Indira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing post-compulsory participation in science and science-related subjects is seen as a key education policy priority in England and more widely. This paper uses descriptive analysis of national data to investigate the effects of science attainment at 16, gender, socio-economic status, and school science pathway on progression into post-16…

  13. 41 CFR 60-40.3 - Information exempt from compulsory disclosure and which may be withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Information exempt from compulsory disclosure and which may be withheld. 60-40.3 Section 60-40.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT...

  14. 41 CFR 60-40.3 - Information exempt from compulsory disclosure and which may be withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information exempt from compulsory disclosure and which may be withheld. 60-40.3 Section 60-40.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY,...

  15. 41 CFR 60-40.3 - Information exempt from compulsory disclosure and which may be withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information exempt from compulsory disclosure and which may be withheld. 60-40.3 Section 60-40.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY,...

  16. 41 CFR 60-40.3 - Information exempt from compulsory disclosure and which may be withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Information exempt from compulsory disclosure and which may be withheld. 60-40.3 Section 60-40.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT...

  17. Disparities between Schools in Japanese Compulsory Education: Analyses of a Cohort Using TIMSS 2007 and 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Ryoji

    2014-01-01

    Japanese compulsory education had been praised because of its equality around the early 80s. However, since the third wave-educational reform that began in the 1980s and still persists, it has been pointed out that there are disparities between schools in terms of students' socioeconomic background and academic performance. Although there have…

  18. Education for Work: The Current Dilemma of Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    The human capital emphasis in recent economic planning is leading to new pressures on the post-compulsory education sector where work-readiness is emerging as a major focus. With concerns about the impact of demographic change as the population ages, there is a renewed emphasis on greater productivity from and less wastage of human capital. Hence…

  19. National Assessment of Writing Proficiency among Norwegian Students in Compulsory Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Rolf B.; Thygesen, Ragnar; Berge, Kjell Lars; Evensen, Lars Sigfred; Vagle, Wenche

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses a government-initiated nationwide assessment of writing proficiency among Norwegian compulsory school students. A sample-study of 7th and 10th grade students are discussed and reported with regard to challenges in measuring writing skills in a valid and reliable manner. For the 7th graders the results showed a…

  20. Compulsory Literacy and Numeracy Exit Standards for Senior Secondary Students: The Right Direction for Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Care, Esther; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An overview of positive and negative potential effects of the setting of compulsory exit-level standards in literacy and numeracy for students completing their final years of schooling is presented. The overview rests on studies completed primarily outside Australia, reflecting the reality of such practices not having been implemented widely in…

  1. VET in Schools: A Post-Compulsory Education Perspective. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polesel, John; Helme, Sue; Davies, Merryn; Teese, Richard; Nicholas, Tanya; Vickers, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "VET in Schools: A Post-Compulsory Education Perspective," and is an added resource for further information. This support document presents the following appendixes: (1) Issues Paper; (2) Brief for TAFE Paper; (3) Partner TAFE Submission--The Role of TAFE in Catering…

  2. 16 CFR 5.61 - Prehearing procedures; motions; interlocutory appeals; summary decision; discovery; compulsory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prehearing procedures; motions; interlocutory appeals; summary decision; discovery; compulsory process. 5.61 Section 5.61 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict...

  3. Leadership in Post-Compulsory Education: Inspiring Leaders of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Based around case studies of current leaders in post-compulsory education, this book explores a number of leadership models and styles in order to provide inspiration and guidance for the next wave of potential leaders. After an introduction, the book is divided into four parts and 18 chapters. Part One contains: (1) Leadership in Post-Compulsory…

  4. Reform of the Educational Finance System as the Foundation of Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suetomi, Kaori; Murray, Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    The conditions required for a reform of the educational finance system as the foundation of compulsory education are 1) devolution to schools and introduction of national standards in order to deal with "individual equality" while compensating for the insufficiency of "aspectual equality," and 2) dealing with educational needs…

  5. Compulsory School Attendance and Truancy Laws. Information Memorandum 98-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Legislative Council, Madison.

    This information memorandum describes Wisconsin laws relating to compulsory school attendance and truancy. It outlines school-attendance requirements, exceptions, and alternatives; the written attendance policy; key definitions regarding truancy and school-attendance enforcement; and information on the truancy-planning committee and truancy plan.…

  6. 77 FR 40490 - Revocation and Modification of Multiple Domestic, Alaskan, and Hawaiian Compulsory Reporting Points

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2... the FAA aeronautical database as compulsory reporting points. Additionally, this action also...

  7. 75 FR 39891 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... carrier statutory license, 17 U.S.C. 119. 75 FR 32228 (June 7, 2010). The law further provides that... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License AGENCY... are publishing for comment negotiated royalty rates for the satellite carrier statutory license of...

  8. Asclepius or Hippocrates? Differing Interpretations of Post-Compulsory Initial Teacher Training Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses qualitative research findings on mentoring within PCET ITT (post-compulsory education and training initial teacher training). The article complements the findings of Tedder and Lawy (2009) and Ingleby (2010). The article develops Downie and Randall's consideration of the merits or otherwise of mirroring either "Asclepius" or…

  9. Promoting Compulsory Education in Rural China: What Are the NPOs Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Huiquan

    2012-01-01

    Due to imbalanced social and economic development, education in poverty-stricken rural areas in China is lagging behind that of urban areas. The current study explores the role of the nonprofit organizations (NPOs) involved in rural compulsory education promotion. Results show that the NPOs are providing a variety of programs to promote rural…

  10. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

  11. Post-Compulsory Education and Lifelong Learning across the United Kingdom: Policy, Organisation and Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann, Ed.; Spours, Ken, Ed.; Waring, Martyn, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Post-Compulsory Education and Lifelong Learning across the United Kingdom brings together the perspectives of researchers, policy-makers and practitioners from across England, Wales and Scotland to produce a rich, up-to-date and highly textured source of evidence about this under-researched sector. The contributors analyse how each country's…

  12. Outcomes Based Education? Rethinking the Provision of Compulsory Education in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlach, Richard G.; McNaught, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Outcomes based education (OBE), which emphasises a radical reinterpretation of the enterprise of education, is a phenomenon enveloping the Australian compulsory education sector. This paper examines the theoretical tenets of OBE as articulated by its chief exponent, William Spady. It then explores the effects that OBE implementation is having on…

  13. Does Raising the State Compulsory School Attendance Age Achieve the Intended Outcomes? REL 2014-005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Philip E.; Duncan, Teresa G.

    2013-01-01

    Maryland recently raised its compulsory school attendance age from 16 to 18 in two stages: from 16 to 17 at the beginning of the 2014-15 school year and from 17 to 18 at the beginning of the 2016-17 school year (Maryland Senate Bill 362, 2012). The Maryland State Department of Education, a member of Regional Educational Laboratory…

  14. 75 FR 32857 - Adjustment of Royalty Fee for Cable Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 256 Adjustment of Royalty Fee for Cable Compulsory License CFR Correction In Title 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of July 1, 2009, on page 666, in Sec....

  15. Is Communication Free from Domination Possible in English Post-Compulsory Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkin, Joe

    This paper gives a brief overview of Jurgen Habermas's concept of communicative action, followed by an overview of an empirical study of patterns of communication between teachers and students in English post-compulsory education. The paper sketches the ideas of Habermas about the possibility of human interaction that is free from domination. It…

  16. 37 CFR 256.2 - Royalty fee for compulsory license for secondary transmission by cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fee for compulsory license for secondary transmission by cable systems. 256.2 Section 256.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR CABLE...

  17. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...The Copyright Royalty Judges announce a cost of living adjustment (COLA) of 1% in the royalty rates satellite carriers pay for a compulsory license under the Copyright Act. The COLA is based on the change in the Consumer Price Index from October 2012 to October...

  18. 16 CFR 2.10 - Petitions to limit or quash Commission compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... legal response to the petition to limit or quash. (5) Extensions of time. The Directors of the Bureaus... of the Bureaus of Competition and Economics, the Associate Directors of the Bureau of Consumer... AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes §...

  19. 16 CFR 2.10 - Petitions to limit or quash Commission compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... legal response to the petition to limit or quash. (5) Extensions of time. The Directors of the Bureaus... of the Bureaus of Competition and Economics, the Associate Directors of the Bureau of Consumer... AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes §...

  20. Social Mobility and Post-Compulsory Education: Revisiting Boudon's Model of Social Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ron; Simmons, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Raymond Boudon's model of educational expansion to examine the relationship between education and social mobility, paying particular attention to post-compulsory education--an important site of social differentiation in England. The paper shows how Boudon focuses explicitly on the consequences of educational expansion, and…

  1. Mobile Phone Voting for Participation and Engagement in a Large Compulsory Law Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habel, Chad; Stubbs, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an action-research project designed to investigate the effect of a technological intervention on the complex interactions between student engagement, participation, attendance and preparation in a large lecture delivered as part of a compulsory first-year law course, a discipline which has not been the focus of any previous…

  2. An Examination of Compulsory School Attendance Ages and High School Dropout and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly popular, but underresearched, initiative aimed at reducing high school dropout is raising the compulsory school attendance age. This study used a national data set from academic years 2001-02 to 2005-06 to examine the grade level at which students drop out, rates of dropout over time, and high school completion by state, region of…

  3. Educational Choices and the Selection Process: Before and after Compulsory Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocetti, Sauro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the selection process at work before and after compulsory schooling by assessing the determinants of school failures, dropouts, and upper secondary school decisions of young Italians. The data-set is built combining individual data by the Labor Force Survey and aggregate data on local labor markets and school…

  4. 37 CFR 256.2 - Royalty fee for compulsory license for secondary transmission by cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Royalty fee for compulsory license for secondary transmission by cable systems. 256.2 Section 256.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR CABLE...

  5. Historical Aspects of the Concept of "Compulsory Education": Rethinking the Rhetoric of Debates in Current Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Manabu

    2008-01-01

    Current Educational Reform in Japan is oddly captured with confused conceptions of "compulsory education." The Ministry of Education blankets such connotations of it, as a national budget system, mandated school curriculum, responsible partnership of school with community and accountabilities of local school board, in defense of vested national…

  6. 49 CFR 510.12 - Remedies for failure to comply with compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remedies for failure to comply with compulsory process. 510.12 Section 510.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION GATHERING POWERS § 510.12 Remedies for failure to comply...

  7. 76 FR 80732 - Revocation and Establishment of Compulsory Reporting Point; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation and Establishment of Compulsory Reporting...

  8. Disenchantment and Participatory Limits of Compulsory Education: Lessons from Southwest China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jinting

    2012-01-01

    Despite the state's unrelenting efforts to enforce compulsory basic education, schooling in rural ethnic China remains an elusive ideal that leads to massive dropout and prepares many only for factory sweatshops. Based on 16 months of ethnographic research, this article examines the disjuncture between the official education policy known as the…

  9. 38 CFR 1.468 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of their identity. 1.468 Section 1.468 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Release of Information from Department of...

  10. Compulsory Language Studies for University Degrees: The Challenge of Decontextualization in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horppu, Ritva; Ikonen-Varila, Merja

    2005-01-01

    The present paper discusses the decontextualization of learning in a case of compulsory Swedish language studies for university degrees. In this case learning Swedish is mostly disconnected, not only from the everyday lives of the students in a way typical of formal learning in general, but also from the study activities and contexts that students…

  11. Computer Science Education in Secondary Schools--The Introduction of a New Compulsory Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubwieser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In 2004 the German state of Bavaria introduced a new compulsory subject of computer science (CS) in its grammar schools ("Gymnasium"). The subject is based on a comprehensive teaching concept that was developed by the author and his colleagues during the years 1995-2000. It comprises mandatory courses in grades 6/7 for all students of grammar…

  12. National Curriculum: Compulsory School Science--Is It Improving Scientific Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Colette; Beggs, Jim; Hickey, Ivor; O'Meara, Jim; Sweeney, John

    2001-01-01

    British students who had compulsory science in the National Curriculum from ages 11-16 (n=115) had significantly higher scores on a science test than those for whom secondary science had been optional (n=30). Almost all had very low scores on questions related to the circulatory system and sound and light, regardless of their science background.…

  13. The Insidious Nature of 'Hard-Core' Alternative Conceptions: Implications for the constructivist research programme of patterns in high school students' and pre-service teachers' thinking about ionisation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, Keith S.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the constructivist research programme (RP) into learning science by comparing patterns in responses from two groups of learners-senior high school students and pre-service teachers-in the same educational context (Singapore), to a diagnostic instrument relating to the topic of ionisation energies. This topic is currently included in the curriculum for 16- to 19-year-old students studying chemistry in Singapore (and elsewhere). The comparison shows that: (1) although graduate pre-service teachers offered some types of incorrect responses less frequently than high school students; (2) they retained high levels of alternative conceptions commonly found among high school students; and (3) of particular note, certain alternative conceptions were found to be more common among the graduates. This suggests the intuitive appeal of certain alternative conceptions is such that they can readily be reproduced down 'generations' of learners. The findings are explored in terms of a range of conceptual resources that have been developed within the constructivist RP. The analysis suggests that the curriculum sets out inappropriate target knowledge for senior high school students, given the nature of the subject matter and the prior learning of the students. It is also suggested that it may be fruitful to consider conceptual learning in terms analogous to the RP found in science, and that from this perspective certain insidious alternative conceptions can be understood as derived from commitments that are taken for granted and protected from explicit challenge by a protective belt of refutable auxiliary conceptions.

  14. Supporting Low Ability Learners in a Tertiary Level Compulsory English Programme Using CEFR Based Online Language Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Gavin; McKeurtan, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the processes, methods and results of using language software based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) in a tertiary level institute in Japan in order to facilitate the learning of low ability learners of English. None of the learners were English majors, all were between the ages of 18 and 20,…

  15. Learning together, working together: an evaluation of experiences of a pilot programme for partnership between unions and management in the health service.

    PubMed

    Young, Pat; Moule, Pam; Evans, David; Simmons, Sue; Crack, Meg; Mayo, Gillian

    2012-07-01

    This article describes an innovative initiative to support partnership working between trade unions and management in three National Health Service Trusts, by means of shared participation in a series of learning and development days. Although there is existing evidence, within the literature on partnership, of the benefits of partnership working for employees and employers, there is little discussion of processes by which effective partnership is developed. More specifically, there is no current academic literature on the role of education in enabling improved partnership working between trade unions and managers. The findings of the evaluation suggest that the pilot provided a successful learning experience as well as a number of pointers for improving future developments of this nature. The recommendations include embedding of partnership work within existing staff development processes. PMID:21840632

  16. The cost effectiveness of early management of acute appendicitis underlies the importance of curative surgical services to a primary healthcare programme

    PubMed Central

    Aldous, C; Handley, J; Clarke, D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Appendicitis in the developing world is a cause of significant preventable morbidity. This prospective study from a regional hospital in South Africa constructs a robust cost model that demonstrates the cost effectiveness of an efficient curative surgical service in a primary healthcare-orientated system. Methods A prospective audit of all patients with acute appendicitis admitted to Edendale Hospital was undertaken from September 2010 to September 2011. A microcosting approach was used to construct a cost model based on the estimated cost of operative and perioperative interventions together with the associated hospital stay. For cost analysis, patients were divided into the following cohorts: uncomplicated appendicitis, complicated appendicitis with localised intra-abdominal sepsis, complicated appendicitis with generalised intra-abdominal sepsis, with and without intensive care unit admission. Results Two hundred patients were operated on for acute appendicitis. Of these, 36% (71/200) had uncomplicated appendicitis and 57% (114/200) had perforation. Pathologies other than appendicitis were present in 8% (15/200) and these patients were excluded. Of the perforated appendices, 45% (51/114) had intra-abdominal contamination that was localised while 55% (63/114) generalised sepsis. The mean cost for each patient was: 6,578 ZAR (£566) for uncomplicated appendicitis; 14,791 ZAR (£1,272) for perforation with localised intra-abdominal sepsis and 34,773 ZAR (£2,990) for perforation with generalised intra-abdominal sepsis without intensive care admission. With intensive care admission it was 77,816 ZAR (£6,692). The total cost of managing acute appendicitis was 4,272,871 ZAR (£367,467). Almost 90% of this total cost was owing to advanced disease with abdominal sepsis and therefore potentially preventable. Conclusions Early uncomplicated appendicitis treated appropriately carries little morbidity and is relatively inexpensive to treat. As the pathology

  17. 16 CFR 1605.3 - Compulsory processes and the service thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act regulations, 16 CFR part 1015, 42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977 or as amended. .... 1605.3 Section 1605.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS INVESTIGATIONS, INSPECTIONS AND INQUIRIES PURSUANT TO THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT Procedures...

  18. 16 CFR 1605.3 - Compulsory processes and the service thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act regulations, 16 CFR part 1015, 42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977 or as amended. .... 1605.3 Section 1605.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS INVESTIGATIONS, INSPECTIONS AND INQUIRIES PURSUANT TO THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT Procedures...

  19. 16 CFR 1605.3 - Compulsory processes and the service thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act regulations, 16 CFR part 1015, 42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977 or as amended. .... 1605.3 Section 1605.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS INVESTIGATIONS, INSPECTIONS AND INQUIRIES PURSUANT TO THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT Procedures...

  20. 16 CFR 1605.3 - Compulsory processes and the service thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act regulations, 16 CFR part 1015, 42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977 or as amended. .... 1605.3 Section 1605.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS INVESTIGATIONS, INSPECTIONS AND INQUIRIES PURSUANT TO THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT Procedures...

  1. The Response of Pre-Service Teachers to a Compulsory Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kylie; Holbrook, Allyson; Scevak, Jill; Bourke, Sid

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on 159 survey responses of fourth year Education students as they embark on a research project based in their internship school. The project explores predisposition to research and the level of preparedness to undertake a research project. The students who met most frequently with their supervisor and showed higher research…

  2. Subjective experiences of compulsory treatment from a qualitative study of early implementation of the Mental Health (Care & Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Julie; Hunter, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Compulsory psychiatric treatment is highly contested, and little research has focused specifically on direct experiences. The Mental Health (Care & Treatment) (Scotland) Act, 2003 introduced new roles and provisions including community treatment orders, and was designed to increase participation, ensure treatment was beneficial and was the 'least restrictive' alternative. This article draws on findings from semi-structured interviews with 49 individuals, who had experienced compulsion under this new legislation during 2007-2008, that were part of a broader cohort study. Interviews with service users were conducted at two stages with 80% agreeing to be interviewed twice. The sample included people on a variety of compulsory orders from four Health Board areas, some of whom had been detained for the first time, while others reported 'revolving door' experiences. Peer researchers who were mental health service users carried out the interviews in partnership with professional researchers. The findings suggest that legislation had a limited impact on participation in the process of compulsion. Consensus was that although service users felt there was increased opportunity for their voices to be heard, this was not matched by having increased influence over professional decision-making, especially in relation to drug treatments. According to people's direct experiences, the passing of the legislation in itself had done little to change the dominant psychiatric paradigm. While providing a foundation for improving the process of compulsion, the findings suggest that as well as legislative reform, fundamental shifts in practice are needed both in terms of the nature of therapeutic relationships, and in embracing more holistic and recovery perspectives. PMID:23551766

  3. An exploration of compulsory licensing as an effective policy tool for antiretroviral drugs in India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dipika; Darrow, Jonathan J

    2013-01-01

    Access to affordable drugs for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and other diseases is increasingly challenging in many developing countries such as Brazil, South Africa, and India. These challenges are in part the result of strengthened patent laws mandated by the 1994 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) treaty. However, there are underutilized instruments within TRIPS that governments can use to limit the adverse effects of patent protection and thereby ensure a supply of affordable generic drugs to their people. One such instrument is compulsory licensing, which allows generic manufacturers to produce pharmaceutical products that are currently subject to patent protection. Compulsory licensing has been used by a number of countries in the last few years, including the United States, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil, and Thailand, and is particularly significant for countries such as India, where large numbers of people are infected with HIV. This Article explores the feasibility of compulsory licensing as a tool to facilitate access to essential medicines within the current patent regime in India, drawing on the experiences of other countries. PMID:24341078

  4. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  5. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  6. 21 CFR 870.1425 - Programmable diagnostic computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Programmable diagnostic computer. 870.1425 Section 870.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1425 - Programmable diagnostic computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Programmable diagnostic computer. 870.1425 Section 870.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1425 - Programmable diagnostic computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Programmable diagnostic computer. 870.1425 Section 870.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1425 - Programmable diagnostic computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Programmable diagnostic computer. 870.1425 Section 870.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1425 - Programmable diagnostic computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Programmable diagnostic computer. 870.1425 Section 870.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can...

  11. Evaluating a Special Education Training Programme in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine D.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a two-year special education and inclusive practices in-service training programme with a university in Nicaragua. Participants included 14 teachers from nine schools in Nicaragua. Participants' knowledge of special education concepts were evaluated as part of assessing the training modules. In addition, programme evaluation…

  12. Nurse leadership in sustaining programmes of change.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Ursula; Marks-Maran, Diane

    With a dearth of literature on sustaining new programmes in the NHS, a service evaluation was undertaken following the implementation of the Productive Ward (PW) programme in an acute hospital environment. It was hoped that areas would emerge that could help to sustain the programme following disbanding of the PW facilitation team. The service evaluation gathered data from 11 wards that were part of the PW programme. Data were collected on actual sustainability results, absenteeism over the 6 months prior to the sustainability score taken, changes to ward environments, changes to senior sister roles and attendance at the PW launch day or other PW activities. Themes from the literature and analysis of the data gathered were then developed into a discussion surrounding the factors that appeared to be conducive to sustaining this programme of change.Results indicate that change is difficult to sustain in au ever-changing environment. However, there appears to be a strong link between sustainability and the leadership skills and qualities of the ward sister. PMID:24809151

  13. Space research programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Per; Englund, Jan; Norberg, Olle

    2001-08-01

    A major highlight of the Swedish national programme was the launch of the Odin Orbital Observatory in February 2001. The atmospheric profiles measured by Odin will be calibrated with rocket and balloon validation flights during the second half of 2001. A continuation of the satellite programme after Odin depends on the outcome of an ongoing assessment and an additional budget. The future ESA microgravity programme will be of high importance for European and Swedish science and applications using weightless conditions, and for the utilisation of the International Space Station (ISS). It should also make sure that the European independent capability for launching efficient sounding rockets is preserved and developed.

  14. Skills training groups for men with ADHD in compulsory care due to substance use disorder: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bihlar Muld, B; Jokinen, J; Bölte, S; Hirvikoski, T

    2016-09-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)-based skills training has been developed and previously evaluated for adults with ADHD in a psychiatric outpatient context. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of DBT-based skills training as a voluntary intervention for men with ADHD in compulsory care due to severe substance abuse. Forty sufficiently detoxified men with ADHD in compulsory care due to life-threatening substance use disorder (SUD) were included in DBT-based skills training groups. Self- and staff-rating scales were administered before and after the treatment. The refusal rate was 42.9 %. Of those who started the DBT-based skills training, 70 % completed the treatment (attendance at ≥75 % of the sessions). The treatment acceptability was good. Both ADHD and psychiatric symptoms decreased from pre- to post-intervention in self-ratings, but not in staff ratings. The patients reported improved general well-being. The correlation between self- and staff ratings was poor. Motivation for voluntary nonpharmacological treatment was low in a compulsory care context. However, the results indicate that a DBT-based skills training program for adults with ADHD may be feasible for some patients with ADHD in combination with SUD in compulsory care, provided that considerable resources are allocated with adjustments to the target group and compulsory care context. PMID:27059489

  15. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  16. WORLD WATER ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment.The specific objectives within the assessment pr...

  17. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  18. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  19. The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme

    PubMed Central

    Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. Materials and methods During 2005–2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K− or k− donors aged 18–55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Results Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region

  20. 'They might as well brand us': working-class resistance to compulsory vaccination in Victorian England.

    PubMed

    Durbach, N

    2000-04-01

    From its origins in resistance to the 1853 Compulsory Vaccination Act, the Victorian anti-vaccination movement successfully challenged the public health policies of an increasingly interventionist state. Anti-vaccinationists were not only middle-class reformers, but were also drawn from a politically active working class. These campaigners saw compulsory vaccination as an extreme example of class legislation, for its policy and administration implicitly targeted working-class infants and inflicted multiple penalties on a public who considered themselves 'conscientious objectors'. Anti-vaccinationism was quickly absorbed into English working-class culture. Indeed, it helped to reorganize working-class identities around the site of the vulnerable body thereby absorbing many people into a working class who interpreted the violation of their bodies as a form of political tyranny. Participation in this movement was, however, also an exclusive exercise for anti-vaccinators, as respectable working-class citizens distinguished themselves from members of the 'undeserving' classes. This paper explores the class nature of the Vaccination Acts, their relationship to the New Poor Law, and the political implications of their administration. It also imbeds anti-vaccinationism firmly within working-class culture, illustrating the campaign's relationship to popular protest and entertainment, and this legislation's impact upon working-class bodies. PMID:11624425

  1. Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970

  2. Developing Multi-Agency Teams: Implications of a National Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Tim; Garrick, Ros

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the factors which influence the effectiveness of formal development programmes targeted at multi-agency teams in children's services. It draws on two studies of the National College for School Leadership's Multi-Agency Teams Development programme, reporting key characteristics of the programme, short-term outcomes in terms of…

  3. Teaching Profession Career Ladder Programme in Turkey: Implementation, Outcomes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cil, E.; Cepni, S.; Besken-Ergisi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Turkey has implemented various programmes to increase the quality of in-service training for K-12 teachers with varying success. One of the most recent state-wide implementations of these programmes is the Teaching Profession Career Ladder Programme (TPCLP) that was put into practice in 2005. This study investigates teachers' views related to…

  4. 21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. 892... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer programmer is...

  5. Judicial Activism and the Origins of Parental Choice: The Court's Role in the Institutionalization of Compulsory Education in the United States, 1891-1925

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasnik, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A considerable body of scholarship has examined the history of compulsory attendance in the United States in an effort to explain why compulsory attendance laws were enacted, what effects they had on school attendance rates, and what made enforcement of these laws effective eventually. Recent research has revealed that some long-standing…

  6. The Problems with Access to Compulsory Education in China and the Effects of the Policy of Direct Subsidies to Students: An Empirical Study Based on a Small Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanqing, Ding

    2012-01-01

    After a brief review of the achievements and the problems in compulsory education enrollment in the thirty years since the reform and opening up, this study analyzes the current compulsory education enrollment and dropout rates in China's least-developed regions and the factors affecting school enrollment based on survey data from a small sample…

  7. Measuring the Long-Term Effectiveness of a Compulsory Approach to Behaviour Change: Analysis of the "Say No to Plastic Bag" Campaign at the Universiti Sains Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustafa, Hasrina; Yusoff, Ronzi Mohd

    2011-01-01

    This research looked into the effectiveness of a campaign at the Universiti Sains Malaysia for a compulsory ban on disposable plastics. Although there was high awareness of the "Say No to Plastic Bags" bags campaign, and moderate compliance on campus, we wondered whether a compulsory approach would maintain the desired behaviours off campus and…

  8. Perfect the System, Increase Input, and Promote a More Equitable Education: Thoughts after the Implementation of the New Mechanism for Assured Funding for Rural Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingping, Hu

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Chinese government conducted, in the western provinces and a few central provinces, a reform that exempted all rural compulsory education stage students from tuition and miscellaneous fees, in accordance with the measures for implementing the New Mechanism for Assured Funding for Rural Compulsory Education (hereafter "New Mechanism").…

  9. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  10. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    PubMed

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  11. Creating effective and engaging information literacy programmes for the dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Ford, P J; Hibberd, K

    2012-02-01

    In this time of rapid expansion of the scientific knowledge base, subject matter runs the risk of becoming outdated within a relatively short time. Instead of adding more content to already crowded curricula, the focus should be on equipping students to adapt to their changing world. The ability to access, evaluate and apply new knowledge for the benefit of patients has been acknowledged as an important goal for dental education. Information literacy is key to achieving this. A template for an Information Literacy programme for undergraduate students is described. This was embedded within a compulsory course for each of the first and second years of the Bachelor of Oral Health programme and consisted of a hands-on workshop (attendance voluntary), information literacy quiz, self-evaluation and a summative assessment task, with the second year of the programme building upon the learning of the previous year. Effectiveness was measured in terms of demonstration of information literacy skills and confidence in using these skills. Integration of this programme within the learning activities and assessment of first- and second-year courses resulted in enhanced information literacy skills and confidence. Self-perceived high skill levels may be a potential barrier to student engagement with information literacy programmes. PMID:22251352

  12. Evaluation of RugbySmart: a rugby union community injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon M; Quarrie, Ken L; Hume, Patria A

    2009-05-01

    RugbySmart, a rugby union injury prevention programme, was launched in New Zealand in 2001. It was compulsory for all coaches and referees to complete RugbySmart requirements annually in order to continue coaching or refereeing. After 5 years of implementation the programme partners, Accident Compensation Corporation and New Zealand Rugby Union, evaluated RugbySmart to determine its effectiveness in reducing injuries. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of RugbySmart on reducing injury rates per 100,000 players and resulting injury prevention behaviours. The RugbySmart programme was associated with a decrease in injury claims per 100,000 players in most areas the programme targeted; the programme had negligible impact on non-targeted injury sites. The decrease in injury claims numbers was supported by results from the player behaviour surveys pre- and post-RugbySmart. There was an increase in safe behaviour in the contact situations of tackle, scrum and ruck technique. PMID:18356104

  13. “First, do no harm”: legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10–17 who sell sex or inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a strong evidence base that the stigma, discrimination and criminalization affecting adolescent key populations (KPs) aged 10–17 is intensified due to domestic and international legal constructs that rely on law-enforcement-based interventions dependent upon arrest, pre-trial detention, incarceration and compulsory “rehabilitation” in institutional placement. While there exists evidence and rights-based technical guidelines for interventions among older cohorts, these guidelines have not yet been embraced by international public health actors for fear that international law applies different standards to adolescents aged 10–17 who engage in behaviours such as selling sex or injecting drugs. Discussion As a matter of international human rights, health, juvenile justice and child protection law, interventions among adolescent KPs aged 10–17 must not involve arrest, prosecution or detention of any kind. It is imperative that interventions not rely on law enforcement, but instead low-threshold, voluntary services, shelter and support, utilizing peer-based outreach as much as possible. These services must be mobile and accessible, and permit alternatives to parental consent for the provision of life-saving support, including HIV testing, treatment and care, needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, safe abortions, antiretroviral therapy and gender-affirming care and hormone treatment for transgender adolescents. To ensure enrolment in services, international guidance indicates that informed consent and confidentiality must be ensured, including by waiver of parental consent requirements. To remove the disincentive to health practitioners and researchers to engaging with adolescent KPs aged 10–17 government agencies and ethical review boards are advised to exempt or grant waivers for mandatory reporting. In the event that, in violation of international law and guidance, authorities seek to involuntarily place adolescent

  14. The Impact of a Science Qualification Emphasising Scientific Literacy on Post-Compulsory Science Participation: An Analysis Using National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Matt; Ryder, Jim

    2015-01-01

    In 2006 in England an innovative suite of science qualifications for 14-16-year-olds called Twenty-First Century Science (21CS) was introduced. These qualifications have a strong focus on developing scientific literacy in all students whilst simultaneously providing preparation for the study of post-compulsory science for a smaller proportion of…

  15. Dimensions of Norm-Referenced Compulsory School Grades and Their Relative Importance for the Prediction of Upper Secondary School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsen, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of the grading system, grades are the most valid instrument for predicting educational success. Previous studies have shown that criterion-referenced compulsory school grades are multidimensional, reflecting subject-specific dimensions and a common grade dimension, both of which contribute to the predictive validity of grades. This…

  16. Students' Intentions to Study Non-Compulsory Mathematics: The Importance of How Good You Think You Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldrake, Richard; Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the number of students who study mathematics once it is no longer compulsory remains a priority for England. A longitudinal cohort from England (1085 students) was surveyed at Years 10 and 12. Students' self-beliefs of ability influenced their GCSE mathematics grades and their intended and actual mathematics subject-choices; the degree…

  17. Analysis of Measures for Attention to Diversity in Compulsory Secondary Education: The Case of the Region of Murcia, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaiz, Pilar; Martinez, Rogelio; de Haro, Remedios; Escarbajal, Andres

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the implementation of measures of attention to diversity for students with special educational support needs studying Compulsory Secondary Education (12-16 years) in the Region of Murcia, Spain. Our aim is to learn about the organisational and curricular structures implemented in five secondary education…

  18. Remote Island Students' Post-Compulsory Retention: Emplacement and Displacement as Factors Influencing Educational Persistence or Discontinuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Anna; Abbott-Chapman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Through ethnographic research using grounded theory we examined social, cultural and locational factors which result in low post-compulsory retention rates of remote island students. The research, conducted by an island "insider," followed a cohort of Australian students from Year 10 in a small island school off the coast of Tasmania to Year 11 in…

  19. The Continued Underrepresentation of Girls in Post-Compulsory Information Technology Courses: A Direct Challenge to Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Leonie; Lynch, Julianne

    2011-01-01

    The participation rates of girls in post-compulsory information technology courses of Australian universities and high schools have remained low (less than 30%), despite three decades of research and analysis. In seeking to better understand this phenomenon, this paper draws upon data collected during an Australian Research Council Linkage project…

  20. Schools That Make a Difference to Post-Compulsory Uptake of Physical Science Subjects: Some Comparative Case Studies in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the qualitative component of a combined methods research study that explores a range of individual and school factors that influence the uptake of chemistry and physics in post-compulsory study in England. The first phase involves using the National Pupil Database to provide a sampling frame to identify four…

  1. 20 CFR 603.7 - What requirements apply to subpoenas, other compulsory processes, and disclosure to officials...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to subpoenas, other compulsory processes, and disclosure to officials with subpoena authority? 603.7 Section 603.7 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL-STATE...

  2. Short-Term Effects of Compulsory Multidisciplinary Secondary School Arts Education on Cultural Participation in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damen, Marie-Louise; Nagel, Ineke; Haanstra, Folkert

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science introduced a new kind of compulsory arts education in secondary school aimed at stimulating cultural participation among Dutch youth. This article examines whether the course, called "Cultural and Artistic Education," succeeds in doing so. Data on 3,851 secondary school students (ages…

  3. The Care Manager's Dilemma: Balancing Human Rights with Risk Management under the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prebble, Kate; Diesfeld, Kate; Frey, Rosemary; Sutton, Daniel; Honey, Michelle; Vickery, Russell; McKenna, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In New Zealand, the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003 provides diversion for persons with an intellectual disability who have been charged with, or convicted of, a criminal offence. This unique Act moves the responsibility for such "care recipients" from the criminal justice system to a disability sector that…

  4. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Understand Students' Subject Choices in Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rachel Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been concerns in the UK regarding the uptake of particular subjects in post-compulsory education. Whilst entries for Advanced level (A-level) subjects such as media studies have experienced considerable growth, entries for A-level physics have, until recently, been declining, prompting fears of a skills crisis in future…

  5. Readiness, Partnership, a Meeting Place? Some Thoughts on the Possible Relationship between Early Childhood and Compulsory School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2012-01-01

    At a time when the relationship between early childhood and compulsory school education is high on the policy agenda, this article questions the dominant, often taken-for-granted, relationship--school readiness; and offers two alternatives, a strong and equal partnership and the vision of a meeting place. Both are potentially transformative,…

  6. Relationships between State and Trait Anxiety with Verbal and Graphic Creativity in Students in compulsory Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Acedo-Baquedano, Maria Teresa Sanz; de Acedo-Lizarraga, Maria Luisa Sanz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between state and trait anxiety and verbal and graphic creativity, as well as how the two types of anxiety contribute to predicting creativity in students of Compulsory Secondary Education. Method: The study was conducted with 89 subjects of both sexes between the ages of 12…

  7. Does Raising the State Compulsory School Attendance Age Achieve the Intended Outcomes? Summary. REL 2014-005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Philip E.; Duncan, Teresa G.

    2013-01-01

    Maryland raised its compulsory school attendance age from 16 to 18 in two stages: from 16 to 17 at the beginning of the 2014/15 school year and from 17 to 18 at the beginning of the 2016/17 school year (Maryland Senate Bill 362, 2012). The Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) sought technical assistance from the Regional Educational…

  8. Development and Initial Validation of the NyTid Test: A Movement Assessment Tool for Compulsory School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidén, Anna; Lundqvist, Carolina; Nyberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the development process and initial validation of the NyTid test, a process-oriented movement assessment tool for compulsory school pupils. A sample of 1,260 (627 girls and 633 boys; mean age of 14.39) Swedish school children participated in the study. In the first step, exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were performed in…

  9. Hidden Gains: Effects of Early U.S. Compulsory Schooling Laws on Attendance and Attainment by Social Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauscher, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Research on early compulsory schooling laws finds minimal effects on attendance but fails to investigate heterogeneous effects. Similarly, research proposes limited contexts in which expansion policies can increase equality but has difficulty separating policy and cohort effects. Capitalizing on within-country variation in timing of early…

  10. Balanced Reflection as a Means of Practitioner Development in the Post-Compulsory Education and Training Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Reflective practice is held to be a means of practitioner development; however the range of models of reflection do not seem to suit practitioners working in the Post-Compulsory Education and Training (PCET) sector. Current models ignore the contextuality and specificality of PCET practice and do not consider its unique practitioner-student and…

  11. The Cross-Thematic Approach and the "New" Curricula of Greek Compulsory Education: Review of an Incompatible Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggelakos, Ostas

    2007-01-01

    Compulsory Greek education has long shown its need for revision. The Greek Pedagogical Institute (GPI) has presented the cross-thematic approach as a panacea, yet further changes are necessary in terms of experiential learning, school subject demarcation, teaching time management, teaching material, and the student/educator role. This article…

  12. The Maternal Nurturance Trap: Discursive Practices of "Social Justice" in Gender Equity Pedagogy in a Swedish Compulsory School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Britt-Marie

    In this paper the archeology of social justice is described as discourses of practices concerning Swedish ways of dealing with gender equality in compulsory school. The paper begins with some recent developments in Sweden that are important for the theme; it continues with the rhetoric in some relevant acts, government bills, and national…

  13. 37 CFR 201.17 - Statements of Account covering compulsory licenses for secondary transmissions by cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Statements of Account covering compulsory licenses for secondary transmissions by cable systems. 201.17 Section 201.17 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.17 Statements of...

  14. Awareness about Right of Children to Free and Compulsory (RTE) Act 2009 among Elementary Teachers in Coimbatore District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, Reshmi; Subramonian, G.

    2015-01-01

    As per RTE Act 2009, all children between the age of 6 and 14 shall have the right to free and compulsory elementary education at neighborhood schools. The facilities as mentioned in the RTE Act should reach into the hands of students properly and the teachers should have a good awareness level. This article explores the awareness of RTE Act 2009…

  15. 37 CFR 201.17 - Statements of Account covering compulsory licenses for secondary transmissions by cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statements of Account covering compulsory licenses for secondary transmissions by cable systems. 201.17 Section 201.17 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.17 Statements of...

  16. Local Adaptation of Central Policies: The Policymaking and Implementation of Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the central and local governments' policymaking and implementation of compulsory education for migrant children in China. Three distinct models of policy implementation were identified through a case study approach. They indicated a selective adaptation of central policy objective and principles by the local governments and…

  17. Effects of Early U.S. Compulsory Schooling Laws on Educational Assortative Mating: The Importance of Context.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Emily

    2015-08-01

    Modernization theory predicts that rising education should increase assortative mating by education and decrease sorting by race. Recent research suggests that effects of educational expansion depend on contextual factors, such as economic development. Using log-linear and log-multiplicative models of male household heads ages 36 to 75 in the 1940 U.S. census data--the first U.S. census with educational attainment information--I investigate how educational assortative mating changed with one instance of educational expansion: early U.S. compulsory school attendance laws. To improve on existing research and distinguish effects of expansion from changes due to particular years or cohorts, I capitalize on state variation in the timing of these compulsory laws (ranging from 1852 to 1918). Aggregate results suggest that compulsory laws had minimal impact on assortative mating. However, separate analyses by region (and supplemental analyses by race) reveal that assortative mating by education decreased with the laws in the South but increased in the North. Whether due to economic, legal, political, or other differences, results suggest that the implications of educational expansion for marital sorting depend on context. Contemporary implications are discussed in light of President Obama's 2012 suggested extension of compulsory schooling to age 18. PMID:26070307

  18. The Impact of Current Developments in Post-Compulsory Education on Young People with Learning Difficulties and/or Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    This article considers ways in which opportunities for children with special educational needs in England and Wales are being affected by current developments in post-compulsory education. The development of a Lifelong Learning Partnership by the Milton Keynes Council is used to illustrate how major developments affect local authorities.…

  19. Specific Language Impairment and School Outcomes. I: Identifying and Explaining Variability at the End of Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Simkin, Zoe; Knox, Emma

    2009-01-01

    Background: This investigation reports the results of national educational examinations in secondary schooling for young people who have been participating in the Manchester Language Study. Aims: The emphasis of the study is on furthering understanding of educational outcomes at the end of compulsory education. Methods & Procedures: A total of 120…

  20. The Returns to Education in China: Evidence from the 1986 Compulsory Education Law. NBER Working Paper No. 18189

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Hai; Eggleston, Karen N.; Rizzo, John A.; Rozelle, Scott; Zeckhauser, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    As China transforms from a socialist planned economy to a market-oriented economy, its returns to education are expected to rise to meet those found in middle-income established market economies. This study employs a plausible instrument for education: the China Compulsory Education Law of 1986. We use differences among provinces in the dates of…

  1. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for industry from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and training (VET) and…

  2. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Qualification & Approval Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary pulls together the relevant key findings for qualification and approval bodies from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education…

  3. LOGSIM programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. L.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A programmer's manual is reported for a Logic Simulator (LOGSIM) computer program that is a large capacity event simulator with the capability to accurately simulate the effects of certain unknown states, rise and fall times, and floating nodes in large scale metal oxide semiconductor logic circuits. A detailed description of the software with flow charts is included within the report.

  4. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  5. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  6. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  7. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  8. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  9. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  10. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  11. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  12. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  13. Compulsory citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of organizational identification and perceived interactional justice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Chen, Hsiu-Kuei

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of interactional justice in influencing the mediation. Using a time-lagged research design, the authors collected two waves of data from 388 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 67 teams to test the moderated mediation model. Results revealed that CCB negatively influenced OCB via impairing organizational identification. Moreover, interactional justice moderated the strength of the indirect effect of CCB on OCB (through organizational identification), such that the mediated relationship was stronger under low interactional justice than under high interactional justice. PMID:24684078

  14. Universalizing Nine-Year Compulsory Education For Poverty Reduction in Rural China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiedao; Minxia, Zhao

    2006-05-01

    Lack of access to basic education leads to diminished individual and national capabilities, therewith furthering cycles of poverty. An equitable education system meeting basic learning needs represents not only a human right, but also a means for reducing poverty, promoting productivity, and sustaining development. The Government of China - the most populous developing nation, the majority of whose citizens live in rural areas - has been committed to universalizing nine-year compulsory education among school-aged children and eliminating illiteracy among youths and adults aged 15-45. This study examines lessons learned from China's efforts in these areas. It also reports on current challenges and trends in a new national initiative for achieving high-quality universal basic education by the year 2007.

  15. Rural-Urban Differences in Suicide Rates for Current Patients of a Public Mental Health Service in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankaranarayanan, Anoop; Carter, Gregory; Lewin, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Rural versus urban rates of suicide in current patients of a large area mental health service in Australia were compared. Suicide deaths were identified from compulsory root cause analyses of deaths, 2003-2007. Age-standardized rates of suicide were calculated for rural versus urban mental health service and compared using variance of…

  16. Examining the Invisible Loop: Tutors in Large Scale Teacher Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansilal, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The recent curriculum changes in the South African education system have necessitated the development of large scale in-service training programmes for teachers. For some teacher training providers this has resulted in utilizing the services of tutors or facilitators from the various regions to deliver the programme. This article examines the role…

  17. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users’ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  18. Competent statistical programmer: Need of business process outsourcing industry.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran

    2014-07-01

    Over the last two decades Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) has evolved as much mature practice. India is looked as preferred destination for pharmaceutical outsourcing over a cost arbitrage. Among the biometrics outsourcing, statistical programming and analysis required very niche skill for service delivery. The demand and supply ratios are imbalance due to high churn out rate and less supply of competent programmer. Industry is moving from task delivery to ownership and accountability. The paradigm shift from an outsourcing to consulting is triggering the need for competent statistical programmer. Programmers should be trained in technical, analytical, problem solving, decision making and soft skill as the expectations from the customer are changing from task delivery to accountability of the project. This paper will highlight the common issue SAS programming service industry is facing and skills the programmers need to develop to cope up with these changes. PMID:24987578

  19. Competent statistical programmer: Need of business process outsourcing industry

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) has evolved as much mature practice. India is looked as preferred destination for pharmaceutical outsourcing over a cost arbitrage. Among the biometrics outsourcing, statistical programming and analysis required very niche skill for service delivery. The demand and supply ratios are imbalance due to high churn out rate and less supply of competent programmer. Industry is moving from task delivery to ownership and accountability. The paradigm shift from an outsourcing to consulting is triggering the need for competent statistical programmer. Programmers should be trained in technical, analytical, problem solving, decision making and soft skill as the expectations from the customer are changing from task delivery to accountability of the project. This paper will highlight the common issue SAS programming service industry is facing and skills the programmers need to develop to cope up with these changes. PMID:24987578

  20. Optically programmable excitonic traps

    PubMed Central

    Alloing, Mathieu; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Dubin, François

    2013-01-01

    With atomic systems, optically programmed trapping potentials have led to remarkable progress in quantum optics and quantum information science. Programmable trapping potentials could have a similar impact on studies of semiconductor quasi-particles, particularly excitons. However, engineering such potentials inside a semiconductor heterostructure remains an outstanding challenge and optical techniques have not yet achieved a high degree of control. Here, we synthesize optically programmable trapping potentials for indirect excitons of bilayer heterostructures. Our approach relies on the injection and spatial patterning of charges trapped in a field-effect device. We thereby imprint in-situ and on-demand electrostatic traps into which we optically inject cold and dense ensembles of excitons. This technique creates new opportunities to improve state-of-the-art technologies for the study of collective quantum behavior of excitons and also for the functionalisation of emerging exciton-based opto-electronic circuits. PMID:23546532

  1. Feasibility of introducing compulsory community health fund in low resource countries: views from the communities in Liwale district of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1995, Tanzania introduced the voluntary Community Health Fund (CHF) with the aim of ensuring universal health coverage by increasing financial investment in the health sector. The uptake of the CHF is low, with an enrolment of only 6% compared to the national target of 75%. Mandatory models of community health financing have been suggested to increase enrolment and financial capacity. This study explores communities’ views on the introduction of a mandatory model, the Compulsory Community Health Fund (CCHF) in the Liwale district of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study which involved 387 participants in a structured face to face survey and 33 in qualitative interviews (26 in focus group discussions (FGD) and 7 in in-depth interviews (IDI). Structured survey data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 to produce descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Results 387 people completed a survey (58% males), mean age 38 years. Most participants (347, 89.7%) were poor subsistence farmers and 229 (59.2%) had never subscribed to any form of health insurance scheme. The idea of a CCHF was accepted by 221 (57%) survey participants. Reasons for accepting the CCHF included: reduced out of pocket expenditure, improved quality of health care and the removal of stigma for those who receive waivers at health care delivery points. The major reason for not accepting the CCHF was the poor quality of health care services currently offered. Participants suggested that enrolment to the CCHF be done after harvesting when the population were more likely to have disposable income, and that the quality care of care and benefits package be improved. Conclusions The CHF is acceptable to the most of study participants and feasible in rural Tanzania as an alternative mechanism to finance health care for the rural poor. Community members are willing to join the scheme provided they are well informed, involved in the design and implementation

  2. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  3. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative – Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) – aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  4. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  5. Programmable Multizone Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Edmund Y.; Larson, David J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Moving thermal gradients created without mechanical motion. Furnace having multiple, individually programmable heating zones developed for use in experiments on directional solidification. Holds rod specimen and generates thermal gradients moving along specimen. Elimination of translation mechanism makes furnace more compact and reduces vibrations, which disturb experiment. Availability of different temperature profiles through programming makes it versatile tool for research at low thermal gradients traveling at moderate speeds.

  6. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology. PMID:27058370

  7. Programmable matter by folding

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  8. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  9. "Math Makes Me Sweat" The Impact of Pre-Service Courses on Mathematics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Beth; vanderSandt, Suriza

    2011-01-01

    We investigate mathematics anxiety amongst education majors currently enrolled as pre-service teachers in special education, deaf and hard of hearing, early childhood and elementary education. The impact of a compulsory freshmen content course and sophomore methodology course on mathematics anxiety for each education major was studied over a two…

  10. Draft/Registration/National Service. Current Issues in Catholic Higher Education. Volume 1, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    A collection of nine brief statements by prominent Catholics and other religious policymakers on the moral implications of compulsory military and other national service is presented. Each of the respondents answers the following question: "In your judgment, what are the moral and ethical implications of a public policy, in time of peace, of…

  11. Emotional Intelligence as a Basic Competency in Pre-Service Teacher Training: Some Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Brackett, Marc A.

    2008-01-01

    This article calls for the inclusion of emotional competencies within basic competencies considered in compulsory schooling and in the objectives of pre-service teacher training that is now being designed within the European Space for Higher Education. Toward this end, we review current research on the fundamental role of emotional competencies,…

  12. The Impact of a Science Qualification Emphasising Scientific Literacy on Post-compulsory Science Participation: An analysis using national data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homer, Matt; Ryder, Jim

    2015-06-01

    In 2006 in England an innovative suite of science qualifications for 14-16-year-olds called Twenty-First Century Science (21CS) was introduced. These qualifications have a strong focus on developing scientific literacy in all students whilst simultaneously providing preparation for the study of post-compulsory science for a smaller proportion of students. Claims have been made that such an innovative qualification would impact significantly on post-compulsory science participation-either positively or negatively. Using national data in England to track one cohort of students over 2007-2011, this study compares progression rates to post-compulsory science qualifications in England between 21CS qualifications and more traditional non-21CS qualifications. Methods employed include simple comparisons of proportions progressing from each qualification, and more complex multi-level modelling approaches that take account of both students clustered in schools, and potentially differing demographic and achievement profiles of students in the 2 groups of qualifications. A simple descriptive analysis shows that there is very little difference in overall progression rates between the 2 types of 14-16 science qualification. More fine-grained descriptive analyses show that there are some important differences, based in particular on the interaction between the amount of science studied at ages 14-16, and on the post-16 science qualification chosen (biology, chemistry or physics). Furthermore, sophisticated modelling analyses indicate a consistently negative small to moderate impact on progression from the 21CS qualification. Overall, our findings suggest that the emphasis on scientific literacy within the 21CS qualification suite has not had a major impact on the uptake of post-compulsory science qualifications.

  13. Ethnic variations in pathways to acute care and compulsory detention for women experiencing a mental health crisis

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Caroline; Cole, Laura; Howard, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Much recent debate on excess rates of compulsory detention and coercive routes to care has focused on young black men; evidence is less clear regarding ethnic variations among women and factors that may mediate these. Aim: To explore ethnic variations in compulsory detentions of women, and to explore the potential role of immediate pathways to admission and clinician-rated reasons for admission as mediators of these differences. Method: All women admitted to an acute psychiatric inpatient ward or a women’s crisis house in four London boroughs during a 12-week period were included. Data were collected regarding their pathways to care, clinician-rated reasons for admission, hospital stays, and social and clinical characteristics. Results: Two hundred and eighty seven (287) women from white British, white other, black Caribbean, black African and black other groups were included. Adjusting for social and clinical characteristics, all groups of black patients and white other patients were significantly more likely to have been compulsorily admitted than white British patients; white British patients were more likely than other groups to be admitted to a crisis house and more likely than all the black groups to be admitted because of perceived suicide risk. Immediate pathways to care differed: white other, black African and black other groups were less likely to have referred themselves in a crisis and more likely to have been in contact with the police. When adjustment was made for differences in pathways to care, the ethnic differences in compulsory admission were considerably reduced. Discussion: There are marked ethnic inequities not only between white British and black women, but also between white British and white other women in experiences of acute admission. Differences between groups in help-seeking behaviours in a crisis may contribute to explaining differences in rates of compulsory admission. PMID:21059630

  14. Flexible programmable logic module

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  15. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  16. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  17. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  18. Age structure of owned dogs under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Danielly Vieira; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Ferreira, Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2016-01-01

    The age structure of the dog population is essential for planning and evaluating control programs for zoonotic diseases. We analyzed data of an owned-dog census in order to characterize, for the first time, the structure of a dog population under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area (Panorama, São Paulo State, Brazil) that recorded a dog-culling rate of 28% in the year of the study. Data on 1,329 households and 1,671 owned dogs revealed an owned dog:human ratio of 1:7. The mean age of dogs was estimated at 1.73 years; the age pyramid indicated high birth and mortality rates at the first year of age with an estimated cumulative mortality of 78% at the third year of age and expected life span of 2.75 years. In spite of the high mortality, a growth projection simulation suggested that the population has potential to grow in a logarithmic scale over the years. The estimated parameters can be further applied in models to maximize the impact and minimize financial inputs of visceral leishmaniasis control measures. PMID:27598014

  19. Effects of an instruction method in thinking skills with students from compulsory secondary education.

    PubMed

    de Acedo Lizarraga, María Luisa Sanz; de Acedo Baquedano, María Teresa Sanz; Pollán Rufo, Milagros

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects caused by the instruction method "Think actively in academic contexts, TAAC", an adaptation of Wallace and Adams' (1993) method of thinking skills, creativity, self-regulation, and academic learning, with students from the second grade of Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE). We used a pretest-intervention-posttest design with control group. The sample was made up of 110 participants, aged between 13 and 15 years, 58 of them in the experimental group and 52 in the control group. Six assessment instruments were administered before and after applying the method in order to measure the dependent variables. The method, divided into eight stages, was used in all the didactic units of the syllabus content of Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, and Language, during one academic course, and allowed the conjoint teaching of thinking skills and the syllabus content. The results of the analyses of variance indicate positive impact of the intervention, as the experimental subjects improved significantly in thinking skills and academic achievement. Some interesting reflections for research and education are derived from this study. PMID:20480683

  20. A Tale Of Two States: Mississippi, West Virginia, And Exemptions To Compulsory School Vaccination Laws.

    PubMed

    Colgrove, James; Lowin, Abigail

    2016-02-01

    School-based compulsory vaccination laws have provoked debates over the legitimacy of government coercion versus the scope of parental rights. A key point of contention in these school vaccination laws are provisions known as exemption clauses that allow some parents to enroll their children in school unimmunized for reasons other than medical conditions. For more than three decades Mississippi and West Virginia stood apart as the only two US states that did not offer nonmedical exemptions to school vaccination laws. But other states seem to be moving in this direction, such as California, which in 2015 eliminated nonmedical exemptions following the Disneyland measles outbreak. The apparent shift creates an opportune moment to look at the experiences of Mississippi and West Virginia. Through a review of legislative histories, legal rulings, media accounts, and interviews with health officials in the two states, we consider the reasons for and consequences of their allowing only medical exemptions and the prospects their approach holds out for other states that may wish to emulate it. The experiences of these two states suggest that contrary to conventional wisdom, it may be politically tenable to limit exemptions to only medical reasons without damaging either the stature of public health or the immunization system. PMID:26858391

  1. Differences in students' perceptions of learning compulsory foundation biochemistry in the health sciences professions.

    PubMed

    Minasian-Batmanian, Laura C; Lingard, Jennifer; Prosser, Michael

    2005-11-01

    Student approaches to learning vary from surface approaches to meaningful, deep learning practices. Differences in approach may be related to students' conceptions of the subject, perceptions of the learning environment, prior study experiences and performance on assessment. This study aims to explore entering students' conceptions of the unit they are about to study and how they intend to approach their studies. It involved a survey of 203 (of 250) first year students in a cross disciplinary unit in the Faculty of Health Sciences. They were asked to complete an open-ended response survey, including questions on what they thought they needed to do to learn biochemistry and what they thought the study of biochemistry was about. A phenomenographic methodology was used to identify categories of description for the questions. The paper will describe the categories in detail, the structural relationship between the categories and the distribution of responses within categories. The study reports a relationship between conception of the topic and approaches to learning. Students with more complex and coherent conceptions of the topic report that they were more likely to adopt deeper approaches to study than those with more fragmented conceptions. However, compared to previous studies, a surprisingly high proportion of students with more cohesive conceptions still intended to adopt more surface approaches. This may reflect the particular context of their learning, namely in a compulsory unit involving material for which most students have minimal background and difficulty seeing its relevance. Implications for teaching such foundation material are discussed. PMID:16362617

  2. [THE DISCUSSION CONCERNING THE PLACE OF LECTURES AND COMPULSORY LECTURE ATTENDANCE IN MEDICAL EDUCATION].

    PubMed

    Reis, Shmuel

    2016-04-01

    Luder shows that there is a lack of correlation between lecture attendance in medical school and examination performance, and thus draws attention to a discourse concerning the place of lectures and lecture attendance enforcement in 2015 and beyond. The paper addresses 4 questions: First, what is the current place of the traditional lecture in the education of medical students? Second, are there alternatives to this format of teaching? Third, what are the educational consequences of mandating lecture attendance; and fourth, should there be such enforcement? The author discusses these questions and concludes that lectures should be used sparingly, after a careful evaluation that they have an added value over learning away from the classroom. Furthermore, that there are clear guidelines on how to make the traditional lecture enhanced and educationally effective, as well as alternatives such as the "flipped classroom", e-learning and more to lectures. In addition, that lectures frequently drive learning negatively and enforcing attendance in Israel entails serious unintended consequences such as a need to monitor attendance, and a host of disciplinary adverse reactions. Finally, that besides lecture efficiency and economy (when having added value) one reason to consider compulsory attendance, may be when poor attendance negatively influences teachers morale. PMID:27323539

  3. [Compulsory measures and pathological creatine kinase levels in psychiatric in-patients].

    PubMed

    Grube, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of compulsory measures (CM) with pathological Creatine Kinase (CK) levels in 317 patients admitted to a secure psychiatric ward. The assumptions is that CK-activity is increased prior to administration of CM because increases in CK-levels may represent aggressive behaviour as precursors of a higher chance of administrating CM. The CK-levels were assessed immediately following admission. During the course of the patients' stay the frequency of different CM was assessed by the use of the Staff Observation Aggression Scale. In a CHAID analysis pathological CK-levels were associated with subsequent administration of CM. Lifetime aggression and main diagnosis were associated with administration of CM as well. In a ROC analysis concerning pathological CK-activity the AUC for subsequent administration of CM was 70.5 % with a sensitivity of 73.5 % and a specifity of 67.5 %. Despite some methodological shortcomings the study indicates that it could be useful to measure CK-activity at the time of admission because pathological levels may indicate an increased probability of administration of CM subsequent to aggressive behaviour. PMID:23925933

  4. Evaluation of a PICC care training programme.

    PubMed

    Purran, Ashutosh; Weller, Gordon; Kerr, Catherine

    2016-01-13

    An integrated care organisation requires a flexible workforce with a variable skill mix in all care settings. Organisations should ensure that education and training are maintained to support safe, high quality care that provides value for money, promotes flexibility, and increases workforce participation in achieving organisation objectives and the expansion of services. Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) care was identified as a challenging area for the nursing workforce in acute care and community services, following the integration and service enlargement of the Whittington Health NHS Trust. This article describes the evaluation of a new PICC care training programme that was developed and implemented to increase knowledge and awareness. The evaluation provides the clinical education team with information to help identify additional training needs to facilitate the integration of care. PMID:26758168

  5. Programmable Electronic Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, R.

    1993-05-01

    Traditionally safety systems intended for protecting personnel from electrical and radiation hazards at particle accelerator laboratories have made extensive use of electromechanical relays. These systems have the advantage of high reliability and allow the designer to easily implement failsafe circuits. Relay based systems are also typically simple to design, implement, and test. As systems, such as those presently under development at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL), increase in size, and the number of monitored points escalates, relay based systems become cumbersome and inadequate. The move toward Programmable Electronic Safety Systems is becoming more widespread and accepted. In developing these systems there are numerous precautions the designer must be concerned with. Designing fail-safe electronic systems with predictable failure states is difficult at best. Redundancy and self-testing are prime examples of features that should be implemented to circumvent and/or detect failures. Programmable systems also require software which is yet another point of failure and a matter of great concern. Therefore the designer must be concerned with both hardware and software failures and build in the means to assure safe operation or shutdown during failures. This paper describes features that should be considered in developing safety systems and describes a system recently installed at the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility of the SSCL.

  6. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  7. Southern African AIDS Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, G H

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), in a little over 2 years, have established a Southern African AIDS Training Programme (SAT) that is effective in developing community-based responses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Based in Harare, Zimbabwe, the program provides financial assistance, training, monitoring, and advice and information to 120 project partners. The average grant size is $40,000. In a second phase of the project, SAT will attempt to meet the requests of its partners for more services. Currently, to meet needs for rapid, responsive training, and novel approaches to skill building, SAT has developed a collaborative nongovernmental organization (NGO) initiative, "The School Without Walls". This program identifies and amplifies what has worked effectively for organizations and programs. Other similar organizations and programs learn from these experiences. Site visits, apprenticeships, mentor organizations, and skills-building based on shared problem-diagnosis and resolution are some of the techniques employed. A draft report of the CIDA midterm external evaluation of SAT recommends renewal of the program, resourcing of the program to meet its regional responsibilities, and adoption of "The School Without Walls" as a central strategy for southern Africa. PMID:8180923

  8. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  9. Fathers and parenting programmes: barriers and best practice.

    PubMed

    Bayley, Julie; Wallace, Louise M; Choudhry, Kubra

    2009-04-01

    Fathers are particularly difficult to recruit to voluntary parenting programmes, despite the advantages of such programmes for confidence and skills in parenting and associated improvements in child behaviour. The apparent reluctance of fathers to engage in parenting services is recognised as a problem by health and social care practitioners, and the Department of Health identifies the engagement of fathers as a key service target. This review gathers information on barriers to fathers' engagement with parenting support services and identifies best practice for recruitment. It draws on published academic literature, government and community organisation reports and empirical data collection through interviews with parenting experts (n=9) and focus groups and questionnaires with fathers (n=29). The barriers identified were lack of awareness, work commitments, female-orientated services, lack of organisational support and concerns over programme content. Aspects of best practice included actively promoting services to fathers rather than parents, offering alternative forms of provision, prioritising fathers within organisations and taking different cultural and ethnic perspectives into account. Achieving greater engagement of fathers in parenting support programmes requires a greater understanding of the perspectives of fathers. PMID:19397081

  10. Estimating the coverage of mental health programmes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Mary J; Lee, Lucy; Fuhr, Daniela C; Rathod, Sujit; Chisholm, Dan; Schellenberg, Joanna; Patel, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Background The large treatment gap for people suffering from mental disorders has led to initiatives to scale up mental health services. In order to track progress, estimates of programme coverage, and changes in coverage over time, are needed. Methods Systematic review of mental health programme evaluations that assess coverage, measured either as the proportion of the target population in contact with services (contact coverage) or as the proportion of the target population who receive appropriate and effective care (effective coverage). We performed a search of electronic databases and grey literature up to March 2013 and contacted experts in the field. Methods to estimate the numerator (service utilization) and the denominator (target population) were reviewed to explore methods which could be used in programme evaluations. Results We identified 15 735 unique records of which only seven met the inclusion criteria. All studies reported contact coverage. No study explicitly measured effective coverage, but it was possible to estimate this for one study. In six studies the numerator of coverage, service utilization, was estimated using routine clinical information, whereas one study used a national community survey. The methods for estimating the denominator, the population in need of services, were more varied and included national prevalence surveys case registers, and estimates from the literature. Conclusions Very few coverage estimates are available. Coverage could be estimated at low cost by combining routine programme data with population prevalence estimates from national surveys. PMID:24760874

  11. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  12. Creating capacity through partnership: a palliative care skills development programme.

    PubMed

    Kelsall, Kay; Brennan, Ebony; Cole, Teresa

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the development and implementation of a recurrently funded, rolling, 6-month palliative care secondment programme for NHS community staff nurses based in a rural health economy in Southwest England. The programme is a key tool in a wider development plan for improving access to, and the quality of, palliative and end-of-life care for a dispersed rural population. This is part of a much bigger programme of integration to meet the shared challenges of service capacity, equity, and sustainability that are presented by the geographical and demographical profile of the locality. The 'bigger picture' is defined and set in the context of the national drive and evidence base for integration in order to explain the reasons behind the secondment programme. This is followed by outlining the iterative process of design and implementation--the 'what?' and 'how?'--and key learning points to date are shared. PMID:26252232

  13. Initial analysis of a community-based bereavement programme.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kate

    2015-11-01

    It is well evidenced that childhood bereavement has a negative impact upon a range of psychological and educational outcomes. This article describes a service evaluation of the national child bereavement charity, Winston's Wish SWITCH programme. SWITCH is a community outreach bereavement programme targeted at children that are at risk of antisocial and self-destructive behaviour. A preliminary evaluation of baseline to follow up of parent (n=31) and young person (n=96) Strength and Difficulties (SDQ) data suggests that the programme contributes to a positive impact upon emotional distress, relationships, and concentration. Further, more robust evaluation needs to be conducted to understand the long-term implications of the programme on vulnerable young people. PMID:26749616

  14. Return to nursing programmes: justifications for a mental health specific course.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian Grant; Thom, Katey; O'Brien, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research that investigated the feasibility of developing a specialty return to mental health nursing programme in New Zealand. This was achieved through a scoping of existing return to nursing programmes; a survey of non-active nurses; and stakeholder consultation via interviews or focus groups. Existing generic programmes fail to attract non active nurses wishing to focus on mental health nursing. The non-active nurses survey found 142 nurses who presently would or might possibly return to mental health nursing and participate in a programme. Most stakeholders supported the idea of implementing such a programme. The findings from this research indicate both feasibility and enthusiasm for the introduction of return to mental health nursing programmes. It is recommended that all aspects of this course mirror the service user focused 'recovery paradigm' that is a central tenet in contemporary mental health service delivery. PMID:18673295

  15. Heart Wellness Programme: a pilot community-based cardiac rehabilitation programme in a multiethnic society

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Yu Heng; Ong, Kheng Yong; Tay, Hung Yong; Chang, Joanne Yeh

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Community-based exercise programmes have been shown to be effective in the Western world. However, there is a dearth of literature on their effectiveness in Asia. This pilot study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Asian community-based Health Wellness Programme (HWP) in Singapore. The HWP provides community cardiac rehabilitation services. METHODS A retrospective database analysis was conducted on cardiac rehabilitation patients who had completed the one-year wellness programme from 2010 to 2011. Patients were included in the programme if they had an underlying cardiac disease such as ischaemic heart disease and were deemed as stable by their cardiologist. Patients with New York Heart Association Class III or IV heart failure were excluded from this programme. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical and laboratory data was recorded. Changes between the baseline and final measurements were analysed. RESULTS Complete data from a total of 136 patients was analysed. Improvements were noted in body fat percentage (change [Δ] –1.3%, p < 0.01), distance walked (Δ 9.7 m, p = 0.01), total cholesterol (Δ –7.8 mg/dL, p = 0.03), low-density lipoprotein (Δ –7.8 mg/dL, p = 0.03) and triglyceride (Δ –17.8 mg/dL, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION The low-to-moderate intensity HWP seems to be effective in a multiethnic community setting. To confirm the quality and effectiveness of such a programme in secondary cardiovascular prevention, more evidence from prospective controlled trials with suitable controls is needed. PMID:27075576

  16. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  17. GCS programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward; Shagnea, Anita M.; Dent, Leslie A.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of instructions to be used in the development of implementations of software for the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is described. This document fulfills the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification' requirements for document No. 4, which specifies the information necessary for understanding and programming the host computer, and document No. 12, which specifies the software design and implementation standards that are applicable to the software development and testing process. Information on the following subjects is contained: activity recording, communication protocol, coding standards, change management, error handling, design standards, problem reporting, module testing logs, documentation formats, accuracy requirements, and programmer responsibilities.

  18. Programmability of nanowire networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellew, A. T.; Bell, A. P.; McCarthy, E. K.; Fairfield, J. A.; Boland, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON/OFF current ratios (>105). However, large networks of nanowires distribute an applied bias across a large number of junctions, and thus respond not by switching but instead by evolving connectivity. We demonstrate that these emergent properties lead to fault-tolerant materials whose resistance may be tuned, and which are capable of adaptively reconfiguring under stress. By combining these two behavioural regimes, we demonstrate that the same nanowire network may be programmed to act both as a metallic interconnect, and a resistive switch device with high ON/OFF ratio. These results enable the fabrication of programmable, multi-functional materials from random nanowire networks.Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON

  19. 49 CFR 510.3 - Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims for confidential treatment, and terms of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.: (1) Subpoenas; (2) Information gathering hearings; (3) Administrative depositions; (4) General or special orders... confidentiality made during an information gathering hearing or an administrative deposition may be made orally...

  20. The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: New Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, D. E.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme, one of the tree research Programmes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GAW) is the only existing long-term international global programme that coordinates observations and analysis of atmospheric composition changes. The GAW Programme builds on a partnership of more than 100 countries. Within its 25 years of existence WMO/GAW has matured to the system that provides reliable long-term high quality observations in support of international policy making. WMO/GAW includes globally coordinated observational network, complemented by a comprehensive quality assurance system and capacity development. In spite of the fact that GAW has embraced the IGACO strategy (Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations), the programme in its current form still has a strong observational bias. Future development of WMO/GAW requires the further evolution of the programme concept toward "science for services". New challenges call for the changes in the GAW station requirements and data managements, for new approaches to collaboration with the contributing networks and better involvement of the modelling community. The programme structure is evolving to streamline better to user requirements with the move from precipitation chemistry to total deposition and from near-real-time data delivery to applications (modeling) requiring such data delivery. The updated concept of GAW will include more cross-cutting applications. A new category of local station is introduced to help with the verification of some applications including those related to urban areas and the impacts of urban complexes regionally and globally. The evolution of the GAW Programme towards user driven cross-cutting applications provides a new opportunity to the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services in partnership with other science - based institutions to increase their relevance to society.

  1. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  2. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  3. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  4. Nature and impact of European anti-stigma depression programmes.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Neil; Knifton, Lee; Goldie, Isabella; van Bortel, Tine; Dowds, Julie; Lasalvia, Antonio; Scheerder, Gert; Boumans, Jenny; Svab, Vesna; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-09-01

    Stigma associated with depression is a major public health issue in the EU, with over 20 million people experiencing depression and its associated personal distress each year. While most programmes against stigma related to mental health problems are of a general nature, the knowledge about programmes tackling stigma against people with depression is limited. This study therefore aims to assess the nature and impact of depression-specific programmes in EU countries. Using a web-based tool, 26 programmes were identified across the 18 EU countries taking part in the study. Most were universal and targeted the whole population, while many also targeted specific population groups or settings, such as young people or health professionals. The most common programme aim was improving literacy, although reducing stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behaviour and promoting help-seeking were also common. Most programmes originated from professional bodies, or as grassroots initiatives from service user groups/NGOs, rather than as part of national and local policy. The approaches used were primarily different forms of education/information, with some, but very limited, use of positive personal contact. Overall, the quality and extent of impact of the programmes was limited, with few leading to peer-reviewed publications. Specific programmes were identified with evidence of positive impact, and we drew on these examples to develop a framework to be used for future programmes against stigma and discrimination associated with depression. These findings are provided in full in the Anti-Stigma Partnership European Network Toolkit available at www.antistigma.eu. PMID:23349322

  5. Short structured general mental health in service training programme in Kenya improves patient health and social outcomes but not detection of mental health problems - a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Trial design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. Methods Participants: Clusters were primary health care clinics on the Ministry of Health list. Clients were eligible if they were aged 18 and over. Interventions: Two members of staff from each intervention clinic received the training programme. Clients in both intervention and control clinics subsequently received normal routine care from their health workers. Objective: To examine the impact of a mental health inservice training on routine detection of mental disorder in the clinics and on client outcomes. Outcomes: The primary outcome was the rate of accurate routine clinic detection of mental disorder and the secondary outcome was client recovery over a twelve week follow up period. Randomisation: clinics were randomised to intervention and control groups using a table of random numbers. Blinding: researchers and clients were blind to group assignment. Results Numbers randomised: 49 and 50 clinics were assigned to intervention and control groups respectively. 12 GHQ positive clients per clinic were identified for follow up. Numbers analysed: 468 and 478 clients were followed up for three months in intervention and control groups respectively. Outcome: At twelve weeks after training of the intervention group, the rate of accurate routine clinic detection of mental disorder was greater than 0 in 5% versus 0% of the intervention and control groups respectively, in both the intention to treat analysis (p = 0.50) and the per protocol analysis (p =0.50). Standardised effect sizes for client improvement were 0.34 (95% CI = (0.01,0.68)) for the General Health Questionnaire, 0.39 ((95% CI = (0.22, 0.61)) for the EQ and 0.49 (95% CI = (0.11,0.87)) for WHODAS (using ITT analysis); and 0.43 (95% CI = (0.09,0.76)) for the GHQ, 0.44 (95% CI = (0.22,0.65)) for the EQ and 0.58 (95% CI = (0.18,0.97)) for WHODAS (using per protocol analysis). Harms: None identified. Conclusion The

  6. Law and Ethics: Problematising the Role of the Foundation Degree and Paralegal Education in English Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan; Gibby, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on research on a foundation degree programme in paralegal education in England. The content explores the pedagogical benefits of this academic programme with its work-related focus. The research has been completed with academic tutors and students who are associated with a foundation degree programme in paralegal education in…

  7. A Community Engaged Dental Curriculum: A Rural Indigenous Outplacement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Abuzar, Menaka A.; Owen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. Design and Methods The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students’ feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale) and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0). They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8). Conclusions This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions. Significance for public health An oral health outreach programme is one of the suggested approaches to effectively address the endemic issues of poor oral health among Indigenous people around the world. An Indigenous dental clinical outplacement in Australia provides an example of beneficial outcomes of such an approach. It provides dental students with an opportunity to experience the health issues related to Australian Indigenous communities and prepare future graduates to work comfortably in the public health care system. Indigenous people also develop trust and feel

  8. The National In-Service Courses for Science Teachers and Their Effect on Educational Reform in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Alejandra; Flores, Fernando; Gallegos, Leticia

    2005-01-01

    The educational system in Mexico has undergone important changes in recent decades. One of the most important took place in 1993, when the compulsory character of secondary school (ages 12-15) was established. National In-service Courses (NICs) were established as a way to bring curricular changes proposed in the reform near to the teachers. The…

  9. Generative Adaptation and Reuse of Competence Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodero, Juan Manuel; Zarraonandia, Telmo; Fernandez, Camino; Diez, David

    2007-01-01

    Instructional engineering provides methods to conduct the design and adaptation of competence development programmes by the combination of diverse learning components (i.e. units of learning, learning activities, learning resources and learning services). It occurs through an established process workflow in which models with diverse levels of…

  10. Handbook for Teachers. Science Education Programme for Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Education Programme for Africa, Accra (Ghana).

    This handbook, prepared by the Science Education Programme for Africa (SEPA), provides materials designed to improve science teacher education in African countries. The handbook provides illustrations of how in-service teachers teach science, how children learn science, how adults relate to children, how some teachers prepare for the task of…

  11. Child health and education in Kenyan schools programmes.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J

    1991-03-01

    Jane Fleming describes the health education in schools programme launched by the Aga Khan Health Services in Kisumu, Kenya. The project has brought major improvements in child health and mortality rates as well as better health awareness to the community as a whole. PMID:2019516

  12. Sexual Health Promotion Programme: Participants' Perspectives on Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Brian; Daly, Louise; Sharek, Danika; De Vries, Jan; McCann, Edward; Higgins, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate a Health Service Executive (HSE) Foundation Programme in Sexual Health Promotion (FPSHP) with a specific emphasis on capacity building. Design: A mixed-method design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect the data. Setting: The FPSHP was delivered to staff working in…

  13. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Higher Education Peer Helping Programmes: Managerial Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, M.; Ntlokwana, N.

    2011-01-01

    A survey was sent to 33 managers at units and centres involved in Higher Education student-to-student support services in the form of peer help programmes. The survey focused on managers' perspectives on peer help programme demographics, management, planning and resourcing, on intra-institutional and other linkages, as well as on institutional…

  14. Adapted Action Research as an Instructional Strategy in a Music Teacher Education Programme in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Marina W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how adapted action research could act as a catalyst for change in curriculum development and be used as an instructional strategy in a music teacher education programme to enhance the reflective practice of student-teachers. Two cases of in-service, part-time student-teachers of a music teacher programme who conducted an…

  15. Evaluation of an Adoption Strategy for a Healthy Diet Programme for Lower Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessems, Kathelijne M. H. H.; van Assema, Patricia; Paulussen, Theo W. G. M.; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of an adoption strategy for the school-based healthy diet programme Krachtvoer. Health promotion (HP) professionals from five Regional Public Health Services (RPHSs) in The Netherlands were asked to recruit a total of 25 schools to adopt the Krachtvoer programme in accordance with this strategy. Afterwards, they…

  16. Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning with Communities: A Critical Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Elena; Bates, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the process of critically evaluating Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities after its first year of operation. The programme supports and promotes community-based learning/service-learning across DIT. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is presented in the form of a…

  17. Effective Vocational Guidance and Counselling Programmes: Creating Opportunities for Harnessing Potentials of Street Beggars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nweze, Tina; Okolie, Ugochukwu Chnonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper discussed the need to promote vocational guidance and counselling programmes not only at schools but as regards the street beggars. It is observed that majority of street beggars have lots of potentials locked in them which need to be unlocked through vocational guidance and counselling programmes or services. The paper noted that task…

  18. School Building Design for Feeding Programmes and Community Outreach: Insights from Ghana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uduku, Ola

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how school building design can support primary school feeding programmes in low- and middle-income countries. Furthermore it argues for schools to become community "development hubs"; incorporating both local access to education and also to programmes for nutrition, ICT, health education and other services, outside of…

  19. A Framework for Designing a Research-Based "Maths Counsellor" Teacher Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Niss, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses one way in which decades of mathematics education research results can inform practice, by offering a framework for designing and implementing an in-service teacher education programme for upper secondary mathematics teachers in Denmark. The programme aims to educate a "task force" of so-called "maths…

  20. Effectiveness of Teacher Education Programmes in Developing Teaching Skills for Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, S. Zia; Farooq, M. S.; Memon, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of secondary school teacher education programme in terms of development of selected teaching skills and suggesting ways and means to improve the programme. The population of the study comprised of the pre-service teachers of all the government colleges of education for men and women in…

  1. Correlations between compulsory drug abstinence treatments and HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users in a border city of South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey T; Tuner, Nannette; Chen, Charlene J; Lin, Hui-yi; Liang, Shaoling; Wang, Siven

    2013-08-01

    Compulsory drug abstinence treatments (CAT) provided by the public security system have been one of the predominant methods of addressing drug abuse and HIV risks in China. This study assessed the association between CAT and HIV risk behaviors by surveying a community sample of 613 injection drug users (IDUs) at a city located in South China. The data indicated that the great majority of the participants (89.6%) had received the institutionalized treatments an average of 4.5 times. The study found that the number of compulsory drug abstinence treatments increased IDUs' HIV/AIDS knowledge. However, other HIV-related outcomes were not encouraging. The study found that the number of compulsory drug abstinence treatments was not related to an increase in condom use. Furthermore, the frequency of compulsory drug abstinence treatments was not related to needle/syringe sharing, but was positively associated with cooker/cotton/rinse water sharing and drug solution sharing. The number of compulsory drug abstinence treatments was positively associated with HIV status. In general, this study found little support that CAT has accomplished its goal in reducing HIV risks among injection drug users in the sample. Policy implications for reforming CAT are suggested. PMID:23837811

  2. Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, ‘to build in’), we propose an active model of education (educare, ‘to bring out’) in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning. PMID:24349000

  3. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  4. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  5. [Experience feed back committee in radiotherapy (CREx): a compulsory tool for security management evaluation at two years].

    PubMed

    Lartigau, E; Coche-Dequeant, B; Dumortier, V; Giscard, S; Lacornerie, T; Lasue, A; Cheval, V; Martel, V; Malfait, B; Fuchs, A; Pestel, M; Damman, M; Forrest, M

    2008-11-01

    After working on treatment organisation in radiotherapy (bonne pratiques organisationnelles en radiothérapie - action pilote MEAH 2003), the development of a security policy has become crucial. With the help of Air France Consulting and the MEAH, three cancer centers in Angers, Lille and Villejuif worked together on the implantation of experience feed back committees (CREx) dedicated to the registration, analysis and correction of precursor events. After two years, we report the centre Oscar-Lambret experience in Lille and try to get the recommendations for generalisation of the process. This seems now to be compulsory for security management in oncology. PMID:18760652

  6. The rise and fall of a National Safety Promotion Programme:the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Skjonberg, Guldbrand; Svanstrom, Leif; Schelp, Lothar

    2011-06-01

    In 1982, when Sweden got a new Health Service Act, the health sector was given a new role - to collect, analyse and actively disseminate the knowledge it gained. A National Safety Promotion Programme was build up by the National Board for Health and Welfare, and a National Inter-sector Cooperation Group and medical advisory board were established. In 1992, the programme was transferred to the National Institute of Public Health. Later the Institute was given a new role and therefore the programme was relocated to the Swedish Rescue Service Agency. In some aspects we can see a parallel with the paradigm that was behind the Civil Protection Act 2003 and the Health Service Act 1982. It was a logic consequence to move the national programme to the rescue service sector. Within the National Rescue Service Agency the programme ended up in the line organisation, which lacked a cross-sector work orientation. The programme was closed down. In the article the reason for the decisions is described and also the background and the possibilities for the programme to act in different national boards as well as the preconditions for an inter-sector group. PMID:21442504

  7. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  8. Action programme for youth.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, A B

    1993-01-01

    In Nigeria, where abortion is illegal, unmarried women under 20 years of age comprises the majority of abortion patients and complications from unsafe abortion represent a major health problem among this sector. The high incidence of abortion in Nigeria reflects increased premarital sex activity in urban areas; opposition to family planning, and cultural sanctions against single parenting or forced marriage. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) is working, cautiously, toward liberalization of the grounds for legal abortion; however, its major strategy is to avert the need for abortion through overcoming opposition to family planning services for young people and family life education in the schools. To reach young people, PPFN has begun providing services in medical clinics attached to vocational schools and institutes of higher education. The concept of using peers to distribute non-prescription contraceptives is being considered, and special youth clinics are planned for urban areas. About 5% of new acceptors at PPFN clinics are under 20 years of age, and attempts are being made to tailor services to the unique needs of this population. PMID:12345327

  9. Trends in Compulsory Licensing of Pharmaceuticals Since the Doha Declaration: A Database Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beall, Reed; Kuhn, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Background It is now a decade since the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the “Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health” at its 4th Ministerial Conference in Doha. Many anticipated that these actions would lead nations to claim compulsory licenses (CLs) for pharmaceutical products with greater regularity. A CL is the use of a patented innovation that has been licensed by a state without the permission of the patent title holder. Skeptics doubted that many CLs would occur, given political pressure against CL activity and continued health system weakness in poor countries. The subsequent decade has seen little systematic assessment of the Doha Declaration's impact. Methods and Findings We assembled a database of all episodes in which a CL was publically entertained or announced by a WTO member state since 1995. Broad searches of CL activity were conducted using media, academic, and legal databases, yielding 34 potential CL episodes in 26 countries. Country- and product-specific searches were used to verify government participation, resulting in a final database of 24 verified CLs in 17 nations. We coded CL episodes in terms of outcome, national income, and disease group over three distinct periods of CL activity. Most CL episodes occurred between 2003 and 2005, involved drugs for HIV/AIDS, and occurred in upper-middle-income countries (UMICs). Aside from HIV/AIDS, few CL episodes involved communicable disease, and none occurred in least-developed or low-income countries. Conclusions Given skepticism about the Doha Declaration's likely impact, we note the relatively high occurrence of CLs, yet CL activity has diminished markedly since 2006. While UMICs have high CL activity and strong incentives to use CLs compared to other countries, we note considerable countervailing pressures against CL use even in UMICs. We conclude that there is a low probability of continued CL activity. We highlight the need for further systematic evaluation of global

  10. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  11. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  12. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.

    PubMed

    Simbar, M

    2012-03-01

    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation. PMID:22574484

  13. Schools That Make a Difference to Post-Compulsory Uptake of Physical Science Subjects: Some comparative case studies in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of the qualitative component of a combined methods research study that explores a range of individual and school factors that influence the uptake of chemistry and physics in post-compulsory study in England. The first phase involves using the National Pupil Database to provide a sampling frame to identify four matched pairs of high-uptake and low-uptake schools by salient school factors. Case studies of these eight schools indicate that students employ selection strategies related to their career aspirations, their sense of identity and tactics, and their prior experience. The school factors influencing subject choice relate to school management, student support and guidance, and student empowerment. The most notable differences between students in high-uptake and low-uptake schools are that students in high-uptake schools appear to make a proactive choice in relation to career aspirations, rather than a reactive choice on the basis of past experience. Schools with a high uptake offer a diverse science curriculum in the final two years of compulsory study, set higher examination entry requirements for further study and, crucially, provide a range of opportunities for students to interact with the world of work and to gain knowledge and experience of science-related careers.

  14. Mortality among a national population sentenced to compulsory care for substance use disorders in Sweden: descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Taylor; Chassler, Deborah; Blom, Björn; Grahn, Robert; Blom-Nilsson, Marcus; Sullivan, Lisa; Lundgren, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Sweden's compulsory addiction system treats individuals with severe alcohol and narcotics use disorders. Merging data from three national level register databases of those sentenced to compulsory care from 2001 to 2009 (n=4515), the aims of this study were to: (1) compute mortality rates to compare to the general Swedish population; (2) identify leading cause of mortality by alcohol or narcotics use; and (3) identify individual level characteristics associated with mortality among alcohol and narcotics users. In this population, 24% were deceased by 2011. The most common cause of death for alcohol users was physical ailments linked to alcohol use, while narcotics users commonly died of drug poisoning or suicide. Average age of death differed significantly between alcohol users (55.0) and narcotics users (32.5). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified the same three factors predicting mortality: older age (alcohol users OR=1.28, narcotic users OR=1.16), gender [males were nearly 3 times more likely to die among narcotics users (p<.000) and 1.6 times more likely to die among alcohol users (p<.01)] and reporting serious health problems (for alcohol users p<.000, for narcotics users p<.05). Enhanced program and government efforts are needed to implement overdose-prevention efforts and different treatment modalities for both narcotic and alcohol users. PMID:25577663

  15. FormBuilder/FBGraphics programmer`s reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    A primary concern in most modern software applications is the development of an attractive, ``friendly`` Graphical User Interface (GUI). Increasingly, that concern is being met through the use of the OSF/Motif widget set. While this software toolset is extremely powerful, the vast knowledge and attention to detail required by the programmer tend to be nearly unmanageable. This translates into an extended learning curve and a large investment of time and effort before the programmer reaches a desirable level of productivity. Even then, developing anything but the most basic GUI often proves to be a tedious and costly undertaking. FormBuilder is an application programmers interface (API) that provides the programmer with a high-level interface to a subset of the ``X`` Window System and the OSF/Motif widget set. Through the use of the FormBuilder data types and procedure calls, the GUI programmer is afforded several distinct advantages over coding directly at the Motif, Xt, and Xlib layers. Among these advantages are a substantially reduced learning curve, more readable/maintainable/modifiable code, smaller, more efficient binaries, and reduced compile/link/debug time during development. Working in concert with the FormBuilder library is the FBGraphics library, a 2-dimensional graphics library that allows the programmer to perform graphical operations within certain FormBuilder ``windows``. The FBGraphics library is based on the Xlib drawing routines, and much like FormBuilder, its purpose is to provide the programmers with a simpler, more productive mechanism for producing the desired graphical output on the screen.

  16. Facial trauma in the largest city in latin america, são paulo, 15 years after the enactment of the compulsory seat belt law

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Tarley Eloy Pessoa; Campolongo, Gabriel Denser; Zanluqui, Talita; Duarte, Dayane

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents are a reality throughout Brazil. The face is one of the anatomic parts most affected by these accidents, especially when a seat belt is not used. These accidents are costly for the public health system and have a significant impact on society and the lives of families involved. The compulsory use of seat belts in Brazil, especially in São Paulo, has decreased the rate of facial trauma. This suggests that the public health policies and measures adopted by the Brazilian authorities have benefited the population 15 years after the enactment of the law of compulsory seat belts in the city of São Paulo. PMID:21120309

  17. The Challenges in Building an Adequate and Comprehensive Fund-Ensuring System for Rural Compulsory Education in China: Empirical Evidence from the Implementation of "Two Exemptions and One Subsidy" (TEOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanqing, Ding

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, the "two exemptions and one subsidy" (TEOS) policy was integrated into the New Mechanism for Assured Funding for Rural Compulsory Education (hereafter the "New Mechanism"). The New Mechanism includes TEOS, raising the standard of public expenditure guarantees for rural compulsory education stage schools, creating a permanent…

  18. 78 FR 76987 - Adjustment of Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Mechanical and Digital Phonorecords

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ..., music bundles, paid locker services, and purchased content locker services. 78 FR 67938. In the preamble... of account'' kept under the section 115 statutory license. See Id. at 67940, citing 78 FR 28772 (May...) that is the basis of the per-work royalty allocation being paid.'' 77 FR 29259, 29267 (May 17,...

  19. 78 FR 67938 - Adjustment of Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Mechanical and Digital Phonorecords

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...The Copyright Royalty Judges are publishing final regulations setting the rates and terms for the section 115 statutory license for the use of musical works in physical phonorecord deliveries, permanent digital downloads, ringtones, interactive streaming, limited downloads, limited offerings, mixed service bundles, music bundles, paid locker services, and purchased content locker...

  20. [Pilot study on a modular outpatient treatment programme following public order placements because of endangerment in patients with psychotic disorders].

    PubMed

    Luckhaus, C; Kampka, N; Frommann, N; Dönisch-Seidel, U; Gaebel, W; Janssen, B

    2014-08-01

    Patients with psychotic disorders who were detained by public order because of endangerment, can be regarded as a population at risk of further endangerment, public order placements and a forensic course. Concepts of specific aftercare for this subgroup are lacking thus far. The present pilot study explores the feasibility of a modular therapeutic outpatient programme that is tailored to specific subgroup needs and is applied over six months. Readmission rates during the intervention period are regarded exploratively.Consecutive screening of all patients placed in general psychiatry by public order during 05 to 11/2012. Included patients received baseline measurements followed by six-month intervention. Individual utilisation of treatment modules and number of readmissions, differentiated according to legal bases were assessed.Inclusion rate: 17.4 % of all screened subjects (115) and 57 % of all potentially includable subjects, dropout rate: 15 %. Mean utilisation rate: 23.5 therapeutic contacts per 6 months. Readmission rate: 50 %, of these 60 % on voluntary legal basis.Study inclusion, mean utilisation and dropout rates attest the feasibility and acceptance of the intervention in the population under study. A preponderance of voluntary vs. compulsory readmissions to hospital during the intervention indicates that in the majority of patients a higher degree of therapeutic cooperativeness can be reached. Further study on reduction of compulsory readmissions and on avoidance of a forensic course by application of the here introduced intervention in combination with methods of risk assessment in a consecutive main project seems justified. PMID:25105433

  1. Coverage of the English national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme among 12 to 17 year-old females by area-level deprivation score, England, 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Hughes, A; Mesher, D; White, J; Soldan, K

    2014-01-01

    The English national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme has offered vaccination to girls aged 12 years at the start of each school year since September 2008. A catch-up programme has offered vaccination to girls up to 18 years. Delivery is predominantly school-based, with some general practitioner (GP)-based immunisation. The relationship between HPV immunisation coverage and deprivation (index of multiple deprivation, IMD) was assessed by geographical area (N=151) for each school year offered the HPV vaccine between 2008 to 2011 using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, and compared to that for adequate cervical screening of women aged 25 to 49 years. Coverage at age 12 showed no significant association with IMD at the area-level (p=0.12). Within the catch-up years, there was some suggestion of higher deprivation being associated with lower coverage. This was not significant for girls offered immunisation under 16 years (in compulsory education) (p=0.09), but was more marked and statistically significant for older girls (p<0.0001). The proportion of women aged 25 to 49 years with an adequate cervical screen was negatively associated with deprivation (p<0.0001). School-based HPV immunisation delivery appears to be successfully reducing inequalities in cervical cancer control at area-level. However, the catch-up cohorts above the age of compulsory education may face increased inequality. Further investigation is needed into individual-level factors associated with coverage. PMID:24457007

  2. The programmer`s guide to the software copyright

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrli, J.E.

    1996-06-01

    This booklet was written specifically for anyone who writes computer programs at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is intended to provide basic information on how the law of copyright applies to computer software. It is not intended to be a legal reference for copyright attorneys, but an accessible reference for the people whose creative efforts result in software others want to use. Whether you are a chemist who writes software to help you with your work or a professional Berkeley Lab programmer you should benefit from this booklet. The information in this booklet is written in an informal conversational style, not a legal style. It is simply a direct response to a need for information that I have observed. Since I have written it from a programmer`s viewpoint and for a programmer`s use, it does not cover copyright law in general and focuses only on those areas of copyright law specific to computer software. Moreover, it does not attempt to address other areas of law that may be applicable to computer software. It is certainly not intended to replace the timely legal advice of Berkeley Lab`s Patent Department. However, just as it is helpful to read the computer manual before calling tech support, it will also be helpful to read this booklet before calling the Patent Department, not so much to answer any and all questions, but to give you the vocabulary to better understand and digest the information provided by the Department.

  3. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  4. Gender-planned health services.

    PubMed

    Raikes, A; Shoo, R; Brabin, L

    1992-08-01

    Gender-planned health services are planned on the basis that women and men play different roles in society and have different medical needs. The feminist movement has provided a broad charter of rights for women, reflecting women's needs, but these have yet to be translated into operational programmes. National programmes for women would allow co-ordination of broad-based programmes to improve women's health and social position. To change social norms discriminating against women will require changing male attitudes. Health programmes for males have received little attention, except from family planning organizations, although in most countries, males have a high rate of accidents, infections and parasitic disease. Controlled studies are required to evaluate the benefits of gender-planned health services. PMID:1489242

  5. Delivering Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Comparison of Public and Private Treatment Centres by Service Users and Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, quality of care has now been placed at the centre of the National Health Service (NHS) modernisation programme. To date, there has been little research on the service quality delivery of alcohol treatment services from the perspective of both the service user and service provider. Therefore, this qualitative study explored the…

  6. Pragati: an empowerment programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Euser, Sjoerd M.; Souverein, Dennis; Rama Narayana Gowda, Pushpalatha; Shekhar Gowda, Chandra; Grootendorst, Diana; Ramaiah, Rajendra; Barot, Snehal; Kumar, Sunil; Jenniskens, Françoise; Kumar, Shiv; Den Boer, Jeroen W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman's needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR) age 28 (24–35) years]. The programme's personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population. PMID:23195516

  7. Strategising for the future Indian EO programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Kalyanraman, S.; Joseph, George; Navalgund, R. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    2002-07-01

    The Indian Earth Observations Program, over the past three decades, has been mainly driven by the national need of natural resources management, infrastructure development, environment monitoring and disaster management support. With an array of seven Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS), national development support has been supported, through a well-knit institutional framework of a National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS), a wide variety of applications developed as an inter-agency effort over the past 20 years. Now, the capacity of the programme has been extended into the global arena and IRS is providing operational data services to the global user community. The future Earth Observation Systems will have to take into consideration the aspects related to the commercialisation and standardisation of programmes world-over; transitioning into a business environment; data continuity and the need to monitor processes rather than events. Technological changes are also going to re-define many of the concepts of observation from space and issues like spatial resolution, spectral resolution and temporal resolution may no more be a concern for observation systems. ISRO is presently defining a strategy for the Indian EO Programme that will chart the progress with a vision for the next 25 years. Based on a thorough analysis, the observation needs of the future are planned and presently systems design and implementation are underway. The Need Analysis has been done keeping in mind the Global change applications; Mapping and Cartographic applications; Natural Resources and Environmental management applications etc. Issues related to defining the space and data acquisition as a national "public good", costing of data products and services and evolving a commercial remote sensing policy have been addressed for providing the overall thrust of the Indian Earth Observations program. The paper discusses the strategy adopted for assessing the future user requirements

  8. Improving access to dental care for vulnerable children; further development of the Back2School programme in 2013.

    PubMed

    Simons, D; Pearson, N; Evans, P; Wallace, T; Eke, M; Wright, D

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a service evaluation of a dental treatment programme providing care to children not normally taken to the dentist. It explains the extension of the Back2School programme from the pilot phase and assesses if a mobile dental unit (MDU) can provide a high quality service. The public health competencies it illustrates include oral health improvement, developing and monitoring quality dental services, and collaborative working. PMID:26263597

  9. The SLMTA programme: Transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Katy; Maruta, Talkmore; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Nkengasong, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Efficient and reliable laboratory services are essential to effective and well-functioning health systems. Laboratory managers play a critical role in ensuring the quality and timeliness of these services. However, few laboratory management programmes focus on the competencies required for the daily operations of a laboratory in resource-limited settings. This report provides a detailed description of an innovative laboratory management training tool called Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) and highlights some challenges, achievements and lessons learned during the first five years of implementation (2009–2013) in developing countries. Programme SLMTA is a competency-based programme that uses a series of short courses and work-based learning projects to effect immediate and measurable laboratory improvement, while empowering laboratory managers to implement practical quality management systems to ensure better patient care. A SLMTA training programme spans from 12 to 18 months; after each workshop, participants implement improvement projects supported by regular supervisory visits or on-site mentoring. In order to assess strengths, weaknesses and progress made by the laboratory, audits are conducted using the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist, which is based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 requirements. These internal audits are conducted at the beginning and end of the SLMTA training programme. Conclusion Within five years, SLMTA had been implemented in 617 laboratories in 47 countries, transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries. To our knowledge, SLMTA is the first programme that makes an explicit connection between the performance of specific management behaviours and routines and ISO 15189 requirements. Because of this close relationship, SLMTA is

  10. Population policies, programmes and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Speidel, J. Joseph; Weiss, Deborah C.; Ethelston, Sally A.; Gilbert, Sarah M.

    2009-01-01

    Human consumption is depleting the Earth's natural resources and impairing the capacity of life-supporting ecosystems. Humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively over the past 50 years than during any other period, primarily to meet increasing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fibre and fuel. Such consumption, together with world population increasing from 2.6 billion in 1950 to 6.8 billion in 2009, are major contributors to environmental damage. Strengthening family-planning services is crucial to slowing population growth, now 78 million annually, and limiting population size to 9.2 billion by 2050. Otherwise, birth rates could remain unchanged, and world population would grow to 11 billion. Of particular concern are the 80 million annual pregnancies (38% of all pregnancies) that are unintended. More than 200 million women in developing countries prefer to delay their pregnancy, or stop bearing children altogether, but rely on traditional, less-effective methods of contraception or use no method because they lack access or face other barriers to using contraception. Family-planning programmes have a successful track record of reducing unintended pregnancies, thereby slowing population growth. An estimated $15 billion per year is needed for family-planning programmes in developing countries and donors should provide at least $5 billion of the total, however, current donor assistance is less than a quarter of this funding target. PMID:19770155

  11. Technology transfer trends in Indian space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Shoba, T. S.

    2010-10-01

    Indian space programme, whose objectives involve acceleration of economic and social development through applications of space technology, has been engaged in the development of state-of-the-art satellite systems, launch vehicles and equipment necessary for applications. Even during the early phase of evolution of this Programme, deliberate policies have been adopted by the national space agency, namely, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), to promote spin-off benefit from the technologies developed for the use of space projects. Consistently adhering to this policy, ISRO has transferred over 280 technologies till date, spanning a wide spectrum of disciplines. This has resulted in a fruitful two-way cooperation between a number of SMEs and the ISRO. In order to make the technology transfer process effective, ISRO has adopted a variety of functional and organizational policies that included awareness building measures, licensee selection methods, innovative contract systems, diverse transfer processes, post licencing services and feedback mechanisms. Besides analyzing these policies and their evolution, the paper discusses various models adopted for technology transfer and their impact on assessment. It also touches upon relevant issues relating to creating interface between public funded R&D and the private commercial enterprises. It suggests few models in which international cooperation could be pursued in this field.

  12. Availability and characteristics of cardiac rehabilitation programmes in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zixin; Pack, Quinn; Squires, Ray W; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Yu, Lujiao; Thomas, Randal J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves patient outcomes in cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about its current practice in China. Since China has a high CVD burden, the potential impact of CR is large. We surveyed large hospitals in China to assess the prevalence and characteristics of CR. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of 454 large medical centres in China to ascertain the prevalence of CR, perceived barriers to CR and various other characteristics of centres with and without CR programmes. Results Responses were received from 124 (27%) of the 454 centres surveyed. Of these, only 30 (24%) reported having an operating CR programme. This was true, despite the near universal availability of advanced imaging, coronary stenting and other technologies. Overall, the estimated availability of CR programmes was about 2 programmes per 100 million inhabitants. Centres with CR were more likely than centres without CR to be university or government hospitals, have more inpatient cardiovascular beds and provide secondary CVD prevention services. Perceived barriers to CR included a lack of awareness, training and experience in CR, as well as limited resources for a CR programme. Respondents suggested that educational and training activities could help promote greater implementation of CR in China. Conclusions The availability of CR is low (24%) in the large medical centres in China we surveyed, highlighting the importance of efforts to raise awareness of the benefits of CR, to provide CR training to healthcare professionals and to improve CR availability throughout China. PMID:27326243

  13. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  14. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  15. The School Situation for Students with a High Level of Absenteeism in Compulsory School: Is There a Pattern in Documented Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Anne-Sofie M.; Granlund, Mats

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a retrospective descriptive content analysis of all identified school documents for 90 ninth-grade students with a history of truancy, collected from two Swedish compulsory schools. The study investigates individual, school, and psychosocial factors in the documents and three analyses are presented: (1) a general analysis of the…

  16. Paul Goodman, 30 Years Later: "Growing Up Absurd"; "Compulsory Mis-Education, and The Community of Scholars"; and "The New Reformation"--A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, James S.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a retrospective account of the legacy of Paul Goodman's major educational works: "Growing Up Absurd"; "Compulsory Mis-education, and The Community of Scholars"; and "The New Reformation." It is argued here that what remains of interest in Goodman's work is to be found in the tropes and the anarchic Zeitgeist of his work. The legacy…

  17. Giving the Teacher a Voice: Perceptions Regarding the Barriers and Enablers Associated with the Implementation of Smart Moves (Compulsory Physical Activity) within Primary State Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Wayne; Anderton, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The specific focus of this study is to explore Queensland (Australia) state school generalist teachers' perceptions regarding the barriers and enablers associated with the implementation of the Smart Moves (compulsory physical activity) policy in the primary classroom setting. This study sought to primarily add to the literature on, and…

  18. "Endless Patience and a Strong Belief in What Makes a Good Teacher:" Teacher Educators in Post-Compulsory Education in England and Their Professional Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the professional situation of teacher educators in post-compulsory education. The article reports on a project that included the largest online survey of this particular group to date, and the results provide rich insights into their values, experiences and particular working context. The results significantly extend our…

  19. Second-Language Education Policy in Quebec: A Critical Analysis of the Policy of English as a Compulsory Subject at the Early Primary Level in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Gerald; Rublik, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This is a critical policy study of language planning and policy in Quebec regarding the new policy direction requiring the compulsory teaching of English at the early primary level (grades 1-2, Cycle 1) in francophone public schools. Based on the analysis of policy documents, archives, and narratives from interviews, the goal of this policy study…

  20. The Impact of Lecturers' Initial Teacher Training on Continuing Professional Development Needs for Teaching and Learning in Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the initial findings of a research project that aims to investigate the impact of teacher training for lecturers in post-compulsory education on engagement with continuing professional development (CPD) for learning and teaching. The majority of colleges and universities operating in the UK now ensure that all teaching staff…

  1. Do Schooling Laws Matter? Evidence from the Introduction of Compulsory Attendance Laws in the United States. NBER Working Paper No. 18477

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Karen; Lingwall, Jeff; Stephens, Melvin, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of introducing compulsory attendance laws on the schooling of U.S. children for three overlapping time periods: 1880-1927, 1890-1927, and 1898-1927. The previous literature finds little effect of the laws, which is somewhat surprising given that the passage of these laws coincided with rising attendance. Using…

  2. Knowledge about the Greenhouse Effect and the Effects of the Ozone Layer among Norwegian Pupils Finishing Compulsory Education in 1989, 1993, and 2005--What Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and the effects of the ozone layer have been in the media and public focus for more than two decades. During the same period, Norwegian compulsory schools have had four national curricula. The two last-mentioned prescribe explicitly the two topics. Media and public discourse might have been sources of information causing…

  3. Drama and Theatre in a Nordic Curriculum Perspective--A Challenged Arts Subject Used as a Learning Medium in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österlind, Eva; Østern, Anna-Lena; Thorkelsdóttir, Rannveig Björk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a Nordic curriculum perspective on drama and theatre in education ranging from preschool to upper secondary education and cultural schools. Underlined in the Nordic welfare model is an equity, inclusive and democracy perspective, which guarantees free access to compulsory education and to upper secondary…

  4. Compulsory Unionism, the NLRB, and the Courts: A Legal Analysis of Union Security Agreements. Labor Relations and Public Policy Series Report No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Thomas R.

    As used here, compulsory union or union security agreements are federally sanctioned contracts between a labor union and employer whereby the employer agrees to require his employees, as a condition of their employment, to affiliate with the union in some way. Right-to-work is usually construed to mean the liberty of the individual to have a job…

  5. Robust and Specific Personality Traits as Predictors of Adolescents' Final Grades and GPA at the End of Compulsory Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrtnik Vitulic, Helena; Zupancic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive value of robust and specific personality traits in adolescents (M[subscript age]?=?14.7 years), in explaining their academic achievement at the end of basic compulsory schooling. Personality data were obtained through self, maternal, and peer reports using the Inventory of Child/Adolescent Individual…

  6. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  7. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Tertiary Education Providers & School Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for tertiary education providers and school educators from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between…

  8. Did the Americanization Movement Succeed? An Evaluation of the Effect of English-Only and Compulsory Schools Laws on Immigrants' Education. NBER Working Paper No. 18302

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras-Muney, Adriana; Shertzer, Allison

    2012-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, education legislation was often passed based on arguments that new laws were needed to force immigrants to learn English and "Americanize." We provide the first estimates of the effect of statutes requiring English as the language of instruction and compulsory schooling laws on the school enrollment, work, literacy…

  9. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  10. The ESO Observing Programmes Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1982-06-01

    Since 1978 the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) has "the function to inspect and rank the proposals made for observing programmes at La Silla, and thereby to advise the Director General on the distribution of observing time". The members (one from each member country) and their alternates are nominated by the respective national committees for five-year terms (not immediately renewable). The terms are staggered so that each year one or two persons are replaced. The Chairman is appointed annually by the Council. He is invited to attend Council meetings and to report to its members.

  11. Enhancing health programme efficiency: a Cambodian case study.

    PubMed

    Stuer, F

    1998-09-01

    In 1995, the Cambodian Urban Health Care Association (CUHCA) was set up as facilitator between private health care providers and patients, guaranteeing good quality health care and fair pricing to patients and providing training and logistic support to providers. Providers were engaged on a fee-for-service basis and competition encouraged. CUHCA's objectives followed the same line of thought as the 1993 World Development Report, aiming at influencing the unregulated private health care market through competition mechanisms. But soon after the start of the project the basic problem was recognized to be not the absence of effective government regulation but rather that consumers lack the requisite knowledge to make good choices in the market for health services. CUHCA had not adequately addressed the demand for health services. The original supply-side strategy of improving health services by increasing competition was a failure. In order to improve CUHCA's health programme efficiency the association's objectives were subsequently redefined and its functioning reorganized. CUHCA now tries to educate consumers and provides good quality services so that consumers will be able to act on the basis of their newly acquired knowledge. CUHCA's health centres serve as model clinics for first-line health care. Community educators organize information, education and communication (IEC) activities. Staff help school teachers to improve formal health education in schools and CUHCA assists local leaders in sanitation development. Only full-time personnel are employed, encouraging team spirit and communication with the target population. Salaries are based on team performance. The CUHCA programme demonstrates that, depending on the market situation, health programme models need to address both the supply and the demand for services in order to be efficient. Where consumers lack essential knowledge to make appropriate choices in the health service market, interventions should focus

  12. NMG documentation. Part II. Programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the 2nd of a 3-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. This part is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, how it works. (Part I is aimed at the user of the system; Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and will receive only limited distribution.)

  13. Present status of the Copernicus programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutz, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The European Union (EU) has established the Copernicus Programme, formerly named GMES; an Earth monitoring user-driven initiative carried out in partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA) and EU/ESA Member States. Copernicus is designed to ensure continuous provision of reliable data and information on environment and security related services, primarily to users responsible for making, implementing and monitoring the relevant policies in the EU and its Member States. The Copernicus services rely on in-situ sensors and satellite data, the latter being provided by the Copernicus Space Component (CSC). ESA is responsible for coordinating the CSC, i.e. the Sentinel Missions and the access to data from Contributing Missions, in collaboration with EUMETSAT. The first dedicated Copernicus satellite mission, Sentinel-1A, was successfully launched on 3rd April 2014. After completion of the Commissioning Phase (23 September 2014), the operations ramp-up phase started. This phase consists of a gradual ground segment system deployment and user product quality verification/calibration. During this phase the data provision has been extended. The remaining activities will be achieved before the Sentinel-1A Routine Operations Readiness Review, expected to take place in May 2015. This milestone will mark the completion of the mission operations qualification and the start of the routine operations of the satellite. The Full Operational Capability will be reached when two units of Sentinel-1 will enter routine operations simultaneously. The next Sentinel missions, starting with the first unit of Sentinel-2 expected to be launched in May 2015, will be launched within the next years and will be progressively covering all domains of Earth Observation. The successful uptake of the operational phase of the Copernicus Space Component, and the full economic benefits of the Copernicus programme will materialise only when the wealth of data from the whole series of Sentinel satellites

  14. Defining the needs of a telemedicine service.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Gary C; Spaulding, Ryan J

    2006-01-01

    While telemedicine programme objectives, technologies and even philosophies will differ, certain common factors that enhance programme success can be identified. For example, a programme design which is driven by technological imperatives is likely to fail. It must also be recognized that telemedicine programmes cannot force remote sites to use their services. Thus developers must assess the needs for the proposed telemedicine service from a clinical, economic and technical perspective. From a clinical perspective, it is important to remember that certain clinical services can be provided via telemedicine while others cannot. Programme developers must recognize the significant role of the remote team in sustaining services; the on-site presenter is essential for the successful practice of telemedicine. Evaluating a telemedicine programme should be viewed as an integral step in its design and implementation. One site may define effectiveness in terms of access to services while another may measure success by cost savings. The success of future telemedicine programmes will be strongly related to their ability to recognize that they should be used to enhance current health-care delivery rather than to replace it. PMID:17022834

  15. Programmes to promote breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, E F

    1986-03-01

    Modern concepts about the development of breastfeeding programs are presented focusing on the need for community analysis, the importance of changing attitudes and stimulating motivation in the general public, and both small-scale and national level programs. Some form of community analysis is essential to develop a breastfeeding program. Information needs to be gathered on the prevalence of breastfeeding and the main social factors influencing the lactation reflexes, maternal knowledge about practical management, and the health of mothers. Experience suggests that this can most usefully be obtained by covering 4 topics: general information and attitudes, health services, women in the work force, and the influence of the infant food industry. From all 4 sources, information needs to be gathered on anxiety inducing factors and the limitation of opportunities for sucking, on the knowledge of the practical management of breastfeeding (modern versus traditional methods) by mothers, and on maternal health and nutrition. Breastfeeding programs need to change attitudes and to simulate motivation in the general public and particularly among mothers and fathers. In addition, programs need to convince and motivate other groups whose actions can support breastfeeding or make its accomplishment easier or more difficult. These groups include policymakers and legislators, health workers of various types, research scientists, and industrialists and the infant food industry. For the health professional, there are several procedures which need to be modified, including "rooming-in." Breastfeeding programs have been undertaken successfully on a relatively small scale, often in hospitals, by modifying existing maternity unit practices. The most significant "package" of activities for the hospital is "rooming-in." Positive results are available from hospitals in several European and various less technically developed countries. Various countries have shown an increase in breastfeeding

  16. Appropriate information: new products and services.

    PubMed

    Avriel, D; Aronson, B; Bertrand, I

    1993-01-01

    Effective health information services require action on three major levels: identifying and acquiring appropriate resources; applying appropriate methodologies for management of information and its communication; and stimulating local initiatives and applications. WHO's Programme of Library and Health Literature Services proposes its methodologies and products for creating and improving effective information services to health workers. PMID:8185798

  17. Environmental protection during animal disease eradication programmes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, H A

    1991-09-01

    This paper identifies animal disease eradication (ADE) programme activities which may have a negative impact on the environment. It suggests ways to lessen the impact of such activities without compromising the programme objectives. Reducing losses from livestock and poultry diseases with prevention, control and eradication programmes produces a net positive impact on the environment. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be integrated into the planning of any ADE programme. Decision-makers should give due consideration to the environmental effects of ADE programme activities, together with cost, personnel needs and other, more traditional, management concerns. A better environment will be a supplemental benefit from ADE programmes. PMID:1782433

  18. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  19. Designing Individualised Leadership Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Christine; McMahon, Margery; Gronn, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment of sufficient numbers of suitably qualified teachers into headship is an international issue and to address this in Scotland alternative headship preparation programmes were trialled to provide greater flexibility in order to better match the individual development needs and circumstances of the aspirant head teachers. Drawing from…

  20. Evaluation of quality improvement programmes.

    PubMed

    Øvretveit, J; Gustafson, D

    2002-09-01

    In response to increasing concerns about quality, many countries are carrying out large scale programmes which include national quality strategies, hospital programmes, and quality accreditation, assessment and review processes. Increasing amounts of resources are being devoted to these interventions, but do they ensure or improve quality of care? There is little research evidence as to their effectiveness or the conditions for maximum effectiveness. Reasons for the lack of evaluation research include the methodological challenges of measuring outcomes and attributing causality to these complex, changing, long term social interventions to organisations or health systems, which themselves are complex and changing. However, methods are available which can be used to evaluate these programmes and which can provide decision makers with research based guidance on how to plan and implement them. This paper describes the research challenges, the methods which can be used, and gives examples and guidance for future research. It emphasises the important contribution which such research can make to improving the effectiveness of these programmes and to developing the science of quality improvement. PMID:12486994