Mullan, Fitzhugh; Payne, Perry W; Ross, Heather
Abstract Compulsory service programmes have been used worldwide as a way to deploy and retain a professional health workforce within countries. Other names for these programmes include ”obligatory”, ”mandatory”, ”required” and ”requisite.” All these different programme names refer to a country’s law or policy that governs the mandatory deployment and retention of a heath worker in the underserved and/or rural areas of the country for a certain period of time. This study identified three different types of compulsory service programmes in 70 countries. These programmes are all governed by some type of regulation, ranging from a parliamentary law to a policy within the ministry of health. Depending on the country, doctors, nurses, midwives and all types of professional allied health workers are required to participate in the programme. Some of the compliance-enforcement measures include withholding full registration until obligations are completed, withholding degree and salary, or imposing large fines. This paper aims to explain these programmes more clearly, to identify countries that have or had such programmes, to develop a typology for the different kinds and to discuss the programmes in the light of important issues that are related to policy concepts and implementation. As governments consider the cost of investment in health professionals’ education, the loss of health professionals to emigration and the lack of health workers in many geographic areas, they are using compulsory service requirements as a way to deploy and retain the health workforce. PMID:20461136
Cavender, A; Albán, M
Compulsory medical service programs for physicians and other health care professionals have been installed in developing countries around the world. The underlying assumption for the creation of these programs is that the increased presence of physicians will improve the health status of rural populations which exhibit higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared to urban populations. This assumption, however, has been challenged by recent evaluative studies of compulsory service programs in Latin America. This paper reports on the physician's perspective of Ecuador's compulsory service program, known as medicatura rural. Based on responses to a self-administered questionnaire completed by 127 physicians who had fulfilled or were currently fulfilling their medicatura rural requirement, in-depth interviews with physicians and other officials, and visits to several rural placement sites, the paper examines some of the fundamental programmatic and logistical problems that have impeded the successful implementation of the program since its inception in 1970. While the majority of the physicians reported that the medicatura rural experience was both professionally and personally rewarding, many view the program as conceptually flawed with respect to its goal of improving the health status of rural communities. The physicians' suggestions for improving the medicatura rural, which elucidate some of the program's basic conceptual flaws and reflect the criticisms of compulsory medical programs in other Latin American countries, are discussed. Finally, Ugalde's (1988) recommendation for replacing compulsory medical service programs with a "rural health corps" is considered. PMID:10075237
The impact of national education policies on programme design practice in post-compulsory education tends to be marginalised in scholarly literature. This paper reviews and analyses the literature to explore how neo-liberalist discourses introduced in tertiary education and qualifications policies in New Zealand since 1989 continue to influence…
... Act (5 U.S.C. 552) and the Commission's regulations under that Act, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490... regulations, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977), or as amended. ... any form of compulsory process shall be the date on which the document is received by mail,...
... Freedom of Information Act regulations, 16 CFR part 1015, 42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977 or as amended. .... 1605.3 Section 1605.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... inquired of. (c) The date of service of any form of compulsory process shall be the date on which...
Mann, Farhana; Fisher, Helen L; Major, Barnaby; Lawrence, Jo; Tapfumaneyi, Andrew; Joyce, John; Hinton, Mark F; Johnson, Sonia
BackgroundSubstantial ethnic variations have been found in incidence, pathways to care and outcomes in psychosis. It is unknown whether these remain as marked in the presence of specialist Early Intervention Services (EIS) for psychosis. We present the first UK study exploring ethnic differences in compulsory detention and hospitalization rates for EIS patients. We investigated whether the excess rates of compulsory admission for people from Black groups have persisted following nationwide introduction of EIS. We also explored variations in compulsory admission for other ethnic groups, and differences by gender and diagnosis.MethodsFour inner-city London EIS teams gathered data from first-presentation psychosis patients between 2004¿2009 using the MiData audit tool. Clinical, sociodemographic and pathways to care data were recorded regarding adult patients from eight different ethnic groups at entry to EIS and one year later.ResultsBlack African EIS service users had odds of being detained and of being hospitalised three times greater than White British patients, even after adjustment for confounders. This was most marked in Black African women (seven to eight times greater odds than White British women). A post-hoc analysis showed that pathways to care and help-seeking behaviour partially explained these differences.ConclusionThese findings suggest EIS input in its current form has little impact on higher admission and detention rates in certain Black and minority groups. There is a need to tackle these differences and engage patients earlier, focusing on the needs of men and women from the most persistently affected groups. PMID:25214411
... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims for confidential treatment, and terms of compliance. 510.3 Section 510.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION GATHERING POWERS...
Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E
should prepare participants for the time in an underserved area, stay in close contact with participants throughout the different phases of enrolment and help participants by assigning them mentors, establishing peer support systems or financing education courses relevant to work in underserved areas); enforcement (programmes may use community-based monitoring or outsource enforcement to existing institutions); and evaluation (in order to broaden the evidence on the effectiveness of financial incentives in increasing the health workforce in underserved areas, programmes in developing countries should evaluate their performance; in order to improve the strength of the evidence on the effectiveness of financial incentives, controlled experiments should be conducted where feasible). In comparison to other interventions to increase the supply of health workers to medically underserved areas, financial-incentive programmes have advantages – unlike initiatives using non-financial incentives, they establish legally enforceable commitments to work in underserved areas and, unlike compulsory service policies, they will not be opposed by health workers – as well as disadvantages – unlike initiatives using non-financial incentives, they may not improve the working and living conditions in underserved areas (which are important determinants of health workers' long-term retention) and, unlike compulsory service policies, they cannot guarantee that they will supply health workers to underserved areas who would not have worked in such areas without financial incentives. Financial incentives, non-financial incentives, and compulsory service are not mutually exclusive and may positively affect each other's performance. PMID:19558682
Examines arguments for and against compulsory education in Great Britain. Arguments for include education for individual growth, government-sponsored child protection, the promotion of national socioeconomic growth, and ideological conformity. Arguments against are the inhibition of individual growth and the infringement of parents' and children's…
As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.
Henderson, Ailsa; Pancer, S. Mark; Brown, Steven D.
For high school community service programs to have a positive impact on subsequent civic engagement, students must volunteer in a sustained manner and must evaluate their volunteering experiences positively. Using a survey with 1,293 respondents and 100 semistructured interviews with past participants of the mandatory community service program…
Lazar, A.A.; Lim, Koon-Seng
The Binding Architecture is an open architecture for building multimedia networks that must guarantee Quality of Service (QOS). In this paper, we explore the notion of a service in the Binding Architecture and propose a conceptual model for building scalable multimedia distribution services based on it. We begin first by examining the relation between resources, their abstractions and the services that can be built from them and use this to derive a general model for binding. Based on this model, we identify a general set of capabilities required for building any multimedia distribution service. We also describe how these capabilities can be incorporated into our view of the service creation process. Finally, we augment our discussion with the description of an example service which we have developed using this paradigm.
The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-stigma and quality of life over a one year time period for 71 people with mental illness who were receiving compulsory community mental health treatment. It was hypothesized that, over time, self-stigma would have the direct effect of eroding quality of life among people with…
A service evaluation of an antenatal programme to improve 'bonding' with the unborn child is described. This was an attempt to see if Comfort Zone which was previously found to be useful by parents could also be helpful as part of an antenatal programme. As this was a preliminary investigation pragmatism was prioritised over a robust design. However given the limitations in the measures used all participants reported either the same or an improved bond with their unborn child. Further research is required to gather evidence for the effectiveness of Comfort Zone and its usefulness antenatally. PMID:26364335
Frilander, Heikki; Lallukka, Tea; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Heliövaara, Markku; Solovieva, Svetlana
Disability retirement causes a significant burden on the society and affects the well-being of individuals. Early health problems as determinants of disability retirement have received little attention. The objective was to study, whether interrupting compulsory military service is an early indicator of disability retirement among Finnish men and whether seeking medical advice during military service increases the risk of all-cause disability retirement and disability retirement due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. We also looked at secular trends in these associations. We examined a nationally representative sample of 2069 men, who had entered military service during 1967–1996. We linked military service health records with cause-specific register data on disability retirement from 1968 to 2008. Secular trends were explored in three service time strata. We used the Cox regression model to estimate proportional hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. During the follow-up time altogether 140 (6.8%) men retired due to disability, mental disorders being the most common cause. The men who interrupted service had a remarkably higher cumulative incidence of disability retirement (18.9%). The associations between seeking medical advice during military service and all-cause disability retirement were similar across the three service time cohorts (overall hazard ratio 1.40 per one standard deviation of the number of visits; 95% confidence interval 1.26–1.56). Visits due to mental problems predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders in the men who served between 1987 and 1996 and a tendency for a similar cause-specific association was seen for musculoskeletal diseases in the men who served in 1967–1976. In conclusion, health problems—in particular mental problems—during late adolescence are strong determinants of disability retirement. Call-up examinations and military service provide access to the entire age cohort of men
Tanguay, Pascal; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Aramrattana, Apinun; Wodak, Alex; Thomson, Nicholas; Ali, Robert; Vumbaca, Gino; Lai, Gloria; Chabungbam, Anand
Evidence indicates that detention of people who use drugs in compulsory centers in the name of treatment is common in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The expansion of such practices has been costly, has not generated positive health outcomes, and has not reduced supply or demand for illicit drugs. United Nations agencies have convened several consultations with government and civil society stakeholders in order to facilitate a transition to voluntary evidence- and community-based drug dependence treatment and support services. In an effort to support such efforts, an informal group of experts proposes a three-step process to initiate and accelerate national-level transitions. Specifically, the working group recommends the establishment of a national multisectoral decision-making committee to oversee the development of national transition plans, drug policy reform to eliminate barriers to community-based drug dependence treatment and support services, and the integration of community-based drug dependence treatment in existing national health and social service systems.In parallel, the working group recommends that national-level transitions should be guided by overarching principles, including ethics, human rights, meaningful involvement of affected communities, and client safety, as well as good governance, transparency, and accountability. The transition also represents an opportunity to review the roles and responsibilities of various agencies across the public health and public security sectors in order to balance the workload and ensure positive results. The need to accelerate national-level transitions to voluntary community-based drug dependence treatment and support services is compelling--on economic, medical, sustainable community development, and ethical grounds--as extensively documented in the literature. In this context, the expert working group fully endorses initiation of a transition
Lewis, Llewellyn; O'Keeffe, Christine; Smyth, Ian; Mallalieu, Judi; Baldock, Laura; Oliver, Sam
Aims and method The Maintaining Adherence Programme (MAP) is a new model of care for patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar affective disorder which aims to encourage adherence and prevent relapse. This evaluation, conducted by retrospective and prospective data collection (including patient questionnaires and staff interviews), aimed to describe MAP's impact on healthcare resource use, clinical measures and patient and staff satisfaction, following its implementation in a university National Health Service (NHS) foundation trust in England. We included 143 consenting patients who entered MAP before 31 March 2012. Results In-patient bed days and non-MAP NHS costs reduced significantly in the 18 months post-MAP entry. At 15–18 months post-MAP, Medication Adherence Rating Scale scores had improved significantly from baseline and there was a shift towards less severe clinician-rated disease categories. Based on patient surveys, 96% would recommend MAP to friends, and staff were also overwhelmingly positive about the service. Clinical implications MAP was associated with reduced cost of treatment, improvements in clinical outcomes and very high patient and staff satisfaction. PMID:26958352
Martinelli, Domenico; Tafuri, Silvio; Fortunato, Francesca; Cozza, Vanessa; Germinario, Cinzia A; Prato, Rosa
In Italy, vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and hepatitis B is compulsory for infants countrywide, except in Veneto region where since 2007 Health Authorities have experimented the suspension of mandatory vaccination. In light of the recent discussion on the potential abrogation in other regions, we explored the opinion of family pediatricians who play a crucial role in promoting immunization programmes in Italy. In November 2009, we interviewed by phone the family pediatricians working in Puglia region using a standardised, ad hoc and piloted questionnaire. Of the 596 contacted, 502 (84.2%) completed the questionnaire (54% female, median age = 52 y). Among the respondents, 72 (14.3%) would agree on the hypothesis of abrogation. This judgment was associated with having a good opinion on the level of awareness of the importance of vaccinations in the general public (OR = 6.6; 95% CI: 3.6-12.1) and having the perception of adequate organization of Vaccination Services in supporting the abrogation (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7-5.9). Family pediatricians appeared really sceptical about the abrogation of compulsory vaccination that could be hypothesized only increasing public awareness, communication skills and capability of Vaccination Services personnel in offering vaccinations. PMID:25483528
Walker, Allan; Bryant, Darren; Lee, Moosung
This article illuminates major features of high-quality leadership programmes across different education systems. We do so by focusing on capturing commonalities and variations in high-quality pre-service programmes from five differing societies, all of which are high-performing education systems. To this end, we first delineate key profiles of…
Bissolli, P.; Nitsche, H.; Wollenweber, G.; Benesch, W.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Rosenow, W.
The German Meteorological Service (DWD) is host of the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF) of EUMETSAT. The CM-SAF with its international partners will provide climate data (daily and monthly means, monthly mean diurnal cycles) based on the satellite systems MSG (Meteosat Second Generation, the first MSG satellite was launched in fall 2002) and the polar orbiting satellites NOAA and EPS (the latter one is the EUMETSAT Polar Satellite System, the first satellite named METOP-1 is planned to be launched in 2005; the NOAA and METOP satellites will form the Initial Joint Polar Satellite System). The parameters to be generated by the CM-SAF are cloud parameters, components of the radiation budget at the earth’s surface and at the top of the atmosphere, ocean wind stress and water vapour in the atmosphere. The data will cover in the initial phase an area of Europe and the North Atlantic, later the area is planned to be extended to the polar regions and the whole MSG disc. The purpose of the CM-SAF is to generate, with long-term commitments on a fully operational basis, homogeneous and consistent products in high quality, which are suitable for assessments of the status of the (regional) climate system. Together with data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), which is also operated by the DWD, the CM-SAF products are suitable for monitoring components of the energy and water cycle. To establish a really powerful climate monitoring system, the German Meteorological Service additionally set up a national satellite climatology project called SAT-KLIM. This project uses the CM-SAF products for climate monitoring, but also other satellite climate data, ground based in situ and remote observations as well as model output. In SAT-KLIM, climate monitoring products will be derived from the different data sources and merged to one final high quality product. While CM-SAF can only consider present and future data, SAT-KLIM uses
Massey, Claire; Tweed, David; Lewis, Kate
Following a review of assistance provision to New Zealand small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in 1998, the government established the BIZ programme. The purpose of the new initiative was to build management capability amongst SMEs by providing them with free access to a business needs assessment, followed by training and seminars, one-on-one…
Oyebade, Stephen A.
This paper reviewed policy provisions for "pre-service" and "in-service" teacher training programmes and facilities in Nigeria. It also presented reviews on legislations, agencies involved in teacher affairs management in Nigeria, using the historical and case study approach. Data on teaching qualifications of University of…
McGee, Jerry C.
Most states require compulsory attendance of students through age 16. Challenges to the compulsory attendance laws often derive from disputes between parents and school officials over home instruction. This paper reviews prominent court cases that address legal issues pertaining to home schooling. The landmark case of "Pierce v. Society of…
Maistry, S. M.; Ramdhani, J.
Service learning as a strategy for raising awareness amongst university students of their responsibilities to the community is rapidly gaining currency in higher education institutions in South Africa. High levels of unemployment and striking economic inequality have been an unfortunate feature of South African society for several decades. Since…
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700... DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person refuses... seek compulsory process. Compulsory process means the institution of appropriate legal...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700... DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person refuses... seek compulsory process. Compulsory process means the institution of appropriate legal...
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compulsory process. 217.72 Section 217.72 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 217.72 Compulsory process. (a... Energy representative may seek compulsory process. Compulsory process means the institution...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700... DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person refuses... seek compulsory process. Compulsory process means the institution of appropriate legal...
Chichakli, L O; Atrash, H K; Musani, A S; Johnson, J T; Mahaini, R; Arnaoute, S
This paper presents the findings of a 1999 survey of 19 countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region on the family planning services and programmes in the Region. Data were collected using a questionnaire which explored the following areas: the presence of population or family planning policies and family planning activities, the family planning services available, promotional and educational activities on family planning, quality assurance, family planning data collection, analysis and dissemination, and the use of such information. The results indicate that 13 of the countries have national policies on population and family planning but even in those that do not, family planning services are widely available. The scope of the services provided varied. There is still a need to implement or strengthen family planning programmes in the Region, a need which is recognized by the countries themselves. PMID:11794067
Kelly, Michael; Humphrey, Charlotte
Background: Care for clients with mental health problems and concurrent intellectual disability (dual diagnosis) is currently expected to be provided through the care programme approach (CPA), an approach to provide care to people with mental health problems in secondary mental health services. When CPA was originally introduced into UK mental…
McCracken, Wendy; Young, Alys; Tattersall, Helen; Uus, Kai; Bamford, John
This article presents results related to the impact on educational support services of the introduction of the first phase of the national Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) in England. This study was funded by the Department of Health and undertaken as one element of a national evaluation of NHSP across a range of domains. It presents…
Bower, Matt; Highfield, Kate; Furney, Pam; Mowbray, Lee
This paper explains a development and evaluation project aimed at transforming two pre-service teacher education programmes at Macquarie University to more effectively cultivate students' technology-enabled learning design thinking. The process of transformation was based upon an explicit and sustained focus on developing university academics'…
Yang, Chi Cheung Ruby
This paper aims to present a small group of pre-service English teachers' perceptions towards the overseas field experience programme jointly organised by a university in Canada and the teacher trainer institute in Hong Kong. The study involved seven Canadian Year 3 and 4 B.Ed. TESL students who participated in the investigated eight-week overseas…
Al-Mutawa, Najat; Al-Furaih, Suad
This study evaluates the In-Service Education and Training (INSET) programme organised for Kuwait Army instructors. The focus is on their perceptual gain in related topics and skills, as they attended 10 courses at the College of Education--Kuwait University. Pre- and post-assessments involved 20 trainees. The analysis indicates significant…
Background Community participation is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for successful health service uptake. It is notoriously difficult to assess participation and little has been done to advance tools for the assessment of community participation. In this paper we illustrate an approach that combines a ‘social psychology of participation’ (theory) with ‘spider-grams’ (method) to assess participation and apply it to a Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) programme in rural Ghana. Methods We draw on data from 17 individual in-depth interviews, two focus group discussions and a community conversation with a mix of service users, providers and community health committee members. It was during the community conversation that stakeholders collectively evaluated community participation in the CHPS programme and drew up a spider-gram. Results Thematic analysis of our data shows that participation was sustained through the recognition and use of community resources, CHPS integration with pre-existing community structures, and alignment of CHPS services with community interests. However, male dominance and didactic community leadership and management styles undermined real opportunities for broad-based community empowerment, particularly of women, young people and marginalised men. Conclusion We conclude that combining the ‘spider-gram’ tool and the ‘social psychology of participation’ framework provide health professionals with a useful starting point for assessing community participation and developing recommendations for more participatory and empowering health care programmes. PMID:23803140
Schellack, Natalie; Wium, Anna M; Ehlert, Katerina; van Aswegen, Yolande; Gous, Andries
Pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity is growing, especially in developing countries such as South Africa. This highlights the importance of ototoxicity monitoring and management of hearing loss. This article focuses on the establishment of an ototoxicity clinic as a site for the implementation of a service-learning module in the Audiology programme. The clinic offers a unique opportunity of collaboration between pharmacists and an audiologist where pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity is uniquely monitored. The Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University (SMU) provides training to both the disciplines, audiology and pharmacy. The main aim of this article is to describe how ototoxicity monitoring is implemented in the curriculum within such an academic service-learning approach. Through service learning students develop a deeper understanding of course content, acquire new knowledge and engage in civic activity. It simultaneously provides a unique opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration between the disciplines of audiology and pharmacy. The objectives for this programme are therefore to facilitate learning and to provide a service to the local community by identifying, preventing and monitoring medicine-induced hearing loss in in-hospital and out-patients; as well as to establish inter-disciplinary collaboration between the disciplines and stakeholders for more effective service delivery. The constant interdisciplinary teamwork between the audiologist, pharmacist, physician and nursing staff in the wards results in best practice and management of patients with ototoxic damage. PMID:26304216
Savva, Andri; Trimis, Eli; Zachariou, Aravella
An in-service teachers' training programme was designed aiming to encourage art teachers to learn through theoretical and artistic experiential activities in a specific environmental setting (Lemithou environmental education centre, Cyprus). The programme was based on the use of the environment as an educational resource, and sought to develop…
Leddon, Leo Levy, Jr.
The purpose of this research was to examine court cases dealing with compulsory attendance laws, also known as compulsory education laws, for the purpose of establishing the issues, outcomes, and trends in compulsory attendance litigation. In this manner, school officials could be provided guidance on dealing with issues surrounding the attendance…
... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compulsory process. 33.72 Section 33.72... Compliance § 33.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person refuses to permit a duly authorized representative of... this part, the Department of Transportation representative may seek compulsory process....
Rocha, Samuel D.
The question whether compulsory schooling is justifiable or not has been treated at considerable length by critics, defenders, and positions in-between. What these treatments--about paternalism and autonomy and institutionalization and more--have not directly analyzed is a question that precedes the issue of overall justification: the preliminary…
Mitchnick, Morton G.
Looks at legal cases concerning the uses to which mandatory union dues are put. Considers the variety of approaches adopted in Switzerland, Spain, Belgium, and Germany and reviews how compulsory unionism has been treated in the courts in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the United States, and Canada. (JOW)
Breger, Peter; Rohn, Michael; Pinty, Bernhard
Year 2014 is a major milestone for the EU Copernicus programme (formerly GMES), for funding Europe's operational system of satellites and geo-information services. Copernicus services shall provide accurate, up-to-date and globally-available information related to the state of land, sea/ocean, atmosphere and climate change, as well as emergency response and security in support of European policies. 2014 sees the transition of services to fully operational state, looking back on some 10 years of development, evolving through research and making "laboratory" prototypes operational for the marine and atmosphere services. First integration of capabilities in dedicated GMES service projects started in early 2004 leading to operational maturity around 2011-2013. Several scientific and research challenges have been identified along the way, addressing very different stages of evolution, which need to be tackled collaborating with different partners and in different environments. The geoscience community and their funding programmes are faced with a range of opportunities arising from the presence of an operational space data and information programme such as Copernicus, a demand which also the EU research and innovation programme is striving to meet in Horizon 2020. The last ten years have shown how the step from research prototypes to operational service chains requires specific and dedicated attention to this innovation step, shaping validated and proven products to users' demands. Special efforts are required in order for users to accept the innovative potential which new laboratory products promise. Specific attention needs to be given to processes in the users' workflows which incorporate the EO information - a step which often is underestimated in the formulation of R&D plans. Service activities in a real-life environment, and the ever advancing new sensors set new research problems for researchers. The arrival of the Sentinel satellites will challenge running
McKnight, Jacob; Holt, Douglas B
Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccination rates remain well below herd immunity in regions of many countries despite huge international resources devoted to both financing and access. We draw upon service marketing theory, organisational sociology, development anthropology and cultural consumer research to conduct an ethnographic study of vaccination delivery in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia - one such region. We find that Western public health sector policies are dominated by an administrative logic. Critical failures in delivery are produced by a system that obfuscates the on-the-ground problems that mothers face in trying to vaccinate their children, while instead prioritising administrative processes. Our ethnographic analysis of 83 mothers who had not vaccinated their children reveals key barriers to vaccination from a 'customer' perspective. While mothers value vaccination, it is a 'low involvement' good compared to the acute daily needs of a subsistence life. The costs imposed by poor service - such as uncaring staff with class hostilities, unpredictable and missed schedules and long waits - are too much and so they forego the service. Our service design framework illuminates specific service problems from the mother's perspective and points towards simple service innovations that could improve vaccination rates in regions that have poor uptake. PMID:25363481
Glover, Alexi; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Keil, Ralf
ESA SSA Programme is approaching the end of its second period. Service development activities within the current period aim at advancing the SSA SWE Service Network from the initial utilisation of existing European assets toward development of these and new assets together with the associated coordination infrastructure necessary to provide consistently reliable services. The SSA SWE Service Network is based on a federated architecture where service provision is carried out by Expert Service Centres in the Programme Member States with overall coordination and helpdesk functions provided by a central node and coordination centre located at the Space Pole in Brussels, Belgium. The SSA SWE Service Network builds on the wealth of space weather expertise available within the Member States, and consequently, as the network continues to develop, emphasis will continue to be placed on building services based on demonstrated space science advances in key areas such as those highlighted by the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap, published in 2015. Activities supported by programmes including the ESA technology programmes, EC FP7 and H2020 have all demonstrated promising results, and the SSA SWE Network is actively investigating their potential application to SSA SWE Customer Requirements, and in many cases already adopting these as part of the suite of products provided via the Network to its registered users. This presentation will provide an overview of recent advances in the SSA SWE Service Network, emphasising the utilisation of scientific results within a pre-operational context. The presentation will show the layout of the federated Expert Service Centres, highlighting ongoing and upcoming service developments and provide a perspective on the service development plans for the next phase of the programme.
Ellwein, L. B.; Thulasiraj, R. D.; Boulter, A. R.; Dhittal, S. P.
The financial viability of programme services and product offerings requires that revenue exceeds expenses. Revenue includes payments for services and products as well as donor cash and in-kind contributions. Expenses reflect consumption of purchased or contributed time and materials and utilization (depreciation) of physical plant facilities and equipment. Standard financial reports contain this revenue and expense information, complemented when necessary by valuation and accounting of in-kind contributions. Since financial statements are prepared using consistent and accepted accounting practices, year-to-year and organization-to-organization comparisons can be made. The use of such financial information is illustrated in this article by determining the unit cost of cataract surgery in two hospitals in Nepal. The proportion of unit cost attributed to personnel, medical supplies, administrative materials, and depreciation varied significantly by institution. These variations are accounted for by examining differences in operational structure and capacity utilization. PMID:9868836
Oduaran, A. B.
This article reports on the relationship between seven factors that described dimensions of education service quality and overall service quality on one hand, and students' satisfaction with the professional teacher development programmes by distance mode in a South African University on the other. We sought to find out whether students enrolled…
Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy
This research investigates how three Government-funded Normal Students constructed and reconstructed their identities in a pre-service teacher education programme in China. Drawing upon data from interviews, field observation and the pre-service teachers' written reflections, the study explores the cognitive, social and emotional processes of…
Dorothy, J. S.; Kumar, Ashwini
Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) which was established initially as a Single mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI) in the year 1985 opened its campus to face-to-face education in the year 2008 and thus now is a Dual mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI). The Post Graduate Programme (Master of Science) in Dietetics and Food…
Abstract Twelve agencies of the United Nations, including the World Health Organization, have issued a joint statement that calls on Member States to replace the compulsory detention of people who use opioids in treatment centres with voluntary, evidence-informed and rights-based health and social services. The arguments in favour of this position fall into three broad categories: Compulsory treatment centres infringe on an individual’s liberty, they put human beings at risk of harm, and evidence of their effectiveness against opioid dependence has not been generated. The United Nations statement underscores that although countries apply different criteria for sending individuals to compulsory treatment centres, detention often takes place without due process, legal safeguards or judicial review. This clearly violates internationally recognized human rights standards. Furthermore, people who are committed to these centres are often exposed to physical and sexual violence, forced labour and sub-standard living conditions. They are often denied health care, despite their heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and tuberculosis. Finally, there is no evidence, according to the statement, that these centres offer an environment that is conducive to recovery from opioid dependence or to the rehabilitation of commercial sex workers or of children who have suffered sexual exploitation, abuse or lack of care and protection. The author of this paper sets forth several arguments that counter the position taken by the United Nations and argues in favour of compulsory treatment within a broader harm reduction strategy aimed at protecting society as well as the individual concerned. PMID:23554527
Tandon, B. N.; Gandhi, N.
The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme was launched by the Indian government in October 1975 to provide a package of health, nutrition and informal educational services to mothers and children. In 1988 we studied the impact of ICDS on the immunization coverage of children aged 12-24 months and of mothers of infants in 19 rural, 8 tribal, and 9 urban ICDS projects that had been operational for more than 5 years. Complete coverage with BCG, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) and poliomyelitis vaccines was recorded for 65%, 63%, and 64% of children, respectively, in the ICDS population. By comparison, the coverage in the non-ICDS group was only 22% for BCG, 28% for DPT, and 27% for poliomyelitis. Complete immunization with tetanus toxoid was recorded for 68% of the mothers in the ICDS group and for 40% in the non-ICDS group. Coverage was greater in the urban and lower in the tribal projects. Scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, backward communities, and minorities (groups that have a high priority for social services) had immunization coverages in ICDS projects that were similar to those of higher castes. PMID:1394779
Shah, Sharada; Shakya, Rabina; Sundar Chansi, Bal; Shah, Kashim; Munday, Daniel; Eyal, Nir; Hayes, Bruce
Abstract Problem District hospitals in Nepal struggle to provide essential services such as caesarean sections. Approach Retention of health workers is critical to the delivery of long-term, quality health-care services. To promote retention and enhance performance in rural public hospitals, the Government of Nepal and the Nick Simons Institute progressively implemented a rural staff support programme in remote hospitals. After competitive selection for a compulsory-service scholarship and training, family practice doctors who could do basic surgery, orthopaedics and obstetrics were hired under a binding three-year contract in each participating hospital. Comfortable living quarters and an Internet connection were provided for the resident doctors; in-service training for all staff and capacity development for each hospital’s management committee were provided. Local setting Nepal’s mountainous landscape, poverty and inequitable rural/urban distribution of health workers pose barriers to adequate health care. Relevant changes Between 2011 and 2015 family practice doctors were maintained in all seven programme hospitals. All hospitals became providers of comprehensive emergency obstetric care and served more patients. Compared with hospitals not within the programme, deliveries increased significantly (203% versus 71% increase, respectively; P = 0.002). The programme recently expanded to 14 hospitals. Lessons learnt A package of human resource supports can improve the retention of doctors and the use of remote hospitals. Factors contributing to the success of this programme were compulsory-service scholarship, central personnel management, performance-based incentives and the provision of comfortable living quarters. PMID:26769998
Jin, Yongli; Zhang, Hong
Compulsory education is the fundamental education for citizens and is the source of state power, which radically determines thought level, political awareness, cultural sense and production ability of the entire nation. Therefore, to popularize compulsory education is the root of a country. This paper explains the meanings of compulsory education,…
The aim of this study was to compare the use of library facilities by first year undergraduate medical students and Graduate Entry Programme students (GEP). More specifically it tried to determine which library services (if any) were more frequently used by GEP so that this could be taken into account in future Information Services planning. A questionnaire on the use of Library and Information Services was posted to all first year GEP students and undergraduates on the 5-year course. In addition, user statistics of library entry and borrowing were collated from gate readings and the library Unicorn management system. Overall, GEP students were found to make a greater daily/weekly use of library facilities than undergraduates on the 5-year course. The facilities most used by both sets of students were essential texts, e-mail, PCs and study facilities. Computer Aided Learning packages, journals and video facilities were least used. However, on a daily/weekly basis GEP students made 74% more use of journals (P < 0.01), 59% more use of e-journals (P < 0.05), 36% more use photocopiers (P < 0.05), 42% more use of printers (P < 0.05), 56% more use of the library catalogue (P < 0.05) and 50% more use of databases (P < 0.05). This difference in use should be taken into account by LIS providers as there is expected to be an increase in fast-track graduate courses offered by medical schools throughout the UK. PMID:12641529
... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory process. 502.286 Section 502.286 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Nonadjudicatory Investigations § 502.286 Compulsory process. The Commission, or its designated representative...
... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compulsory process. 502.286 Section 502.286 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Nonadjudicatory Investigations § 502.286 Compulsory process. The Commission, or its designated representative...
... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compulsory process. 502.286 Section 502.286 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Nonadjudicatory Investigations § 502.286 Compulsory process. The Commission, or its designated representative...
... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compulsory process. 502.286 Section 502.286 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Nonadjudicatory Investigations § 502.286 Compulsory process. The Commission, or its designated representative...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.72 Compulsory process. (a) If a person...
Compulsory education was legislated in Singapore in 2000. This came several decades after the attainment of universal primary education and after numerous assertions on the part of the government that such legislation was unnecessary. Also interesting is that the period of compulsory education was limited to six years. The article discusses the…
Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt
Background Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001) increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001) were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases). Conclusions
Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed
The paper reported on a small-scale qualitative study on EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teacher education with a two-fold objective, investigating the possibility of integrating the Internet for academic purposes in the context of a pre-service English teacher education programme in Egypt, and suggesting some guidelines based on the specific…
Ndlovu, M. C.
The purpose of this study was to determine in-service students' perceptions of the effectiveness of the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) programme offered by Stellenbosch University, South Africa, in preparing them to be confident teachers of Mathematical Literacy, Life Sciences or Physical Sciences in the Further Education and Training…
Yadav, S. K.
The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…
Geber, Hilary; Motlhake, Bona
The new public sector community development workers (CDWs) programme was established in 2004 following ineffective service delivery through chronic under-spending on annual budgets in post-apartheid South Africa. CDWs receive training in learnerships within the National Skills Development Strategy to ensure access to and spending of local…
Ralph, Ann Marie; MacPhail, Ann
Investigating the reasons for pre-service teachers (PSTs) who choose to undertake a physical education teacher education (PETE) programme can inform teacher educators on how best to define teaching tasks, organize knowledge relevant to student learning and shape the perceptions of PSTs about teaching and learning (Calderhead, 1987). In this study,…
Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Derri, Vassiliki; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kyrgiridis, Pavlos
The purpose of the study was to compare the influences of a training programme's instructional delivery method (synchronous and asynchronous) on Greek in-service physical educators' cognitive understanding on student assessment. Forty nine participants were randomly divided into synchronous, asynchronous, and control group. The experimental groups…
Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Sutherland, Dean; Lyons, Gordon; Macfarlane, Sonja; Foreman, Phil
Positive changes to pre-service teacher education programmes (PSTEPs), driven in part by changing worldwide policy frameworks around inclusion, are occurring, albeit slowly. After briefly reviewing international trends and key policy and legislation platforms in New Zealand and Australia, this paper explores some of the challenges in enhancing…
Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Goudge, Jane; Thomas, Liz
Introduction In South Africa, there are renewed efforts to strengthen primary health care and community health worker (CHW) programmes. This article examines three South African CHW programmes, a small local non-governmental organisation (NGO), a local satellite of a national NGO, and a government-initiated service, that provide a range of services from home-based care, childcare, and health promotion to assist clients in overcoming poverty-related barriers to health care. Methods The comparative case studies, located in Eastern Cape and Gauteng, were investigated using qualitative methods. Thematic analysis was used to identify factors that constrain and enable outreach services to improve access to care. Results The local satellite (of a national NGO), successful in addressing multi-dimensional barriers to care, provided CHWs with continuous training focused on the social determinants of ill-health, regular context-related supervision, and resources such as travel and cell-phone allowances. These workers engaged with, and linked their clients to, agencies in a wide range of sectors. Relationships with participatory structures at community level stimulated coordinated responses from service providers. In contrast, an absence of these elements curtailed the ability of CHWs in the small NGO and government-initiated service to provide effective outreach services or to improve access to care. Conclusion Significant investment in resources, training, and support can enable CHWs to address barriers to care by negotiating with poorly functioning government services and community participation structures. PMID:23364101
Vaccine refusal harms and risks harming innocent bystanders. People are not entitled to harm innocents or to impose deadly risks on others, so in these cases there is nothing to be said for the right to refuse vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is therefore justified because non-vaccination can rightly be prohibited, just as other kinds of harmful and risky conduct are rightly prohibited. I develop an analogy to random gunfire to illustrate this point. Vaccine refusal, I argue, is morally similar to firing a weapon into the air and endangering innocent bystanders. By re-framing vaccine refusal as harmful and reckless conduct my aim is to shift the focus of the vaccine debate from non-vaccinators' religious and refusal rights to everyone else's rights against being infected with contagious illnesses. Religious freedom and rights of informed consent do not entitle non-vaccinators to harm innocent bystanders, and so coercive vaccination requirements are permissible for the sake of the potential victims of the anti-vaccine movement. PMID:23942781
James, Philip T; Van den Briel, Natalie; Rozet, Aurélie; Israël, Anne-Dominique; Fenn, Bridget; Navarro-Colorado, Carlos
The treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) requires substantial amounts of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). In 2009, Action Contre la Faim anticipated a shortfall of RUTF for their nutrition programme in Myanmar. A low-dose RUTF protocol to treat children with uncomplicated SAM was adopted. In this protocol, RUTF was dosed according to beneficiary's body weight, until the child reached a Weight-for-Height z-score of ≥-3 and mid-upper arm circumference ≥110 mm. From this point, the child received a fixed quantity of RUTF per day, independent of body weight until discharge. Specific measures were implemented as part of this low-dose RUTF protocol in order to improve service quality and beneficiary support. We analysed individual records of 3083 children treated from July 2009 to January 2010. Up to 90.2% of children recovered, 2.0% defaulted and 0.9% were classified as non-responders. No deaths were recorded. Among children who recovered, median [IQR] length of stay and weight gain were 42 days [28; 56] and 4.0 g kg(-1) day(-1) [3.0; 5.7], respectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed that children older than 48 months had higher odds of non-response to treatment than younger children (adjusted odds ratio: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.67-7.42). Our results indicate that a low-dose RUTF protocol, combined with specific measures to ensure good service quality and beneficiary support, was successful in treating uncomplicated SAM in this setting. This programmatic experience should be validated by randomised studies aiming to test, quantify and attribute the effect of the protocol adaptation and programme improvements presented here. PMID:25850698
James, Philip T; Van den Briel, Natalie; Rozet, Aurélie; Israël, Anne-Dominique; Fenn, Bridget; Navarro-Colorado, Carlos
The treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) requires substantial amounts of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). In 2009, Action Contre la Faim anticipated a shortfall of RUTF for their nutrition programme in Myanmar. A low-dose RUTF protocol to treat children with uncomplicated SAM was adopted. In this protocol, RUTF was dosed according to beneficiary's body weight, until the child reached a Weight-for-Height z-score of ≥−3 and mid-upper arm circumference ≥110 mm. From this point, the child received a fixed quantity of RUTF per day, independent of body weight until discharge. Specific measures were implemented as part of this low-dose RUTF protocol in order to improve service quality and beneficiary support. We analysed individual records of 3083 children treated from July 2009 to January 2010. Up to 90.2% of children recovered, 2.0% defaulted and 0.9% were classified as non-responders. No deaths were recorded. Among children who recovered, median [IQR] length of stay and weight gain were 42 days [28; 56] and 4.0 g kg–1 day–1 [3.0; 5.7], respectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed that children older than 48 months had higher odds of non-response to treatment than younger children (adjusted odds ratio: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.67–7.42). Our results indicate that a low-dose RUTF protocol, combined with specific measures to ensure good service quality and beneficiary support, was successful in treating uncomplicated SAM in this setting. This programmatic experience should be validated by randomised studies aiming to test, quantify and attribute the effect of the protocol adaptation and programme improvements presented here. PMID:25850698
Lau, Melissa May Yee
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the effects of 8Ps of services marketing affect students' selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes in Hong Kong. The factors that affect students' selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes have not been studied in higher education market of Hong Kong. This research is to…
Tam, Angela Choi Fung
This qualitative study aimed to explore Hong Kong pre-service teachers' beliefs about the potential benefits of a short-term study abroad programme and their practices. Pre- and post-programme semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were employed to collect data. The findings suggest that the transformation of beliefs into practices…
Marques, Magaly; Ressa, Nicole
In response to abstinence-only programmes in the United States that promote myths and misconceptions about sexuality and sexual behaviour, the comprehensive sexuality education community has been sidetracked from improving the sexuality education available in US schools for almost two decades now. Much work is still needed to move beyond fear-based approaches and the one-way communication of information that many programmes still use. Starting in 2008 Planned Parenthood Los Angeles developed and launched a teen-centred sexuality education programme based on critical thinking, human rights, gender equality, and access to health care that is founded on a theory of change that recognises the complex relationship between the individual and broader environment of cultural norms, socio-economic inequalities, health disparities, legal and institutional factors. The Sexuality Education Initiative is comprised of a 12-session classroom sexuality education curriculum for ninth grade students; workshops for parents; a peer advocacy training programme; and access to sexual health services. This paper describes that experience and presents the rights-based framework that was used, which seeks to improve the learning experience of students, strengthen the capacity of schools, teachers and parents to help teenagers manage their sexuality effectively and understand that they have the right to health care, education, protection, dignity and privacy. PMID:23684195
Internationally, service user involvement has become a common feature of public policy and more specifically public health policy in the recent decades. In a general context, the involvement of service users in health services has been well documented; however, less evidence is available within the area of drug treatment service provision. This…
Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Domingues, Carla M A S; Siqueira Jr, João Bosco; Elkhoury, Ana Nilce S M; Cechinel, Michella P; Grossi, Maria Aparecida de Faria; Gomes, Marcia de Leite S; Sena, Joana M; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Lima Júnior, Francisco Edilson F; Segatto, Teresa Cristina Vieira; Melo, Flavia Cardoso de; Rosa, Fabiano Marques; Silva, Marcia Mesquita; Nicolau, Renata Amadei
The development of a Brazilian National Surveillance System in 1975 led to a compulsory reporting of selected infectious diseases aiming to reduce the burden of these events in the country. However, shifts in the epidemiology of these diseases associated with modern life style, demand constant revision of surveillance activities. In this manuscript we present the epidemiology, trends and differential diagnosis of the following compulsory notifiable diseases in Brazil: Aids, dengue fever, hanseniasis, American tegumentary leishmaniasis, measles, rubella and congenital rubella syndrome and syphilis. Additionally, the current challenges for control and prevention of each disease are presented. PMID:22147024
Erixon, Eva-Lena; Wahlström, Ninni
Results in mathematics on international knowledge surveys like Programme for International Student Assessment and Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study have become one of the most important factors for the perceived success or failure of schools and even entire education systems in the policy arena. In this article, we explore the…
This paper explores the field of post-compulsory English Language Teaching (ELT) management research, enquiring into its identity, legitimacy and development, by identifying and discussing issues, problems, and controversies. It reviews the nature of the ELT sector as a predominantly commercial educational service with a significant role in "inner…
Maurin, Eric; Xenogiani, Theodora
Before 1997, education was a way for young French men to avoid military service in the army. After the abolition of compulsory conscription in 1997, this incentive to stay on in education disappeared. We show that the decrease in the benefit of pursuing education for men was followed by a fall in their educational achievement relative to women and…
Morris, Frank A.
Evaluated a service learning program in Spanish, in which learners of Spanish provide various forms of social services to native speakers in local communities in the target language, to assess its impact on learner motivation and attitudes. (Author/VWL)
Delegates to the AIDS and Essential Medicines and Compulsory Licensing conference examined issues related to compulsory licensing of pharmaceuticals worldwide. Compulsory licenses allow members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to use patented material when justified in the public interest. This agreement is part of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, or TRIPS. Current estimates of the HIV/AIDS pandemic show that 33 million persons worldwide are infected, with 26 million of those in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most of these people have no access to antiretroviral treatment due to its cost, and medicines for other life-threatening illnesses like tuberculosis, malaria, and meningitis are also too expensive. The U.S. government opposes the use of compulsory licenses, and has attempted to block their implementation in countries trying to obtain AIDS drugs at a lower price. The U.S. has also pressured countries to adopt stricter trade laws than those included in the TRIPS agreement. Meeting delegates were encouraged to pursue existing and legal means to increase the supply of affordable drugs. PMID:11367046
Stavropoulou, Charitini; Valletti, Tommaso
Compulsory licensing allows the use of a patented invention without the owner's consent, with the aim of improving access to essential drugs. The pharmaceutical sector argues that, if broadly used, it can be detrimental to innovation. We model the interaction between a company in the North that holds the patent for a certain drug and a government in the South that needs to purchase it. We show that both access to drugs and pharmaceutical innovation depend largely on the Southern country's ability to manufacture a generic version. If the manufacturing cost is too high, compulsory licensing is not exercised. As the cost decreases, it becomes a credible threat forcing prices down, but reducing both access and innovation. When the cost is low enough, the South produces its own generic version and access reaches its highest value, despite a reduction in innovation. The global welfare analysis shows that the overall impact of compulsory licensing can be positive, even when accounting for its impact on innovation. We also consider the interaction between compulsory licensing and the strength of intellectual property rights, which can have global repercussions in other markets beyond the South. PMID:24408475
Yee, Dianne; Pawlovich, Walter
Investigated students' perceptions of the primary compulsory segment of the career guidance program offered by Swift Current Comprehensive High School. Students reported positive perceptions of the total program and of counselor assistance, particularly of the CHOICES component of the program, with mixed perceptions of the Strong-Campbell Interest…
Keeping the pupils' interest up throughout the year in a compulsory language class is a major problem and therefore, language-teaching games are very important. Some new suggestions for games to be used in the elementary school are: (1) The Parrot; (2) The Robot; (3) Ping-Pong; and (4) Telephone. Card games such as Happy Families can be played…
Youlu, Shen; Xinyi, Qiao
The balanced development of compulsory education has been given due and lengthy coverage in the "Outline of China's National Plan for Medium and Long-Term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020)" which, to some extent, reflects the needs of our time and the demands of the general public. However, detailed analyses reveal that many aspects…
Thomas, Vincent J.
In 1974 the Virginia General Assembly adopted a senate resolution directing the state board of education to study laws preventing youths from choosing alternatives to compulsory school attendance. The board appointed a committee that studied the matter and made recommendations concerning the development of graduation requirements reflecting…
Audet, Carolyn M; Groh, Kate; Moon, Troy D; Vermund, Sten H; Sidat, Mohsin
Mozambique has one of the world's highest burdens of HIV infection. Despite the increase in HIV-testing services throughout the country, the uptake has been low. To identify barriers to HIV testing we conducted a study in six rural districts in Zambézia Province. We recruited a total of 124 men and women from the community through purposeful sampling to participate in gender-specific focus group discussions about barriers to HIV testing. The participants noted three main barriers to HIV testing: 1) poor conduct by clinicians, including intentional disclosure of patients' HIV status to other community members; 2) unintentional disclosure of patients' HIV status through clinical practices; and, 3) a widespread fatalistic belief that HIV infection will result in death, particularly given poor access to adequate food. Improving quality and confidentiality within clinical service delivery, coupled with the introduction of food-supplement programmes should increase people's willingness to test and remain in care for HIV disease. PMID:25860191
Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony
Changes in 70 teachers' confidence, attitudes and science understanding were tested before and after a major in-service programme. Attitudes were assessed using a 49-item Likert-scale test that probed attitudes to practical science teaching and in-service training. Multi-choice and open-ended questions measured understanding of electricity;…
Children's health services are changing and in its watchdog role the Healthcare Commission seeks to develop improved systems and data collection to measure what matters most in these services. The forthcoming Health Strategy from the Department of Health and the Department for Children, Schools and Families offers an opportunity to raise the profile of children's services and ensure that young people's health and well-being is a priority for health organisations. The Healthcare Commission welcomes views from health professionals on priorities for children's services. PMID:18642486
Truman, J.; Rankin, D.; Backett-Milburn, K.; Platt, S.
Objective: To explore the diverse roles of drop-in services in the HLC sector; to develop further the classification of drop-in services offered by earlier studies; and to provide an example of some the challenges faced by HLCs in their attempts to tackle poor health using area-based methods with vulnerable, hard-to-reach users. Setting: Scottish…
Romppainen, Katri; Saloniemi, Antti; Jähi, Rita; Virtanen, Pekka
Health care research has been more interested in identifying reasons why people do not participate in health interventions than in trying to understand the reasons why they do. This study examined how unemployed people position themselves with regard to a new health service which was set up as part of an institutional strategy for delivering and enabling their access to health care. Positioning theory was used as a methodological framework to analyse participants' responses to the novel health service. The focus was on two main issues: the way clients' positions are established through discourse, and the range of factors that come into play in determining those positions. The analysis revealed six positions unemployed people use when encountering the studied service: the docile citizen, the rebel, the socially responsible citizen, the distinctive individual, the independent actor and the calculating client. These positions and associated discourses display the different sets of rights and duties of the client and simultaneously define the positions of the service. While illustrating how a health service engaged with the ideology of equality is integrated into the value framework of the clients, the findings contribute to the ongoing debate on need of particular health services for unemployed people. PMID:22280488
Gormley, Kevin J
Falls are a significant threat to the safety, health and independence of older citizens. Despite the substantial evidence that is available around effective falls prevention programmes and interventions, their translation into falls reduction programmes and policies has yet to be fully realised. While hip fracture rates are decreasing, the number and incidence of fall-related hospital admissions among older people continue to rise. Given the demographic trends that highlight increasing numbers of older people in the UK, which is broadly reflected internationally, there is a financial and social imperative to minimise the rate of falls and associated injuries. Falling is closely aligned to growing older (Slips, Trips and Falls Update: From Acute and Community Hospitals and Mental Health Units in England and Wales, Department of Health, HMSO, London, 2010). According to the World Health Organization, around 30% of older people aged over 65 and 50% of those over 80 will fall each year (Falls Fact Sheet Number 344, WHO, Geneva, 2010). Falls happen as a result of many reasons and can have harmful consequences, including loss of mobility and independence, confidence and in many cases even death (Cochrane Database Syst Rev 15, 2009, 146; Slips, Trips and Falls Update: From Acute and Community Hospitals and Mental Health Units in England and Wales, Department of Health, HMSO, London, 2010; Falling Standards, Broken Promises: Report of the National Audit of Falls and Bone Health in Older People 2010, Health Care Quality Improvement Partnership, London, 2011). What is neither fair nor correct is the common belief by old and young alike that falls are just another inconvenience to put up with. The available evidence justifiably supports the view that well-organised services, based upon national standards and expert guidance, can prevent future falls among older people and reduce death and disability from fractures. This paper will draw from the UK, as an exemplar for policy
Background There is co-morbidity between parental depression and childhood conduct disorder. The Incredible Years (IY) parenting programmes reduce both conduct disorder in children and depression in their parents. Recent U.K. and Ireland trials of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IY parenting programmes have assessed children’s health and social care service use, but little is known about the programme’s impact on parental service use. This paper explores whether an above clinical cut-off score on the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II) is associated with high or low parental health and social care service use in high-risk families receiving the IY Basic Programme. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a subsample (N = 119) from the first U.K. community-based randomised controlled trial of the 12-week IY Basic Programme (N = 153). Parents with children at risk of developing conduct disorder were randomised to receive the programme or to a waiting-list control group. BDI II total and BDI II clinical depression cut-off scores were compared to frequencies and costs of parents’ service use, at baseline, six, twelve and eighteen months post-baseline for the intervention group and at baseline and six months post-baseline for the control group. Results Intervention group parents who scored above the clinical cut-off on the BDI II at baseline used more health and social care services than those who scored below at baseline, six and eighteen months. Significant reductions in service use frequencies were found for the intervention group only. Conclusion Parents with higher levels or depression used more health and social care service and parenting programmes have been shown to reduce parental depression and also health and social service use. However, further exploration of depressed parents’ service use and the cost implications for publically funded health and social care services is needed. Trial registration Registration of the original RCT
Yu, Jui-Chen; Yang, Hung-Jen
This study presented a course on preparing in-service teachers to learn communication technology education and how to integrate museum resources into their teaching. The course was organised and conducted by a teacher educator and museum educator together. Forty-two participants enrolled in this course, including 29 elementary school teachers,…
This paper presents an overview of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India, discusses the context of Early Childhood Education (ECE) in Nepal, analyzes the best practices of the ICDS, and draws some policy implications for improving ECE in Nepal. The ICDS program is an integrated child development program with the…
Gumbo, Mishack; Makgato, Moses; Muller, Helene
The aim of this paper is to assess the impact the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) in-service technology training program has on technology teachers' knowledge and understanding of technology. The training of technology teachers is an initiative toward teachers' professional development within the mathematics, science, and technology sphere…
Faulkner, K; Wallis, M G; Neilson, F; Whitaker, C J
In the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP), women aged between 50 and 70 y are invited for mammography every 3 y. Screening histories for each woman, over four screening rounds, were analysed. Data from five screening programmes were used to select 57,425 women into the study. Cases were selected on the basis of being between the ages of 50 and 53 at the start of the NHSBSP (i.e. between 1989 and 1992). Assessment of the outcome for each screening round for each woman involved assigning a simple outcome code. Each of the possible pathways through the four screening rounds was analysed. This comprises of 500 possible pathways. This data enabled the following information to be determined: (i) The number of times a woman attended the screening programme. (ii) The number of women referred for assessment at each screening round. This information may be used to deduce the population dose to this group of women averaged over four screening rounds. Patient doses have been monitored since the programme's inception and are typically 4.5 mGy for two-view screening. It is possible to determine the mean glandular dose received by this cohort of women over four screening rounds by multiplying the number of examinations by the mean glandular dose for a typical woman. Allowance has to be made for the number of projections taken at each screening round. Once a woman has been screened, she may be invited back for further assessment if an abnormality is found on her mammogram. A stereotactic attachment is used to determine where to place the biopsy device. Although the dose received during a normal screening mammogram is well known, the dose for a stereotactic procedure and other assessment procedures is less well known, partly because only a small part of the breast is directly irradiated during stereotaxis. However, the woman may have multiple exposures during this stage. A prospective survey of doses was completed to deduce the mean glandular
Iddon, Joanne; Barker, Chris
Summary points 1. This article introduces a rationale for a solution-focused approach to a community-based pain management programme (PMP), describing delivery and preliminary outcome data. 2. It suggests PMPs can be feasibly run in the community without necessity for hospital care setting. 3. A community setting is also advantageous in that it allows maintenance of social networks and close third-sector links to support long-term, sustained mental well-being. 4. Solution-focused psychological approaches help the clinician tap into patient expertise and develop rich descriptions of the patient’s preferred future, enhancing self-efficacy and empowerment. 5. Evaluation found significant statistical and clinical improvements in pre–post pain self-efficacy, mental well-being and function (but findings were limited by internal and external validity and no significant effect was found on pain levels). 6. Statistically significant change was maintained at 10 weeks for self-efficacy and function (and for the latter, clinically significant change was also maintained); improvements in mental well-being showed maintenance at all measured time points (up to 12 months) in terms of both statistical and clinical significant changes. PMID:26516534
Background In 2010 the Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) was initiated in Gezira state, Sudan, designed as an in-service training model. The project is a collaboration project between the University of Gezira, which aims to provide a 2-year master’s programme in family medicine for practicing doctors, and the Ministry of Health, which facilitates service provision and funds the training programme. This paper presents the programme, the teaching environment, and the first batch of candidates enrolled. Methods In this study a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline data at the start of the project from doctors who joined the programme. A checklist was also used to assess the health centres where they work. A total of 188 out of 207 doctors responded (91%), while data were gathered from all 158 health centres (100%) staffed by the programme candidates. Results The Gezira model of in-service family medicine training has succeeded in recruiting 207 candidates in its first batch, providing health services in 158 centres, of which 84 had never been served by a doctor before. The curriculum is community oriented. The mean age of doctors was 32.5 years, 57% were males, and 32% were graduates from the University of Gezira. Respondents stated high confidence in practicing some skills such as asthma management and post-abortion uterine evacuation. They were least confident in other skills such as managing depression or inserting an intrauterine device. The majority of health centres was poorly equipped for management of noncommunicable diseases, as only 10% had an electrocardiography machine (ECG), 5% had spirometer, and 1% had a defibrillator. Conclusions The Gezira model has responded to local health system needs. Use of modern information and communication technology is used to facilitate both health service provision and training. The GFMP represents an example of a large-volume scaling-up programme of family medicine in Africa. PMID:24443978
The origins and functions of the World Health Organization (WHO) Library and the global, regional, and national objectives of the WHO Health Literature Services Program (HLSP) are reviewed. WHO is an aggregate of nations and not a supra-national body. With limited resources and unlimited needs, HLSP is involved in surveys, training, regional medical libraries, national and regional networks, bibliographic services and document delivery, promotion, coordination, and communication. The basic concept of HLSP eschews internationally-conceived, self-contained technical projects in favor of broad programs based on national planning. Small rural centers receive more attention than large urban hospitals, and preventive medicine together with health education and community involvement are of more immediate concern than curative medicine. National self-reliance implies national initiative but not necessarily national self-sufficiency. Recent planning and implementation of HLSP activities are described. PMID:3370376
Background The use of compulsory treatment under the Mental Health Act (MHA) has continued to rise in the UK and in other countries. The Joint Crisis Plan (JCP) is a statement of service users' wishes for treatment in the event of a future mental health crisis. It is developed with the clinical team and an independent facilitator. A recent pilot RCT showed a reduction in the use of the MHA amongst service users with a JCP. The JCP is the only intervention that has been shown to reduce compulsory treatment in this way. The CRIMSON trial aims to determine if JCPs, compared with treatment as usual, are effective in reducing the use of the MHA in a range of treatment settings across the UK. Methods/Design This is a 3 centre, individual-level, single-blind, randomised controlled trial of the JCP compared with treatment as usual for people with a history of relapsing psychotic illness in Birmingham, London and Lancashire/Manchester. 540 service users will be recruited across the three sites. Eligible service users will be adults with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder (including bipolar disorder), treated in the community under the Care Programme Approach with at least one admission to a psychiatric inpatient ward in the previous two years. Current inpatients and those subject to a community treatment order will be excluded to avoid any potential perceived pressure to participate. Research assessments will be conducted at baseline and 18 months. Following the baseline assessment, eligible service users will be randomly allocated to either develop a Joint Crisis Plan or continue with treatment as usual. Outcome will be assessed at 18 months with assessors blind to treatment allocation. The primary outcome is the proportion of service users treated or otherwise detained under an order of the Mental Health Act (MHA) during the follow-up period, compared across randomisation groups. Secondary outcomes include overall costs, service user engagement, perceived coercion and
Grace, Marcus; Rietdijk, Willeke; Garrett, Caro; Griffiths, Janice
This article presents an independent evaluation of the Action Research for Physics (ARP) programme, a nationwide professional development programme which trains teachers to use action research to increase student interest in physics and encourage them to take post-compulsory physics. The impact of the programme was explored from the perspective of…
Objective To assess the feasibility of utilizing a small-scale, low-cost, pilot evaluation in assessing the short-term impact of Kenya’s emergency-hire nursing programme (EHP) on the delivery of health services (outpatient visits and maternal-child health indicators) in two underserved health districts with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. Methods Six primary outcomes were assessed through the collection of data from facility-level health management forms—total general outpatient visits, vaginal deliveries, caesarean sections, antenatal care (ANC) attendance, ANC clients tested for HIV, and deliveries to HIV-positive women. Data on outcome measures were assessed both pre-and post-emergency-hire nurse placement. Informal discussions were also conducted to obtain supporting qualitative data. Findings The majority of EHP nurses were placed in Suba (15.5%) and Siaya (13%) districts. At the time of the intervention, we describe an increase in total general outpatient visits, vaginal deliveries and caesarean sections within both districts. Similar significant increases were seen with ANC attendance and deliveries to HIV-positive women. Despite increases in the quantity of health services immediately following nurse placement, these levels were often not sustained. We identify several factors that challenge the long-term sustainability of these staffing enhancements. Conclusions There are multiple factors beyond increasing the supply of nurses that affect the delivery of health services. We believe this pilot evaluation sets the foundation for future, larger and more comprehensive studies further elaborating on the interface between interventions to alleviate nursing shortages and promote enhanced health service delivery. We also stress the importance of strong national and local relationships in conducting future studies. PMID:24636052
Pinty, Bernard; Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick
In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we measure and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its climate data store will provide global and regional climate data reanalyses; multi-model seasonal forecasts; customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. The presentation will provide an overview of this newly created Service, its various components and activities, and a roadmap towards achieving a fully operational European Climate Service at the horizon 2019-2020. It will focus on the requirements for quality-assured Observation
Mäklin, Suvi; Hakama, Matti; Rissanen, Pekka; Malila, Nea
Objective To estimate the difference in use of hospital resources in the Finnish Colorectal Cancer (CRC) screening programme between those invited and controls, within the year of randomisation and the next year. Design CRC screening was implemented in Finland in 2004 as a population-based randomised design using biennial faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for men and women aged 60–69 years. Those randomised to screening and control groups during years 2004–2009 were included in this analysis and use of hospital resources was estimated. Data were collected from the national register on hospital discharges. Outpatient visits, inpatient episodes and colonoscopies were compared between the two groups. Results The screening group comprised of 123 149 and control group of 122 930 people. Most people in both groups had not used hospital resources at all. More people in the screening group than in the control group had at least one hospital-based outpatient visit (7.8% vs 7.4%), inpatient episode (3.9% vs 3.8%) and colonoscopy (1.5% vs 1.3%). In total, the screening group had 31 975 and control group 27 061 cumulative outpatient visits, 9260 and 7903 inpatient episodes, and 2686 and 1756 hospital colonoscopies, respectively. The proportion of those with a positive FOBT result with at least one outpatient visit, one inpatient episode or one colonoscopy, was 3.7 times, 2.5 times or 9 times that of those with a negative FOBT result, respectively. Conclusions CRC screening using the FOBT slightly increased the volume of hospital outpatient visits, inpatient episodes and hospital colonoscopies in Finland. PMID:26719814
Beck, Vanessa; Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna
This article examines the impact of gender and "race" on young people's perceptions of the educational and labour market opportunities available to them after they complete their compulsory schooling in England. Its findings are based on a study of the views of girls and boys about the government-supported "Apprenticeships" programme, which,…
This paper reports on the making of the Communication and Information Strategy with the National Agricultural Advisory Services Programme (NAADS) in Uganda. The NAADS is a new organization in government responsible for the implementation of a demand-driven agricultural extension approach. The new extension approach calls for fundamental changes in…
Part of UNESCO's Action Research in Family and Early Childhood series, this monograph is based upon a technical report on the Early Childhood Education (ECE) component of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India. This document overviews the ICDS and how better use could be made of World Food Programme (WFP) food aid along…
This paper describes and analyses an in-service education project, financed by the Belgium Technical Cooperation, to improve the quality of mathematics teaching in 138 primary and lower secondary schools in Cambodia. The project design drew on recent research in developing countries and prior experience of training programmes in Cambodia. The…
This article introduces a waka tino whakarawea model for evaluating programmes and services for Maori learners. It is based on a set of underlying principles identified in the author's PhD study (Bevan-Brown, 2002). Explanations are provided for eight principles: kaupapa Maori; importance, relevance and beneficence; participation; empowerment,…
van der Elst, Elise M; Kombo, Bernadette; Gichuru, Evans; Omar, Anisa; Musyoki, Helgar; Graham, Susan M; Smith, Adrian D; Sanders, Eduard J; Operario, Don
Introduction Although men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa are at high risk for HIV acquisition, access to and quality of health and HIV services within this population are negatively affected by stigma and capacity within the health sector. A recently developed online MSM training programme (www.marps-africa.org) was shown to contribute to reductions in MSM prejudice among healthcare providers (HCPs) in coastal Kenya. In this study, we used qualitative methods to explore the provision of MSM healthcare services two years post-training in coastal Kenya. Methods From February to July 2014, we held 10 focus group discussions (FGD) with 63 participants, including HCP from 25 facilities, county AIDS coordinators and MSM from local support groups. Participants discussed availability, acceptability and accessibility of HIV healthcare for MSM. HCP also discussed changes in their health service practices after completing the training. FGD were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Ritchie and Spencer's “framework approach” for qualitative data. Results HCPs described continued improvements in their ability to provide service in a non-stigmatizing way to MSM patients since completing the training programme and expressed comfort engaging MSM patients in care. Four additional recommendations for improving MSM healthcare services were identified: 1) expanding the reach of MSM sensitivity training across the medical education continuum; 2) establishing guidelines to manage sexually transmitted anal infections; 3) promoting legal and policy reforms to support integration of MSM-appropriate services into healthcare; and 4) including MSM information in national reporting tools for HIV services. Conclusions Positive impacts of this sensitivity and skills training programme were reflected in HCP attitudes two years post-intervention. Scaling-up of efforts will rely on continued policies to include MSM in healthcare programmes to reduce stigma in
Phillips, James F.; Bawah, Ayaga A.; Binka, Fred N.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and health impact of deploying health service nurses and volunteers to village locations with a view to scaling up results. METHODS: A four-celled plausibility trial was used for testing the impact of aligning community health services with the traditional social institutions that organize village life. Data from the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System that tracks fertility and mortality events over time were used to estimate impact on fertility and mortality. RESULTS: Assigning nurses to community locations reduced childhood mortality rates by over half in 3 years and accelerated the time taken for attainment of the child survival Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in the study areas to 8 years. Fertility was also reduced by 15%, representing a decline of one birth in the total fertility rate. Programme costs added 1.92 US Dollar per capita to the 6.80 US Dollar per capita primary health care budget. CONCLUSION: Assigning nurses to community locations where they provide basic curative and preventive care substantially reduces childhood mortality and accelerates progress towards attainment of the child survival MDG. Approaches using community volunteers, however, have no impact on mortality. The results also demonstrate that increasing access to contraceptive supplies alone fails to address the social costs of fertility regulation. Effective deployment of volunteers and community mobilization strategies offsets the social constraints on the adoption of contraception. The research in Navrongo thus demonstrates that affordable and sustainable means of combining nurse services with volunteer action can accelerate attainment of both the International Conference on Population and Development agenda and the MDGs. PMID:17242830
Sharma, Bharati; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Johansson, Eva; Prakasamma, Malvarappu; Ramani, K.V.; Christensson, Kyllike
Objective The graduates of the diploma and degree programmes of nursing and midwifery in India are considered skilled birth attendants (SBAs). This paper aimed to assess the confidence of final-year students from pre-service education programmes (diploma and bachelor's) in selected midwifery skills from the list of midwifery competencies of the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM). Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Gujarat, India, involving 633 final-year students from 25 educational institutions (private or government), randomly selected, stratified by the type of programme (diploma and bachelor's). Students assessed their confidence on a four-point scale, in four midwifery competency domains – antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum, and newborn care. Explorative factor analysis was used to reduce skill statements into separate subscales for each domain. Results Overall, 25–40% of students scored above the 75th percentile and 38–50% below the 50th percentile of confidence in all subscales for antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum, and newborn care. The majority had not attended the required number of births prescribed by the Indian Nursing Council. Conclusions The pre-service education offered in the diploma and bachelor's programmes in Gujarat does not prepare confident SBAs, as measured on selected midwifery competencies of the ICM. One of the underlying reasons was less clinical experience during their education. The duration, content, and pedagogy of midwifery education within the integrated programmes need to be reviewed. PMID:26649550
Kwarteng, E. Fredua
This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty payable under... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY PAYABLE UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE FOR MAKING AND DISTRIBUTING PHONORECORDS § 255.2 Royalty payable under compulsory...
Policymakers across the nation continue to push for expanded free and compulsory school age requirements. More states are considering granting students earlier access to a free education so that they can begin their academic pursuits earlier in life. Similarly, every year a number of states consider extending the upper limit for compulsory school…
Compulsory education in China's rural areas has come a long way since China adopted the policy of reform and opening up to the outside world toward the end of 1978. By 2004, compulsory education had become available and illiteracy had been eliminated among 93.6 percent of the nation's total population; the enrollment rate of school-age children…
Ekholm, Mats; And Others
This monograph presents an overview of reports from a 4-year intensive research study of internal life among 3 Swedish compulsory schools and includes discussion of a 10-year follow-up study of 12 senior-level compulsory schools. The 4-year project sought to understand innovative processes, but because few innovations were observed, research…
Introduction Afghanistan has faced health consequences of war including those due to displacement of populations, breakdown of health and social services, and increased risks of disease transmission for over three decades. Yet it was able to restructure its National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP), integrate tuberculosis treatment into primary health care and achieve most of its targets by the year 2011. What were the processes that enabled the programme to achieve its targets? More importantly, what were the underpinning factors that made this success possible? We addressed these important questions through a case study. Case description We adopted a processes and outcomes framework for this study, which began with examining the change in key programme indicators, followed by backwards tracing of the processes and underlying factors, responsible for this change. Methods included review of the published and grey literature along with in-depth interviews of 15 key informants involved with the care of tuberculosis patients in Afghanistan. Discussion and evaluation TB incidence and mortality per 100,000 decreased from 325 and 92 to 189 and 39 respectively, while case notification and treatment success improved during the decade under study. Efficient programme structures were enabled through high political commitment from the Government, strong leadership from the programme, effective partnership and coordination among stakeholders, and adequate technical and financial support from the development partners. Conclusions The NTP Afghanistan is an example that public health programmes can be effectively implemented in fragile states. High political commitment and strong local leadership are essential factors for such programmes. To ensure long-term effectiveness of the NTP, the international support should be withdrawn in a phased manner, coupled with a sequential increase in resources allocated to the NTP by the Government of Afghanistan. PMID:24507446
Campbell, Stacey; Torr, Jane; Cologon, Kathy
Commercial phonics programmes (e.g. Jolly Phonics and Letterland) are becoming widely used in the early years of school. These programmes claim to use a systematic explicit approach, considered as the preferred method of phonics instruction for teaching alphabetic code-breaking skills in Australia and the UK in the first years of school…
Background Theory-based evaluation (TBE) approaches are heralded as supporting formative evaluation by facilitating increased use of evaluative findings to guide programme improvement. It is essential that learning from programme implementation is better used to improve delivery and to inform other initiatives, if interventions are to be as effective as they have the potential to be. Nonetheless, few studies describe formative feedback methods, or report direct instrumental use of findings resulting from TBE. This paper uses the case of Scotland’s, National Health Service, early years’, oral health improvement initiative (Childsmile) to describe the use of TBE as a framework for providing feedback on delivery to programme staff and to assess its impact on programmatic action. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders explored perceived deviations between the Childsmile programme 'as delivered’ and its Programme Theory (PT). The data was thematically analysed using constant comparative methods. Findings were shared with key programme stakeholders and discussions around likely impact and necessary actions were facilitated by the authors. Documentary review and ongoing observations of programme meetings were undertaken to assess the extent to which learning was acted upon. Results On the whole, the activities documented in Childsmile’s PT were implemented as intended. This paper purposefully focuses on those activities where variation in delivery was evident. Differences resulted from the stage of roll-out reached and the flexibility given to individual NHS boards to tailor local implementation. Some adaptations were thought to have diverged from the central features of Childsmile’s PT, to the extent that there was a risk to achieving outcomes. The methods employed prompted national service improvement action, and proposals for local action by individual NHS boards to address this. Conclusions The TBE approach
Gathmann, Christina; Jürges, Hendrik; Reinhold, Steffen
Education yields substantial non-monetary benefits, but the size of these gains is still debated. Previous studies report causal effects of education and compulsory schooling on mortality ranging anywhere from zero to large and negative. Using data from 18 compulsory schooling reforms implemented in Europe during the twentieth century, we quantify the average mortality gain and explore its dispersion across gender, time and countries. We find that more education yields small mortality reductions in the short- and long-run for men. In contrast, women seem to experience no mortality reductions from compulsory schooling reforms. PMID:24560098
This study looks at the effects of a science-technology-society (STS) in-service programme, designed to change teachers' awareness and practice of STS/constructivist approaches, while also focusing on students' understandings and changes of perceptions of the constructivist learning environments. The STS in-service programme was developed to achieve the following features: teacher-oriented, teaching in a social context, emphasis on a 'constructivist' approach, developing STS units and their use in classrooms. A total of 20 middle and high school science teachers participated in the in-service programme in 1998; and three of the middle school teachers were selected to gain information from their implementation of a Reactions of Acids and Bases unit in their respective classrooms. The Science Education Reform Inventory was administered to all the teachers at both the opening and the end of the programme. One hundred twenty-five students of the three teachers experienced about 16 class hours of lessons comprising the new STS unit. At the beginning and the end of the unit, they completed the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey. In order to assess student understanding, teachers administered the creativity test before and after the unit; and the concept acquisition test and the application test after the unit. Students obtained at average 48% of the 35 key concepts and 6.6 additional non-key concepts after the unit was finished. Students made more relevant and creative responses on unfamiliar situations on the post-test than on the pre-test. Through several tasks including a short essay, students showed their abilities to apply various concepts related to acids and bases to daily life situation. It was found that the STS programme improved the teachers' awareness and practices of the science education reforms characterized by STS and constructivism. The middle school science teachers could develop STS units which they implemented in their own classrooms. They
The independent nature of cats means that they are more likely to become lost or injured than dogs. Maggie Roberts believes that microchipping of cats should be compulsory in the UK as is the case with dogs. PMID:27516564
Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.
The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing
The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis. PMID:1290073
Ellouze, Faten; Lahmar, Aymen; Beji, Rami; Dridi, Anis; Fadhel M'rad, Mohamed
The evolution of the legislation governing compulsory admission to hospital in Tunisia is interesting for two reasons. The country's 2011 revolution notably brought about major changes to the legislative framework, from constitutional through to ordinary laws. At the same time, the current trend for globalisation is also affecting legislation: international laws, treaties and UN charters are imposed on the laws of individual countries. This article looks at how Tunisian law governing compulsory admission to hospital has had to evolve. PMID:26143219
OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2007
Developed jointly by OECD member countries through the OECD's Directorate for Education, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) aims to measure how far students approaching the end of compulsory education have acquired some of the knowledge and skills essential for full participation in the knowledge society. The assessment is…
Normand, Carey; Littlejohn, Allison; Falconer, Isobel
The model developed here is the outcome of a project funded by the Quality Assurance Agency Scotland to support implementation of flexible programme delivery (FPD) in post-compulsory education. We highlight key features of FPD, including explicit and implicit assumptions about why flexibility is needed and the perceived barriers and solutions to…
Eytan, Ariel; Chatton, Anne; Safran, Edith; Khazaal, Yasser
Despite efforts to reduce coercion in psychiatry, involuntary hospitalizations remain frequent, representing more than half of all admissions in some European regions. Since October 2006, only certified psychiatrists are authorized to require a compulsory admission to our facility, while before all physicians were, including residents. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of this change of procedure on the proportion compulsory admissions. All medical records of patients admitted respectively 4 months before and 4 month after the implementation of the procedure were retrospectively analyzed. This search retrieved a total of 2,227 hospitalizations for 1,584 patients. The overall proportions of compulsory and voluntary admissions were 63.9 % and 36.1 % respectively. The average length of stay was 32 days (SD ± 64.4). During the study period, 25 % of patients experienced two hospitalizations or more. The most frequent patients' diagnoses were affective disorders (30 %), psychotic disorders (18.4 %) and substance abuse disorders (15.7 %). Compared with the period before October 2006, patients hospitalized from October 2006 up were less likely to be hospitalized on a compulsory basis (OR = 0.745, 95 % CI: 0.596-0.930). Factors associated with involuntary admission were young age (20 years or less), female gender, a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and being hospitalized for the first time. Our results strongly suggest that limiting the right to require compulsory admissions to fully certified psychiatrists can reduce the rate of compulsory versus voluntary admissions. PMID:22585110
Nolan, Mary L.
This paper describes the conception, planning, implementation and evaluation of an access programme arising out of an innovative collaboration between two charities, Straight Talking and the National Childbirth Trust. The access programme was designed at the request of a group of young mothers who had finished compulsory education and subsequently…
Rogers, Bertha; Dunne, Emma
A newly developed specialist personality disorder service in the United Kingdom arranged a focus group with seven service users with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) to explore their experiences of the Care Programme Approach (CPA) while under the care of a community mental health team. A thematic analysis generated seven themes. Understanding Borderline Personality Disorder and Understanding Recovery were highlighted as difficulties service users face, with a lack of staff understanding. They also spoke about the struggle of having a voice in their CPA meetings and the lack of information they received in the CPA process. They discussed the deliberation between progression versus consistency and moving on from services. Service users discussed the challenges of accessing treatment and lack of follow up in the CPA process. Greater service user involvement in the process would help address the dissatisfaction and disempowerment in care planning experienced by individuals diagnosed with BPD. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 51(10), 38-45.]. PMID:23855437
Background Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. Methods We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. Results The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1) the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2) the growing need for comprehensive care, (3) patient empowerment, (4) and defaulter tracing; and (5) the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. Conclusions The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a potentially effective
... Act (5 U.S.C. 552) and the Commission's regulations under that Act, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490... regulations, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977), or as amended. ... known residence or business address of anyone being investigated, inspected or inquired of; or (3)...
... Act (5 U.S.C. 552) and the Commission's regulations under that Act, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490... regulations, 16 CFR part 1015 (42 FR 10490, February 22, 1977), or as amended. ... Section 1118.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...
Khanna, R.; Jariwala, K.; West-Strum, D.
Background: There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of autism in the USA in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to provide recent estimates of psychotropic drug use and costs among individuals with autism enrolled in the Medicaid programme. Method: A cross-sectional analysis of 2007 Mississippi (MS) Medicaid…
It is often said that beliefs determine the ways teachers think and act in classrooms. There is now strong evidence that teachers' beliefs are formed during their previous education as students, and that they exert a powerful influence throughout their careers. However, only little has yet been done on the teacher education programmes' influence…
The National Population Policy Statement adopted by the Government of India in April 1976 gave states the mandate to adopt coercive and compulsory sterilization measures toward the end of bringing under control the nation's massive population growth. Many states have since adopted stringent measures which penalize couples having three or more children, and four states additionally have proposed legislation for compulsory sterilization. While the demographic impact of compulsory sterilization after the third child is undisputed, the administrative feasibility of such and undertaking has been widely questioned, particularly in light of the inadequacy of India's medical infrastructure in the rural areas. Critics further have raised questions concerning the social and ethical implications of compulsory sterilization and of measures which penalize the poor through means which may have adverse effects on their health and welfare. Finally, opponents of the new sterilization measures have suggested that they divert attention from the need for more basic changes in the nation's economic and social structure. While the need for bringing down India's continued high birth rate is widely recognized, alternative population measures-e.g. increased abortion facilities and an enforcement of the raised age at marriage-have been advocated in lieu of the compulsory sterilization measures currently being proposed. PMID:856744
In March 2012, India issued its first compulsory license for a kidney cancer drug. India is one of several countries that have applied the flexibility incorporated in the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of IP rights. It is expected that the importance of compulsory licenses may grow in the future due to the loss of generic drugs sources after the introduction of pharmaceutical product patents in India, the continuing high prevalence of epidemics, such as of HIV/AIDS, in developing countries and the increase in noncommunicable diseases in these nations. This article analyses the effectiveness and feasibility of compulsory licenses to ameliorate access to medicines based on the historical, factual and legal backgrounds of case examples, such as in Thailand, Canada/Rwanda and India. It addresses challenges and controversial questions, such as the interpretation of the compulsory licensing conditions, the questions surrounding a systematic use of compulsory licenses and the lack of economic incentives for generic pharmaceutical companies' participation to export drugs to countries without manufacturing capacities. Lessons from the cases discussed and implications for policymakers are outlined. PMID:24236925
Woolnough, Helen M; Davidson, Marilyn J; Fielden, Sandra L
This paper presents the experiences of executive and non-executive UK National Health Service (NHS) Trust directors and senior managers as mentors in a career development and mentoring programme for a cohort of 27 female mental health nurses from six NHS mental health trusts. Baseline interview data was collated from 27 mentors prior to the programme. Twenty-four mentors participated in semi-structured telephone interviews investigating their experiences of being a mentor at the end of the programme. The interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Experience as a mentor impacted on mentors in a variety of ways and the common themes which emerged from the data included: increased understanding of the mentoring role, increased awareness of career barriers for female mental health nurses, improved ground-level insight in relation to nursing staff and the patients they care for, improved professional reputation, increased networks, new insights into organizational issues, personal enjoyment and fulfilment and desire to implement organizational change. All mentors interviewed stated that they would consider becoming a mentor again. The mentoring relationship was an invaluable learning experience for mentors and results from this study suggested that trained mentors have an important role to play as change agents in the NHS. PMID:16848959
Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L
Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057
Compulsory human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls has been proposed as a public health intervention to reduce the threat of the disease. Such a program would entail a symbiotic relationship between scientific interests in reducing mortality and morbidity and philosophical interests in promoting morality. This proposal raises the issue of whether government should use its police powers to restrict liberty and parental autonomy for the purpose of preventing harm to young people. I reviewed the scientific literature that questions the value of a HPV vaccination. Applying a principle-based approach to moral reasoning, I concluded that compulsory HPV vaccinations can be justified on moral, scientific, and public health grounds. PMID:19197085
White, Sonia; Hepple, Erika; Tangen, Donna; Comelli, Marlana; Alwi, Amyzar; Shaari, Zaira Abu Hassan
Internationally there is interest in developing the research skills of pre-service teachers as a means of ongoing professional renewal with a distinct need for systematic and longitudinal investigation of student learning. The current study takes a unique perspective by exploring the research learning journey of pre-service teachers participating…
Grogan, A; Coughlan, M; O' Mahony, B; McKee, G
It has long been advocated that patient input in service quality development is essential. We have developed a model of quality evaluation and improvement within a comprehensive haemophilia service, and describe the issues and improvements that resulted from the process. The project utilized an action research methodology. Seven patients were recruited from the haemophilia service for the initial focus groups. The main themes initially explored were as follows: patient experience of the outpatient, inpatient and weekend services and provision of information. The focus group data were analysed using basic content analysis. The main themes the initial focus group identified were the need to optimize the annual review, emergency care and inpatient facilities. Following this, the haemophilia care team worked on improving these issues. At the second focus group the patients contributed at a higher level - patient participation. Patients assisted in addressing outstanding issues such as ID alert card content and the algorithm of care for emergency services. Finally, a patient panel was developed and the relationship became one of direct negotiation and partnership with the haemophilia team to address issues within the service. The expectations and needs of patients attending the haemophilia comprehensive care service are complex. The process of including patients as partners at the highest level of patient involvement evolved and proved an effective method of service evaluation and development, facilitating lateral decision-making, not only improving care directly, but also improving the user experience. PMID:22681411
Stevens, Alex; Berto, Daniele; Frick, Ulrich; Hunt, Neil; Kerschl, Viktoria; McSweeney, Tim; Oeuvray, Kerrie; Puppo, Irene; Santa Maria, Alberto; Schaaf, Susanne; Trinkl, Barbara; Uchtenhagen, Ambros; Werdenich, Wolfgang
This paper reports on intake data from Quasi-Compulsory Treatment in Europe, a study of quasi-compulsory treatment (QCT) for drug dependent offenders. It explores the link between formal legal coercion, perceived pressure to be in treatment and motivation amongst a sample of 845 people who entered treatment for drug dependence in five European countries, half of them in quasi-compulsory treatment and half 'voluntarily'. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, it suggests that those who enter treatment under QCT do perceive greater pressure to be in treatment, but that this does not necessarily lead to higher or lower motivation than 'volunteers'. Many drug-dependent offenders value QCT as an opportunity to get treatment. Motivation is mutable and can be developed or diminished by the quality of support and services offered to drug-dependent offenders. PMID:16968995
de Jongh, Thyra E; Gurol–Urganci, Ipek; Allen, Elizabeth; Zhu, Nina Jiayue; Atun, Rifat
Background Antenatal care (ANC) presents a potentially valuable platform for integrated delivery of additional health services for pregnant women–services that are vital to reduce the persistently high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs). However, there is limited evidence on the impact of integrating health services with ANC to guide policy. This review assesses the impact of integration of postnatal and other health services with ANC on health services uptake and utilisation, health outcomes and user experience of care in LMICs. Methods Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, POPLINE and Global Health were searched for studies that compared integrated models for delivery of postnatal and other health services with ANC to non–integrated models. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) criteria and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale, depending on the study design. Due to high heterogeneity no meta–analysis could be conducted. Results are presented narratively. Findings 12 studies were included in the review. Limited evidence, with moderate– to high–risk of bias, suggests that integrated service delivery results in improved uptake of essential health services for women, earlier initiation of treatment, and better health outcomes. Women also reported improved satisfaction with integrated services. Conclusions The reported evidence is largely based on non–randomised studies with poor generalizability, and therefore offers very limited policy guidance. More rigorously conducted and geographically diverse studies are needed to better ascertain and quantify the health and economic benefits of integrating health services with ANC. PMID:27231539
Baicai, Sun; Mingren, Zhao; Jaiyi, Wang
Rural compulsory education is a very weak link in the development of China's education system. For many years, an education fiscal input mechanism with the township as the main player was adopted for supporting China's rural compulsory education. In May 2001, China's rural compulsory education was placed under an administrative system of…
Ingleby, Ewan; Hunt, John
This paper discusses the compulsory professional development (CPD) needs of mentors within post-compulsory Initial Teacher Training (ITT) provision in England. The discussion applies the ideas of Weber, Foucault, Habermas and Bourdieu in interpreting the implications for post-compulsory ITT mentor CPD training. The paper's primary and secondary…
... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedies for failure to comply with compulsory... § 510.12 Remedies for failure to comply with compulsory process. Any failure to comply with compulsory... failure to comply, NHTSA may take appropriate action pursuant to the authority conferred by the...
Halli, S. S.
Discussion of possible applications of the microsimulation approach to analysis of population policy proposes compulsory sterilization policy for all of India. Topics covered include India's population problem, methods for generating a distribution of couples to be sterilized, model validation, data utilized, data analysis, program limitations,…
.... Radiotelephone equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart R or S √ √ √ √ GMDSS equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart W √ (2) A certification that the ship has passed an inspection must be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section...
...-graph operator's certificate Radiotelephone equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart R or S √ √ √ √ Radiotelegraph equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart Q √ √ GMDSS equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section...
...-graph operator's certificate Radiotelephone equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart R or S √ √ √ √ Radiotelegraph equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart Q √ √ GMDSS equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section...
.... Radiotelephone equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart R or S √ √ √ √ GMDSS equipped vessels subject to 47 CFR part 80, subpart W √ (2) A certification that the ship has passed an inspection must be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section...
Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…
... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 and 210 Mechanical and Digital Phonorecord Delivery Compulsory License AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking: Extension of comment and reply comment periods. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office is extending the deadline for...
.... 77 FR 55783 (September 11, 2012). The Copyright Office posted all comments received by the October 25... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 and 210 Mechanical and Digital Phonorecord Delivery Compulsory License AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking: Extension of...
Gatto, John Taylor
The five essays in this book criticize the "deadening heart" of compulsory state schooling, described as a series of assumptions and structures that stamp out the self-knowledge, curiosity, concentration and solitude essential to learning--a system wherein education and schooling are mutually exclusive terms. The book argues that between schooling…
Steutel, Jan; de Ruyter, Doret J.
With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly explained. Promoting the virtue of respect for…
Stirner, Beatrice; Thangaraj, Harry
Compulsory license is one of the safeguards that international IP law provides to address the undesired effects of pharmaceutical patents on access to important medicines. This article looks into three important case examples to analyze the mechanism's effectiveness and feasibility: the first uses of the newer compulsory license regime established in 2003 under the WTO legislative framework to export medicines to third countries, which lack pharmaceutical manufacturing capacities; and further, the first compulsory license grant in India in March 2012. The case analyses are based on the historical, factual and legal background. They reveal the main challenges of the 2003 WTO regime, including the lack of economic incentives for the generic pharmaceutical companies' participation. In the case of India's compulsory license grant, the article takes as in depth look into possible reasons for the reluctance to use the safeguard until recently, and the important aspects and implications of the Indian authorization to manufacture and sell a generic version of a patented cancer drug. PMID:24237026
The use of technology within the lifelong learning sector brings many benefits to learners, teachers and managers. Aimed at trainee and practising teachers, this book contains clear, practical guidance on how to use technology and e-learning effectively to enhance all aspects of teaching and learning in the post-compulsory sector. Alan Clarke…
Learning in formal schools violates several simple principles: that no one can learn on an empty spirit; that true learning requires an absence of fear or authority; that learning is the most natural of human instincts. By making schooling compulsory, we have abandoned trust in our individual and collective experience in favour of experts and…
Staudohar, Paul D.
Reviews state supreme court rulings on constitutionality issues raised by compulsory arbitration for public employees. Cases are reviewed for the states of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Maine, Michigan, New York, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Washington. Concludes that courts have generally upheld the constitutionality of such…
The School of Post-Compulsory Education and Training (PCET) of the University of Greenwich (London), whose main purpose is to provide initial training and professional development for teachers, trainers, and lectures, provides a distance-learning program. This article discusses the program and the piloting of a groupware product that permits…
... process. The presiding administrative law judge shall set all discovery deadlines. The administrative law... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery and compulsory process. 210.61 Section... administrative law judge may, but is not required to, make findings on the issues specified in sections 337...
Mattick, Karen; Crocker, Graham; Bligh, John
The General Medical Council in the UK recommends that undergraduate medical students be exposed to a variety of learning opportunities and increasingly take responsibility for their own learning. This study presents quantitative and qualitative data relating to attendance at non-compulsory plenary lectures in order to understand factors affecting…
The tree change phenomenon started around Australia from about 2003 and continues to this day, even into places like the Western Plains area of New South Wales. Relocating from the city to rural areas for a lifestyle change is attributed to this phenomenon. An ever-growing interest in post-compulsory education solutions that run parallel to this…
Moodie, Gavin; Wheelahan, Leesa
The boundaries between vocational and academic post compulsory education have been blurred by students combining vocational and academic studies and by students transferring increasingly between the two types of education. Institutions are also blurring the boundaries between the sectors by increasingly offering programs from two and sometimes…
Randles, Harry E.
The responsibility for education in Australia rests with the states. Teachers in the state of New South Wales, as in other Australian states, are employed by the Public Service Board, which determines working conditions. Teachers are administered, however, under the Department of Education. Labor disputes in Australia are settled not by formal…
Van Putten, Sonja; Howie, Sarah; Stols, Gerrit
This study investigated the attitude towards, as well as the level of understanding of Euclidean geometry in pre-service mathematics education (PME) students. In order to do so, a case study was undertaken within which a one group pre-post-test procedure was conducted around a geometry module, and a representative group of students was interviewed…
Tauhata, Luiz; Iwahara, Akira; de Oliveira, Antonio E; Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre; Delgado, José Ubiratan; da Silva, Carlos José; Dos Santos, Joyra A; Nícoli, Ieda G; Alabarse, Frederico G; Xavier, Ana Maria
Proficiency tests were applied to assess the performance of 74 nuclear medicine services in activity measurements of (131)I, (123)I, (99)Tc(m), (67)Ga and (201)Tl. These tests produced 913 data sets from comparison programmes promoted by the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) from 1999 to 2006. The data were evaluated against acceptance criteria for accuracy and precision and assigned as Acceptable or Not acceptable accordingly. In addition, three other statistical parameters were used as complementary information for performance evaluation which related to normative requirements and to radionuclide calibrators. The results have shown a necessity to improve quality control procedures and unsatisfactory performances of radionuclide calibrators, which incorporate Geiger-Müller detectors. PMID:18346902
Writing is a complex skill that requires effective teaching practices in the classroom. One of the challenges English teachers in the English as a second language (L2) context face is the lack of teacher experience in teaching English writing. This brief paper reports on a small-scale study on helping Hong Kong in-service primary school teachers…
Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In
Reichman, Jerome H.
In this Comment, the author traces the relevant legislative history pertaining to compulsory licensing of patented pharmaceuticals from the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement of 1994 to the 2003 waiver to, and later proposed amendment of, article 31, which enables poor countries to obtain needed medicines from other countries that possess manufacturing capacity. The Comment then evaluates recent, controversial uses of the relevant legislative machinery as viewed from different critical perspectives. The Comment shows how developing countries seeking access to essential medicines can collaborate in ways that would avoid undermining incentives to innovation and other social costs attributed to compulsory licensing. It ends by defending the legality of recent measures taken to promote public health in developing countries, and by reminding developed countries that unilateral retaliation against such measures is demonstratably illegal under WTO foundational law and jurisprudence. PMID:19493070
Fischer, Martin; Karlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Therese
Theoretically, there are several reasons to expect education to have a positive effect on health. Empirical research suggests that education can be an important health determinant. However, it has not yet been established whether education and health are indeed causally related, and the effects found in previous studies may be partially attributable to methodological weaknesses. Moreover, existing evidence on the education-health relationship generally uses information of fairly recent schooling reforms, implying that health outcomes are observed only over a limited time period. This paper examines the effect of education on mortality using information on a national roll-out of a reform leading to one extra year of compulsory schooling in Sweden. In 1936, the national government made a seventh school year compulsory; however, the implementation was decided at the school district level, and the reform was implemented over 12 years. Taking advantage of the variation in the timing of the implementation across school districts, by using county-level proportions of reformed districts, census data and administrative mortality data, we find that the extra compulsory school year reduced mortality. In fact, the mortality reduction is discernible already before the age of 30 and then grows in magnitude until the age of 55–60. PMID:23945539
Fischer, Benedikt; Roberts, Julian V; Kirst, Maritt
In Canada, illicit drug use and addiction have traditionally been considered as a criminal justice problem and have been addressed from a legal perspective. Over the past century, a medical approach to drug addiction has slowly crept into the criminal justice processing of drug offenders. This has happened through the combination of principles of punishment with principles of addiction treatment in the sentencing of drug offenders to create a distinct application of 'compulsory drug treatment' in Canada. However, this evolution has occurred sporadically over time, with punishment and coercion as predominantly the main approach to dealing with this population. This evolution has recently culminated in Canada with the development of two criminal justice approaches to dealing with the substance use problems of drug offenders that incorporate concepts of punishment and treatment more equally than ever before - conditional sentencing and drug courts. This paper outlines the historical evolution of concepts of 'compulsory treatment', discusses such examples of contemporary 'compulsory treatment' as conditional sentencing and drug courts, and analyses the implications, concerns and challenges associated with these tools currently used in the sentencing of drug offenders in the Canadian context. PMID:11979008
Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji
Africa has the highest disease burden in the world and continues to depend on pharmaceutical imports to meet public health needs. As Asian manufacturers of generic medicines begin to operate under a more protectionist intellectual property regime, their ability to manufacture medicines at prices that are affordable to poorer countries is becoming more circumscribed. The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health gives member states of the World Trade Organization (WTO) the right to adopt legislation permitting the use of patented material without authorization by the patent holder, a provision known as "compulsory licensing". For African countries to take full advantage of compulsory licensing they must develop substantial local manufacturing capacity. Because building manufacturing capacity in each African country is daunting and almost illusory, an African free trade area should be developed to serve as a platform not only for the free movement of goods made pursuant to compulsory licences, but also for an economic or financial collaboration towards the development of strong pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity in the continent. Most countries in Africa are in the United Nations list of least developed countries, and this allows them, under WTO law, to refuse to grant patents for pharmaceuticals until 2021. Thus, there is a compelling need for African countries to collaborate to build strong pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity in the continent now, while the current flexibilities in international intellectual property law offer considerable benefits. PMID:24700981
The Insidious Nature of "Hard-Core" Alternative Conceptions: Implications for the Constructivist Research Programme of Patterns in High School Students' and Pre-Service Teachers' Thinking about Ionisation Energy
Taber, Keith S.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel
The present study contributes to the constructivist research programme (RP) into learning science by comparing patterns in responses from two groups of learners--senior high school students and pre-service teachers--in the same educational context (Singapore), to a diagnostic instrument relating to the topic of ionisation energies. This topic is…
Web-Based New Literacies and EFL Curriculum Design in Teacher Education: A Design Study for Expanding EFL Student Teachers' Language-Related Literacy Practices in an Egyptian Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme
Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed
With the dominance of the Web in education and English language learning, new literacies have emerged. This thesis is motivated by the assumption that these literacies need to be integrated into the Egyptian pre-service EFL teacher education programmes so that EFL student teachers can cope with the new reality of language teaching/learning.…
Background Young girls in sub Saharan Africa are reported to have higher rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to boys in the same age group. Knowledge of HIV status amongst high schools learners provides an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. This study aimed at determining the HIV prevalence and explored the feasibility of HIV testing among high school learners. Methods Between September 2010 and February 2011, a linked, anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted in two public sector high schools in the rural KwaZulu-Natal midlands. Following written informed consent, dried blood spot samples (DBS) were collected and tested for HIV. The overall and age-specific HIV prevalence were compared with select demographic variables. Results The HIV prevalence in learners aged 12 to 25 in school A was 4.7% (95% CI 2.8-6.5) compared to 2.5% (95% CI 1.6-3.5) in school B, (p = 0.04). Whilst the HIV prevalence was similar for boys at 1.3% (95% CI 0-2.8) in school A and 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-2.8) in school B, the prevalence in girls was consistently higher and was 7.7% (95% CI 4.5-10.9) in school A and 3.2% (95% CI 1.8-4.6) in school B. The age-specific HIV prevalence in girls increased 1.5 to 2 fold for each two year age category, while for boys the prevalence was stable across all age groups. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence in female learners underscores the importance of sexual reproductive health and schools-based HIV testing programs as an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. PMID:22439635
Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Han, Yong; Sheard, Geoff; Hudson, Alan
This study seeks to examine the effect of abusive supervision on the "dark side" of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and, specifically, compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB). The study focuses on the mediating role of psychological safety underpinning the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB, and the moderating role of Chinese traditionality in influencing the mediation. The authors tested the model with data of 434 dyads (employee-coworker pairs) in a large Chinese service company. Results indicated that psychological safety fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB. The authors also found that Chinese traditionality moderated the strength of the mediated relationship between abusive supervision and CCB via psychological safety, such that the mediated relationship is weaker under high Chinese traditionality than under low Chinese traditionality. The article also discusses the implications, limitations, and future research directions. PMID:23469477
Background Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a cost-effective psychosocial prevention programme that helps people with recurrent depression stay well in the long term. It was singled out in the 2009 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Depression Guideline as a key priority for implementation. Despite good evidence and guideline recommendations, its roll-out and accessibility across the UK appears to be limited and inequitably distributed. The study aims to describe the current state of MBCT accessibility and implementation across the UK, develop an explanatory framework of what is hindering and facilitating its progress in different areas, and develop an Implementation Plan and related resources to promote better and more equitable availability and use of MBCT within the UK National Health Service. Methods/Design This project is a two-phase qualitative, exploratory and explanatory research study, using an interview survey and in-depth case studies theoretically underpinned by the Promoting Action on Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. Interviews will be conducted with stakeholders involved in commissioning, managing and implementing MBCT services in each of the four UK countries, and will include areas where MBCT services are being implemented successfully and where implementation is not working well. In-depth case studies will be undertaken on a range of MBCT services to develop a detailed understanding of the barriers and facilitators to implementation. Guided by the study’s conceptual framework, data will be synthesized across Phase 1 and Phase 2 to develop a fit for purpose implementation plan. Discussion Promoting the uptake of evidence-based treatments into routine practice and understanding what influences these processes has the potential to support the adoption and spread of nationally recommended interventions like MBCT. This study could inform a larger scale implementation trial and feed into
European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.
Hue, Ming-tak; Lau, Ngar-sze
The stress that negatively affects teachers has been found to influence the turnover rate in the teaching profession. Recent research has shown that mindfulness-based programmes effectively promote well-being while addressing psychological distress. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of a six-week mindfulness-based programme on…
Klaes, K. D.; Holmlund, Kenneth
EUMETSAT supports operational meteorology and climate monitoring with its mandatory programmes, in the geostationary and polar sun-synchronous orbits. Optional programmes support further tasks like altimetry and oceanography. Satellite data from other agencies' satellites which are of interest to the user community are provided through third party programmes. This paper provides an overview over current EUMETSAT programmes, and the status and plans of future systems. This includes the mandatory geostationary and polar systems, as well as third party and Oceanography missions. Programmes currently under development are the Meteosat Third Generation and EPS Second Generation programmes and also the Oceanography missions related to Jason and Copernicus. Related services are addressed as well.
Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L
Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. PMID:25727259
St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.
Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony
User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.
China's Western Development is a policy adopted to boost its less developed Western regions, that is, a systematic project and a longterm and arduous task. The development of compulsory education in China's minority areas is the key to it. This paper attempts to use the beneficial experience of developing compulsory education support system of…
Simmons, Robin; Thompson, Ron
Recent research on post-compulsory teacher educators in England suggests that there is a high degree of feminisation of this workforce, particularly where further and higher education partnerships are concerned. This process of feminisation has taken place against a background in which English post-compulsory education has increasingly been…
... phonorecord player shall be $25. (b) Commencing January 1, 1984, the annual compulsory license fee for a coin-operated phonorecord player shall be $50. (c) Commencing January 1, 1987, the annual compulsory license fee for a coin-operated phonorecord player shall be $63. (d) If performances are made available on...
... phonorecord player shall be $25. (b) Commencing January 1, 1984, the annual compulsory license fee for a coin-operated phonorecord player shall be $50. (c) Commencing January 1, 1987, the annual compulsory license fee for a coin-operated phonorecord player shall be $63. (d) If performances are made available on...
... FR 53198 (August 31, 2010). Section 119(c)(2) requires the Judges annually to adjust these rates ``to... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The...
The original constitutional provision for free and compulsory education, granted under Article 45 stated that it was to be available for "all children until they complete the age of fourteen years", but it did not specify the lower age limit nor the stage of education (whether elementary or primary) that would be free and compulsory.…
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio...
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio...
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio...
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio...
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto...
Snyder, Jason L.; Lee-Partridge, Joo Eng; Jarmoszko, A. Tomasz; Petkova, Olga; D'Onofrio, Marianne J.
The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across sections of managerial communication and management information systems classes (N = 212) to test the impact of compulsory attendance policies on student absenteeism and performance. Students in the compulsory attendance policy condition received an attendance policy that punished excessive…
The balanced development of compulsory education, with a focus on the goal of educational equality, is both a matter of policy orientation and a practical educational issue. At present, people are mostly concerned with the unbalanced state of development of compulsory education, its causes, and issues regarding its administration. Various modes of…
Pope, Thaddeus Mason
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column, one product of a Greenwall Foundation grant, reviews recent developments concerning compulsory reporting duties. Most licensed clinicians in the United States are "mandated reporters." When these clinicians discover certain threats to the safety of patients or the public, they are legally required to report that information to specified government officials. Over the past year, several states have legislatively expanded the scope of these reporting duties. In other states, new court cases illustrate the vigorous enforcement of already existing duties. I have organized all these legal developments into the following eight categories: 1. Overview of Mandatory Reporting Duties 2. Controversy over the Benefits of Mandatory Reporting 3. New and Expanded Duties to Report 4. Criminal Penalties for Failing to Report 5. Civil Liability for Failing to Report 6. Disciplinary Penalties for Failing to Report 7. Legal Immunity for Good-Faith Reporting 8. Protection against Employers' Retaliation. PMID:27045312
Rimfeld, Kaili; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert
Research has shown that genes play an important role in educational achievement. A key question is the extent to which the same genes affect different academic subjects before and after controlling for general intelligence. The present study investigated genetic and environmental influences on, and links between, the various subjects of the age-16 UK-wide standardized GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) examination results for 12,632 twins. Using the twin method that compares identical and non-identical twins, we found that all GCSE subjects were substantially heritable, and that various academic subjects correlated substantially both phenotypically and genetically, even after controlling for intelligence. Further evidence for pleiotropy in academic achievement was found using a method based directly on DNA from unrelated individuals. We conclude that performance differences for all subjects are highly heritable at the end of compulsory education and that many of the same genes affect different subjects independent of intelligence. PMID:26203819
Rimfeld, Kaili; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
Research has shown that genes play an important role in educational achievement. A key question is the extent to which the same genes affect different academic subjects before and after controlling for general intelligence. The present study investigated genetic and environmental influences on, and links between, the various subjects of the age-16 UK-wide standardized GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) examination results for 12,632 twins. Using the twin method that compares identical and non-identical twins, we found that all GCSE subjects were substantially heritable, and that various academic subjects correlated substantially both phenotypically and genetically, even after controlling for intelligence. Further evidence for pleiotropy in academic achievement was found using a method based directly on DNA from unrelated individuals. We conclude that performance differences for all subjects are highly heritable at the end of compulsory education and that many of the same genes affect different subjects independent of intelligence. PMID:26203819
Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Lee, Clement G.; Nguyen, Huy
A programmable oscillator is a frequency synthesizer with an output phase that tracks an arbitrary function. An offset, phase-locked loop circuit is used in combination with an error control feedback loop to precisely control the output phase of the oscillator. To down-convert the received signal, several stages of mixing may be employed with the compensation for the time-base distortion of the carrier occurring at any one of those stages. In the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), the compensation occurs in the mixing from an intermediate frequency (IF), whose value is dependent on the station and band, to a common IF used in the final stage of down-conversion to baseband. The programmable oscillator (PO) is used in the final stage of down-conversion to generate the IF, along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier, thus removing it from the final down-converted signal.
Klein, S; Schöneberg, I; Krause, G
In the German Reich, smallpox vaccinations were organized by the state. A mandatory vaccination throughout the empire was introduced in 1874, which was continued in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1982/1983. From 1935, health departments were responsible for vaccinations. In the GDR, immunization was tightly organized: The state made great efforts to achieve high vaccination rates. Responsibilities were clearly defined at all levels and for all ages. While vaccination was initially mandatory only at the regional level, the legally mandated immunization schedule later contained compulsory vaccinations, e.g., against measles. In the beginning there were mandatory vaccinations in the FRG at the Länder level. Since 1961, the Federal Epidemics Act has impeded obligatory vaccinations. Instead, voluntary vaccinations based on recommendations were stressed. Since the 1980s, vaccinations have been shifted from the public health service sector to office-based physicians. Today, public health authorities offer mainly supplementary vaccinations. In 2007, protective immunizations were introduced as compulsory benefits of the statutory health insurance (SHI). Recently, the German federal states developed a National Vaccination Plan to support immunization strategies. PMID:23114451
Francis, Linda; Dunt, David; Cadilhac, Dominique A
Objectives Programmes to address chronic disease are a focus of governments worldwide. Despite growth in ‘implementation science’, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding the best means to measure sustainability. The aim of this review was to summarise current practice for measuring sustainability outcomes of chronic disease health programmes, providing guidance for programme planners and future directions for the academic field. Settings A scoping review of the literature spanning 1985–2015 was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and The Cochrane Library limited to English language and adults. Main search terms included chronic disease, acute care, sustainability, institutionalisation and health planning. A descriptive synthesis was required. Settings included primary care, hospitals, mental health centres and community health. Participants Programmes included preventing or managing chronic conditions including diabetes, heart disease, depression, respiratory disease, cancer, obesity, dental hygiene and multiple chronic diseases. Primary and secondary outcome measures Outcome measures included clarifying a sustainability definition, types of methodologies used, timelines for assessment, criteria levels to determine outcomes and how methodology varies between intervention types. Results Among 153 abstracts retrieved, 87 were retained for full article review and 42 included in the qualitative synthesis. Five definitions for sustainability outcome were identified with ‘maintenance of programme activities’ most frequent. Achieving sustainability was dependent on inter-relationships between various organisational and social contexts supporting a broad scale approach to evaluation. An increasing trend in use of mixed methods designs over multiple time points to determine sustainability outcomes was found. Conclusions Despite the importance and investment in chronic disease programmes, few studies are undertaken to measure sustainability. Methods to
The main activities of the Columbus Programme over the last year are examined. The Attached Laboratory, after a successful achievement of the cost target by downsizing and subsystem simplification, progressed to its final configuration review, interface definition, and schedule tuning. The Free-Flyer, after the decision to abandon the complex technical and operational interface associated with servicing at the Space Station Freedom, was baselined for the Hermes servicing, supported, as a backup, by Space Shuttle servicing. Finally, the Polar Platform baseline and costs were confirmed and consolidated for the full development start. Present program activities include the start in the development of the Attached Laboratory, which is linked to space programs of the U.S.A., Japan, and Canada. Other activities investigated include studies of the potential of using Russian orbital elements to augment the Free-Flyer capabilities.
...This action removes and establishes high altitude Alaskan compulsory reporting points in the vicinity of the United States (U.S.) and Canadian border. Specifically, the FAA is removing BORAN and establishing the TOVAD reporting...
Müller, S; Walter, H; Kunze, H; Konrad, N; Heinz, A
A series of recent court decisions have been concerned with the compulsory treatment of patients with mental disorders who are incapable of giving consent. This article describes the current legal situation on compulsory treatment for different cases to achieve the aim of internment, endangerment to third parties, self-endangerment, for intercurrent diseases and to achieve the aim of therapy. The verdicts contribute on the one hand to strengthen patient autonomy against governmental or medical paternalism. On the other hand the verdicts have effected a substantial legal uncertainty with the undesired indirect consequence that fixation will probably be used more often. PMID:22911322
ESL is both a professional educational service and, particularly in post-compulsory contexts, a commercial activity. The effective management of ESL programs can secure quality outcomes for practitioners and students. Nevertheless, writings on ESL management do not figure prominently in the literature. In particular, the association between…
Mattick, Karen; Crocker, Graham; Bligh, John
The General Medical Council in the UK recommends that undergraduate medical students be exposed to a variety of learning opportunities and increasingly take responsibility for their own learning. This study presents quantitative and qualitative data relating to attendance at non-compulsory plenary lectures in order to understand factors affecting the value placed by students on this component of the first 2 years of a contemporary medical curriculum. Attendance data were available for 87% first year and 78% second year plenary lectures. There was no difference in attendance at lectures that were delivered telematically to a remote site when compared with those where the speaker was present. There were markedly more students attending lectures at the beginning of the first academic year, with numbers decreasing as the year progressed. More first year students attended lectures on biomedical science and clinically focussed topics than on human science and public health whereas second year student attendance was similar across topics. Reasons given for non-attendance at plenary sessions fell into "student-related" factors (e.g. dislike of lecture-based learning) and "teaching-related" factors (e.g. perceived variable quality of lectures). This study confirms that some students value lectures highly as a method to supplement other learning opportunities, whereas others find they learn better by other means. PMID:17041787
Sterzik, M.; Dumas, C.; Grothkopf, U.; Kaufer, A.; Leibundgut, B.; Marteau, S.; Meakins, S.; Patat, F.; Primas, F.; Rejkuba, M.; Romaniello, M.; Stoehr, F.; Tacconi-Garman, L.; Vera, I.
An in-depth analysis of the publications from 8414 distinct scheduled VLT observing programmes between April 1999 and March 2015 (Periods 63 to 94) is presented. The productivity by mode (Visitor or Service Mode) and type (Normal and Large, Guaranteed Time, Target of Opportunity, Director's Discretionary Time) are examined through their publication records. We investigate how Service Mode rank classes impact the scientific return. Several results derive from this study: Large Programmes result in the highest productivity, whereas only about half of all scheduled observing programmes produce a refereed publication. Programmes that result in a publication yield on average two refereed papers. B rank class Service Mode Programmes appear to be slightly less productive. Follow-up studies will investigate in more detail the parameters that influence the productivity of the Observatory.
Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.
Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648
Sánchez del Hierro, Galo; Remmen, Roy; Verhoeven, Veronique; Van Royen, Paul; Hendrickx, Kristin
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the possible mismatch of obstetrical skills between the training offered in Ecuadorian medical schools and the tasks required for compulsory rural service. Setting Primary care, rural health centres in Southern Ecuador. Participants A total of 92 recent graduated medical doctors during their compulsory rural year. Primary and secondary outcomes measures A web-based survey was developed with 21 obstetrical skills. The questionnaire was sent to all rural doctors who work in Loja province, Southern Ecuador, at the Ministry of Health (n=92). We measured two categories ‘importance of skills in rural practice’ with a five-point Likert-type scale (1= strongly disagree; 5= strongly agree); and ‘clerkship experience’ using a nominal scale divided in five levels: level 1 (not seen, not performed) to level 5 (performed 10 times or more). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to observe associations. Results A negative correlation was found in the skills: ‘episiotomy and repair’, ‘umbilical vein catheterisation’, ‘speculum examination’, ‘evaluation of cervical dilation during active labour’, ‘neonatal resuscitation’ and ‘vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery’. For instance ‘Episiotomy and repair’ is important (strongly agree and agree) to 100% of respondents, but in practice, only 38.9% of rural doctors performed the task three times and 8.3% only once during the internship, similar pattern is seen in the others. Conclusions In this study we have noted the gap between the medical needs of populations in rural areas and training provided during the clerkship experiences of physicians during their rural service year. It is imperative to ensure that rural doctors are appropriately trained and skilled in the performance of routine obstetrical duties. This will help to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality in rural Ecuador. PMID:25082424
Zetterberg, Liv; Sjöström, Stefan; Markström, Urban
Compulsory community care (CCC) was introduced in Sweden in 2008. This article investigates all written court decisions regarding CCC over a 6 month period in 2009 (N=541). The purpose is to examine how the legal rights of patients are protected and what forms of social control patients are subjected to. 51% of CCC patients are women and 84% are being treated for a psychosis-related disorder. In the court decisions, only 9% of patients are described as dangerous to themselves, while 18% are regarded a danger to others. The most common special provisions that patients are subjected to are medication (79%) and a requirement that they must maintain contact with either community mental health services (51%) or social services (27%). In the decisions, both the courts and court-appointed psychiatrists agree with treating psychiatrists in 99% of cases. Decisions lack transparency and clarity, and it is often impossible to understand the conclusions of the courts. There is considerable variation between regional courts as regards the provisions to which patients are subjected and the delegation of decision-making to psychiatrists. This means that decisions fail to demonstrate clarity, transparency, consistency and impartiality, and thus fail to meet established standards of procedural fairness. Surveillance techniques of social control are more common than techniques based on therapy or sanctions. Because of the unique role of medication, social control is primarily imposed on a physical dimension, as opposed to temporal and spatial forms. The article concludes that patients are at risk of being subjected to new forms of social control of an unclear nature without proper legal protection. PMID:24656218
Newman, Peter A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rudy, Ellen T.; Diamant, Allison; Duan, Naihua; Nakazano, Terry; Cunningham, William E.
Compulsory vaccination is a frequently implemented policy option for ensuring comprehensive vaccine coverage. Ongoing controversies around human papillomavirus vaccine dissemination, and suboptimal coverage, suggest the value of assessing acceptability of compulsory vaccinations—particularly among likely target populations—in advance of their public availability to support evidence-informed interventions. With the first HIV vaccine to demonstrate partial efficacy in a large-scale clinical trial, we examined individual characteristics and attitudes associated with support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy among a diverse, representative sample of adults attending probable HIV vaccine dissemination venues in a large urban county. Participants were recruited using three-stage probability sampling from likely venues for future HIV vaccine dissemination. We used Audio-CASI to administer a 60-minute structured questionnaire. Items included endorsement of compulsory HIV vaccination policy, sociodemographic characteristics, injecting drug use, vaccine attitudes and perceived HIV risk. Among 1225 participants (mean age = 36.8 years; 55.6% males, 37.6% non-English speaking Hispanic, 78.8% heterosexual, 25.7% injection drug users), almost half (48.2%) endorsed a compulsory HIV vaccination policy. Non-English speaking Hispanics compared to whites, participants with less than high school education, higher positive vaccine attitude scores and higher perceived HIV risk were significantly more likely, and people who inject drugs significantly less likely to endorse compulsory HIV vaccination. Public health interventions to promote positive vaccine attitudes and accurate perceptions of HIV risk among vulnerable populations, and strategies tailored for people who inject drugs, may build support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy and promote broad HIV vaccine coverage. PMID:24464325
Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rudy, Ellen T; Diamant, Allison; Duan, Naihua; Nakazono, Terry; Nakazano, Terry; Cunningham, William E
Compulsory vaccination is a frequently implemented policy option for ensuring comprehensive vaccine coverage. Ongoing controversies around human papillomavirus vaccine dissemination, and suboptimal coverage, suggest the value of assessing acceptability of compulsory vaccinations-particularly among likely target populations-in advance of their public availability to support evidence-informed interventions. With the first HIV vaccine to demonstrate partial efficacy in a large-scale clinical trial, we examined individual characteristics and attitudes associated with support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy among a diverse, representative sample of adults attending probable HIV vaccine dissemination venues in a large urban county. Participants were recruited using three-stage probability sampling from likely venues for future HIV vaccine dissemination. We used Audio-CASI to administer a 60-min structured questionnaire. Items included endorsement of compulsory HIV vaccination policy, sociodemographic characteristics, injecting drug use, vaccine attitudes and perceived HIV risk. Among 1,225 participants (mean age = 36.8 years; 55.6 % males, 37.6 % non-English speaking Hispanic, 78.8 % heterosexual, 25.7 % injection drug users), almost half (48.2 %) endorsed a compulsory HIV vaccination policy. Non-English speaking Hispanics compared to whites, participants with less than high school education, higher positive vaccine attitude scores and higher perceived HIV risk were significantly more likely, and people who inject drugs significantly less likely to endorse compulsory HIV vaccination. Public health interventions to promote positive vaccine attitudes and accurate perceptions of HIV risk among vulnerable populations, and strategies tailored for people who inject drugs, may build support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy and promote broad HIV vaccine coverage. PMID:24464325
Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland's only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.911 and 0.887). Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p < 0.001). Scores also distinguished those in acute/high security units from those in medium or in low secure/pre-discharge units. Each individual item distinguished these levels of need significantly. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 correlated moderately with measures of dynamic risk and with the CANFOR staff rated unmet need (Spearman r = 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway. PMID:21722396
Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra
Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).
Background Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. Methods We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. Results In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. Conclusion These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22014093
Chatfield, A; Caglia, J M; Dhillon, S; Hirst, J; Cheikh Ismail, L; Abawi, K; Kac, G; Al Dhaheri, A S; Villar, J; Kennedy, S; Langer, A
The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project has generated a package of international clinical standards, tools and guidelines. It is now necessary to plan for the next phase of the project: the translation of the research findings into practice through its global dissemination. The plan is to pre-empt barriers to implementation by drawing from the published literature; gathering views and perspectives from policy makers, programmers and practitioners; incorporating input from local 'champions', and collecting and analysing data generated by a monitoring and evaluation system. Working at the global, regional, national and local levels will enable wide dissemination of the package, as well as increase the scope for adaptation and integration in diverse clinical contexts. We seek maximum uptake of the package in policies, guidelines and clinical practice to improve the quality of care offered to mothers and newborns. The strategy will also enhance our understanding of the effectiveness of different approaches to the translation of evidence into practice. PMID:24028081
Reyes-Ortiz, VE; Calderón-Alicea, W; Castillo, R; Cintrón-García, JJ; Cintrón-García, JJ; Cruz, L Colón; Hernández-Muñoz, A; Irizarry-Pérez, I; Lockward, I; Neste-Laboy, C; Ortíz-León, M; Peréz-Homar, A; Pérez, J; Ramírez-López, W; Rivera, L; Scholz, D; Soto-Ortíz, M; Torres-García, A
ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to measure the knowledge regarding the new sanitation water system being implemented in Dessources, a rural community in the municipality of Croix-des-Bouquets in Haiti after a two-year intervention programme. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiologic design was used to measure the knowledge of the people in the community using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data collection followed a face-to-face interview process in all houses of the community. The instrument content validity was performed by a panel of experts followed by Cronbach's alpha test to establish the reliability of knowledge scale. In addition, association measures were done using Stata 11.0 statistical package. Results: Content validity tests were performed with minimum changes and an alpha of 0.74 was obtained for the scale. Response rate was 65.57% (41/60 houses); non-participants were only those who did not meet the inclusion criteria. Most of the participants (77.5%) were 21–49 years old and 85% had been living in the community for more than 20 years. Bivariate analysis showed that the people of Dessources had adequate knowledge. Significant differences, however, were found among the zones that are not in use of the new sanitary systems and among families with more than seven members per house. Conclusions: Differences found can be explained based on the Rogers theoretical diffusion of innovation model. The evaluation shows that people of Dessources in Haiti have a high knowledge regarding the new water sanitation system and provides evidence of an adequate health education programme intervention. PMID:26237369
Kuek, V; Phillips, K; Kohler, J C
Within the array of measures for improving medicines access for the world's neediest populations, governments of many countries have turned to compulsory licensing, a statutory mechanism to enable third parties to manufacture a product or process still under patent. In this paper, we focus on a historic case example from Canada and the present example of Thailand's use of domestic compulsory licenses as a policy tool for ensuring public access to affordable medicines. The overarching objective is to draw out policy and legislative insights that may be of value for countries with pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity and which are considering better access to patented medicines for their populations under the current global intellectual property regime. From these cases, it is apparent that although compulsory licensing is not a novel remedy, even in a post-Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights environment, it remains a powerful policy tool in improving access to medicines in a variety of domestic settings. PMID:20234967
This paper examines the causal impacts of Hong Kong's 1971 policy of free compulsory education on students' educational attainment. Using a regression discontinuity method and Hong Kong Census data, this study compares children born just before and just after the month in which the compulsory-education law came into effect. The results…
Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; Rees, Helen; MacPhail, Catherine; Pettifor, Audrey
We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were…
Latif, Asam; Carter, Tim; Cooper, Joanne; Horsley, Angela; Armstrong, Marie; Wharrad, Heather
Introduction Within Europe, the UK has one of the highest rates of self-harm, with a particularly high prevalence in children and young people (CYP). CYP who are admitted to paediatric hospital wards with self-harm are cared for by registered children's nurses who have been identified to lack specific training in caring for this patient group. This may impede the delivery of high quality care. Therefore, this study aims to co-produce, implement and evaluate an education programme for registered children's nurses to improve their knowledge, attitudes and confidence when caring for CYP admitted with self-harm. Methods and analysis This mixed-methods evaluative study will involve a three-stage design. Stage 1: A priority-setting workshop will be conducted with 19 registered children's nurses. A Delphi technique will be used to establish consensus of information needs. Stage 2: An online educational intervention will be co-produced with 25 CYP and 19 registered children's nurses based on the priorities identified in Stage 1. Stage 3: The intervention will be implemented and evaluated with 250 registered children's nurses at a single hospital. Online Likert scale questionnaires will be administered at baseline and postintervention to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and confidence in caring for CYP who self-harm. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to analyse the data. Statistical significance will be assessed at the 5% (two-sided) level. One-to-one qualitative interviews will also be undertaken with approximately 25 participants to explore any perceived impact on clinical practice. An interpretive descriptive approach will guide qualitative data collection and analysis. Ethics and dissemination This study aims to develop, trial and evaluative a service-user, co-produced education programme for acute hospital registered children's nurses to improve the care of CYP admitted due to self-harm. The study has ethical approval from the National Health
Determining the Need for Vocational Counselling among Different Target Groups of Young People under 28 Years of Age in the European Community. Young People's Need for Vocational Guidance in Greece. The Young Population in General. Young People Who Leave School without Completing Compulsory Education. Young Women with No Skills Training.
Zanni-Teliopoulou, Kassandra; Stathakopoulou, Penelope
A study examined the vocational guidance needs of young people in Greece. Available literature on the following topics was reviewed: transitions of young people to economically active life; available vocational guidance services; transitions of youth from education to work; youths who abandon compulsory education; and young women with…
Investigates the effects of a science-technology-society (STS) in-service program designed to change teachers' awareness and practice of STS/constructivist approaches while also focusing on students' understanding and changes of perceptions of the constructivist learning environment. Reports that the STS program improved teachers' awareness and…
Owens, Ian; And Others
The primary aim of the training information specialists (TRAIN-ISS) program at the University of Sheffield's Department of Information Studies was to train information service specialists from the less favored regions of the European Union. Describes the course design; selection of participants; student assessment, support, and placement; program…
Background As part of its ongoing healthcare reform, the Hong Kong Government introduced a voucher scheme, intended for encouraging older patients to use primary healthcare services in the private sector, thereby, reducing burden on the overwhelmed public sector. The voucher program is also considered one of the strategies to further develop the public private partnership in healthcare, a policy direction of high political priority as indicated in the Chief Executive Policy Address in 2008-09. This study assessed whether the voucher scheme, as implemented so far, has reached its intended goals, and how it might be further improved in the context of public-private partnership. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires by face-to-face interviews with older people aged 70 or above in Hong Kong, the target group of the demand-side voucher program. Results 71.2% of 1,026 older people were aware of the new voucher scheme but only 35.0% had ever used it. The majority of the older people used the vouchers for acute curative services in the private sector (82.4%) and spent less on preventive services. Despite the provision of vouchers valued US$30 per year as an incentive to encourage the use of private primary care services, after 12-months of implementation, 66.2% of all respondents agreed with the statement that "the voucher scheme does not change their health seeking behaviours on seeing public or private healthcare professionals". The most common reasons for no change in their behaviours included "I am used to seeing doctors in the public system" and "The amount of the subsidy is too low". Those who usually used a mix of public and private doctors and those with better self-reported health condition compared to last year were more likely to perceive a change in their own health seeking behaviours. Conclusions Our study showed that despite a reasonably high awareness of the voucher scheme, its usage was low. The voucher alone was not
Walker, S; McAndrew, S
In the Western world, there is increasing concern regarding the ability of health care professionals to meet the physical health care needs of those diagnosed with mental illness. This discussion paper seeks to explore some of the issues facing mental health nurses in delivering care to those who have both mental and physical illness. Criticism of the National Health Service for failing to meet the physical health needs of people with serious mental illness has generated a number of political strategies aimed at addressing inequalities between mental and physical health care, a consequence being a change in pre-registration nurse education. It is envisaged that such changes will enable all nurses to deliver safe, effective care to service users, with adult and mental health nurses being more adept at meeting both the mental and physical health needs of those in their care. The impact of three key areas identified within the literature will be considered: the impact of co-existing physical and mental illness; the role of mental health nurses and perceptions of service users re physical health care; and education, training and learning from others in the Western world. In conclusion, the complexities of delivering such care will be addressed. PMID:26337595
O'Leary, Desiree; Rainford, Louise
Data on image quality, compression and radiation dose were collected from symptomatic breast units within the Republic of Ireland. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS. Recommendations of mean glandular dose (MGD) diagnostic reference levels were made at various levels for film-screen and full field digital mammography units to match levels published worldwide. MGDs received by symptomatic breast patients within Ireland are higher than those received in the all-digital Irish Breast Screening service; 55-65 mm breast: 1.75 mGy (screening) vs. 2.4 mGy (symptomatic) at the 95th percentile; various reasons are proposed for the differences. MGDs achieved in the screening service may be lower because of the exacting requirements for radiographer training, characteristics of the patients and equipment quality assurance levels. More precise imaging guidelines, standards and training of symptomatic radiographers performing mammography are suggested to remediate MGDs delivered to the breasts of Irish women attending the symptomatic breast services. PMID:22740646
Rahbar, T; Garg, S; Tripathi, R; Gupta, V K; Singh, M M
In India, several thousand HIV-infected babies are expected to be born every year. Despite effective intervention, the identification of HIV infected pregnant women prior to delivery is a major problem. KABP and acceptance of rapid screening of women for HIV among pregnant women attending ANC clinic and availing Voluntary Counselling and Confidential Testing services was assessed. The study was done among 90 pregnant women. There was no significant difference between one's husbands's job and income with respect to pregnant women's awareness of risk factors except that of tattooing. Education level had significant bearing on awareness level. Attitude about PLWHA indicates that 29% of the participants believed individuals with HIV shouldn't be allowed to get married, while 31% saying that they should not be allowed to have children. Participants supported compulsory HIV testing for pregnant women (39%) and couples before marriage. Almost 96% of participants had unprotected sex, though 41% casually used condom. All denied herself or her husband indulging in extramarital sex. The country is about to embark on its prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programme. This study throws some light on the level of knowledge acceptability and adoption of VCT and other PMTCT strategies among potential beneficiaries. PMID:18697582
Current Educational Reform in Japan is oddly captured with confused conceptions of "compulsory education." The Ministry of Education blankets such connotations of it, as a national budget system, mandated school curriculum, responsible partnership of school with community and accountabilities of local school board, in defense of vested national…
Rice, Suzanne; Care, Esther; Griffin, Patrick
An overview of positive and negative potential effects of the setting of compulsory exit-level standards in literacy and numeracy for students completing their final years of schooling is presented. The overview rests on studies completed primarily outside Australia, reflecting the reality of such practices not having been implemented widely in…
Polesel, John; Helme, Sue; Davies, Merryn; Teese, Richard; Nicholas, Tanya; Vickers, Margaret
This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "VET in Schools: A Post-Compulsory Education Perspective," and is an added resource for further information. This support document presents the following appendixes: (1) Issues Paper; (2) Brief for TAFE Paper; (3) Partner TAFE Submission--The Role of TAFE in Catering…
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prehearing procedures; motions; interlocutory appeals; summary decision; discovery; compulsory process. 5.61 Section 5.61 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict...
Based around case studies of current leaders in post-compulsory education, this book explores a number of leadership models and styles in order to provide inspiration and guidance for the next wave of potential leaders. After an introduction, the book is divided into four parts and 18 chapters. Part One contains: (1) Leadership in Post-Compulsory…
Suetomi, Kaori; Murray, Nadezhda
The conditions required for a reform of the educational finance system as the foundation of compulsory education are 1) devolution to schools and introduction of national standards in order to deal with "individual equality" while compensating for the insufficiency of "aspectual equality," and 2) dealing with educational needs…
Wisconsin State Legislative Council, Madison.
This information memorandum describes Wisconsin laws relating to compulsory school attendance and truancy. It outlines school-attendance requirements, exceptions, and alternatives; the written attendance policy; key definitions regarding truancy and school-attendance enforcement; and information on the truancy-planning committee and truancy plan.…
... Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2... the FAA aeronautical database as compulsory reporting points. Additionally, this action also...
... carrier statutory license, 17 U.S.C. 119. 75 FR 32228 (June 7, 2010). The law further provides that... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License AGENCY... are publishing for comment negotiated royalty rates for the satellite carrier statutory license of...
This article discusses qualitative research findings on mentoring within PCET ITT (post-compulsory education and training initial teacher training). The article complements the findings of Tedder and Lawy (2009) and Ingleby (2010). The article develops Downie and Randall's consideration of the merits or otherwise of mirroring either "Asclepius" or…
Due to imbalanced social and economic development, education in poverty-stricken rural areas in China is lagging behind that of urban areas. The current study explores the role of the nonprofit organizations (NPOs) involved in rural compulsory education promotion. Results show that the NPOs are providing a variety of programs to promote rural…
Whitsel, Christopher M.
For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…
Hodgson, Ann, Ed.; Spours, Ken, Ed.; Waring, Martyn, Ed.
Post-Compulsory Education and Lifelong Learning across the United Kingdom brings together the perspectives of researchers, policy-makers and practitioners from across England, Wales and Scotland to produce a rich, up-to-date and highly textured source of evidence about this under-researched sector. The contributors analyse how each country's…
Filipovic, Jelena; Vuco, Julijana; Djuric, Ljiljana
In this paper a comparative analysis of the status of four types of languages present in the Serbian compulsory education system is presented: (1) Serbian as L1; (2) Serbian as L2 (for ethnic minorities); (3) minority languages; as well as (4) traditionally designated "foreign languages", such as English, French, Russian and German, through the…