Computer program for compressible flow network analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilton, M. E.; Murtaugh, J. P.
1973-01-01
Program solves problem of an arbitrarily connected one dimensional compressible flow network with pumping in the channels and momentum balancing at flow junctions. Program includes pressure drop calculations for impingement flow and flow through pin fin arrangements, as currently found in many air cooled turbine bucket and vane cooling configurations.
Computational Analysis of Multi-Rotor Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
Interactional aerodynamics of multi-rotor flows has been studied for a quadcopter representing a generic quad tilt-rotor aircraft in hover. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the separation distances between rotors, and also fuselage and wings on the performance and efficiency of multirotor systems. Three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a spatially 5th order accurate scheme, dual-time stepping, and the Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence model. The results show that the separation distances as well as the wings have significant effects on the vertical forces of quadroror systems in hover. Understanding interactions in multi-rotor flows would help improve the design of next generation multi-rotor drones.
Wing analysis using a transonic potential flow computational method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henne, P. A.; Hicks, R. M.
1978-01-01
The ability of the method to compute wing transonic performance was determined by comparing computed results with both experimental data and results computed by other theoretical procedures. Both pressure distributions and aerodynamic forces were evaluated. Comparisons indicated that the method is a significant improvement in transonic wing analysis capability. In particular, the computational method generally calculated the correct development of three-dimensional pressure distributions from subcritical to transonic conditions. Complicated, multiple shocked flows observed experimentally were reproduced computationally. The ability to identify the effects of design modifications was demonstrated both in terms of pressure distributions and shock drag characteristics.
Improved Flow Modeling in Transient Reactor Safety Analysis Computer Codes
Holowach, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Cheung, F.B.
2002-07-01
A method of accounting for fluid-to-fluid shear in between calculational cells over a wide range of flow conditions envisioned in reactor safety studies has been developed such that it may be easily implemented into a computer code such as COBRA-TF for more detailed subchannel analysis. At a given nodal height in the calculational model, equivalent hydraulic diameters are determined for each specific calculational cell using either laminar or turbulent velocity profiles. The velocity profile may be determined from a separate CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis, experimental data, or existing semi-empirical relationships. The equivalent hydraulic diameter is then applied to the wall drag force calculation so as to determine the appropriate equivalent fluid-to-fluid shear caused by the wall for each cell based on the input velocity profile. This means of assigning the shear to a specific cell is independent of the actual wetted perimeter and flow area for the calculational cell. The use of this equivalent hydraulic diameter for each cell within a calculational subchannel results in a representative velocity profile which can further increase the accuracy and detail of heat transfer and fluid flow modeling within the subchannel when utilizing a thermal hydraulics systems analysis computer code such as COBRA-TF. Utilizing COBRA-TF with the flow modeling enhancement results in increased accuracy for a coarse-mesh model without the significantly greater computational and time requirements of a full-scale 3D (three-dimensional) transient CFD calculation. (authors)
PArallel Reacting Multiphase FLOw Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2002-06-01
PARMFLO is a parallel multiphase reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. It can perform steady or unsteady simulations in three space dimensions. It is intended for use in engineering CFD analysis of industrial flow system components. Its parallel processing capabilities allow it to be applied to problems that use at least an order of magnitude more computational cells than the number that can be used on a typical single processor workstation (about 106 cellsmore » in parallel processing mode versus about io cells in serial processing mode). Alternately, by spreading the work of a CFD problem that could be run on a single workstation over a group of computers on a network, it can bring the runtime down by an order of magnitude or more (typically from many days to less than one day). The software was implemented using the industry standard Message-Passing Interface (MPI) and domain decomposition in one spatial direction. The phases of a flow problem may include an ideal gas mixture with an arbitrary number of chemical species, and dispersed droplet and particle phases. Regions of porous media may also be included within the domain. The porous media may be packed beds, foams, or monolith catalyst supports. With these features, the code is especially suited to analysis of mixing of reactants in the inlet chamber of catalytic reactors coupled to computation of product yields that result from the flow of the mixture through the catalyst coaled support structure.« less
PArallel Reacting Multiphase FLOw Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis
Lottes, Steven A.
2002-06-01
PARMFLO is a parallel multiphase reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. It can perform steady or unsteady simulations in three space dimensions. It is intended for use in engineering CFD analysis of industrial flow system components. Its parallel processing capabilities allow it to be applied to problems that use at least an order of magnitude more computational cells than the number that can be used on a typical single processor workstation (about 106 cells in parallel processing mode versus about io cells in serial processing mode). Alternately, by spreading the work of a CFD problem that could be run on a single workstation over a group of computers on a network, it can bring the runtime down by an order of magnitude or more (typically from many days to less than one day). The software was implemented using the industry standard Message-Passing Interface (MPI) and domain decomposition in one spatial direction. The phases of a flow problem may include an ideal gas mixture with an arbitrary number of chemical species, and dispersed droplet and particle phases. Regions of porous media may also be included within the domain. The porous media may be packed beds, foams, or monolith catalyst supports. With these features, the code is especially suited to analysis of mixing of reactants in the inlet chamber of catalytic reactors coupled to computation of product yields that result from the flow of the mixture through the catalyst coaled support structure.
Computational Analysis of the G-III Laminar Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, Mujeeb R.; Liao, Wei; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2011-01-01
Under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project, flight experiments are planned with the primary objective of demonstrating the Discrete Roughness Elements (DRE) technology for passive laminar flow control at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. In this paper, we present a preliminary computational assessment of the Gulfstream-III (G-III) aircraft wing-glove designed to attain natural laminar flow for the leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6deg. Analysis for a flight Mach number of 0.75 shows that it should be possible to achieve natural laminar flow for twice the transition Reynolds number ever achieved at this sweep angle. However, the wing-glove needs to be redesigned to effectively demonstrate passive laminar flow control using DREs. As a by-product of the computational assessment, effect of surface curvature on stationary crossflow disturbances is found to be strongly stabilizing for the current design, and it is suggested that convex surface curvature could be used as a control parameter for natural laminar flow design, provided transition occurs via stationary crossflow disturbances.
Computational analysis of an axial flow pediatric ventricular assist device.
Throckmorton, Amy L; Untaroiu, Alexandrina; Allaire, Paul E; Wood, Houston G; Matherne, Gaynell Paul; Lim, David Scott; Peeler, Ben B; Olsen, Don B
2004-10-01
Longer-term (>2 weeks) mechanical circulatory support will provide an improved quality of life for thousands of pediatric cardiac failure patients per year in the United States. These pediatric patients suffer from severe congenital or acquired heart disease complicated by congestive heart failure. There are currently very few mechanical circulatory support systems available in the United States as viable options for this population. For that reason, we have designed an axial flow pediatric ventricular assist device (PVAD) with an impeller that is fully suspended by magnetic bearings. As a geometrically similar, smaller scaled version of our axial flow pump for the adult population, the PVAD has a design point of 1.5 L/min at 65 mm Hg to meet the full physiologic needs of pediatric patients. Conventional axial pump design equations and a nondimensional scaling technique were used to estimate the PVAD's initial dimensions, which allowed for the creation of computational models for performance analysis. A computational fluid dynamic analysis of the axial flow PVAD, which measures approximately 65 mm in length by 35 mm in diameter, shows that the pump will produce 1.5 L/min at 65 mm Hg for 8000 rpm. Fluid forces (approximately 1 N) were also determined for the suspension and motor design, and scalar stress values remained below 350 Pa with maximum particle residence times of approximately 0.08 milliseconds in the pump. This initial design demonstrated acceptable performance, thereby encouraging prototype manufacturing for experimental validation. PMID:15384993
Computational analysis of swirling flows in a pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochoa, Obdulio
The vortex breakdown of a swirling jet flow entering a finite-length pipe is studied in this thesis. The theories of Rusak and co-authors which provide fundamental tools to predict the first occurrence of breakdown and simulate the flow behavior are applied. To demonstrate the ideas, the detailed experimental data of Novak and Sarpkaya (2000) are used, specifically, the upstream (inlet) axial and circumferential velocity profiles ahead of the breakdown (stagnation) point. The critical swirl ratios, o0 and o1, that respectively form the necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of breakdown in a swirling jet flow, are computed from the ordinary differential equations of the problem. It is found that for the upstream velocity profiles o0 = 0.5607 and o 1 = 1.35196. The swirl level in the experiment of Novak and Sarpkaya (2000) was o = 1, and it shows that vortex breakdown may occur downstream of the inlet in the vortex flow field, as indeed is found in the experiments. Moreover, the experiments provide flow profiles along the whole pipe which are compared with simulation results based on Granata (2014) for a swirling flow in a pipe that has the same inlet conditions. An agreement is found between the simulated results and the experimental data all along the pipe from the upstream inlet state up to the breakdown point. Behind the breakdown point, no concise agreement is found which may be due to the high turbulence in the high-Re experimental flow or a result of non-full convergence of simulated results. The present theoretical analysis and simulations shed light on the breakdown process of swirling jet flows in pipes.
Computational analysis of the SSME fuel preburner flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, T. S.; Farmer, R. C.
1986-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics model which simulates the steady state operation of the SSME fuel preburner is developed. Specifically, the model will be used to quantify the flow factors which cause local hot spots in the fuel preburner in order to recommend experiments whereby the control of undesirable flow features can be demonstrated. The results of a two year effort to model the preburner are presented. In this effort, investigating the fuel preburner flowfield, the appropriate transport equations were numerically solved for both an axisymmetric and a three-dimensional configuration. Continuum's VAST (Variational Solution of the Transport equations) code, in conjunction with the CM-1000 Engineering Analysis Workstation and the NASA/Ames CYBER 205, was used to perform the required calculations. It is concluded that the preburner operational anomalies are not due to steady state phenomena and must, therefore, be related to transient operational procedures.
Computational heat transfer analysis for oscillatory channel flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ibrahim, Mounir; Kannapareddy, Mohan
1993-01-01
An accurate finite-difference scheme has been utilized to investigate oscillatory, laminar and incompressible flow between two-parallel-plates and in circular tubes. The two-parallel-plates simulate the regenerator of a free-piston Stirling engine (foil type regenerator) and the channel wall was included in the analysis (conjugate heat transfer problem). The circular tubes simulate the cooler and heater of the engine with an isothermal wall. The study conducted covered a wide range for the maximum Reynolds number (from 75 to 60,000), Valensi number (from 2.5 to 700), and relative amplitude of fluid displacement (0.714 and 1.34). The computational results indicate a complex nature of the heat flux distribution with time and axial location in the channel. At the channel mid-plane we observed two thermal cycles (out of phase with the flow) per each flow cycle. At this axial location the wall heat flux mean value, amplitude and phase shift with the flow are dependent upon the maximum Reynolds number, Valensi number and relative amplitude of fluid displacement. At other axial locations, the wall heat flux distribution is more complex.
Computational analysis of hypersonic airbreathing aircraft flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dwoyer, Douglas L.; Kumar, Ajay
1987-01-01
The general problem of calculating the flow fields associated with hypersonic airbreathing aircraft is presented. Unique aspects of hypersonic aircraft aerodynamics are introduced and their demands on computational fluid dynamics are outlined. Example calculations associated with inlet/forebody integration and hypersonic nozzle design are presented to illustrate the nature of the problems considered.
Computational Analysis of Flow Field Inside Coral Colony
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossain, Md Monir; Staples, Anne
2015-11-01
Development of the flow field inside coral colonies is a key issue for understanding coral natural uptake, photosynthesis and wave dissipation capabilities. But most of the computations and experiments conducted earlier, measured the flow outside the coral reef canopies. Experimental studies are also constrained due to the limitation of measurement techniques and limited environmental conditions. Numerical simulations can be an answer to overcome these shortcomings. In this work, a detailed, three-dimensional simulation of flow around a single coral colony was developed to examine the interaction between coral geometry and hydrodynamics. To simplify grid generation and minimize computational cost, Immersed Boundary method (IBM) was implemented. The computation of IBM involves identification of the interface between the solid body and the fluid, establishment of the grid/interface relation and identification of the forcing points on the grid and distribution of the forcing function on the corresponding points. LES was chosen as the framework to capture the turbulent flow field without requiring extensive modeling. The results presented will give insight into internal coral colony flow fields and the interaction between coral and surrounding ocean hydrodynamics.
Computer program for analysis of flow across a gas turbine seal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, P. J.; Zuk, J.
1970-01-01
Computer program analyzes the flow /leakage/ across a sealing dam for the case of steady, laminar, subsonic, isothermal, compressible flow. The analysis considers both parallel sealing-dam surfaces and surfaces with small tilt angles.
Material flow analysis of used personal computers in Japan.
Yoshida, Aya; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Terazono, Atsushi
2009-05-01
Most personal computers (PCs) are discarded by consumers after the data files have been moved to a new PC. Therefore, a used PC collection scheme should be created that does not depend on the distribution route of new PCs. In Japan, manufacturers' voluntary take-back recycling schemes were established in 2001 (for business PCs) and 2003 (for household PCs). At the same time, the export of used PCs from Japan increased, affecting the domestic PC reuse market. These regulatory and economic conditions would have changed the flow of used PCs. In this paper, we developed a method of minimizing the errors in estimating the material flow of used PCs. The method's features include utilization of both input and output flow data and elimination of subjective estimation as much as possible. Flow rate data from existing surveys were used for estimating the flow of used PCs in Japan for fiscal years (FY) 2000, 2001, and 2004. The results show that 3.92 million and 4.88 million used PCs were discarded in FY 2000 and 2001, respectively. Approximately two-thirds of the discarded PCs were disposed of or recycled within the country, one-fourth was reused within the country, and 8% were exported. In FY 2004, 7.47 million used PCs were discarded. The ratio of domestic disposal and recycling decreased to 37% in FY 2004, whereas the domestic reuse and export ratios increased to 37% and 26%, respectively. Flows from businesses to retailers in FY 2004 increased dramatically, which led to increased domestic reuse. An increase in the flow of used PCs from lease and rental companies to secondhand shops has led to increased exports. Results of interviews with members of PC reuse companies were and trade statistics were used to verify the results of our estimation of domestic reuse and export of used PCs. PMID:19144503
Computational Analysis of Cryogenic Flow Through a Control Valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danes, Russell; Woods, Jody; Sulyma, Peter
2003-01-01
The initial efforts to develop the capability to model valves used in rocket engine component testing at Stennis Space Center are documented. An axisymmetric model of a control valve with LN2 as the working fluid was developed. The goal was to predict the effect of change in the plug/sear region of the valve prior to testing. The valve flow coefficient was predicted for a range of plug positions. Verification of the calculations was carried out to quantify the uncertainty in the numerical answer. The modeled results compared well qualitatively to experimental trends. Additionally, insights into the flow processes in the valve were obtained. Benefits from the verification process included the ability to use coarser grids and insight into ways to reduce computational time by using double precision accuracy and non-integer grid ratios. Future valve modeling activities will include shape optimization of the valve/seat region and dynamic grid modeling.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bratanow, T.; Ecer, A.
1973-01-01
A general computational method for analyzing unsteady flow around pitching and plunging airfoils was developed. The finite element method was applied in developing an efficient numerical procedure for the solution of equations describing the flow around airfoils. The numerical results were employed in conjunction with computer graphics techniques to produce visualization of the flow. The investigation involved mathematical model studies of flow in two phases: (1) analysis of a potential flow formulation and (2) analysis of an incompressible, unsteady, viscous flow from Navier-Stokes equations.
Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis of Slat Trailing-Edge Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singer, Bart A.; Lockhard, David P.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Berkman, Mert E.; Choudhari, Meelan
2000-01-01
An acoustic analysis based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation was performed for a high-lift system. As input, the acoustic analysis used un- steady flow data obtained from a highly resolved, time-dependent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculation. The analysis strongly suggests that vor- tex shedding from the trailing edge of the slat results in a high-amplitude, high-frequency acoustic signal, similar to that which was observed in a correspond- ing experimental study of the high-lift system.
Computational analysis of turbine engine test cell flow phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prufert, Matthew Brian
1998-11-01
Turbine engine altitude test cells must incorporate an exhaust system collector to remove hot exhaust gases from the vicinity of the jet engine and to provide additional pumping to simulate the reduced pressure which would be encountered in flight. For economic reasons, it is desirable to utilize the same test configuration to simulate as much of the engine operating envelope as possible. To extend the test envelope, a cut-and-try approach is usually taken using available test data, one-dimensional analyses, and past experience. In this study, a computational approach was used to model some of the recognized operational problems which are commonly encountered. Specifically, computational models were used to evaluate the performance of an altitude test cell at low altitude conditions. Particular emphasis was placed on potential test section over-heating and the reduction of diffuser pumping to achieve near sea-level test conditions. A computational model which utilizes the NPARC Navier-Stokes code was applied to several test configurations operating at steady-state and to a single diffuser configuration in the presence of unsteady pressure fluctuations. During 1997/1998, the author developed two-dimensional and three-dimensional NPARC Navier-Stokes flow models and procedures for use in predicting test cell and engine surface cooling effectiveness for a military engine installation in an altitude test chamber. The predicted model flowfields for both steady-state and time variant flows were used to qualitatively verify limited infrared imaging camera data and quantitatively compare numerical results with test cell and diffuser pressure and temperature data. Prediction of surface convention heat transfer rates are currently beyond the capabilities of the NPARC CFD code. To quantify localized wall heat transfer rates, the BLAYER boundary layer code also was utilized. The BLAYER code is capable of quantifying boundary layer convection heat transfer rates based on near
Adaptive computational methods for SSME internal flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. T.
1986-01-01
Adaptive finite element methods for the analysis of classes of problems in compressible and incompressible flow of interest in SSME (space shuttle main engine) analysis and design are described. The general objective of the adaptive methods is to improve and to quantify the quality of numerical solutions to the governing partial differential equations of fluid dynamics in two-dimensional cases. There are several different families of adaptive schemes that can be used to improve the quality of solutions in complex flow simulations. Among these are: (1) r-methods (node-redistribution or moving mesh methods) in which a fixed number of nodal points is allowed to migrate to points in the mesh where high error is detected; (2) h-methods, in which the mesh size h is automatically refined to reduce local error; and (3) p-methods, in which the local degree p of the finite element approximation is increased to reduce local error. Two of the three basic techniques have been studied in this project: an r-method for steady Euler equations in two dimensions and a p-method for transient, laminar, viscous incompressible flow. Numerical results are presented. A brief introduction to residual methods of a-posterior error estimation is also given and some pertinent conclusions of the study are listed.
Computational analysis of high-throughput flow cytometry data
Robinson, J Paul; Rajwa, Bartek; Patsekin, Valery; Davisson, Vincent Jo
2015-01-01
Introduction Flow cytometry has been around for over 40 years, but only recently has the opportunity arisen to move into the high-throughput domain. The technology is now available and is highly competitive with imaging tools under the right conditions. Flow cytometry has, however, been a technology that has focused on its unique ability to study single cells and appropriate analytical tools are readily available to handle this traditional role of the technology. Areas covered Expansion of flow cytometry to a high-throughput (HT) and high-content technology requires both advances in hardware and analytical tools. The historical perspective of flow cytometry operation as well as how the field has changed and what the key changes have been discussed. The authors provide a background and compelling arguments for moving toward HT flow, where there are many innovative opportunities. With alternative approaches now available for flow cytometry, there will be a considerable number of new applications. These opportunities show strong capability for drug screening and functional studies with cells in suspension. Expert opinion There is no doubt that HT flow is a rich technology awaiting acceptance by the pharmaceutical community. It can provide a powerful phenotypic analytical toolset that has the capacity to change many current approaches to HT screening. The previous restrictions on the technology, based on its reduced capacity for sample throughput, are no longer a major issue. Overcoming this barrier has transformed a mature technology into one that can focus on systems biology questions not previously considered possible. PMID:22708834
Finol, Ender A; Amon, Cristina H
2003-01-01
Blood flow in human arteries is dominated by time-dependent transport phenomena. In particular, in the abdominal segment of the aorta under a patient's average resting conditions, blood exhibits laminar flow patterns that are influenced by secondary flows induced by adjacent branches and in irregular vessel geometries. The flow dynamics becomes more complex when there is a pathological condition that causes changes in the normal structural composition of the vessel wall, for example, in the presence of an aneurysm. An aneurysm is an irreversible dilation of a blood vessel accompanied by weakening of the vessel wall. This work examines the importance of hemodynamics in the characterization of pulsatile blood flow patterns in individual Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) models. These patient-specific computational models have been developed for the numerical simulation of the momentum transport equations utilizing the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the spatial and temporal discretization. We characterize pulsatile flow dynamics in AAAs for average resting conditions by means of identifying regions of disturbed flow and quantifying the disturbance by evaluating wall pressure and wall shear stresses at the aneurysm wall. PMID:14515766
A Computer Program for Flow-Log Analysis of Single Holes (FLASH)
Day-Lewis, F. D.; Johnson, C.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Halford, K.J.
2011-01-01
A new computer program, FLASH (Flow-Log Analysis of Single Holes), is presented for the analysis of borehole vertical flow logs. The code is based on an analytical solution for steady-state multilayer radial flow to a borehole. The code includes options for (1) discrete fractures and (2) multilayer aquifers. Given vertical flow profiles collected under both ambient and stressed (pumping or injection) conditions, the user can estimate fracture (or layer) transmissivities and far-field hydraulic heads. FLASH is coded in Microsoft Excel with Visual Basic for Applications routines. The code supports manual and automated model calibration. ?? 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.
A grid-embedding transonic flow analysis computer program for wing/nacelle configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atta, E. H.; Vadyak, J.
1983-01-01
An efficient grid-interfacing zonal algorithm was developed for computing the three-dimensional transonic flow field about wing/nacelle configurations. the algorithm uses the full-potential formulation and the AF2 approximate factorization scheme. The flow field solution is computed using a component-adaptive grid approach in which separate grids are employed for the individual components in the multi-component configuration, where each component grid is optimized for a particular geometry such as the wing or nacelle. The wing and nacelle component grids are allowed to overlap, and flow field information is transmitted from one grid to another through the overlap region using trivariate interpolation. This report represents a discussion of the computational methods used to generate both the wing and nacelle component grids, the technique used to interface the component grids, and the method used to obtain the inviscid flow solution. Computed results and correlations with experiment are presented. also presented are discussions on the organization of the wing grid generation (GRGEN3) and nacelle grid generation (NGRIDA) computer programs, the grid interface (LK) computer program, and the wing/nacelle flow solution (TWN) computer program. Descriptions of the respective subroutines, definitions of the required input parameters, a discussion on interpretation of the output, and the sample cases illustrating application of the analysis are provided for each of the four computer programs.
Computational Analysis of Wake Field Flow between Multiple Identical Spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brand, Wesley; Greenslit, Morton; Klassen, Zach; Hastings, Jay; Matson, William
2014-11-01
It is well understood both that objects moving through a fluid perturb the motion of nearby objects in the same fluid and that some configurations of objects moving through a fluid have little inter-object perturbation, such as a flock of birds flying in a V-formation. However, there is presently no known method for predicting what configurations of objects will be stable while moving through a fluid. Previous work has failed to find such stable configurations because of the computational complexity of finding individual solutions. In this research, the motions of two spheres in water were simulated and combinations of those simulations were used to extrapolate the motions of multiple spheres and to find configurations where the lateral forces on each sphere were negligible and the vertical forces on each sphere were equivalent. Two and three sphere arrangements were simulated in COMSOL Multiphysics and Mathematica was used both to demonstrate that combinations of two sphere cases are identical to three sphere cases and to identify stable configurations of three or more spheres. This new approach is expected to simplify optimization of aerodynamic configurations and applications such as naval and aerospace architecture and racecar driving. Advisor.
Zhang, Alex Ce; Gu, Yi; Han, Yuanyuan; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Geng, Lina; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa
2016-06-20
Although a flow cytometer, being one of the most popular research and clinical tools for biomedicine, can analyze cells based on the cell size, internal structures such as granularity, and molecular markers, it provides little information about the physical properties of cells such as cell stiffness and physical interactions between the cell membrane and fluid. In this paper, we propose a computational cell analysis technique using cells' different equilibrium positions in a laminar flow. This method utilizes a spatial coding technique to acquire the spatial position of the cell in a microfluidic channel and then uses mathematical algorithms to calculate the ratio of cell mixtures. Most uniquely, the invented computational cell analysis technique can unequivocally detect the subpopulation of each cell type without labeling even when the cell type shows a substantial overlap in the distribution plot with other cell types, a scenario limiting the use of conventional flow cytometers and machine learning techniques. To prove this concept, we have applied the computation method to distinguish live and fixed cancer cells without labeling, count neutrophils from human blood, and distinguish drug treated cells from untreated cells. Our work paves the way for using computation algorithms and fluidic dynamic properties for cell classification, a label-free method that can potentially classify over 200 types of human cells. Being a highly cost-effective cell analysis method complementary to flow cytometers, our method can offer orthogonal tests in companion with flow cytometers to provide crucial information for biomedical samples. PMID:27163941
Computer code for preliminary sizing analysis of axial-flow turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, Arthur J.
1992-01-01
This mean diameter flow analysis uses a stage average velocity diagram as the basis for the computational efficiency. Input design requirements include power or pressure ratio, flow rate, temperature, pressure, and rotative speed. Turbine designs are generated for any specified number of stages and for any of three types of velocity diagrams (symmetrical, zero exit swirl, or impulse) or for any specified stage swirl split. Exit turning vanes can be included in the design. The program output includes inlet and exit annulus dimensions, exit temperature and pressure, total and static efficiencies, flow angles, and last stage absolute and relative Mach numbers. An analysis is presented along with a description of the computer program input and output with sample cases. The analysis and code presented herein are modifications of those described in NASA-TN-D-6702. These modifications improve modeling rigor and extend code applicability.
Experimental and computational analysis of pressure response in a multiphase flow loop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morshed, Munzarin; Amin, Al; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Imtiaz, Syed
2016-07-01
The characteristics of multiphase fluid flow in pipes are useful to understand fluid mechanics encountered in the oil and gas industries. In the present day oil and gas exploration is successively inducing subsea operation in the deep sea and arctic condition. During the transport of petroleum products, understanding the fluid dynamics inside the pipe network is important for flow assurance. In this case the information regarding static and dynamic pressure response, pressure loss, optimum flow rate, pipe diameter etc. are the important parameter for flow assurance. The principal aim of this research is to represents computational analysis and experimental analysis of multi-phase (L/G) in a pipe network. This computational study considers a two-phase fluid flow through a horizontal flow loop with at different Reynolds number in order to determine the pressure distribution, frictional pressure loss profiles by volume of fluid (VOF) method. However, numerical simulations are validated with the experimental data. The experiment is conducted in 76.20 mm ID transparent circular pipe using water and air in the flow loop. Static pressure transducers are used to measure local pressure response in multiphase pipeline.
Computational analysis of flow field around Ahmed car model passing underneath a flyover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musa, Md Nor; Osman, Kahar; Hamat, Ab Malik A.
2012-06-01
A flow structure around a ground vehicle has been studied by many researchers using numerous methods, either computational or experimental. However, no analysis of flow field generated by a car passing under a flyover has been carried out. One of the famous simplified models of a car is the Ahmed body that has been established to investigate the influence of the flow structure on the drag. In this paper, we investigate a flow field around Ahmed body of a single cruising condition as the vehicle passes under a flyover, using a computational method with RANS equation. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the turbulence kinetic energy and velocity magnitude developed within the wall boundary created by the flyover, to the air flow field that is generated by the Ahmed reference car. It was observed that the simulated airflow passes the vehicle was bounded by the wall of the flyover and consequently changes the pattern of the flow field. Understanding the characteristic of this flow field under a flyover is essential if one wants to maximize the recovery of the dissipated energy which, for example, can be used to power a small vertical-axis wind turbine to produce and store electrical energy for lighting under the flyover.
Steady computational analysis of shrouded plug nozzle flows using unequal stream pressures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruhs, Kevin Paul
This study focuses on the effects of unequal core and bypass stream feed pressures in a high pressure ratio, two-stream nozzle notionally designed for supersonic business jet applications. Whereas previous analysis used a measured mass average pressure of the core and bypass streams, equal pressures were not exactly maintained in the experimental work and the effect of the imbalance is the primary motivation for the present study. The plug nozzle geometry used is a sub-scale model of a Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation concept that features an extended shroud. It uses two inlet streams, representing core and bypass streams from a turbofan engine. Nozzle pressure ratios range from unity to 6.23. Experimental measurements included pressure taps on the plug and shroud, schlieren and shadowgraph figures, mass flows for both streams, and thrust values. The computational analysis employed the General Equation and Mesh Solver, or GEMS code. Previous computational analysis was performed by Kapilavai, giving a basis analysis involving grid generation and refinement, error convergence studies, axisymmetric analysis, and unsteady computations. Unequal core and bypass stream pressure or swirl in the core stream is used to replicate experimental data and assess performance. The results of using these conditions were explored, including pressure on the plug and shroud, shock characteristics, separation and recirculation zones, mass flows and discharge coefficients, and thrust efficiencies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.
2014-12-01
This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.
Othman, M. N. K. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; and others
2014-12-04
This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.
Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow and its effect on sialolithogenesis
Zhu, P; Lin, Y; Lin, H; Xu, Y; Zheng, QY; Han, Y
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE Sialolithiasis is a common disease caused by intraductal stones, formed by reduction in salivary flow, salivary stagnation, and metabolic events. We used computational fluid dynamics to investigate changes in salivary flow field around parotid stones of different shapes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three-dimensional configurations of the Stensen’s duct were reconstructed from computed tomography sialographic images. Fluid dynamics modeling was used to analyze the salivary flow field around stones under unstimulated and stimulated conditions. RESULTS The majority of sialoliths were oval-shaped (59/98), followed by irregular (24/98) and round (15/98). Salivary velocity was significantly higher around streamlined stones, compared with round (P = 0.013) and oval (P = 0.025) types. Changes in salivary flow field around sialoliths were found to affect the pattern of mineral deposition in saliva. The area of low velocity around the round stone was double the size observed around the streamlined stone during the unstimulated state, whereas in the stimulated state, local vortexes were formed on the downstream side of round and oval stones. CONCLUSIONS Salivary flow field around sialoliths plays an important role in the progression of multicentric stones, and analysis of the salivary dynamics during sialolithiasis may provide deeper understandings of the condition and aid in developing successful treatment strategies. PMID:24164693
Computational Analysis of Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding of AA5059 Aluminum Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Pandurangan, B.; Ochterbeck, J. M.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.; Reynolds, A. P.; Sutton, M. A.
2012-09-01
Workpiece material flow and stirring/mixing during the friction stir welding (FSW) process are investigated computationally. Within the numerical model of the FSW process, the FSW tool is treated as a Lagrangian component while the workpiece material is treated as an Eulerian component. The employed coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian computational analysis of the welding process was of a two-way thermo-mechanical character (i.e., frictional-sliding/plastic-work dissipation is taken to act as a heat source in the thermal-energy balance equation) while temperature is allowed to affect mechanical aspects of the model through temperature-dependent material properties. The workpiece material (AA5059, solid-solution strengthened and strain-hardened aluminum alloy) is represented using a modified version of the classical Johnson-Cook model (within which the strain-hardening term is augmented to take into account for the effect of dynamic recrystallization) while the FSW tool material (AISI H13 tool steel) is modeled as an isotropic linear-elastic material. Within the analysis, the effects of some of the FSW key process parameters are investigated (e.g., weld pitch, tool tilt-angle, and the tool pin-size). The results pertaining to the material flow during FSW are compared with their experimental counterparts. It is found that, for the most part, experimentally observed material-flow characteristics are reproduced within the current FSW-process model.
Chen, D.J.
1988-01-01
The literature is abundant with combinatorial reliability analysis of communication networks and fault-tolerant computer systems. However, it is very difficult to formulate reliability indexes using combinatorial methods. These limitations have led to the development of time-dependent reliability analysis using stochastic processes. In this research, time-dependent reliability-analysis techniques using Dataflow Graphs (DGF) are developed. The chief advantages of DFG models over other models are their compactness, structural correspondence with the systems, and general amenability to direct interpretation. This makes the verification of the correspondence of the data-flow graph representation to the actual system possible. Several DGF models are developed and used to analyze the reliability of communication networks and computer systems. Specifically, Stochastic Dataflow graphs (SDFG), both the discrete-time and the continuous time models are developed and used to compute time-dependent reliability of communication networks and computer systems. The repair and coverage phenomenon of communication networks is also analyzed using SDFG models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohaghegh, M. R.; Malek-Jafarian, M.
2015-12-01
This paper presents a comparative analysis via simulation of time-periodic unsteady inviscid flow at low and high frequencies using Time Spectral Method (TSM) and comparing it with the traditional methods such as BDF and Explicit Structured Adaptive Grid Method. The TSM uses a Fourier representation in time. Mathematical tools used here are discrete Fourier transformations. The TSM has been proposed for the fast and efficient computation of periodic unsteady flows. This method has been evaluated and has been validated with NACA pitching airfoils that are widely used and prevalent 2D external aerodynamics test cases. To validate the results presented by the TSM are compared with experimental data and two the other methods. It shows a significant reduction in the computational expense compared to the conventional time-accurate methods, due to taking advantage of the periodic nature of flow by Fourier representation for temporal discretization that has a high accuracy. Also it has shown that TSM can be applied accurately for ample rang of variations of frequency (NACA 64A010 (CT6)) and variations in angle of attacks (NACA 0012 (CT1)).
Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the pump parameters in the helical flow pump.
Hosoda, Kyohei; Ishii, Kohei; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Ariyoshi, Kouki; Ono, Toshiya; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Imachi, Kou; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke
2014-03-01
The helical flow pump (HFP) was invented to develop a total artificial heart at the University of Tokyo in 2005. The HFP consists of the multi-vane impeller involving rotor magnets, a motor stator and pump housing having double-helical volutes. To investigate the characteristics of the HFP, computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed. Validation of the computational model was performed with the data of the actual pump. A control computational model in which the vane area corresponded approximately to that of the actual pump was designed for the parametric study. The parametric study was performed varying the vane height, vane width and helical volute pitch. When the vane height was varied from 0.5 to 1.5 times that of the control computational model, the H-Q (pressure head vs. flow) and efficiency curves were translated in parallel with the vane height. When the vane height was two and three times that of the control computational model, the profile of these curves changed. From the results, the best proportion for the vane was considered to be a vane height between 1.5 and 2 times the vane width. The effect of vane width was not very strong compared to that of the vane height. A similar tendency in vane height was observed by varying the helical volute pitch. The best helical volute-pitch size is considered to be between 1.5 and 2 times the vane width. Although further study is necessary to determine the best values for these parameters, the characteristics of the pump parameters in the HFP could be approximately clarified. PMID:24318404
Zaunders, John; Jing, Junmei; Leipold, Michael; Maecker, Holden; Kelleher, Anthony D; Koch, Inge
2016-01-01
Many methods have been described for automated clustering analysis of complex flow cytometry data, but so far the goal to efficiently estimate multivariate densities and their modes for a moderate number of dimensions and potentially millions of data points has not been attained. We have devised a novel approach to describing modes using second order polynomial histogram estimators (SOPHE). The method divides the data into multivariate bins and determines the shape of the data in each bin based on second order polynomials, which is an efficient computation. These calculations yield local maxima and allow joining of adjacent bins to identify clusters. The use of second order polynomials also optimally uses wide bins, such that in most cases each parameter (dimension) need only be divided into 4-8 bins, again reducing computational load. We have validated this method using defined mixtures of up to 17 fluorescent beads in 16 dimensions, correctly identifying all populations in data files of 100,000 beads in <10 s, on a standard laptop. The method also correctly clustered granulocytes, lymphocytes, including standard T, B, and NK cell subsets, and monocytes in 9-color stained peripheral blood, within seconds. SOPHE successfully clustered up to 36 subsets of memory CD4 T cells using differentiation and trafficking markers, in 14-color flow analysis, and up to 65 subpopulations of PBMC in 33-dimensional CyTOF data, showing its usefulness in discovery research. SOPHE has the potential to greatly increase efficiency of analysing complex mixtures of cells in higher dimensions. PMID:26097104
Solid rocket booster internal flow analysis by highly accurate adaptive computational methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, C. Y.; Tworzydlo, W.; Oden, J. T.; Bass, J. M.; Cullen, C.; Vadaketh, S.
1991-01-01
The primary objective of this project was to develop an adaptive finite element flow solver for simulating internal flows in the solid rocket booster. Described here is a unique flow simulator code for analyzing highly complex flow phenomena in the solid rocket booster. New methodologies and features incorporated into this analysis tool are described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crouse, J. E.
1974-01-01
A method is presented for designing axial-flow compressor blading from blade elements defined on cones which pass through the blade-edge streamline locations. Each blade-element centerline is composed of two segments which are tangent to each other. The centerline and surfaces of each segment have constant change of angle with path distance. The stacking line for the blade elements can be leaned in both the axial and tangential directions. The output of the computer program gives coordinates for fabrication and properties for aeroelastic analysis for planar blade sections. These coordinates and properties are obtained by interpolation across conical blade elements. The program is structured to be coupled with an aerodynamic design program.
Computer program for the analysis of the cross flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamed, A.; Abdallah, S.; Tabakoff, W.
1977-01-01
A computer program was used to solve the governing of the potential flow in the cross sectional planes of a radial inflow turbine scroll. A list of the main program, the subroutines, and typical output example are included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
An evaluation of the effect of model inlet air temperature drift during a test run was performed to aid in the decision on the need for and/or the schedule for including heaters in the SRMAFTE. The Sverdrup acceptance test data was used to determine the drift in air temperature during runs over the entire range of delivered flow rates and pressures. The effect of this temperature drift on the model Reynolds number was also calculated. It was concluded from this study that a 2% change in absolute temperature during a test run could be adequately accounted for by the data analysis program. A handout package of these results was prepared and presented to ED35 management.
SINDA/SINFLO computer routine, volume 1, revision A. [for fluid flow system analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oren, J. A.; Williams, D. R.
1975-01-01
The SINFLO package was developed to modify the SINDA preprocessor to accept and store the input data for fluid flow systems analysis and adding the FLOSOL user subroutine to perform the flow solution. This reduced and simplified the user input required for analysis of flow problems. A temperature calculation method, the flow-hybrid method which was developed in previous VSD thermal simulator routines, was incorporated for calculating fluid temperatures. The calculation method accuracy was improved by using fluid enthalpy rather than specific heat for the convective term of the fluid temperature equation. Subroutines and data input requirements are described along with user subroutines, flow data storage, and usage of the plot program.
SRM Internal Flow Test and Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis. Volume 1; Major Task Summaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitesides, R. Harold; Dill, Richard A.; Purinton, David C.
1995-01-01
During the four year period of performance for NASA contract, NASB-39095, ERC has performed a wide variety of tasks to support the design and continued development of new and existing solid rocket motors and the resolution of operational problems associated with existing solid rocket motor's at NASA MSFC. This report summarizes the support provided to NASA MSFC during the contractual period of performance. The report is divided into three main sections. The first section presents summaries for the major tasks performed. These tasks are grouped into three major categories: full scale motor analysis, subscale motor analysis and cold flow analysis. The second section includes summaries describing the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tasks performed. The third section, the appendices of the report, presents detailed descriptions of the analysis efforts as well as published papers, memoranda and final reports associated with specific tasks. These appendices are referenced in the summaries. The subsection numbers for the three sections correspond to the same topics for direct cross referencing.
Computational analysis of a rarefied hypersonic flow over combined gap/step geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leite, P. H. M.; Santos, W. F. N.
2015-06-01
This work describes a computational analysis of a hypersonic flow over a combined gap/step configuration at zero degree angle of attack, in chemical equilibrium and thermal nonequilibrium. Effects on the flowfield structure due to changes on the step frontal-face height have been investigated by employing the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The work focuses the attention of designers of hypersonic configurations on the fundamental parameter of surface discontinuity, which can have an important impact on even initial designs. The results highlight the sensitivity of the primary flowfield properties, velocity, density, pressure, and temperature due to changes on the step frontal-face height. The analysis showed that the upstream disturbance in the gap/step configuration increased with increasing the frontal-face height. In addition, it was observed that the separation region for the gap/step configuration increased with increasing the step frontal-face height. It was found that density and pressure for the gap/step configuration dramatically increased inside the gap as compared to those observed for the gap configuration, i. e., a gap without a step.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.
1990-01-01
The conservative unsteady Euler equations for the flow relative motion in the moving frame of reference are used to solve for the steady and unsteady flows around sharp-edged delta wings. The resulting equations are solved by using an implicit approximately-factored finite volume scheme. Implicit second-order and explicit second- and fourth-order dissipations are added to the scheme. The boundary conditions are explicitly satisfied. The grid is generated by locally using a modified Joukowski transformation in cross flow planes at the grid chord stations. The computational applications cover a steady flow around a delta wing whose results serve as the initial conditions for the unsteady flow around a pitching delta wing about a large angle of attack. The steady results are compared with the experimental data and the periodic solution is achieved within the third cycle of oscillation.
Experimental and Computational Analysis of Unidirectional Flow Through Stirling Engine Heater Head
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Scott D.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Tew, Roy C.; Demko, Rikako
2006-01-01
A high efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is being developed for possible use in long-duration space science missions. NASA s advanced technology goals for next generation Stirling convertors include increasing the Carnot efficiency and percent of Carnot efficiency. To help achieve these goals, a multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is being developed to numerically model unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena of the oscillating working gas inside Stirling convertors. In the absence of transient pressure drop data for the zero mean oscillating multi-dimensional flows present in the Technology Demonstration Convertors on test at NASA Glenn Research Center, unidirectional flow pressure drop test data is used to compare against 2D and 3D computational solutions. This study focuses on tracking pressure drop and mass flow rate data for unidirectional flow though a Stirling heater head using a commercial CFD code (CFD-ACE). The commercial CFD code uses a porous-media model which is dependent on permeability and the inertial coefficient present in the linear and nonlinear terms of the Darcy-Forchheimer equation. Permeability and inertial coefficient were calculated from unidirectional flow test data. CFD simulations of the unidirectional flow test were validated using the porous-media model input parameters which increased simulation accuracy by 14 percent on average.
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, John W.; Thomas, James L.
1987-01-01
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows are surveyed with emphasis upon applications to aeroelastic analysis and flutter prediction. Computational difficulty is discussed with respect to type of unsteady flow; attached, mixed (attached/separated) and separated. Significant early computations of shock motions, aileron buzz and periodic oscillations are discussed. The maturation of computational methods towards the capability of treating complete vehicles with reasonable computational resources is noted and a survey of recent comparisons with experimental results is compiled. The importance of mixed attached and separated flow modeling for aeroelastic analysis is discussed and recent calculations of periodic aerodynamic oscillations for an 18 percent thick circular arc airfoil are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Jason D.
Understanding hypersonic aerodynamics is important for the design of next-generation aerospace vehicles for space exploration, national security, and other applications. Ground-level experimental studies of hypersonic flows are difficult and expensive; thus, computational science plays a crucial role in this field. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of extremely high-speed flows require models of chemical and thermal nonequilibrium processes, such as dissociation of diatomic molecules and vibrational energy relaxation. Current models are outdated and inadequate for advanced applications. We describe a multiscale computational study of gas-phase thermochemical processes in hypersonic flows, starting at the atomic scale and building systematically up to the continuum scale. The project was part of a larger effort centered on collaborations between aerospace scientists and computational chemists. We discuss the construction of potential energy surfaces for the N4, N2O2, and O4 systems, focusing especially on the multi-dimensional fitting problem. A new local fitting method named L-IMLS-G2 is presented and compared with a global fitting method. Then, we describe the theory of the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) approach for modeling molecular collisions. We explain how we implemented the approach in a new parallel code for high-performance computing platforms. Results from billions of QCT simulations of high-energy N2 + N2, N2 + N, and N2 + O2 collisions are reported and analyzed. Reaction rate constants are calculated and sets of reactive trajectories are characterized at both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The data shed light on fundamental mechanisms of dissociation and exchange reactions -- and their coupling to internal energy transfer processes -- in thermal environments typical of hypersonic flows. We discuss how the outcomes of this investigation and other related studies lay a rigorous foundation for new macroscopic models for
Bogdanov, V.A.; Bol'shchikov, A.A.; Zifferman, E.O.
1981-02-01
A system of computer programs was described which enabled the user to perform real-time calculation and analysis of the current flow in the 500 kV network of the Ural Regional Electric Power Plant for all possible variations of the network, based on teleinformation and correctable equivalent parameters of the 220 to 110 kV network.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penny, M. M.; Smith, S. D.; Anderson, P. G.; Sulyma, P. R.; Pearson, M. L.
1976-01-01
A computer program written in conjunction with the numerical solution of the flow of chemically reacting gas-particle mixtures was documented. The solution to the set of governing equations was obtained by utilizing the method of characteristics. The equations cast in characteristic form were shown to be formally the same for ideal, frozen, chemical equilibrium and chemical non-equilibrium reacting gas mixtures. The characteristic directions for the gas-particle system are found to be the conventional gas Mach lines, the gas streamlines and the particle streamlines. The basic mesh construction for the flow solution is along streamlines and normals to the streamlines for axisymmetric or two-dimensional flow. The analysis gives detailed information of the supersonic flow and provides for a continuous solution of the nozzle and exhaust plume flow fields. Boundary conditions for the flow solution are either the nozzle wall or the exhaust plume boundary.
Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Core Bypass Flow Phenomena in a Prismatic VHTR
Hiroyuki Sato; Richard W. Johnson; Richard R. Schultz
2010-09-01
The core bypass flow in a prismatic very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is one of the important design considerations which impacts considerably on the integrity of reactor core internals including operating fuels. The interstitial gaps are an inherent presence in the reactor core because of tolerances in manufacturing the blocks and the inexact nature of their installation. Furthermore, the geometry of the graphite blocks changes over the lifetime of the reactor because of thermal expansion and irradiation damage. The occurrence of hot spots in the core and lower plenum and hot streaking in the lower plenum (regions of very hot gas flow) will be affected by the bypass flow. In the present study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations of a typical prismatic VHTR are conducted to understand better the bypass flow phenomenon and establish the evaluation method in the reactor core using commercial CFD code FLUENT. Parametric calculations changing several factors in a on-twelfth sector of a fuel column are performed. The simulations show the impact of each factor on bypass flow and the flow and temperature distributions in the prismatic core. The factors inlcude inter-column gap-width, turbulence model, axial heat generation profile and geometry change from irradiation-induced shrinkage in the graphite block region. It is shown that bypass flow provides a significant cooling effect on the prismatic block and that the maximum fuel and coolant channel outlet temperatures increase with an increase in gap-width, especially when a peak radial factor is applied to the total heat generation rate. Also, the presence of bypass flow causes a large lateral temperature gradient in the block that may have repurcussions on the structural integrity of the block and on the neutronics. These results indicate that bypass flow has a significant effect on hot spots in the core and on the temperature of jets flowing from the core into the lower plenum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Schjodt, Kathleen; Puntel, Anthony; Kostov, Nikolay; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.
2013-06-01
We present a patient-specific computational analysis of the influence of a stent on the unsteady flow in cerebral aneurysms. The analysis is based on four different arterial models extracted form medical images, and the stent is placed across the neck of the aneurysm to reduce the flow circulation in the aneurysm. The core computational technique used in the analysis is the space-time (ST) version of the variational multiscale (VMS) method and is called "DSD/SST-VMST". The special techniques developed for this class of cardiovascular fluid mechanics computations are used in conjunction with the DSD/SST-VMST technique. The special techniques include NURBS representation of the surface over which the stent model and mesh are built, mesh generation with a reasonable resolution across the width of the stent wire and with refined layers of mesh near the arterial and stent surfaces, modeling the double-stent case, and quantitative assessment of the flow circulation in the aneurysm. We provide a brief overview of the special techniques, compute the unsteady flow patterns in the aneurysm for the four arterial models, and investigate in each case how those patterns are influenced by the presence of single and double stents.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spadley, L. W.
1985-01-01
A computational fluid flow analysis on the flow diverter system under consideration for the Space Shuttle main engine high pressure fuel turbopump (SSME HPFTP) is proposed. A three dimensional viscous flow environment is computed to optimize the geometric configuration and location of the flow diverter system. The analysis consists of a fully turbulent cold flow calculation by Navier-Stokes equations and a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The equations are numerically by a finite difference/element procedure. The results will provide the steady and unsteady pressure field and thermal environment required to assess the usefulness of the flow diverter system in deflecting the cold flow away from the hot turbine components. A geometry optimization study determines the best diverter shape and location to avoid larger thermal gradients on the rotor/stator components.
Nonequilibrium flow computations. I - An analysis of numerical formulations of conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel
1989-01-01
Modern numerical techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-Warming scheme, Steger-Warming and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.
Nonequilibrium flow computations. 1: An analysis of numerical formulations of conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel
1988-01-01
Modern numerical techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-Warming scheme, Steger-Warming and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.
Chen, Xiaodong; Zielinski, Rachel; Ghadiali, Samir N
2014-10-01
Although mechanical ventilation is a life-saving therapy for patients with severe lung disorders, the microbubble flows generated during ventilation generate hydrodynamic stresses, including pressure and shear stress gradients, which damage the pulmonary epithelium. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics to investigate how gravity, inertia, and surface tension influence both microbubble flow patterns in bifurcating airways and the magnitude/distribution of hydrodynamic stresses on the airway wall. Direct interface tracking and finite element techniques were used to simulate bubble propagation in a two-dimensional (2D) liquid-filled bifurcating airway. Computational solutions of the full incompressible Navier-Stokes equation were used to investigate how inertia, gravity, and surface tension forces as characterized by the Reynolds (Re), Bond (Bo), and Capillary (Ca) numbers influence pressure and shear stress gradients at the airway wall. Gravity had a significant impact on flow patterns and hydrodynamic stress magnitudes where Bo > 1 led to dramatic changes in bubble shape and increased pressure and shear stress gradients in the upper daughter airway. Interestingly, increased pressure gradients near the bifurcation point (i.e., carina) were only elevated during asymmetric bubble splitting. Although changes in pressure gradient magnitudes were generally more sensitive to Ca, under large Re conditions, both Re and Ca significantly altered the pressure gradient magnitude. We conclude that inertia, gravity, and surface tension can all have a significant impact on microbubble flow patterns and hydrodynamic stresses in bifurcating airways. PMID:25068642
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, John W.; Thomas, J. L.
1987-01-01
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows are surveyed with emphasis on prediction. Computational difficulty is discussed with respect to type of unsteady flow; attached, mixed (attached/separated) and separated. Significant early computations of shock motions, aileron buzz and periodic oscillations are discussed. The maturation of computational methods towards the capability of treating complete vehicles with reasonable computational resources is noted and a survey of recent comparisons with experimental results is compiled. The importance of mixed attached and separated flow modeling for aeroelastic analysis is discussed, and recent calculations of periodic aerodynamic oscillations for an 18 percent thick circular arc airfoil are given.
Computational analysis for dry-ice sublimation assisted CO2 jet impingement flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwak, Songmi; Lee, Jaeseon
2015-11-01
The flow and heat transfer characteristics of the novel gas-solid two-phase jet impingement are investigated computationally. When the high pressure carbon dioxide (CO2) flow passes through a nozzle or orifice, it experiences the sudden expansion and the rapid temperature drop occurred by Joule-Thomson effect. This temperature drop causes the lower bulk jet fluid temperature than the CO2 sublimation line, so dry-ice becomes formed. By using CO2 gas-solid mixture as a working fluid of jet impingement, it is expected the heat transfer enhancement can be achieved due to the low bulk temperature and the additional phase change latent heat. In this study, 2D CFD model is created to predict the cooling effect of gas-solid CO2 jet. The gas-solid CO2 flow is considered by Euler-Lagrangian approach of mixed phase and the additional heat transfer module is embedded to account for the sublimation phenomena of the solid state CO2. The jet flow and heat transfer performance of gas-solid CO2 jet is investigated by the variance of flow parameter like Reynolds number, solid phase concentration and jet geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, F. F.; Chen, T.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.
2013-12-01
The internal flow evolution of the pump was induced with impeller movement. In various conditions, the peak load on centrifugal blade under the change of rotational speed or flow rate was also changed. It would cause an error when inertia load with a safety coefficient (that was difficult to ascertain) was applied in structure design. In order to accurately analyze the impeller stress under various conditions and improve the reliability of pump, based on a mixed flow pump model, the stress distribution characteristic was analyzed under different flow rates and rotational speeds. Based on a three-dimensional calculation model including impeller, guide blade, inlet and outlet, the three-dimension incompressible turbulence flow in the centrifugal pump was simulated by using the standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Based on the sequentially coupled simulation approach, a three-dimensional finite element model of impeller was established, and the fluid-structure interaction method of the blade load transfer was discussed. The blades pressure from flow simulation, together with inertia force acting on the blade, was used as the blade loading on solid surface. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to calculate the stress distribution of the blade respectively under inertia load, or fluid load, or combined load. The results showed that the blade stress changed with flow rate and rotational speed. In all cases, the maximum stress on the blade appeared on the pressure side near the hub, and the maximum static stress increased with the decreasing of the flow rate and the increasing of rotational speed. There was a big difference on the static stress when inertia load, fluid load and combined loads was applied respectively. In order to more accurately calculate the stress distribution, the structure analysis should be conducted due to combined loads. The results could provide basis for the stress analysis and structure optimization of pump.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed on the aft slot region of the Titan 4 Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU). This analysis was performed in conjunction with MSFC structural modeling of the propellant grain to determine if the flow field induced stresses would adversely alter the propellant geometry to the extent of causing motor failure. The results of the coupled CFD/stress analysis have shown that there is a continual increase of flow field resistance at the aft slot due to the aft segment propellant grain being progressively moved radially toward the centerline of the motor port. This 'bootstrapping' effect between grain radial movement and internal flow resistance is conducive to causing a rapid motor failure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishida, Masahiro; Yamane, Takashi; Maruyama, Osamu; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Tsutsui, Tatsuo
Flow mechanisms within a monopivot centrifugal pump were clarified in order to prevent stagnation around the pivot bearing, which may cause thrombogenesis. We focused on the geometric effects of the pump, which included the effects of the washout hole diameter, the pivot friction area and the back gap width of the impeller relative to the washout around the pivot bearing. Flow patterns were carefully examined around the pivot bearing, including the region inside the washout hole and the back gap of the impeller, by computational fluid dynamic analysis. Based on the results from the computational fluid dynamic analyses, we found that a balance relationship between the washout hole diameter and the back gap width of the impeller affected the secondary flow toward the pivot bearing that eliminated the stagnation around the pivot bearing. In addition, while increasing in the pivot friction area eliminated stagnation around the pivot bearing, it also increased hemolysis within the pump.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiappetta, L. M.
1983-01-01
Described is a computer program for the analysis of the subsonic, swirling, reacting turbulent flow in an axisymmetric, bluff-body research combustor. The program features an improved finite-difference procedure designed to reduce the effects of numerical diffusion and a new algorithm for predicting the pressure distribution within the combustor. A research version of the computer program described in the report was supplied to United Technologies Research Center by Professor A. D. Gosman and his students, R. Benodeker and R. I. Issa, of Imperial College, London. The Imperial College staff also supplied much of the program documentation. Presented are a description of the mathematical model for flow within an axisymmetric bluff-body combustor, the development of the finite-difference procedure used to represent the system of equations, an outline of the algorithm for determining the static pressure distribution within the combustor, a description of the computer program including its input format, and the results for representative test cases.
Khashan, S. A.; Alazzam, A.; Furlani, E. P.
2014-01-01
A microfluidic design is proposed for realizing greatly enhanced separation of magnetically-labeled bioparticles using integrated soft-magnetic elements. The elements are fixed and intersect the carrier fluid (flow-invasive) with their length transverse to the flow. They are magnetized using a bias field to produce a particle capture force. Multiple stair-step elements are used to provide efficient capture throughout the entire flow channel. This is in contrast to conventional systems wherein the elements are integrated into the walls of the channel, which restricts efficient capture to limited regions of the channel due to the short range nature of the magnetic force. This severely limits the channel size and hence throughput. Flow-invasive elements overcome this limitation and enable microfluidic bioseparation systems with superior scalability. This enhanced functionality is quantified for the first time using a computational model that accounts for the dominant mechanisms of particle transport including fully-coupled particle-fluid momentum transfer. PMID:24931437
Computational Analysis of the Flow and Acoustic Effects of Jet-Pylon Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunter, Craig A.; Thomas, Russell H.; Abdol-Hamid, K. S.; Pao, S. Paul; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Massey, Steven J.
2005-01-01
Computational simulation and prediction tools were used to understand the jet-pylon interaction effect in a set of bypass-ratio five core/fan nozzles. Results suggest that the pylon acts as a large scale mixing vane that perturbs the jet flow and jump starts the jet mixing process. The enhanced mixing and associated secondary flows from the pylon result in a net increase of noise in the first 10 diameters of the jet s development, but there is a sustained reduction in noise from that point downstream. This is likely the reason the pylon nozzle is quieter overall than the baseline round nozzle in this case. The present work suggests that focused pylon design could lead to advanced pylon shapes and nozzle configurations that take advantage of propulsion-airframe integration to provide additional noise reduction capabilities.
Computer program for generating input for analysis of impingement-cooled, axial-flow turbine blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenbaum, D.
1980-01-01
A computer program, TACTGRID, was developed to generate the geometrical input for the TACTI program, a program that calculates transient and steady state temperatures, pressures, and cooling flows in an impingement cooled turbine blade. Using spline curves, the TACTGRID program constructs the blade internal geometry from the previously designed external blade surface and newly selected wall and channel thicknesses. The TACTGRID program generates the TACTI calculational grid, calculates arc length between grid points required by TACTI as input, and prepares the namelist input data set used by TACTI for the blade geometry. In addition, TACTGRID produces a scaled computer plot of each blade slice, detailing the grid and calculational stations, and thus eliminates the need for intermediate drafting.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Faghri, Amir; Swanson, Theodore D.
1988-01-01
The results of a numerical computation and theoretical analysis are presented for the flow of a thin liquid film in the presence and absence of a gravitational body force. Five different flow systems were used. Also presented are the governing equations and boundary conditions for the situation of a thin liquid emanating from a pressure vessel; traveling along a horizontal plate with a constant initial height and uniform initial velocity; and traveling radially along a horizontal disk with a constant initial height and uniform initial velocity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dougherty, N. S.; Holt, J. B.; Liu, B. L.; Johnson, S. L.
1992-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is providing verification of Space Shuttle flight performance details and is being applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine Multiple plume interaction flow field definition. Advancements in real-gas CFD methodology that are described have allowed definition of exhaust plume flow details at Mach 3.5 and 107,000 ft. The specific objective includes the estimate of flow properties at oblique shocks between plumes and plume recirculation into the Space Shuttle Orbiter base so that base heating and base pressure can be modeled accurately. The approach utilizes the Rockwell USA Real Gas 3-D Navier-Stokes (USARG3D) Code for the analysis. The code has multi-zonal capability to detail the geometry of the plumes based region and utilizes finite-rate chemistry to compute the plume expansion angle and relevant flow properties at altitude correctly. Through an improved definition of the base recirculation flow properties, heating, and aerodynamic design environments of the Space Shuttle Vehicle can be further updated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruf, Joseph H.
1992-01-01
Phase 2+ Space Shuttle Main Engine powerheads, E0209 and E0215 degraded their main combustion chamber (MCC) liners at a faster rate than is normal for phase 2 powerheads. One possible cause of the accelerated degradation was a reduction of coolant flow through the MCC. Hardware changes were made to the preburner fuel leg which may have reduced the resistance and, therefore, pulled some of the hydrogen from the MCC coolant leg. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to determine hydrogen flow path resistances of the phase 2+ fuel preburner injector elements relative to the phase 2 element. FDNS was implemented on axisymmetric grids with the hydrogen assumed to be incompressible. The analysis was performed in two steps: the first isolated the effect of the different inlet areas and the second modeled the entire injector element hydrogen flow path.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allphin, Devin
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution approximations for complex fluid flow problems have become a common and powerful engineering analysis technique. These tools, though qualitatively useful, remain limited in practice by their underlying inverse relationship between simulation accuracy and overall computational expense. While a great volume of research has focused on remedying these issues inherent to CFD, one traditionally overlooked area of resource reduction for engineering analysis concerns the basic definition and determination of functional relationships for the studied fluid flow variables. This artificial relationship-building technique, called meta-modeling or surrogate/offline approximation, uses design of experiments (DOE) theory to efficiently approximate non-physical coupling between the variables of interest in a fluid flow analysis problem. By mathematically approximating these variables, DOE methods can effectively reduce the required quantity of CFD simulations, freeing computational resources for other analytical focuses. An idealized interpretation of a fluid flow problem can also be employed to create suitably accurate approximations of fluid flow variables for the purposes of engineering analysis. When used in parallel with a meta-modeling approximation, a closed-form approximation can provide useful feedback concerning proper construction, suitability, or even necessity of an offline approximation tool. It also provides a short-circuit pathway for further reducing the overall computational demands of a fluid flow analysis, again freeing resources for otherwise unsuitable resource expenditures. To validate these inferences, a design optimization problem was presented requiring the inexpensive estimation of aerodynamic forces applied to a valve operating on a simulated piston-cylinder heat engine. The determination of these forces was to be found using parallel surrogate and exact approximation methods, thus evidencing the comparative
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis for the Reduction of Impeller Discharge Flow Distortion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, R.; McConnaughey, P. K.; Eastland, A.
1993-01-01
The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the design and analysis of high performance rocket engine pumps has increased in recent years. This increase has been aided by the activities of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Pump Stage Technology Team (PSTT). The team's goals include assessing the accuracy and efficiency of several methodologies and then applying the appropriate methodology(s) to understand and improve the flow inside a pump. The PSTT's objectives, team membership, and past activities are discussed in Garcia1 and Garcia2. The PSTT is one of three teams that form the NASA/MSFC CFD Consortium for Applications in Propulsion Technology (McConnaughey3). The PSTT first applied CFD in the design of the baseline consortium impeller. This impeller was designed for the Space Transportation Main Engine's (STME) fuel turbopump. The STME fuel pump was designed with three impeller stages because a two-stage design was deemed to pose a high developmental risk. The PSTT used CFD to design an impeller whose performance allowed for a two-stage STME fuel pump design. The availability of this design would have lead to a reduction in parts, weight, and cost had the STME reached production. One sample of the baseline consortium impeller was manufactured and tested in a water rig. The test data showed that the impeller performance was as predicted and that a two-stage design for the STME fuel pump was possible with minimal risk. The test data also verified another CFD predicted characteristic of the design that was not desirable. The classical 'jet-wake' pattern at the impeller discharge was strengthened by two aspects of the design: by the high head coefficient necessary for the required pressure rise and by the relatively few impeller exit blades, 12, necessary to reduce manufacturing cost. This 'jet-wake pattern produces an unsteady loading on the diffuser vanes and has, in past rocket engine programs, lead to diffuser structural failure. In industrial
Lehoucq, Richard B.; Salinger, Andrew G.
1999-08-01
We present an approach for determining the linear stability of steady states of PDEs on massively parallel computers. Linearizing the transient behavior around a steady state leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem. The eigenvalues with largest real part are calculated using Arnoldi's iteration driven by a novel implementation of the Cayley transformation to recast the problem as an ordinary eigenvalue problem. The Cayley transformation requires the solution of a linear system at each Arnoldi iteration, which must be done iteratively for the algorithm to scale with problem size. A representative model problem of 3D incompressible flow and heat transfer in a rotating disk reactor is used to analyze the effect of algorithmic parameters on the performance of the eigenvalue algorithm. Successful calculations of leading eigenvalues for matrix systems of order up to 4 million were performed, identifying the critical Grashof number for a Hopf bifurcation.
Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David; Kenwright, David
2003-01-01
Unsteady Flow Analysis Toolkit (UFAT) is a computer program that synthesizes motions of time-dependent flows represented by very large sets of data generated in computational fluid dynamics simulations. Prior to the development of UFAT, it was necessary to rely on static, single-snapshot depictions of time-dependent flows generated by flow-visualization software designed for steady flows. Whereas it typically takes weeks to analyze the results of a largescale unsteady-flow simulation by use of steady-flow visualization software, the analysis time is reduced to hours when UFAT is used. UFAT can be used to generate graphical objects of flow visualization results using multi-block curvilinear grids in the format of a previously developed NASA data-visualization program, PLOT3D. These graphical objects can be rendered using FAST, another popular flow visualization software developed at NASA. Flow-visualization techniques that can be exploited by use of UFAT include time-dependent tracking of particles, detection of vortex cores, extractions of stream ribbons and surfaces, and tetrahedral decomposition for optimal particle tracking. Unique computational features of UFAT include capabilities for automatic (batch) processing, restart, memory mapping, and parallel processing. These capabilities significantly reduce analysis time and storage requirements, relative to those of prior flow-visualization software. UFAT can be executed on a variety of supercomputers.
Computer analysis of flow perturbations generated by placement of choke bumps in a wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, R. L.
1981-01-01
An inviscid analytical study was conducted to determine the upstream flow perturbations caused by placing choke bumps in a wind tunnel. A computer program based on the stream-tube curvature method was used to calculate the resulting flow fields for a nominal free-stream Mach number range of 0.6 to 0.9. The choke bump geometry was also varied to investigate the effect of bump shape on the disturbance produced. Results from the study indicate that a region of significant variation from the free-stream conditions exists upstream of the throat of the tunnel. The extent of the disturbance region was, as a rule, dependent on Mach number and the geometry of the choke bump. In general, the upstream disturbance distance decreased for increasing nominal free-stream Mach number and for decreasing length-to-height ratio of the bump. A polynomial-curve choke bump usually produced less of a disturbance than did a circular-arc bump and going to an axisymmetric configuration (modeling choke bumps on all the tunnel walls) generally resulted in a lower disturbance than with the corresponding two dimensional case.
Thermal and flow analysis subroutines for the SINDA-version 9 computer routine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oren, J. A.; Williams, D. R.
1973-01-01
Fluid flow analysis, special thermal analysis and input/output capabilities of the MOTAR routine were incorporated into the SINDA routine. All the capabilities were added in the form of user subroutines so that they may be added to different versions of SINDA with a minimum of programmer effort. Two modifications were made to the existing subroutines of SINDA/8 to incorporate the above subroutines. These were: (1) A modification to the preprocessor to permit actual values of array numbers, conductor numbers, node numbers or constant numbers supplied as array data to be converted to relative numbers. (2) Modifications to execution subroutine CNFAST to make it compatible with the radiant interchange user subroutine, RADIR. This modified version of SINDA has been designated SINDA/version 9. A detailed discussion of the methods used for the capabilities added is presented. The modifications for the SINDA subroutines are described, as well as user subroutines. All subroutines added or modified are listed.
Computation and analysis of cavitating flow in Francis-class hydraulic turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonard, Daniel J.
Hydropower is the most proven renewable energy technology, supplying the world with 16% of its electricity. Conventional hydropower generates a vast majority of that percentage. Although a mature technology, hydroelectric generation shows great promise for expansion through new dams and plants in developing hydro countries. Moreover, in developed hydro countries, such as the United States, installing generating units in existing dams and the modern refurbishment of existing plants can greatly expand generating capabilities with little to no further impact on the environment. In addition, modern computational technology and fluid dynamics expertise has led to substantial improvements in modern turbine design and performance. Cavitation has always presented a problem in hydroturbines, causing performance breakdown, erosion, damage, vibration, and noise. While modern turbines are usually designed to be cavitation-free at their best efficiency point, due to the variable demand of the energy market it is fairly common to operate at off-design conditions. Here, cavitation and its deleterious effects are unavoidable, and hence, cavitation is a limiting factor on the design and operation of these turbines. Multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used in recent years to model cavitating flow for a large range of problems, including turbomachinery. However, CFD of cavitating flow in hydroturbines is still in its infancy. This dissertation presents steady-periodic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of a cavitating Francis-class hydroturbine at model and prototype scales. Computational results of the reduced-scale model and full-scale prototype, undergoing performance breakdown, are compared with empirical model data and prototype performance estimations based on standard industry scalings from the model data. Mesh convergence of the simulations is also displayed. Comparisons are made between the scales to display that cavitation performance breakdown
Hecht, Harvey S; Narula, Jagat; Fearon, William F
2016-07-01
Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) is now the gold standard for intervention. Noninvasive functional imaging analyses derived from coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) offer alternatives for evaluating lesion-specific ischemia. CT-FFR, CT myocardial perfusion imaging, and transluminal attenuation gradient/corrected contrast opacification have been studied using invasive FFR as the gold standard. CT-FFR has demonstrated significant improvement in specificity and positive predictive value compared with CTA alone for predicting FFR of ≤0.80, as well as decreasing the frequency of nonobstructive invasive coronary angiography. High-risk plaque characteristics have also been strongly implicated in abnormal FFR. Myocardial computed tomographic perfusion is an alternative method with promising results; it involves more radiation and contrast. Transluminal attenuation gradient/corrected contrast opacification is more controversial and may be more related to vessel diameter than stenosis. Important considerations remain: (1) improvement of CTA quality to decrease unevaluable studies, (2) is the diagnostic accuracy of CT-FFR sufficient? (3) can CT-FFR guide intervention without invasive FFR confirmation? (4) what are the long-term outcomes of CT-FFR-guided treatment and how do they compare with other functional imaging-guided paradigms? (5) what degree of stenosis on CTA warrants CT-FFR? (6) how should high-risk plaque be incorporated into treatment decisions? (7) how will CT-FFR influence other functional imaging test utilization, and what will be the effect on the practice of cardiology? (8) will a workstation-based CT-FFR be mandatory? Rapid progress to date suggests that CTA-based lesion-specific ischemia will be the gatekeeper to the cardiac catheterization laboratory and will transform the world of intervention. PMID:27390333
Computation of viscous incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan
1989-01-01
Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods and their applications to three-dimensional flows are discussed. A brief review of existing methods is given followed by a detailed description of recent progress on development of three-dimensional generalized flow solvers. Emphasis is placed on primitive variable formulations which are most promising and flexible for general three-dimensional computations of viscous incompressible flows. Both steady- and unsteady-solution algorithms and their salient features are discussed. Finally, examples of real world applications of these flow solvers are given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ecer, A.; Akay, H. U.
1981-01-01
The finite element method is applied for the solution of transonic potential flows through a cascade of airfoils. Convergence characteristics of the solution scheme are discussed. Accuracy of the numerical solutions is investigated for various flow regions in the transonic flow configuration. The design of an efficient finite element computational grid is discussed for improving accuracy and convergence.
Finite element techniques in computational time series analysis of turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horenko, I.
2009-04-01
In recent years there has been considerable increase of interest in the mathematical modeling and analysis of complex systems that undergo transitions between several phases or regimes. Such systems can be found, e.g., in weather forecast (transitions between weather conditions), climate research (ice and warm ages), computational drug design (conformational transitions) and in econometrics (e.g., transitions between different phases of the market). In all cases, the accumulation of sufficiently detailed time series has led to the formation of huge databases, containing enormous but still undiscovered treasures of information. However, the extraction of essential dynamics and identification of the phases is usually hindered by the multidimensional nature of the signal, i.e., the information is "hidden" in the time series. The standard filtering approaches (like f.~e. wavelets-based spectral methods) have in general unfeasible numerical complexity in high-dimensions, other standard methods (like f.~e. Kalman-filter, MVAR, ARCH/GARCH etc.) impose some strong assumptions about the type of the underlying dynamics. Approach based on optimization of the specially constructed regularized functional (describing the quality of data description in terms of the certain amount of specified models) will be introduced. Based on this approach, several new adaptive mathematical methods for simultaneous EOF/SSA-like data-based dimension reduction and identification of hidden phases in high-dimensional time series will be presented. The methods exploit the topological structure of the analysed data an do not impose severe assumptions on the underlying dynamics. Special emphasis will be done on the mathematical assumptions and numerical cost of the constructed methods. The application of the presented methods will be first demonstrated on a toy example and the results will be compared with the ones obtained by standard approaches. The importance of accounting for the mathematical
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanaka, K.; Hirose, H.
1986-01-01
The development of transonic aerodynamic computation methods and specific examples, as well as examples of three-dimensional transonic computation in design, are discussed. The case of the transonic transport and the case of the small transport are analyzed. Requirements for programs of the future are itemized.
Turbulent Flow Computations in Ejectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gogoi, A.; Siddesha, H.
2010-09-01
The paper presents computations in ejectors using in-house code NUMBERS. Computations are carried out in a 2D ejector and in a cylindrical ejector. Computations on the cylindrical ejector are done for various nozzle pressure ratios. The ejector flow is dominated by complex mixing of primary and secondary jets. The Spalart-Allmaras and Menter SST turbulence models are used. The results with the Menter SST model are superior to Spalart-Allmaras model at higher nozzle pressure ratios for the cylindrical ejector.
Semidirect computations for transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swisshelm, J. M.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1983-01-01
A semidirect method, driven by a Poisson solver, was developed for inviscid transonic flow computations. It is an extension of a recently introduced algorithm for solving subsonic rotational flows. Shocks are captured by implementing a form of artificial compressibility. Nonisentropic cases are computed using a shock tracking procedure coupled with the Rankine-Hugoniot relationships. Results are presented for both subsonic and transonic flows. For the test geometry, an unstaggered cascade of 20 percent thick circular arc airfoils at zero angle of attack, shocks are crisply resolved in supercritical situations and the algorithm converges rapidly. In addition, the convergence rate appears to be nearly independent of the entropy and vorticity production at the shock.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segalini, Andrea; Ferrero, Anna Maria; Brighenti, Roberto
2013-04-01
experiences by using FEM modeling for these kind of structures, had shown that a large amount of time for both the geometrical setup of the model and its computation is necessary. The big effort required by FEM for this class of problems limits the actual possibility to investigate different geometrical configurations, load schemes etc. and it is suitable to represent a specific configuration but it does not allow for investigation of the influence of parameter changes. On the other hand parametrical analysis are common practice in geotechnical design for the quoted reasons. Consequently, the Authors felt the need to develop a simplified method (which is not yet available in our knowledge) that allow to perform several parametrical analysis in a limited time. It should be noted that, in this paper, no consideration regarding the mechanical and physical behavior of debris flows are carried out; the proposed model requires the input of parameters that must be acquired through a preliminary characterization of the design event. However, adopting the proposed tool, the designer will be able to perform sensitivity analysis that will help in quantify the influence of parameters variability as commonly occurs in geotechnical design.
Karadimas, G. )
1992-01-01
An evaluation is made of the development status and consequentiality of unsteady flow-simulating CFD techniques applicable in advanced gas turbine compressor and turbine stage design. The maximization of aircraft gas turbine thrust/weight performance and reliability while minimizing acquisition and maintenance costs fundamentally depends on the ability to anticipate the effects of unsteady aeromechanical phenomena. Attention is given to blade flutter and forced vibration, stator/rotor interactions, flow instabilities and distortions, and the evolution of CFD techniques to date. 26 refs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clayton, J. Louie; Colbert, R. F.; Ghaffarian, B.; Majumdar, Alok
1991-01-01
A computational technique for prediction of the flow and thermal environment in the SRM field joint cavities is described. The SRM field joint hardware was tested with a defect in the insulation, and due to this defect, the O-ring gland cavities are pressurized during the early part of the ignition. A computer model is developed to predict the thermal environment and flow through the simulated flaw, during the pressurization of the field joint. The transient mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations in the flow passage together with the thermodynamic equation of state are solved by a fully implicit iterative numerical procedure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
The purpose of the RSRM Nozzle Slag Ejection Precursor Test is to investigate the effect that slag ejection from the RSRM nozzle has on the chamber pressure and trust of the SRB's. In past firings of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) both static test and flight motors have shown small pressure perturbations occurring primarily between 65 and 80 seconds. A joint NASA/Thiokol team investigation concluded that the cause of the pressure perturbations was the periodic ingestion and ejection of molten aluminum oxide slag from the cavity around the submerged nozzle nose which tends to trap and collect individual aluminum oxide droplets from the approach flow. The conclusions of the team were supported by numerous data and observations from special tests including high speed photographic films, real time radiography, plume calorimeters, accelerometers, strain gauges, nozzle TVC system force gauges, and motor pressure and thrust data. A simplistic slag ballistics model was formulated to relate a given pressure perturbation to a required slag quantity. Also, a cold flow model using air and water was developed to provide data on the relationship between the slag flow rate and the chamber pressure increase. Both the motor and the cold flow model exhibited low frequency oscillations in conjunction with periods of slag ejection. Motor and model frequencies were related to scaling parameters. The data indicate that there is a periodicity to the slag entrainment and ejection phenomena which is possibly related to organized oscillations from instabilities in the dividing streamline shear layer which impinges on the underneath surface of the nozzle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erdos, J. I.; Alzner, E.
1977-01-01
A numerical method of solution of the inviscid, compressible, two-dimensional unsteady flow on a blade-to-blade stream surface through a stage (rotor and stator) or a single blade row of an axial flow compressor or fan is described. A cyclic procedure has been developed for representation of adjacent blade-to-blade passages which asymptotically achieves the correct phase between all passages of a stage. A shock-capturing finite difference method is employed in the interior of the passage, and a method of characteristics technique is used at the boundaries. The blade slipstreams form two of the passage boundaries and are treated as moving contact surfaces capable of supporting jumps in entropy and tangential velocity. The Kutta condition is imposed by requiring the slipstreams to originate at the trailing edges, which are assumed to be sharp. Results are presented for several transonic fan rotors and compared with available experimental data, consisting of holographic observations of shock structure and pressure contour maps. A subcritical stator solution is also compared with results from a relaxation method. Finally, a periodic solution for a stage consisting of 44 rotor blades and 46 stator blades is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, Louis M.; Thurman, Douglas R.; Simonyi, Patricia S.; Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.
1993-01-01
Visual and quantitative information was obtained on heat transfer and flow in a branched-duct test section that had several significant features of an internal cooling passage of a turbine blade. The objective of this study was to generate a set of experimental data that could be used to validate computer codes for internal cooling systems. Surface heat transfer coefficients and entrance flow conditions were measured at entrance Reynolds numbers of 45,000, 335,000, and 726,000. The heat transfer data were obtained using an Inconel heater sheet attached to the surface and coated with liquid crystals. Visual and quantitative flow field results using particle image velocimetry were also obtained for a plane at mid channel height for a Reynolds number of 45,000. The flow was seeded with polystyrene particles and illuminated by a laser light sheet. Computational results were determined for the same configurations and at matching Reynolds numbers; these surface heat transfer coefficients and flow velocities were computed with a commercially available code. The experimental and computational results were compared. Although some general trends did agree, there were inconsistencies in the temperature patterns as well as in the numerical results. These inconsistencies strongly suggest the need for further computational studies on complicated geometries such as the one studied.
Computational Aeroservoelastic Analysis with an Euler-Based Unsteady Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arena, Andrew S., Jr.
1997-01-01
The effectiveness of transpiration for simulation of structural deformations in steady and unsteady aeroelastic applications is examined. The majority of the investigations were performed using a highly integrated, finite-element code for the multidisciplinary analysis of flight vehicles. A supplement to this code, which allows for the generation of deflected meshes using modal superposition, was developed in this study. This research demonstrated that the transpiration boundary condition has strong potential for applications in unsteady aeroelastic analysis, such as in the prediction of flutter boundaries.
TRANDESNF: A computer program for transonic airfoil design and analysis in nonuniform flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, J. F.; Lan, C. Edward
1987-01-01
The use of a transonic airfoil code for analysis, inverse design, and direct optimization of an airfoil immersed in propfan slipstream is described. A summary of the theoretical method, program capabilities, input format, output variables, and program execution are described. Input data of sample test cases and the corresponding output are given.
Theoretical and computational analysis of flow oscillations in S-CO{sub 2} natural circulation loop
Smith, W. C.; Podowski, M. Z.
2012-07-01
The objective of this paper is to present a new model of natural-circulation loop cooled using fluids at slightly supercritical pressures. The modeling concept is based on the first principle time- and position-depended conservation equations, combined with analytic models of temperature and pressure-dependent fluid properties and a pressure control line connected to a pressurizer. Extensive parametric testing has been performed of the numerical solution method used in the analysis. The results of model predictions have been compared against other existing results, both theoretical and experimental. In particular, the model has been used in the analysis of a transient response of the SCO{sub 2} loop reported by Milone [1]. (authors)
Compressible flow computer program for gas film seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.; Smith, P. J.
1975-01-01
Computer program, AREAX, calculates properties of compressible fluid flow with friction and area change. Program carries out quasi-one-dimensional flow analysis which is valid for laminar and turbulent flows under both subsonic and choked flow conditions. Program was written to be applied to gas film seals.
Liu, Da; Liu, Xu-li; Zhang, Bo; Liao, Dong-fa; Li, Zhi-qiang; Zhou, Jiang-jun; Kang, Xia; Zheng, Wei; Lei, Wei
2015-01-01
This study was designed to analyze the flow and distribution of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in vertebral body through computer simulation. Cadaveric lumbar vertebrae were scanned through electron beam tomography (EBT). The data was imported into Mimics software to build computational model. Vertebral body center and junction of pedicle and vertebral body were chosen as injection points. Silicone oil with viscosity of 100,000 cSt matching with PMMA bone cement was chosen for injection. The flow and distribution of silicone oil were analyzed using Fluent software. In vertebral body, silicone oil formed a circle-like shape centered by injection point on transverse and longitudinal sections, finally forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. Silicone oil diffused along lateral and posterior walls forming a circle-like shape on transverse section centered by injection point in pedicle, eventually forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. This study demonstrated that silicone oil flowed and diffused into a circle-like shape centered by injection point and finally formed a sphere-like shape as a whole in both vertebral body and pedicle. The flow and distribution of silicon oil in computational model could simulate PMMA distribution in vertebral body. It may provide theoretical evidence to reduce PMMA leakage risk during percutaneous vertebroplasty. PMID:26770969
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
This document presents the full-scale analyses of the CFD RSRM. The RSRM model was developed with a 20 second burn time. The following are presented as part of the full-scale analyses: (1) RSRM embedded inclusion analysis; (2) RSRM igniter nozzle design analysis; (3) Nozzle Joint 4 erosion anomaly; (4) RSRM full motor port slag accumulation analysis; (5) RSRM motor analysis of two-phase flow in the aft segment/submerged nozzle region; (6) Completion of 3-D Analysis of the hot air nozzle manifold; (7) Bates Motor distributed combustion test case; and (8) Three Dimensional Polysulfide Bump Analysis.
Rahatgaonkar, P. S.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.
2012-07-01
Prediction of groundwater movement and contaminant transport in soil is an important problem in many branches of science and engineering. This includes groundwater hydrology, environmental engineering, soil science, agricultural engineering and also nuclear engineering. Specifically, in nuclear engineering it is applicable in the design of spent fuel storage pools and waste management sites in the nuclear power plants. Ground water modeling involves the simulation of flow and contaminant transport by groundwater flow. In the context of contaminated soil and groundwater system, numerical simulations are typically used to demonstrate compliance with regulatory standard. A one-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics code GFLOW had been developed based on the Finite Difference Method for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport through saturated and unsaturated soil. The code is validated with the analytical model and the benchmarking cases available in the literature. (authors)
Computational Methods for Analyzing Fluid Flow Dynamics from Digital Imagery
Luttman, A.
2012-03-30
The main goal (long term) of this work is to perform computational dynamics analysis and quantify uncertainty from vector fields computed directly from measured data. Global analysis based on observed spatiotemporal evolution is performed by objective function based on expected physics and informed scientific priors, variational optimization to compute vector fields from measured data, and transport analysis proceeding with observations and priors. A mathematical formulation for computing flow fields is set up for computing the minimizer for the problem. An application to oceanic flow based on sea surface temperature is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shanghong; Yuan, Rui; Wu, Yu; Yi, Yujun
2016-01-01
The Open Accelerator (OpenACC) application programming interface is a relatively new parallel computing standard. In this paper, particle-based flow field simulations are examined as a case study of OpenACC parallel computation. The parallel conversion process of the OpenACC standard is explained, and further, the performance of the flow field parallel model is analysed using different directive configurations and grid schemes. With careful implementation and optimisation of the data transportation in the parallel algorithm, a speedup factor of 18.26× is possible. In contrast, a speedup factor of just 11.77× was achieved with the conventional Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) parallel mode on a 20-kernel computer. These results demonstrate that optimised feature settings greatly influence the degree of speedup, and models involving larger numbers of calculations exhibit greater efficiency and higher speedup factors. In addition, the OpenACC parallel mode is found to have good portability, making it easy to implement parallel computation from the original serial model.
Computer-Aided Light Sheet Flow Visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.
1993-01-01
A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images, along with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. A description is provided of the photogrammetric reconstruction technique, and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment. Results of the computer aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images and CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.
Computational Challenges of Viscous Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Kim, Chang Sung
2004-01-01
Over the past thirty years, numerical methods and simulation tools for incompressible flows have been advanced as a subset of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) discipline. Although incompressible flows are encountered in many areas of engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to the rather stringent requirements for predicting aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, while flow devices involving low-speed or incompressible flow could be reasonably well designed without resorting to accurate numerical simulations. As flow devices are required to be more sophisticated and highly efficient CFD took become increasingly important in fluid engineering for incompressible and low-speed flow. This paper reviews some of the successes made possible by advances in computational technologies during the same period, and discusses some of the current challenges faced in computing incompressible flows.
Universal Formulation For Symmetries In Computed Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
1995-01-01
Universal formulation for high-order symmetries in boundary conditions on flows devised. Eliminates need for special procedures to incorporate symmetries and corresponding boundary conditions into computer codes solving Navier-Stokes and Euler equations of flow.
Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart Valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, Stewart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee
1994-01-01
Report discusses computations of blood flow through prosthetic tilting disk valve. Computational procedure developed in simulation used to design better artificial hearts and valves by reducing or eliminating following adverse flow characteristics: large pressure losses, which prevent hearts from working efficiently; separated and secondary flows, which causes clotting; and high turbulent shear stresses, which damages red blood cells. Report reiterates and expands upon part of NASA technical memorandum "Computed Flow Through an Artificial Heart and Valve" (ARC-12983). Also based partly on research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478).
Computed Flows In A Transonic Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rangwalla, A. A.; Madavan, N. K.; Johnson, P. D.
1993-01-01
Report presents computational study of flow in first stage of three alternative versions of proposed transonic turbine. Study demonstrates application of computational fluid dynamics to predict performance and analyze effects of changes in designs of these advanced machines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verkaik, A. C.; Beulen, B. W. A. M. M.; Bogaerds, A. C. B.; Rutten, M. C. M.; van de Vosse, F. N.
2009-02-01
To monitor biomechanical parameters related to cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to perform correct volume flow estimations of blood flow in arteries based on local blood velocity measurements. In clinical practice, estimates of flow are currently made using a straight-tube assumption, which may lead to inaccuracies since most arteries are curved. Therefore, this study will focus on the effect of curvature on the axial velocity profile for flow in a curved tube in order to find a new volume flow estimation method. The study is restricted to steady flow, enabling the use of analytical methods. First, analytical approximation methods for steady flow in curved tubes at low Dean numbers (Dn) and low curvature ratios (δ) are investigated. From the results a novel volume flow estimation method, the cos θ-method, is derived. Simulations for curved tube flow in the physiological range (1≤Dn≤1000 and 0.01≤δ≤0.16) are performed with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The asymmetric axial velocity profiles of the analytical approximation methods are compared with the velocity profiles of the CFD model. Next, the cos θ-method is validated and compared with the currently used Poiseuille method by using the CFD results as input. Comparison of the axial velocity profiles of the CFD model with the approximations derived by Topakoglu [J. Math. Mech. 16, 1321 (1967)] and Siggers and Waters [Phys. Fluids 17, 077102 (2005)] shows that the derived velocity profiles agree very well for Dn≤50 and are fair for 50
Selected computations of transonic cavity flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atwood, Christopher A.
1993-01-01
An efficient diagonal scheme implemented in an overset mesh framework has permitted the analysis of geometrically complex cavity flows via the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Use of rapid hyperbolic and algebraic grid methods has allowed simple specification of critical turbulent regions with an algebraic turbulence model. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results are made in two dimensions for the following problems: a backward-facing step; a resonating cavity; and two quieted cavity configurations. In three-dimensions the flow about three early concepts of the stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) are compared to wind-tunnel data. Shedding frequencies of resolved shear layer structures are compared against experiment for the quieted cavities. The results demonstrate the progress of computational assessment of configuration safety and performance.
Computing Flows Of Coolants In Turbomachines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meitner, P. L.
1994-01-01
Coolant Passage Flow (CPF) computer code developed to predict accurately coolant flow and heat transfer inside turbomachinery cooling passages (either radial or axial blading). Computes flow in one-inlet/one-outlet passage of any shape. Calculates rate of flow of coolant, temperature, pressure, velocity, and heat-transfer coefficients along passage. Integrates one-dimensional momentum and energy equations along defined flow path, taking into account change in area, addition or subtraction of mass, pumping, friction, and transfer of heat. Written in FORTRAN IV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, David F.
1992-10-01
The major thrust of this book is to present a technique of analysis that aids the formulation, understanding, and solution of problems of viscous flow. The intent is to avoid providing a "canned" program to solve a problem, offering instead a way to recognize the underlying physical, mathematical, and modeling concepts inherent in the solutions. The reader must first choose a mathematical model and derive governing equations based on realistic assumptions, or become aware of the limitations and assumptions associated with existing models. An appropriate solution technique is then selected. The solution technique may be either analytical or numerical. Computer-aided analysis algorithms supplement the classical analyses. The book begins by deriving the Navier-Stokes equation for a viscous compressible variable property fluid. The second chapter considers exact solutions of the incompressible hydrodynamic boundary layer equations solved with and without mass transfer at the wall. Forced convection, free convection, and the compressible laminar boundary layer are discussed in the remaining chapters. The text unifies the various topics by tracing a logical progression from simple to complex governing differential equations and boundary conditions. Numerical, parametric, and directed analysis problems are included at the end of each chapter.
Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi
2016-04-01
Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, and COMSOL. Using the new benchmark scenarios defined in Cordonnier et al. (Geol Soc SP, 2015) as a guide, we model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal and sloping surfaces, topographic obstacles, and digital elevation models of natural topography. We compare model results to analytical theory, analogue and molten basalt experiments, and measurements from natural lava flows. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We can apply these models to reconstruct past lava flows in Hawai'i and Saudi Arabia using parameters assembled from morphology, textural analysis, and eruption observations as natural test cases. Our study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each code, including accuracy and computational costs, and provides insights regarding code selection.
Lee, Seunghun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk; Park, Jong-Eun; Kang, Young-Yeul; Kim, Woo-Il; Shin, Sun-Kyoung
2015-02-15
This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in plastics from obsolete TVs and computer monitors that often contain large amounts of the flame retardants. According to the results of the static SFA study, 1.87 tons and 0.28 tons of PBDEs from newly manufactured TVs and computer monitors were introduced into households in 2011 in Korea, respectively. There were approximately 924 tons and 90.3 tons of PBDEs present in TVs and computer monitors in households during product use, respectively. The results of the dynamic SFA study indicated that in 2017 the amount of PBDEs from TVs and computer monitors in the recycling stage is expected to be 2.63 tons and 0.1 tons, respectively. Large fractions of PBDEs from used TVs are present in recycled plastics, while PBDE-containing computer monitors are exported to Southeast Asian countries. This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the most from recycled plastic pellet processes upon recycling. Further study may be warranted to focus the flow of PBDEs in recycled plastic products in order to determine the final destination and disposal of these chemicals in the environment. PMID:25460941
Computing Cooling Flows in Turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gauntner, J.
1986-01-01
Algorithm developed for calculating both quantity of compressor bleed flow required to cool turbine and resulting decrease in efficiency due to cooling air injected into gas stream. Program intended for use with axial-flow, air-breathing, jet-propulsion engines with variety of airfoil-cooling configurations. Algorithm results compared extremely well with figures given by major engine manufacturers for given bulk-metal temperatures and cooling configurations. Program written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.
High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin
2001-01-01
The objective of the First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (June 12-14, 2001) is to bring together industry and academia (and government) to nurture the next generation in computational mechanics. The objective of the current talk, 'High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows', is to discuss some of the current issues in large scale computing for mission-oriented tasks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wenbo; Ground, Cody; Maddalena, Luca; Viti, Valerio
2016-09-01
Concentration probes are employed in supersonic flow mixing measurements. Because the typical design of such probes is essentially based on an inviscid, adiabatic, quasi-1D analysis, the scope of this work is to understand better and quantify the severe impact of viscous effects on the probe’s internal gasdynamics and the associated uncertainties in the measured quantities via a computational fluid dynamics analysis. Specifically, the focus is on the augmented errors due to the aforementioned viscous effects when coupled with various cases of probe-flow misalignment, which is a typical scenario encountered in mixing measurements of binary gas compositions (air and helium in the present work) in vortex-dominated flows. Results show phenomena such as shock induced boundary layer separation and the formation of an oblique shock train. These flow features are found to noticeably affect the accuracy of the composition measurement. The errors associated with the inviscid, adiabatic, quasi-1D analysis of the probes are quantified in this study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ness, J. C.
1982-12-01
This report presents a computer program for preliminary design analysis of counter-flow, compact, plate-fin heat exchangers. The program method is based on the effectiveness-NTU relationship analysis. The heat exchanger design begins with assumptions for counter-flow length, total frontal flow area and core matrix fin geometry. Using these constraints, the program proceeds to calculate the resulting effectiveness and pressure drop based on specified air-side and gas-side fin types; the pressures, temperatures, and mass flows of the air and gas streams; fuel-air ratio; as well as, the maximum air-side inlet header velocity. Heat exchanger designs may be generated based on four different fin types (i.e., plain, louvered, strip/offset or wavy fins) over a varied number of core dimensions. Program output includes inlet and exit conditions on air and gas sides, effectiveness, fin characteristics, core length and volume, total frontal units, overall weight, and air-side header diameters and velocities. This report presents the analysis method, description of input and output with sample cases, and a program listing.
Computational interferometric description of nested flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Havener, A. George; Obergefell, L. A.
1987-01-01
Computer graphics and theoretical descriptions of density are used to obtain computer generated flow visualizations called computational interferograms. Computational interferograms are pictorially analogous to optical interferograms, and examples showing the fringe pattern for the flow about a sharp tip cone in a supersonic air stream are presented. To ascertain the effect of unsteady behavior, local density disturbances are added to the steady state flow field. This introduces irregularities to the computational interferogram like those seen in the optical interferograms. These theoretical disturbances can be varied in geometry, density description, translated with time, and strengthened or dissipated. The accuracy of computational interferometry relies on the accuracy of the theoretical density descriptions and therefore, it provides a way of verifying existing models of flow fields, especially those containing unsteady or turbulent behavior. In addition to being a unique method of flow visualization, computational interferometry can be used to develop and modify theories or numerical solutions to both simple and complex flow fields. The presented research is a general description of this process.
Graphics and Flow Visualization of Computer Generated Flow Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kathong, M.; Tiwari, S. N.
1987-01-01
Flow field variables are visualized using color representations described on surfaces that are interpolated from computational grids and transformed to digital images. Techniques for displaying two and three dimensional flow field solutions are addressed. The transformations and the use of an interactive graphics program for CFD flow field solutions, called PLOT3D, which runs on the color graphics IRIS workstation are described. An overview of the IRIS workstation is also described.
A novel potential/viscous flow coupling technique for computing helicopter flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.; Yoo, Sungyul
1990-01-01
Because of the complexity of helicopter flow field, a zonal method of analysis of computational aerodynamics is required. Here, a new procedure for coupling potential and viscous flow is proposed. An overlapping, velocity coupling technique is to be developed with the unique feature that the potential flow surface singularity strengths are obtained directly from the Navier-Stokes at a smoother inner fluid boundary. The closed-loop iteration method proceeds until the velocity field is converged. This coupling should provide the means of more accurate viscous computations of the near-body and rotor flow fields with resultant improved analysis of such important performance parameters as helicopter fuselage drag and rotor airloads.
Porter, Mark L.; Wildenschild, Dorthe
2010-09-03
Image analysis of three-dimensional microtomographic image data has become an integral component of pore scale investigations of multiphase flow through porous media. This study focuses on the validation of image analysis algorithms for identifying phases and estimating porosity, saturation, solid surface area, and interfacial area between fluid phases from gray-scale X-ray microtomographic image data. The data used in this study consisted of (1) a two-phase high precision bead pack from which porosity and solid surface area estimates were obtained and (2) three-phase cylindrical capillary tubes of three different radii, each containing an air-water interface, from which interfacial area was estimated. The image analysis algorithm employed here combines an anisotropic diffusion filter to remove noise from the original gray-scale image data, a k-means cluster analysis to obtain segmented data, and the construction of isosurfaces to estimate solid surface area and interfacial area. Our method was compared with laboratory measurements, as well as estimates obtained from a number of other image analysis algorithms presented in the literature. Porosity estimates for the two-phase bead pack were within 1.5% error of laboratory measurements and agreed well with estimates obtained using an indicator kriging segmentation algorithm. Additionally, our method estimated the solid surface area of the high precision beads within 10% of the laboratory measurements, whereas solid surface area estimates obtained from voxel counting and two-point correlation functions overestimated the surface area by 20--40%. Interfacial area estimates for the air-water menisci contained within the capillary tubes were obtained using our image analysis algorithm, and using other image analysis algorithms, including voxel counting, two-point correlation functions, and the porous media marching cubes. Our image analysis algorithm, and other algorithms based on marching cubes, resulted in errors
Computation of unsteady flows over airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ekaterinaris, J. A.; Platzer, M. F.
1992-01-01
Two methods are described for calculating unsteady flows over rapidly pitching airfoils. The first method is based on an interactive scheme in which the inviscid flow is obtained by a panel method. The boundary layer flow is computed by an interactive method that makes use of the Hilbert integral to couple the solutions of the inviscid and viscous flow equations. The second method is based on the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution of these equations is obtained with an approximately factorized numerical algorithm, and with single block or multiple grids which enable grid embedding to enhance the resolution at isolated flow regions. In addition, the attached flow region can be computed by the numerical solution of compressible boundary layer equations. Unsteady pressure distributions obtained with both methods are compared with available experimental data.
Dimartino, Simone; Mather, Anton V; Alestra, Tommaso; Nawada, Suhas; Haber, Meir
2015-02-01
Bioadhesives produced by marine macroalgae represent a potential source of inspiration for the development of water-resistant adhesives. Assessing their adhesion strength, however, remains difficult owing to low volumes of adhesive material produced, low solubility and rapid curing time. These difficulties can be circumvented by testing the adhesion strength of macroalgae propagules attached to a substrate. In this paper, we present a simple, novel flow channel used to test the adhesion strength of the germlings of the fucalean alga Hormosira banksii to four substrates of biomedical relevance (PMMA, agar, gelatin and gelatin + lipid). The adhesion strength of H. banksii germlings was found to increase in a time-dependent manner, with minimal adhesion success after a settlement period of 6 h and maximum adhesion strength achieved 24 h after initial settlement. Adhesion success increased most dramatically between 6 and 12 h settlement time, while no additional increase in adhesion strength was recorded for settlement times over 24 h. No significant difference in adhesion strength to the various substrates was observed. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to estimate the influence of fluid velocity and germling density on drag force acting on the settled organisms. CFD modelling showed that, on average, the drag force decreased with increasing germling number, suggesting that germlings would benefit from gregarious settlement behaviour. Collectively, our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms allowing benthic marine organisms to thrive in hydrodynamically stressful environments and provide useful insights for further investigations. PMID:25657838
Dimartino, Simone; Mather, Anton V.; Alestra, Tommaso; Nawada, Suhas; Haber, Meir
2015-01-01
Bioadhesives produced by marine macroalgae represent a potential source of inspiration for the development of water-resistant adhesives. Assessing their adhesion strength, however, remains difficult owing to low volumes of adhesive material produced, low solubility and rapid curing time. These difficulties can be circumvented by testing the adhesion strength of macroalgae propagules attached to a substrate. In this paper, we present a simple, novel flow channel used to test the adhesion strength of the germlings of the fucalean alga Hormosira banksii to four substrates of biomedical relevance (PMMA, agar, gelatin and gelatin + lipid). The adhesion strength of H. banksii germlings was found to increase in a time-dependent manner, with minimal adhesion success after a settlement period of 6 h and maximum adhesion strength achieved 24 h after initial settlement. Adhesion success increased most dramatically between 6 and 12 h settlement time, while no additional increase in adhesion strength was recorded for settlement times over 24 h. No significant difference in adhesion strength to the various substrates was observed. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to estimate the influence of fluid velocity and germling density on drag force acting on the settled organisms. CFD modelling showed that, on average, the drag force decreased with increasing germling number, suggesting that germlings would benefit from gregarious settlement behaviour. Collectively, our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms allowing benthic marine organisms to thrive in hydrodynamically stressful environments and provide useful insights for further investigations. PMID:25657838
Mean Flow Boundary Conditions for Computational Aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hixon, R.; Nallasamy, M.; Sawyer, S.; Dyson, R.
2003-01-01
In this work, a new type of boundary condition for time-accurate Computational Aeroacoustics solvers is described. This boundary condition is designed to complement the existing nonreflective boundary conditions while ensuring that the correct mean flow conditions are maintained throughout the flow calculation. Results are shown for a loaded 2D cascade, started with various initial conditions.
Computational methods for ideal compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanleer, B.
1983-01-01
Conservative dissipative difference schemes for computing one dimensional flow are introduced, and the recognition and representation of flow discontinuities are discussed. Multidimensional methods are outlined. Second order finite volume schemes are introduced. Conversion of difference schemes for a single linear convection equation into schemes for the hyperbolic system of the nonlinear conservation laws of ideal compressible flow is explained. Approximate Riemann solvers are presented. Monotone initial value interpolation; and limiters, switches, and artificial dissipation are considered.
Computation of Flow in Screw Compressors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalitzin, Georgi; Cai, Xiaodan; Reba, Ramons; Medic, Gorazd
2015-08-01
A CFD model enabling accurate and computationally affordable simulation of unsteady flow in screw compressors has been developed. This paper focuses on computational aspects, including real-gas CFD using hybrid structured/unstructured moving grids, and specifics of grid generation for moving rotors and their communication with the discharge plenum.
Computer analysis of arteriograms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selzer, R. H.; Armstrong, J. H.; Beckenbach, E. B.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Brooks, S. H.; Sanmarco, M. E.
1977-01-01
A computer system has been developed to quantify the degree of atherosclerosis in the human femoral artery. The analysis involves first scanning and digitizing angiographic film, then tracking the outline of the arterial image and finally computing the relative amount of roughness or irregularity in the vessel wall. The image processing system and method are described.
Computation of Reacting Flows in Combustion Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Chen, Kuo-Huey
1997-01-01
The main objective of this research was to develop an efficient three-dimensional computer code for chemically reacting flows. The main computer code developed is ALLSPD-3D. The ALLSPD-3D computer program is developed for the calculation of three-dimensional, chemically reacting flows with sprays. The ALL-SPD code employs a coupled, strongly implicit solution procedure for turbulent spray combustion flows. A stochastic droplet model and an efficient method for treatment of the spray source terms in the gas-phase equations are used to calculate the evaporating liquid sprays. The chemistry treatment in the code is general enough that an arbitrary number of reaction and species can be defined by the users. Also, it is written in generalized curvilinear coordinates with both multi-block and flexible internal blockage capabilities to handle complex geometries. In addition, for general industrial combustion applications, the code provides both dilution and transpiration cooling capabilities. The ALLSPD algorithm, which employs the preconditioning and eigenvalue rescaling techniques, is capable of providing efficient solution for flows with a wide range of Mach numbers. Although written for three-dimensional flows in general, the code can be used for two-dimensional and axisymmetric flow computations as well. The code is written in such a way that it can be run in various computer platforms (supercomputers, workstations and parallel processors) and the GUI (Graphical User Interface) should provide a user-friendly tool in setting up and running the code.
Hodgdon, M.L.; Oona, H.; Martinez, A.R.; Salon, S.; Wendling, P.; Krahenbuhl, L.; Nicolas, A.; Nicolas, L.
1989-01-01
We present herein the results of three electromagnetic field problems for compressed magnetic field generators and their associated power flow channels. The first problem is the computation of the transient magnetic field in a two-dimensional model of helical generator during loading. The second problem is the three-dimensional eddy current patterns in a section of an armature beneath a bifurcation point of a helical winding. Our third problem is the calculation of the three-dimensional electrostatic fields in a region known as the post-hole convolute in which a rod connects the inner and outer walls of a system of three concentric cylinders through a hole in the middle cylinder. While analytic solutions exist for many electromagnetic field problems in cases of special and ideal geometries, the solutions of these and similar problems for the proper analysis and design of compressed magnetic field generators and their related hardware require computer simulations. In earlier studies, computer models have been proposed, several based on research oriented hydrocodes to which uncoupled or partially coupled Maxwell's equations solvers are added. Although the hydrocode models address the problem of moving, deformable conductors, they are not useful for electromagnetic analysis, nor can they be considered design tools. For our studies, we take advantage of the commercial, electromagnetic computer-aided design software packages FLUX2D nd PHI3D that were developed for motor manufacturers and utilities industries. 4 refs., 6 figs.
Boundary Conditions for Jet Flow Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayder, M. E.; Turkel, E.
1994-01-01
Ongoing activities are focused on capturing the sound source in a supersonic jet through careful large eddy simulation (LES). One issue that is addressed is the effect of the boundary conditions, both inflow and outflow, on the predicted flow fluctuations, which represent the sound source. In this study, we examine the accuracy of several boundary conditions to determine their suitability for computations of time-dependent flows. Various boundary conditions are used to compute the flow field of a laminar axisymmetric jet excited at the inflow by a disturbance given by the corresponding eigenfunction of the linearized stability equations. We solve the full time dependent Navier-Stokes equations by a high order numerical scheme. For very small excitations, the computed growth of the modes closely corresponds to that predicted by the linear theory. We then vary the excitation level to see the effect of the boundary conditions in the nonlinear flow regime.
Images constructed from computed flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, Leslie A.
1992-01-01
A method for constructing interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs from ideal- and real-gas, two- and three-dimensional computed flow fields is described. The computational grids can be structured or unstructured, and multiple grids are an option. The constructed images are compared to experimental images for several types of flow, including a ramp, a blunt-body, a nozzle, and a reacting flow. The constructed images simulate the features observed in the experimental images. They are sensitive to errors in the flow-field solutions and can be used to identify solution errors. In addition, techniques for obtaining phase shifts from experimental finite-fringe interferograms and for removing experimentally induced phase-shift errors are discussed. Both the constructed images and calculated phase shifts can be used for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes.
Computer analysis of cardiovascular parameters.
Mass, H J; Gean, J T; Gwirtz, P A
1987-01-01
A computer program is described for the analysis of several cardiovascular parameters frequently measured or derived in the chronically instrumented dog model. Data are stored on magnetic tape and are subsequently analyzed with the Apple IIe microcomputer equipped with the ADALAB (Interactive Microware, Inc.) analog-to-digital convertor. Not limited to the chronically instrumented animal model, the program is capable of analyzing left ventricular pressure, three channels of regional myocardial segment length, coronary flow velocity as measured by the Doppler ultrasonic flow technique, and two channels of systemic arterial pressure. Derived data include: left ventricular dP/dtmax, left ventricular pressure-heart rate product, left ventricular ejection time, tension time index; percent segment length shortening and velocity of shortening, dL/dt(s)max, regional stroke work and power, duration of systole and diastole; mean coronary flow velocity, peak diastolic and systolic flow velocity, and true mean systemic arterial pressure. PMID:3581809
Mathematical and computational models of plasma flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brushlinsky, K. V.
Investigations of plasma flows are of interest, firstly, due to numerous applications, and secondly, because of their general principles, which form a special branch of physics: the plasma dynamics. Numerical simulation and computation, together with theoretic and experimental methods, play an important part in these investigations. Speaking on flows, a relatively dense plasma is mentioned, so its mathematical models appertain to the fluid mechanics, i.e., they are based on the magnetohydrodynamic description of plasma. Time dependent two dimensional models of plasma flows of two wide-spread types are considered: the flows across the magnetic field and those in the magnetic field plane.
Computational engine structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Johns, R. H.
1986-01-01
A significant research activity at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the computational simulation of complex multidisciplinary engine structural problems. This simulation is performed using computational engine structural analysis (CESA) which consists of integrated multidisciplinary computer codes in conjunction with computer post-processing for problem-specific application. A variety of the computational simulations of specific cases are described in some detail in this paper. These case studies include: (1) aeroelastic behavior of bladed rotors, (2) high velocity impact of fan blades, (3) blade-loss transient response, (4) rotor/stator/squeeze-film/bearing interaction, (5) blade-fragment/rotor-burst containment, and (6) structural behavior of advanced swept turboprops. These representative case studies are selected to demonstrate the breath of the problems analyzed and the role of the computer including post-processing and graphical display of voluminous output data.
Hypersonic Flow Computations on Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bibb, K. L.; Riley, C. J.; Peraire, J.
1997-01-01
A method for computing inviscid hypersonic flow over complex configurations using unstructured meshes is presented. The unstructured grid solver uses an edge{based finite{volume formulation. Fluxes are computed using a flux vector splitting scheme that is capable of representing constant enthalpy solutions. Second{order accuracy in smooth flow regions is obtained by linearly reconstructing the solution, and stability near discontinuities is maintained by locally forcing the scheme to reduce to first-order accuracy. The implementation of the algorithm to parallel computers is described. Computations using the proposed method are presented for a sphere-cone configuration at Mach numbers of 5.25 and 10.6, and a complex hypersonic re-entry vehicle at Mach numbers of 4.5 and 9.8. Results are compared to experimental data and computations made with established structured grid methods. The use of the solver as a screening tool for rapid aerodynamic assessment of proposed vehicles is described.
Use of computer graphics for visualization of flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Val; Buning, Pieter; Choi, Diana; Bancroft, Gordon; Merritt, Fergus; Rogers, Stuart
1987-01-01
A high-performance graphics workstation has been combined with software developed for flow-field visualization to yield a highly effective tool for analysis of fluid-flow dynamics. After the flow fields are obtained from experimental measurements or computer simulations, the workstation permits one to interactively view the dynamics of the flow fields; e.g., the viewer can zoom into a region or rotate his viewing position about the region to study it in more detail. Several techniques for visualization of flow fields with this workstation are described in this paper and illustrated with a videotape available from the authors. The computer hardware and software required to create effective flow visualization displays are discussed. Additional software and hardware required to create videotapes or 16mm movies are also described. Limitations imposed by current workstation performance is addressed and future workstation performance is forecast.
Computation of Transonic Flows Using Potential Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoist, Terry L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The proposed paper will describe the state of the art associated with numerical solution of the full or exact velocity potential equation for solving transonic, external-aerodynamic flows. The presentation will begin with a review of the literature emphasizing research activities of the past decade. Next, the various forms of the full or exact velocity potential equation, the equation's corresponding mathematical characteristics, and the derivation assumptions will be presented and described in detail. Impact of the derivation assumptions on simulation accuracy, especially with respect to shock wave capture, will be presented and discussed relative to the more complete Euler or Navier-Stokes formulations. The technical presentation will continue with a description of recently developed full potential numerical approach characteristics. This description will include governing equation nondimensionalization, physical-to-computational-domain mapping procedures, a limited description of grid generation requirements, the spatial discretization scheme, numerical implementation of boundary conditions, and the iteration scheme. The next portion of the presentation will present and discuss numerical results for several two- and three-dimensional aerodynamic applications. Included in the results section will be a discussion and demonstration of a typical grid refinement analysis for determining spatial convergence of the numerical solution and level of solution accuracy. Computer timings for a variety of full potential applications will be compared and contrasted with similar results for the Euler equation formulation. Finally. the presentation will end with concluding remarks and recommendations for future work.
Energy measurement using flow computers and chromatography
Beeson, J.
1995-12-01
Arkla Pipeline Group (APG), along with most transmission companies, went to electronic flow measurement (EFM) to: (1) Increase resolution and accuracy; (2) Real time correction of flow variables; (3) Increase speed in data retrieval; (4) Reduce capital expenditures; and (5) Reduce operation and maintenance expenditures Prior to EFM, mechanical seven day charts were used which yielded 800 pressure and differential pressure readings. EFM yields 1.2-million readings, a 1500 time improvement in resolution and additional flow representation. The total system accuracy of the EFM system is 0.25 % compared with 2 % for the chart system which gives APG improved accuracy. A typical APG electronic measurement system includes a microprocessor-based flow computer, a telemetry communications package, and a gas chromatograph. Live relative density (specific gravity), BTU, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} are updated from the chromatograph to the flow computer every six minutes which provides accurate MMBTU computations. Because the gas contract length has changed from years to monthly and from a majority of direct sales to transports both Arkla and its customers wanted access to actual volumes on a much more timely basis than is allowed with charts. The new electronic system allows volumes and other system data to be retrieved continuously, if EFM is on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) or daily if on dial up telephone. Previously because of chart integration, information was not available for four to six weeks. EFM costs much less than the combined costs of telemetry transmitters, pressure and differential pressure chart recorders, and temperature chart recorder which it replaces. APG will install this equipment on smaller volume stations at a customers expense. APG requires backup measurement on metering facilities this size. It could be another APG flow computer or chart recorder, or the other companies flow computer or chart recorder.
McGrail, B.P.; Trent, D.S.; Terrones, G.; Hudson, J.D.; Michener, T.E.
1993-10-01
Safety of single-shell tanks containing ferrocyanide wastes is of concern. Ferrocyanide in the presence of an oxidizer such as NaNO{sub 3} or NaNO{sub 2} is explosively combustible when concentrated and heated. Evaluating the processes that could affect the fuel content of waste and distribution of the tank heat load is important. Highly alkaline liquid wastes were transferred in and out of the tanks over several years. Since Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} is much more soluble in alkaline media, the ferrocyanide could be dispersed from the tank more easily. If Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} or CsNaNiFe(CN){sub 6} are also soluble in alkaline media, solubilization and transport of {sup 137}Cs could also occur. Transporting this heat generating radionuclide to a localized area in the tanks is a potential mechanism for generating a ``hot spot.`` Fluid convection could potentially speed the transport process considerably over aqueous diffusion alone. A stability analysis was performed for a dense fluid layer overlying a porous medium saturated by a less dense fluid with the finding that the configuration is unconditionally unstable and independent of the properties of the porous medium or the magnitude of the fluid density difference. A parametric modeling study of the buoyancy-driven flow due to a thermal gradient was combusted to establish the relationship between the waste physical and thermal properties and natural convection heat transfer. The effects of diffusion and fluid convection on the redistribution of the {sup 137}Cs were evaluated with a 2-D coupled heat and mass transport model. The maximum predicted temperature rise associated with the formation of zones was only 5{degrees}C and thus is of no concern in terms of generating a localized ``hot spot.``
Semiempirical methods for computing turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belov, I. A.; Ginzburg, I. P.
1986-01-01
Two semiempirical theories which provide a basis for determining the turbulent friction and heat exchange near a wall are presented: (1) the Prandtl-Karman theory, and (2) the theory utilizing an equation for the energy of turbulent pulsations. A comparison is made between exact numerical methods and approximate integral methods for computing the turbulent boundary layers in the presence of pressure, blowing, or suction gradients. Using the turbulent flow around a plate as an example, it is shown that, when computing turbulent flows with external turbulence, it is preferable to construct a turbulence model based on the equation for energy of turbulent pulsations.
Computing Incompressible Flows With Free Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kothe, D.
1994-01-01
RIPPLE computer program models transient, two-dimensional flows of incompressible fluids with surface tension on free surfaces of general shape. Surface tension modeled as volume force derived from continuum-surface-force model, giving RIPPLE both robustness and accuracy in modeling surface-tension effects at free surface. Also models wall adhesion effects. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Computation of Reacting Flows in Combustion Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Chen, K.-H.
2001-01-01
The objective of this research is to develop an efficient numerical algorithm with unstructured grids for the computation of three-dimensional chemical reacting flows that are known to occur in combustion components of propulsion systems. During the grant period (1996 to 1999), two companion codes have been developed and various numerical and physical models were implemented into the two codes.
Unsteady jet flow computation towards noise prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soh, Woo-Yung
1994-01-01
An attempt has been made to combine a wave solution method and an unsteady flow computation to produce an integrated aeroacoustic code to predict far-field jet noise. An axisymmetric subsonic jet is considered for this purpose. A fourth order space accurate Pade compact scheme is used for the unsteady Navier-Stokes solution. A Kirchhoff surface integral for the wave equation is employed through the use of an imaginary surface which is a circular cylinder enclosing the jet at a distance. Information such as pressure and its time and normal derivatives is provided on the surface. The sound prediction is performed side by side with the jet flow computation. Retarded time is also taken into consideration since the cylinder body is not acoustically compact. The far-field sound pressure has the directivity and spectra show that low frequency peaks shift toward higher frequency region as the observation angle increases from the jet flow axis.
Data flow machine for data driven computing
Davidson, George S.; Grafe, Victor G.
1995-01-01
A data flow computer which of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status but to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.
Data flow machine for data driven computing
Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.
1988-07-22
A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information from an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ''fire'' signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.
Turbulent Flow Past Projectiles: A Computational Investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Pasquale; Thangam, Siva
2010-11-01
Projectiles with free spinning bases are often used for smart munitions to provide effective control, stability and terminal guidance. Computational investigations are performed for flow past cylinders aligned along their axis where a base freely spins while attached to and separated at various distances from a non-spinning fore-body. The energy spectrum is modified to incorporate the effects of swirl and rotation using a parametric characterization of the model coefficients. An efficient finite-volume algorithm is used to solve the time-averaged equations of motion and energy along with the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation. Computations are performed for both rigid cylinders as well as cylinders with free-spinning bases. Experimental data for a range of spin rates and free stream flow conditions obtained from subsonic wind tunnel with sting-mounted spinning cylinders is used for validating the computational findings.
Smoothness monitors for compressible flow computation
Sjogreen, B; Yee, H C
2008-09-02
In [SY04, YS07] and references cited therein, the authors introduced the concept of employing multiresolution wavelet decomposition of computed flow data as smoothness monitors (flow sensors) to indicate the amount and location of built-in numerical dissipation that can be eliminated or further reduced in shock-capturing schemes. Studies indicated that this approach is able to limit the use of numerical dissipation with improved accuracy compared with standard shock-capturing methods. The studies in [SY04, YS07] were limited to low order multiresolution redundant wavelets with low level supports and low order vanishing moments. The objective of this paper is to expand the previous investigation to include higher order redundant wavelets with larger support and higher order vanishing moments for a wider spectrum of flow type and flow speed applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moon, In-Sang; Lee, Seon-Mi; Moon, Il-Yoon; Yoo, Jae-Han; Lee, Soo-Yong
2011-09-01
A series of computational analyses was performed to predict the cooling process by the cooling channel of preburners used for kerosene-liquid oxygen staged combustion cycle rocket engines. As an oxygen-rich combustion occurs in the kerosene fueled preburner, it is of great importance to control the wall temperature so that it does not exceed the critical temperature. However, since the heat transfer is proportional to the speed of fluid running inside the channel, the high heat transfer leads to a trade-off of pressure loss. For this reason, it is necessary to establish a certain criteria between the pressure loss and the heat transfer or the wall surface temperature. The design factors of the cooling channel were determined by the computational research, and a test model was manufactured. The test model was used for the hot fire tests to prove the function of the cooling mechanism, among other purposes.
Computation of high-speed reacting flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clutter, James Keith
A computational study has been conducted for high-speed reacting flows relevant to munition problems, including shock-induced combustion and gun muzzle blast. The theoretical model considers inviscid and viscous flows, multi-species, finite rate chemical reaction schemes, and turbulence. Both the physical and numerical aspects are investigated to determine their impact on simulation accuracy. A range of hydrogen and oxygen reaction mechanisms are evaluated for the shock-induced combustion flow scenario. Characteristics of the mechanisms such as the induction time, heat release rate, and second explosion limit are found to impact the accuracy of the computation. On the numerical side, reaction source term treatments, including logarithmic weighting and scaling modifications, are investigated to determine their effectiveness in addressing numerical errors caused by disparate length scales between chemical reactions and fluid dynamics. It is demonstrated that these techniques can enhance solution accuracy. Computations of shock-induced combustion have also been performed using a κ-ɛ model to account for the turbulent transport of species and heat. An algebraic model of the temperature fluctuations has been used to estimate the impact of the turbulent effect on the chemical reaction source terms. The turbulence effects when represented with the current models are found to be minimal in the shock-induced combustion flow investigated in the present work. For the gun system simulations, computations for both a large caliber howitzer and small caliber firearms are carried out. A reduced kinetic scheme and an algebraic turbulence model are employed. The present approach, which accounts for the chemical reaction aspects of the gun muzzle blast problem, is found to improve the prediction of peak overpressures and can capture the effects produced by small caliber firearm sound suppressors. The present study has established the numerical and physical requirements for
Computational Analysis of Behavior.
Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin
2016-07-01
In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with. PMID:27090952
Computing Flow In A Labyrinth Seal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Tyn S.
1991-01-01
Mathematical model and computer program developed to simulate flow in labyrinth seal. Primary purpose to determine drop in pressure across primary labyrinth seal of high-pressure-oxygen turbopump of Space Shuttle main engine, including portion of drop caused by resistance to flow in gaseous-oxygen drain. Variety of geometries, including multiple chokes, accommodated. Provides for improved study of various types of seal failures and for reviews of mechanics of seal regions. Flexibility of program makes it applicable to other machinery. Further development of program includes providing for lands of various area (variable radius) and improving mathematical model of drain system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tucker, P. K.; Warsi, S. A.
1993-01-01
Film/dump cooling a rocket nozzle with fuel rich gas, as in the National Launch System (NLS) Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), adds potential complexities for integrating the engine with the vehicle. The chief concern is that once the film coolant is exhausted from the nozzle, conditions may exist during flight for the fuel-rich film gases to be recirculated to the vehicle base region. The result could be significantly higher base temperatures than would be expected from a regeneratively cooled nozzle. CFD analyses were conduced to augment classical scaling techniques for vehicle base environments. The FDNS code with finite rate chemistry was used to simulate a single, axisymmetric STME plume and the NLS base area. Parallel calculations were made of the Saturn V S-1 C/F1 plume base area flows. The objective was to characterize the plume/freestream shear layer for both vehicles as inputs for scaling the S-C/F1 flight data to NLS/STME conditions. The code was validated on high speed flows with relevant physics. This paper contains the calculations for the NLS/STME plume for the baseline nozzle and a modified nozzle. The modified nozzle was intended to reduce the fuel available for recirculation to the vehicle base region. Plumes for both nozzles were calculated at 10kFT and 50kFT.
Advances in Computational Capabilities for Hypersonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Ajay; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Moss, James N.; Drummond, J. Philip
1997-01-01
The paper reviews the growth and advances in computational capabilities for hypersonic applications over the period from the mid-1980's to the present day. The current status of the code development issues such as surface and field grid generation, algorithms, physical and chemical modeling, and validation is provided. A brief description of some of the major codes being used at NASA Langley Research Center for hypersonic continuum and rarefied flows is provided, along with their capabilities and deficiencies. A number of application examples are presented, and future areas of research to enhance accuracy, reliability, efficiency, and robustness of computational codes are discussed.
Incompressible Navier-Stokes computations of rotating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan; Rogers, Stuart
1993-01-01
Flow through pump components, such as an inducer and an impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Current computations use one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside a generic rocket engine pump inducer, a fuel pump impeller, and SSME high-pressure fuel turbopump impeller. Numerical results of inducer flow are compared with experimental measurements. Flow analyses at 80-, 100-, and 120-percent of design conditions are presented.
Convergence acceleration of viscous flow computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, G. M.
1982-01-01
A multiple-grid convergence acceleration technique introduced for application to the solution of the Euler equations by means of Lax-Wendroff algorithms is extended to treat compressible viscous flow. Computational results are presented for the solution of the thin-layer version of the Navier-Stokes equations using the explicit MacCormack algorithm, accelerated by a convective coarse-grid scheme. Extensions and generalizations are mentioned.
Courant number and unsteady flow computation
Lai, Chintu
1993-01-01
The Courant number C, the key to unsteady flow computation, is a ratio of physical wave velocity, ??, to computational signal-transmission velocity, ??, i.e., C = ??/??. In this way, it uniquely relates a physical quantity to a mathematical quantity. Because most unsteady open-channel flows are describable by a set of n characteristic equations along n characteristic paths, each represented by velocity ??i, i = 1,2,....,n, there exist as many as n components for the numerator of C. To develop a numerical model, a numerical integration must be made on each characteristic curve from an earlier point to a later point on the curve. Different numerical methods are available in unsteady flow computation due to the different paths along which the numerical integration is actually performed. For the denominator of C, the ?? defined as ?? = ?? 0 = ??x/??t has been customarily used; thus, the Courant number has the familiar form of C?? = ??/??0. This form will be referred to as ???common Courant number??? in this paper. The commonly used numerical criteria C?? for stability, neutral stability and instability, are imprecise or not universal in the sense that r0 does not always reflect the true maximum computational data-transmission speed of the scheme at hand, i.e., Ctau is no indication for the Courant constraint. In view of this , a new Courant number, called the ???natural Courant number???, Cn, that truly reflects the Courant constraint, has been defined. However, considering the numerous advantages inherent in the traditional C??, a useful and meaningful composite Courant number, denoted by C??* has been formulated from C??. It is hoped that the new aspects of the Courant number discussed herein afford the hydraulician a broader perspective, consistent criteria, and unified guidelines, with which to model various unsteady flows.
Wu, Wen; Pan, Dao-Rong; Foin, Nicolas; Pang, Si; Ye, Peng; Holm, Niels; Ren, Xiao-Min; Luo, Jie; Nanjundappa, Aravinda; Chen, Shao-Liang
2016-01-01
Detection of coronary ischemic lesions by fractional flow reserve (FFR) has been established as the gold standard. In recent years, novel computer based methods have emerged and they can provide simulation of FFR using coronary artery images acquired from coronary computed tomography angiography (FFRCT). This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate diagnostic performance of FFRCT using FFR as the reference standard. Databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medion and Web of Science were searched. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, including 833 stable patients (1377 vessels or lesions) with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD). The patient-based analysis showed pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for detection of ischemic lesions were 0.89 [95%confidence interval (CI), 0.85–0.93], 0.76 (95%CI, 0.64–0.84) and 26.21 (95%CI, 13.14–52.28). At a per-vessel or per-lesion level, the pooled estimates were as follows: sensitivity 0.84 (95%CI, 0.80–0.87), specificity 0.76 (95%CI, 0.67–0.83) and DOR 16.87 (95%CI, 9.41–30.25). Area under summary receiver operating curves was 0.90 (95%CI, 0.87–0.92) and 0.86 (95%CI, 0.83–0.89) at the two analysis levels, respectively. In conclusion, FFRCT technology achieves a moderate diagnostic performance for noninvasive identification of ischemic lesions in stable patients with suspected or known CAD in comparison to invasive FFR measurement. PMID:27377422
Wu, Wen; Pan, Dao-Rong; Foin, Nicolas; Pang, Si; Ye, Peng; Holm, Niels; Ren, Xiao-Min; Luo, Jie; Nanjundappa, Aravinda; Chen, Shao-Liang
2016-01-01
Detection of coronary ischemic lesions by fractional flow reserve (FFR) has been established as the gold standard. In recent years, novel computer based methods have emerged and they can provide simulation of FFR using coronary artery images acquired from coronary computed tomography angiography (FFRCT). This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate diagnostic performance of FFRCT using FFR as the reference standard. Databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medion and Web of Science were searched. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, including 833 stable patients (1377 vessels or lesions) with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD). The patient-based analysis showed pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for detection of ischemic lesions were 0.89 [95%confidence interval (CI), 0.85-0.93], 0.76 (95%CI, 0.64-0.84) and 26.21 (95%CI, 13.14-52.28). At a per-vessel or per-lesion level, the pooled estimates were as follows: sensitivity 0.84 (95%CI, 0.80-0.87), specificity 0.76 (95%CI, 0.67-0.83) and DOR 16.87 (95%CI, 9.41-30.25). Area under summary receiver operating curves was 0.90 (95%CI, 0.87-0.92) and 0.86 (95%CI, 0.83-0.89) at the two analysis levels, respectively. In conclusion, FFRCT technology achieves a moderate diagnostic performance for noninvasive identification of ischemic lesions in stable patients with suspected or known CAD in comparison to invasive FFR measurement. PMID:27377422
Computational studies of flow through cross flow fans - effect of blade geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govardhan, M.; Sampat, D. Lakshmana
2005-09-01
This present paper describes three dimensional computational analysis of complex internal flow in a cross flow fan. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software code CFX was used for the computation. RNG k-ɛ two equation turbulence model was used to simulate the model with unstructured mesh. Sliding mesh interface was used at the interface between the rotating and stationary domains to capture the unsteady interactions. An accurate assessment of the present investigation is made by comparing various parameters with the available experimental data. Three impeller geometries with different blade angles and radius ratio are used in the present study. Maximum energy transfer through the impeller takes place in the region where the flow follows the blade curvature. Radial velocity is not uniform through blade channels. Some blades work in turbine mode at very low flow coefficients. Static pressure is always negative in and around the impeller region.
Modeling groundwater flow on massively parallel computers
Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Fogwell, T.W.; Tompson, A.F.B.
1994-12-31
The authors will explore the numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media. An interdisciplinary team of mathematicians, computer scientists, hydrologists, and environmental engineers is developing a sophisticated simulation code for use on workstation clusters and MPPs. To date, they have concentrated on modeling flow in the saturated zone (single phase), which requires the solution of a large linear system. they will discuss their implementation of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers. The preconditioners under consideration include simple diagonal scaling, s-step Jacobi, adaptive Chebyshev polynomial preconditioning, and multigrid. They will present some preliminary numerical results, including simulations of groundwater flow at the LLNL site. They also will demonstrate the code`s scalability.
Flow in the well: computational fluid dynamics is essential in flow chamber construction
Franke, Jörg; Frank, Wolfram; Schroten, Horst
2007-01-01
A perfusion system was developed to generate well defined flow conditions within a well of a standard multidish. Human vein endothelial cells were cultured under flow conditions and cell response was analyzed by microscopy. Endothelial cells became elongated and spindle shaped. As demonstrated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD), cells were cultured under well defined but time varying shear stress conditions. A damper system was introduced which reduced pulsatile flow when using volumetric pumps. The flow and the wall shear stress distribution were analyzed by CFD for the steady and unsteady flow field. Usage of the volumetric pump caused variations of the wall shear stresses despite the controlled fluid environment and introduction of a damper system. Therefore the use of CFD analysis and experimental validation is critical in developing flow chambers and studying cell response to shear stress. The system presented gives an effortless flow chamber setup within a 6-well standard multidish. PMID:19002993
Computational flow development for unsteady viscous flows: Foundation of the numerical method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bratanow, T.; Spehert, T.
1978-01-01
A procedure is presented for effective consideration of viscous effects in computational development of high Reynolds number flows. The procedure is based on the interpretation of the Navier-Stokes equations as vorticity transport equations. The physics of the flow was represented in a form suitable for numerical analysis. Lighthill's concept for flow development for computational purposes was adapted. The vorticity transport equations were cast in a form convenient for computation. A statement for these equations was written using the method of weighted residuals and applying the Galerkin criterion. An integral representation of the induced velocity was applied on the basis of the Biot-Savart law. Distribution of new vorticity, produced at wing surfaces over small computational time intervals, was assumed to be confined to a thin region around the wing surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uddin, M. J.; Ferdows, M.; Bég, O. Anwar
2014-10-01
Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian power-law nanofluids past a linearly stretching sheet with a linear hydrodynamic slip boundary condition is investigated numerically. The non-Newtonian nanofluid model incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Similarity transformations and corresponding similarity equations of the transport equations are derived via a linear group of transformations. The transformed equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order numerical method available in the Maple 14 software for the influence of power-law (rheological) index, Lewis number, Prandtl number, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter, magnetic field parameter and linear momentum slip parameter. Validation is achieved with an optimized Nakamura implicit finite difference algorithm (NANONAK). Representative results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and concentration profiles have been presented graphically. The present results of skin friction factor and reduced heat transfer rate are also compared with the published results for several special cases of the model and found to be in close agreement. The study has applications in electromagnetic nano-materials processing.
Computer simulation of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors
Wulff, W.
1992-09-01
Two-phase flow models dominate the economic resource requirements for development and use of computer codes for analyzing thermohydraulic transients in nuclear power plants. Six principles are presented on mathematical modeling and selection of numerical methods, along with suggestions on programming and machine selection, all aimed at reducing the cost of analysis. Computer simulation is contrasted with traditional computer calculation. The advantages of run-time interactive access operation in a simulation environment are demonstrated. It is explained that the drift-flux model is better suited for two-phase flow analysis in nuclear reactors than the two-fluid model, because of the latter`s closure problem. The advantage of analytical over numerical integration is demonstrated. Modeling and programming techniques are presented which minimize the number of needed arithmetical and logical operations and thereby increase the simulation speed, while decreasing the cost.
Computational and experimental study of spin coater air flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xiaoguang; Liang, Faqiu; Haji-Sheikh, A.; Ghariban, N.
1998-06-01
An extensive 2- and 3-D analysis of air flow in a POLARISTM 2200 Microlithography Cluster spin coater was conducted using FLUENTTM Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. To supplement this analysis, direct measurement of air flow velocity was also performed using a DantecTM Hot Wire Anemometer. Velocity measurements were made along two major planes across the entire flow field in the spin coater at various operating conditions. It was found that the flow velocity at the spin coater inlet is much lower than previously assumed and quite nonuniform. Based on this observation, a pressure boundary condition rather than a velocity boundary condition was used for subsequent CFD analysis. A comparison between calculated results and experimental data shows that the 3D model accurately predicts the air flow field in the spin coater. An added advantage of this approach is that the CFD model can be easily generated from the mechanical design database and used to analyze the effect of design changes. The modeled and measured results show that the flow pattern in the spin bowl is affected by interactions between the spinning wafer, exhaust flow, and the gap between the spin head and surrounding baffle. Different operating conditions such as spin speed, inlet pressure, and exhaust pressure were found to generate substantially different flow patterns. It was also found that backflow of air could be generated under certain conditions.
Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cozzolongo, J. V.
1984-01-01
The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grah, Aleksander; Dreyer, Michael E.
2010-01-01
Spacecraft technology provides a series of applications for capillary channel flow. It can serve as a reliable means for positioning and transport of liquids under low gravity conditions. Basically, capillary channels provide liquid paths with one or more free surfaces. A problem may be flow instabilities leading to a collapse of the liquid surfaces. A result is undesired gas ingestion and a two phase flow which can in consequence cause several technical problems. The presented capillary channel consists of parallel plates with two free liquid surfaces. The flow rate is established by a pump at the channel outlet, creating a lower pressure within the channel. Owing to the pressure difference between the liquid phase and the ambient gas phase the free surfaces bend inwards and remain stable as long as they are able to resist the steady and unsteady pressure effects. For the numerical prediction of the flow stability two very different models are used. The one-dimensional unsteady model is mainly based on the Bernoulli equation, the continuity equation, and the Gauss-Laplace equation. For three-dimensional evaluations an open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool is applied. For verifications the numerical results are compared with quasisteady and unsteady data of a sounding rocket experiment. Contrary to previous experiments this one results in a significantly longer observation sequence. Furthermore, the critical point of the steady flow instability could be approached by a quasisteady technique. As in previous experiments the comparison to the numerical model evaluation shows a very good agreement for the movement of the liquid surfaces and for the predicted flow instability. The theoretical prediction of the flow instability is related to the speed index, based on characteristic velocities of the capillary channel flow. Stable flow regimes are defined by stability criteria for steady and unsteady flow. The one-dimensional computation of the speed index
Computations of flows over a turbine blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amano, R. S.; Xu, C.
2009-09-01
To meet the needs of efficient turbine blade designs, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of a complex three-dimensional (3D) flow field in turbine blade passages have been incorporated in the design process during the last decade. Owing to the numerous advantages possessed by a 3D CFD technology, many industries already use a 3D blading technique in the design process of turbomachines. In addition, blade lean and sweep have been implemented to increase the blade row efficiency. Experimental studies have shown some advantages of these features. However, most of the experimental results were combined with other features together as well, thus making it difficult to determine the effects of individual superior features. The development of CFD techniques has made it possible to do 3D turbulent flow analyses in a very short time. In this study, numerical studies are presented to demonstrate the sweep effects on a transonic compressor airfoil. The purpose of this study is to investigate the sweep effects without changing other compressor blade features, i.e., keeping the blade outflow angles and section shapes to be the same at design sections for all cases. Through this study, the sweep effect in a transonic compressor rotor blade was tested. The results showed that the sweeps redistribute the flow reducing the secondary flow loss, depending on the baseline. It was shown that the forward sweep reduces the tip loading in terms of the static pressure coefficient.
Lagrangian computation of inviscid compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klopfer, G. H.
1978-01-01
A Lagrangian method is developed to solve the Euler equations of gas dynamics. The solution of the equations is obtained by a numerical computation with the well-known Flux-Corrected-Transport (FCT) numerical method. This procedure is modified so that the boundary treatment is accurate and relatively simple. Shock waves and other flow discontinuities are captured monotonically without any type of fitting procedures. The Lagrangian method is employed so that the problem of mesh generation is completely avoided. The method is applicable to all Mach numbers except the low subsonic range where compressibility effects are small. The method is applied to a one-dimensional Riemann problem (shock tube) and to a two-dimensional supersonic channel flow with reflecting shock waves.
Computational studies of lobed forced mixer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, H.; Wu, S. S.; Yu, S. C. M.
1998-03-01
Full Navier-Stokes Analyses have been conducted for the flows behind the trailing edge of a lobed forced mixer. The governing equations are derived from the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations and discretized in the finite-difference form. A simple two-layer eddy viscosity model has also been used to account for the turbulence. Computed results are compared with some of the velocity measurements using a laser-Doppler anemometer (Yu and Yip (1997)). In general, good agreement can be obtained in the streamwise mean velocity distribution but the decay of the streamwise circulation is underpredicted. Some suggestions to the discrepancy are proposed.
Computational methods for vortex dominated compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, Earll M.
1987-01-01
The principal objectives were to: understand the mechanisms by which Euler equation computations model leading edge vortex flows; understand the vortical and shock wave structures that may exist for different wing shapes, angles of incidence, and Mach numbers; and compare calculations with experiments in order to ascertain the limitations and advantages of Euler equation models. The initial approach utilized the cell centered finite volume Jameson scheme. The final calculation utilized a cell vertex finite volume method on an unstructured grid. Both methods used Runge-Kutta four stage schemes for integrating the equations. The principal findings are briefly summarized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merkle, Charles L.
1996-01-01
The objectives of the present research are to improve design capabilities for low thrust rocket engines through understanding the detailed mixing and combustion processes in a representative combustor. Of particular interest is a small gaseous hydrogen-oxygen thruster which is considered as a coordinated part of an on-going experimental program at NASA LERC. Detailed computational modeling involves the solution of both the two- and three-dimensional Navier Stokes equations, coupled with chemical reactions and the species diffusion equations. Computations of interest include both steady state and time-accurate flowfields and are obtained by means of LU approximate factorization in time and flux split upwinding differencing in space. The emphasis in the research is focused on using numerical analysis to understand detailed combustor flowfields, including the shear layer dynamics created between fuel film cooling and the core gas in the vicinity on the nearby combustor wall; the integrity and effectiveness of the coolant film; and three-dimensional fuel and oxidizer jet injection/mixing/combustion characteristics in the primary combustor along with their joint impacts on global engine performance.
Flow Analysis: A Novel Approach For Classification.
Vakh, Christina; Falkova, Marina; Timofeeva, Irina; Moskvin, Alexey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey
2016-09-01
We suggest a novel approach for classification of flow analysis methods according to the conditions under which the mass transfer processes and chemical reactions take place in the flow mode: dispersion-convection flow methods and forced-convection flow methods. The first group includes continuous flow analysis, flow injection analysis, all injection analysis, sequential injection analysis, sequential injection chromatography, cross injection analysis, multi-commutated flow analysis, multi-syringe flow injection analysis, multi-pumping flow systems, loop flow analysis, and simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis. The second group includes segmented flow analysis, zone fluidics, flow batch analysis, sequential injection analysis with a mixing chamber, stepwise injection analysis, and multi-commutated stepwise injection analysis. The offered classification allows systematizing a large number of flow analysis methods. Recent developments and applications of dispersion-convection flow methods and forced-convection flow methods are presented. PMID:26364745
Computational Study of Separating Flow in a Planar Subsonic Diffuser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DalBello, Teryn; Dippold, Vance, III; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.
2005-01-01
A computational study of the separated flow through a 2-D asymmetric subsonic diffuser has been performed. The Wind Computational Fluid Dynamics code is used to predict the separation and reattachment behavior for an incompressible diffuser flow. The diffuser inlet flow is a two-dimensional, turbulent, and fully-developed channel flow with a Reynolds number of 20,000 based on the centerline velocity and the channel height. Wind solutions computed with the Menter SST, Chien k-epsilon, Spalart-Allmaras and Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress turbulence models are compared with experimentally measured velocity profiles and skin friction along the upper and lower walls. In addition to the turbulence model study, the effects of grid resolution and use of wall functions were investigated. The grid studies varied the number of grid points across the diffuser and varied the initial wall spacing from y(sup +) = 0.2 to 60. The wall function study assessed the applicability of wall functions for analysis of separated flow. The SST and Explicit Algebraic Stress models provide the best agreement with experimental data, and it is recommended wall functions should only be used with a high level of caution.
Modeling of supersonic combustor flows using parallel computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riggins, D.; Underwood, M.; Mcmillin, B.; Reeves, L.; Lu, E. J.-L.
1992-01-01
While current 3D CFD codes and modeling techniques have been shown capable of furnishing engineering data for complex scramjet flowfields, the usefulness of such efforts is primarily limited by solutions' CPU time requirements, and secondarily by memory requirements. Attention is presently given to the use of parallel computing capabilities for engineering CFD tools for the analysis of supersonic reacting flows, and to an illustrative incompressible CFD problem using up to 16 iPSC/2 processors with single-domain decomposition.
Numerical computation of transonic flow about wing-fuselage configurations on a vector computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, S. D.; Holst, T. L.
1983-01-01
The transonic wing analysis code TWING, which uses the AF2 relaxation algorithm, has been vectorized to run on the Cray-1S computer. Vectorization of this code improved computational efficiency over that of the CDC 7600 computer by factors of 11 to 13. The improvement compares favorably with the prediction of a theoretical performance model. A convenient generalization now permits the treatment of rudimentary wing-fuselage combinations. Flow predictions for a transport configuration in both isolated-wing and wing-fuselage modes show the expected trends in shock strength and position when compared with wind-tunnel results. An isolated fighter wing is examined in terms of execution time on three different computers and in comparison with experimental data. The computational fluid dynamics code produced during this study is a careful union of an efficient three-dimensional, transonic, numerical algorithm and the vector features presently available on modern computers.
Personal Computer Transport Analysis Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiStefano, Frank, III; Wobick, Craig; Chapman, Kirt; McCloud, Peter
2012-01-01
The Personal Computer Transport Analysis Program (PCTAP) is C++ software used for analysis of thermal fluid systems. The program predicts thermal fluid system and component transients. The output consists of temperatures, flow rates, pressures, delta pressures, tank quantities, and gas quantities in the air, along with air scrubbing component performance. PCTAP s solution process assumes that the tubes in the system are well insulated so that only the heat transfer between fluid and tube wall and between adjacent tubes is modeled. The system described in the model file is broken down into its individual components; i.e., tubes, cold plates, heat exchangers, etc. A solution vector is built from the components and a flow is then simulated with fluid being transferred from one component to the next. The solution vector of components in the model file is built at the initiation of the run. This solution vector is simply a list of components in the order of their inlet dependency on other components. The component parameters are updated in the order in which they appear in the list at every time step. Once the solution vectors have been determined, PCTAP cycles through the components in the solution vector, executing their outlet function for each time-step increment.
Quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow across face seals and narrow slots. 2: Computer program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.; Smith, P. J.
1972-01-01
A computer program is presented for compressible fluid flow with friction across face seals and through narrow slots. The computer program carries out a quasi-one-dimensional flow analysis which is valid for laminar and turbulent flows under both subsonic and choked flow conditions for parallel surfaces. The program is written in FORTRAN IV. The input and output variables are in either the International System of Units (SI) or the U.S. customary system.
Hamilton, David A.; Sorrell, Richard C.; Holtschlag, David J.
2008-01-01
In 2006, Michigan enacted laws to prevent new large capacity withdrawals from decreasing flows to the extent that they would functionally impair a stream's ability to support characteristic fish populations. The median streamflow for the summer month of lowest flow was specified by state decision makers as the index flow on which likely impacts of withdrawals would be assessed. At sites near long-term streamflow-gaging stations, analysis of streamflow records during July, August, and September was used to determine the index flow. At ungaged sites, an alternate method for computing the index flow was needed. This report documents the development of a method for computing index flows at ungaged stream sites in Michigan. The method is based on a regression model that computes the index water yield, which is the index flow divided by the drainage area. To develop the regression model, index flows were determined on the basis of daily flows measured during July, August, and September at 147 streamflow-gaging stations having 10 or more years of record (considered long-term stations) in Michigan. The corresponding index water yields were statistically related to climatic and basin characteristics upstream from the stations in the regression model. Climatic and basin characteristics selected as explanatory variables in the regression model include two aquifer-transmissivity and hydrologic-soil groups, forest land cover, and normal annual precipitation. Regression model estimates of water yield explain about 70.8 percent of the variability in index water yields indicated by streamflow-gaging station records. Index flows computed on the basis of regression-model estimates of water yield and corresponding drainage areas explain about 94.0 percent of the variability in index flows indicated by streamflow-gaging station records. No regional bias was detected in the regression-based estimates of water yield within seven hydrologic subregions spanning Michigan. Thus, the single
Computation of Hypersonic Flow about Maneuvering Vehicles with Changing Shapes
Ferencz, R M; Felker, F F; Castillo, V M
2004-02-23
Vehicles moving at hypersonic speeds have great importance to the National Security. Ballistic missile re-entry vehicles (RV's) travel at hypersonic speeds, as do missile defense intercept vehicles. Despite the importance of the problem, no computational analysis method is available to predict the aerodynamic environment of maneuvering hypersonic vehicles, and no analysis is available to predict the transient effects of their shape changes. The present state-of-the-art for hypersonic flow calculations typically still considers steady flow about fixed shapes. Additionally, with present computational methods, it is not possible to compute the entire transient structural and thermal loads for a re-entry vehicle. The objective of this research is to provide the required theoretical development and a computational analysis tool for calculating the hypersonic flow about maneuvering, deforming RV's. This key enabling technology will allow the development of a complete multi-mechanics simulation of the entire RV flight sequence, including important transient effects such as complex flight dynamics. This will allow the computation of the as-delivered state of the payload in both normal and unusual operational environments. This new analysis capability could also provide the ability to predict the nonlinear, transient behavior of endo-atmospheric missile interceptor vehicles to the input of advanced control systems. Due to the computational intensity of fluid dynamics for hypersonics, the usual approach for calculating the flow about a vehicle that is changing shape is to complete a series of steady calculations, each with a fixed shape. However, this quasi-steady approach is not adequate to resolve the frequencies characteristic of a vehicle's structural dynamics. Our approach is to include the effects of the unsteady body shape changes in the finite-volume method by allowing for arbitrary translation and deformation of the control volumes. Furthermore, because the Eulerian
Computational analysis of a multistage axial compressor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamidoju, Chaithanya
Turbomachines are used extensively in Aerospace, Power Generation, and Oil & Gas Industries. Efficiency of these machines is often an important factor and has led to the continuous effort to improve the design to achieve better efficiency. The axial flow compressor is a major component in a gas turbine with the turbine's overall performance depending strongly on compressor performance. Traditional analysis of axial compressors involves throughflow calculations, isolated blade passage analysis, Quasi-3D blade-to-blade analysis, single-stage (rotor-stator) analysis, and multi-stage analysis involving larger design cycles. In the current study, the detailed flow through a 15 stage axial compressor is analyzed using a 3-D Navier Stokes CFD solver in a parallel computing environment. Methodology is described for steady state (frozen rotor stator) analysis of one blade passage per component. Various effects such as mesh type and density, boundary conditions, tip clearance and numerical issues such as turbulence model choice, advection model choice, and parallel processing performance are analyzed. A high sensitivity of the predictions to the above was found. Physical explanation to the flow features observed in the computational study are given. The total pressure rise verses mass flow rate was computed.
Computations of Axisymmetric Flows in Hypersonic Shock Tubes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharma, Surendra P.; Wilson, Gregory J.
1995-01-01
A time-accurate two-dimensional fluid code is used to compute test times in shock tubes operated at supersonic speeds. Unlike previous studies, this investigation resolves the finer temporal details of the shock-tube flow by making use of modern supercomputers and state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamic solution techniques. The code, besides solving the time-dependent fluid equations, also accounts for the finite rate chemistry in the hypersonic environment. The flowfield solutions are used to estimate relevant shock-tube parameters for laminar flow, such as test times, and to predict density and velocity profiles. Boundary-layer parameters such as bar-delta(sub u), bar-delta(sup *), and bar-tau(sub w), and test time parameters such as bar-tau and particle time of flight t(sub f), are computed and compared with those evaluated by using Mirels' correlations. This article then discusses in detail the effects of flow nonuniformities on particle time-of-flight behind the normal shock and, consequently, on the interpretation of shock-tube data. This article concludes that for accurate interpretation of shock-tube data, a detailed analysis of flowfield parameters, using a computer code such as used in this study, must be performed.
Computation of turbulent flows over backward-facing step
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, N. N.; Kim, J.; Moin, P.
1983-01-01
A numerical method for computing incompressible turbulent flows is presented. The method is tested by calculating laminar recirculating flows and is applied in conjunction with a modified Kappa-epsilon model to compute the flow over a backward-facing step. In the laminar regime, the computational results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The turbulent flow study shows that the reattachment length is underpredicted by the standard Kappa-epsilon model. The addition of a term to the standard model that accounts for the effects of rotation on turbulent flow improves the results in the recirculation region and increases the computed reattachment length.
Computation of Thermally Perfect Compressible Flow Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witte, David W.; Tatum, Kenneth E.; Williams, S. Blake
1996-01-01
A set of compressible flow relations for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas are derived for a value of c(sub p) (specific heat at constant pressure) expressed as a polynomial function of temperature and developed into a computer program, referred to as the Thermally Perfect Gas (TPG) code. The code is available free from the NASA Langley Software Server at URL http://www.larc.nasa.gov/LSS. The code produces tables of compressible flow properties similar to those found in NACA Report 1135. Unlike the NACA Report 1135 tables which are valid only in the calorically perfect temperature regime the TPG code results are also valid in the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regime, giving the TPG code a considerably larger range of temperature application. Accuracy of the TPG code in the calorically perfect and in the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regimes are verified by comparisons with the methods of NACA Report 1135. The advantages of the TPG code compared to the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect method of NACA Report 1135 are its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, or polyatomic) or any specified mixture of gases, ease-of-use, and tabulated results.
Computing Flows Using Chimera and Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing; Zheng, Yao
2006-01-01
DRAGONFLOW is a computer program that solves the Navier-Stokes equations of flows in complexly shaped three-dimensional regions discretized by use of a direct replacement of arbitrary grid overlapping by nonstructured (DRAGON) grid. A DRAGON grid (see figure) is a combination of a chimera grid (a composite of structured subgrids) and a collection of unstructured subgrids. DRAGONFLOW incorporates modified versions of two prior Navier-Stokes-equation-solving programs: OVERFLOW, which is designed to solve on chimera grids; and USM3D, which is used to solve on unstructured grids. A master module controls the invocation of individual modules in the libraries. At each time step of a simulated flow, DRAGONFLOW is invoked on the chimera portion of the DRAGON grid in alternation with USM3D, which is invoked on the unstructured subgrids of the DRAGON grid. The USM3D and OVERFLOW modules then immediately exchange their solutions and other data. As a result, USM3D and OVERFLOW are coupled seamlessly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maslen, S. H.
1974-01-01
A general method developed for the analysis of inviscid hypersonic shock layers is discussed for application to the case of the shuttle vehicle at high (65 deg) angle of attack. The associated extensive subsonic flow region caused convergence difficulties whose resolution is discussed. It is required that the solution be smoother than anticipated.
Numerical computational of fluid flow through a detached retina
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiann, Lim Yeou; Ismail, Zuhaila; Shafie, Sharidan; Fitt, Alistair
2015-02-01
In this paper, a phenomenon of fluid flow through a detached retina is studied. Rhegmatogeneous retinal detachment happens when vitreous humour flow through a detached retina. The exact mechanism of Rhegmatogeneous retinal detachment is complex and remains incomplete. To understand the fluid flow, a paradigm mathematical model is developed and is approximated by the lubrication theory. The numerical results of the velocity profile and pressure distribution are computed by using Finite Element Method. The effects of fluid mechanical on the retinal detachment is discussed and analyzed. Based on the analysis, it is found that the retinal detachment deformation affects the pressure distribution. It is important to comprehend the development of the retinal detachment so that a new treatment method can be developed.
Physical aspects of computing the flow of a viscous fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, U. B.
1984-01-01
One of the main themes in fluid dynamics at present and in the future is going to be computational fluid dynamics with the primary focus on the determination of drag, flow separation, vortex flows, and unsteady flows. A computation of the flow of a viscous fluid requires an understanding and consideration of the physical aspects of the flow. This is done by identifying the flow regimes and the scales of fluid motion, and the sources of vorticity. Discussions of flow regimes deal with conditions of incompressibility, transitional and turbulent flows, Navier-Stokes and non-Navier-Stokes regimes, shock waves, and strain fields. Discussions of the scales of fluid motion consider transitional and turbulent flows, thin- and slender-shear layers, triple- and four-deck regions, viscous-inviscid interactions, shock waves, strain rates, and temporal scales. In addition, the significance and generation of vorticity are discussed. These physical aspects mainly guide computations of the flow of a viscous fluid.
Efficient computation of the spectrum of viscoelastic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valério, J. V.; Carvalho, M. S.; Tomei, C.
2009-03-01
The understanding of viscoelastic flows in many situations requires not only the steady state solution of the governing equations, but also its sensitivity to small perturbations. Linear stability analysis leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem (GEVP), whose numerical analysis may be challenging, even for Newtonian liquids, because the incompressibility constraint creates singularities that lead to non-physical eigenvalues at infinity. For viscoelastic flows, the difficulties increase due to the presence of continuous spectrum, related to the constitutive equations. The Couette flow of upper convected Maxwell (UCM) liquids has been used as a case study of the stability of viscoelastic flows. The spectrum consists of two discrete eigenvalues and a continuous segment with real part equal to -1/ We ( We is the Weissenberg number). Most of the approximations in the literature were obtained using spectral expansions. The eigenvalues close to the continuous part of the spectrum show very slow convergence. In this work, the linear stability of Couette flow of a UCM liquid is studied using a finite element method. A new procedure to eliminate the eigenvalues at infinity from the GEVP is proposed. The procedure takes advantage of the structure of the matrices involved and avoids the computational overhead of the usual mapping techniques. The GEVP is transformed into a non-degenerate GEVP of dimension five times smaller. The computed eigenfunctions related to the continuous spectrum are in good agreement with the analytic solutions obtained by Graham [M.D. Graham, Effect of axial flow on viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability, J. Fluid Mech. 360 (1998) 341].
Computer-aided light sheet flow visualization using photogrammetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.
1994-01-01
A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and a visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. The photogrammetric reconstruction technique and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment are described. Results of the computer-aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images with CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.
Miniaturized flow injection analysis system
Folta, J.A.
1997-07-01
A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.
Miniaturized flow injection analysis system
Folta, James A.
1997-01-01
A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.
SRMAFTE facility checkout model flow field analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.
1992-01-01
The Solid Rocket Motor Air Flow Equipment (SRMAFTE) facility was constructed for the purpose of evaluating the internal propellant, insulation, and nozzle configurations of solid propellant rocket motor designs. This makes the characterization of the facility internal flow field very important in assuring that no facility induced flow field features exist which would corrupt the model related measurements. In order to verify the design and operation of the facility, a three-dimensional computational flow field analysis was performed on the facility checkout model setup. The checkout model measurement data, one-dimensional and three-dimensional estimates were compared, and the design and proper operation of the facility was verified. The proper operation of the metering nozzles, adapter chamber transition, model nozzle, and diffuser were verified. The one-dimensional and three-dimensional flow field estimates along with the available measurement data are compared.
Refinement Of Hexahedral Cells In Euler Flow Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, John E.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Thomas, Scott D.
1996-01-01
Topologically Independent Grid, Euler Refinement (TIGER) computer program solves Euler equations of three-dimensional, unsteady flow of inviscid, compressible fluid by numerical integration on unstructured hexahedral coordinate grid refined where necessary to resolve shocks and other details. Hexahedral cells subdivided, each into eight smaller cells, as needed to refine computational grid in regions of high flow gradients. Grid Interactive Refinement and Flow-Field Examination (GIRAFFE) computer program written in conjunction with TIGER program to display computed flow-field data and to assist researcher in verifying specified boundary conditions and refining grid.
Computation of incompressible viscous flows through turbopump components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon
1993-02-01
Flow through pump components, such as an inducer and an impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. the equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. Current computations use a one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside a generic rocket engine pump inducer, a fuel pump impeller, and SSME high pressure fuel turbopump impeller. Numerical results of inducer flow are compared with experimental measurements. In the fuel pump impeller, the effect of downstream boundary conditions is investigated. Flow analyses at 80 percent, 100 percent, and 120 percent of design conditions are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
Ingersoll-Rand Research, Inc.'s use of COSMIC's computer program MERIDL permits designers to evaluate performance and efficiency characteristics to be expected from the pump's impeller. It also provides information that enables a trained hydraulic engineer to make design improvements. Company was able to avoid the cost of developing new software and to improve some product design features.
Applying uncertainty quantification to multiphase flow computational fluid dynamics
Gel, A; Garg, R; Tong, C; Shahnam, M; Guenther, C
2013-07-01
Multiphase computational fluid dynamics plays a major role in design and optimization of fossil fuel based reactors. There is a growing interest in accounting for the influence of uncertainties associated with physical systems to increase the reliability of computational simulation based engineering analysis. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has recently undertaken an initiative to characterize uncertainties associated with computer simulation of reacting multiphase flows encountered in energy producing systems such as a coal gasifier. The current work presents the preliminary results in applying non-intrusive parametric uncertainty quantification and propagation techniques with NETL's open-source multiphase computational fluid dynamics software MFIX. For this purpose an open-source uncertainty quantification toolkit, PSUADE developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been interfaced with MFIX software. In this study, the sources of uncertainty associated with numerical approximation and model form have been neglected, and only the model input parametric uncertainty with forward propagation has been investigated by constructing a surrogate model based on data-fitted response surface for a multiphase flow demonstration problem. Monte Carlo simulation was employed for forward propagation of the aleatory type input uncertainties. Several insights gained based on the outcome of these simulations are presented such as how inadequate characterization of uncertainties can affect the reliability of the prediction results. Also a global sensitivity study using Sobol' indices was performed to better understand the contribution of input parameters to the variability observed in response variable.
Computational modeling for multiphase flows with spacecraft application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uzgoren, Eray; Singh, Rajkeshar; Sim, Jaeheon; Shyy, Wei
2007-05-01
Many engineering applications involve interactions between solid, gas and liquid phases under normal or micro-gravity conditions. Numerical simulations of such fluid flows need to track the location and the shape of the fluid interface as part of the solution. The merits and basic characteristics of various approaches for numerical computations of interfacial fluid dynamics are reviewed. The computational challenges include: (i) the algorithmic complexity for handling irregularly shaped moving boundaries that can experience merger and break-up; (ii) resolution refinement techniques to maintain desirable resolution of length scales, in accordance with the evolving fluid dynamics; (iii) data structure needed to support identification of the interface and satisfaction of the physical laws in the bulk fluids as well as around the phase boundaries; and (iv) efficient parallel processing techniques required for practical engineering analysis. The present review focuses on these issues related to the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, utilizing the immersed boundary method with marker-based tracking, as the main framework for interfacial flow computations on Cartesian grids. Specifically, we offer in-depth discussion of the organization and layout of the mesh systems for both fluid and interface representations, local adaptive refinement on two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) Cartesian grids, and multi-level domain decomposition method that utilizes Hilbert space filling curves for parallel processing strategy. The effectiveness of individual components and overall algorithm are presented using various tests such as, binary drop-collision computations to highlight grid adaptation and interface tracking algorithms to handle complex interface behavior, and bubble/droplet placed in a vortex field with various density/viscosity ratios across interfaces to address load balancing and scalability aspects of parallel computing. A time-dependent draining flow problem motivated by
Potential applications of computational fluid dynamics to biofluid analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.; Rogers, S. E.; Rosenfeld, M.; Kwak, D.
1988-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics was developed to the stage where it has become an indispensable part of aerospace research and design. In view of advances made in aerospace applications, the computational approach can be used for biofluid mechanics research. Several flow simulation methods developed for aerospace problems are briefly discussed for potential applications to biofluids, especially to blood flow analysis.
Flow analysis system and method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, Wayne S. (Inventor); Barck, Bruce N. (Inventor)
1998-01-01
A non-invasive flow analysis system and method wherein a sensor, such as an acoustic sensor, is coupled to a conduit for transmitting a signal which varies depending on the characteristics of the flow in the conduit. The signal is amplified and there is a filter, responsive to the sensor signal, and tuned to pass a narrow band of frequencies proximate the resonant frequency of the sensor. A demodulator generates an amplitude envelope of the filtered signal and a number of flow indicator quantities are calculated based on variations in amplitude of the amplitude envelope. A neural network, or its equivalent, is then used to determine the flow rate of the flow in the conduit based on the flow indicator quantities.
Methodologies and techniques for analysis of network flow data
Bobyshev, A.; Grigoriev, M.; /Fermilab
2004-12-01
Network flow data gathered at the border routers and core switches is used at Fermilab for statistical analysis of traffic patterns, passive network monitoring, and estimation of network performance characteristics. Flow data is also a critical tool in the investigation of computer security incidents. Development and enhancement of flow based tools is an on-going effort. This paper describes the most recent developments in flow analysis at Fermilab.
Symbolic computer vector analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoutemyer, D. R.
1977-01-01
A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.
LFSTAT - Low-Flow Analysis in R
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koffler, Daniel; Laaha, Gregor
2013-04-01
The calculation of characteristic stream flow during dry conditions is a basic requirement for many problems in hydrology, ecohydrology and water resources management. As opposed to floods, a number of different indices are used to characterise low flows and streamflow droughts. Although these indices and methods of calculation have been well documented in the WMO Manual on Low-flow Estimation and Prediction [1], a comprehensive software was missing which enables a fast and standardized calculation of low flow statistics. We present the new software package lfstat to fill in this obvious gap. Our software package is based on the statistical open source software R, and expands it to analyse daily stream flow data records focusing on low-flows. As command-line based programs are not everyone's preference, we also offer a plug-in for the R-Commander, an easy to use graphical user interface (GUI) provided for R which is based on tcl/tk. The functionality of lfstat includes estimation methods for low-flow indices, extreme value statistics, deficit characteristics, and additional graphical methods to control the computation of complex indices and to illustrate the data. Beside the basic low flow indices, the baseflow index and recession constants can be computed. For extreme value statistics, state-of-the-art methods for L-moment based local and regional frequency analysis (RFA) are available. The tools for deficit characteristics include various pooling and threshold selection methods to support the calculation of drought duration and deficit indices. The most common graphics for low flow analysis are available, and the plots can be modified according to the user preferences. Graphics include hydrographs for different periods, flexible streamflow deficit plots, baseflow visualisation, recession diagnostic, flow duration curves as well as double mass curves, and many more. From a technical point of view, the package uses a S3-class called lfobj (low-flow objects). This
Sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bristow, D. R.
1984-01-01
Information on sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics is given in outline, graphical, and chart form. The prediction accuracy if the MCAERO program, a perturbation analysis method, is discussed. A procedure for calculating perturbation matrix, baseline wing paneling for perturbation analysis test cases and applications of an inviscid sensitivity matrix are among the topics covered.
Flow analysis of nozzle installations with strong airplane flow interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, D. W.
1982-01-01
A numerical procedure has been developed to calculate the flow fields resulting from the viscous-inviscid interactions that occur when a strong jet exhaust and aircraft flow field coupling exists. The approach used in the current procedure is to divide the interaction region into zones which are either predominantly viscous or inviscid. The flow in the inviscid zone, which surrounds most of the aircraft, is calculated using an existing linearized potential flow code. The viscous flow zone, which encompasses the jet plume, is modeled using a parabolized Navier-Stokes code. The key feature of the present procedure is the coupling of the zonal solutions such that sufficient information is transferred between the zones to preserve the effects of the interactions. The zonal boundaries overlap with the boundary conditions being the information link between zones. An iteraction scheme iterates the coupled analysis until convergence has been obtained. The procedure has been successfully used for several test cases for which the computed results are presented.
Viscous transonic flow computation over Space Shuttle configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fujii, K.; Kutler, P.
1984-01-01
A thin-layer Navier-Stokes code capable of predicting steady-state viscous flows is applied to the transonic flow over a Space Shuttle configuration. The code is written in the generalized coordinate system, and the grid-generation code of Fujii (1983) is used for the discretization of the flow field. The flow-field computation is done using the CRAY 1S computer at NASA Ames. The computed result is physically reasonable, even though no experimental data is available for the comparison purpose.
Mapping flow distortion on oceanographic platforms using computational fluid dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Sullivan, N.; Landwehr, S.; Ward, B.
2013-10-01
Wind speed measurements over the ocean on ships or buoys are affected by flow distortion from the platform and by the anemometer itself. This can lead to errors in direct measurements and the derived parametrisations. Here we computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate the errors in wind speed measurements caused by flow distortion on the RV Celtic Explorer. Numerical measurements were obtained from the finite-volume CFD code OpenFOAM, which was used to simulate the velocity fields. This was done over a range of orientations in the test domain from -60 to +60° in increments of 10°. The simulation was also set up for a range of velocities, ranging from 5 to 25 m s-1 in increments of 0.5 m s-1. The numerical analysis showed close agreement to experimental measurements.
Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart And Valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee
1994-01-01
NASA technical memorandum discusses computations of flow of blood through artificial heart and through tilting-disk artificial heart valve. Represents further progress in research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478). One purpose of research to exploit advanced techniques of computational fluid dynamics and capabilities of supercomputers to gain understanding of complicated internal flows of viscous, essentially incompressible fluids like blood. Another to use understanding to design better artificial hearts and valves.
Computer analysis of railcar vibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vlaminck, R. R.
1975-01-01
Computer models and techniques for calculating railcar vibrations are discussed along with criteria for vehicle ride optimization. The effect on vibration of car body structural dynamics, suspension system parameters, vehicle geometry, and wheel and rail excitation are presented. Ride quality vibration data collected on the state-of-the-art car and standard light rail vehicle is compared to computer predictions. The results show that computer analysis of the vehicle can be performed for relatively low cost in short periods of time. The analysis permits optimization of the design as it progresses and minimizes the possibility of excessive vibration on production vehicles.
Numerical computation of pulsatile flow through a locally constricted channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandyopadhyay, S.; Layek, G. C.
2011-01-01
This paper deals with the numerical solution of a pulsatile laminar flow through a locally constricted channel. A finite difference technique has been employed to solve the governing equations. The effects of the flow parameters such as Reynolds number, flow pulsation in terms of Strouhal number, constriction height and length on the flow behaviour have been studied. It is found that the peak value of the wall shear stress has significantly changed with the variation of Reynolds numbers and constriction heights. It is also noted that the Strouhal number and constriction length have little effect on the peak value of the wall shear stress. The flow computation reveals that the peak value of the wall shear stress at maximum flow rate time in pulsatile flow situation is much larger than that due to steady flow. The constriction and the flow pulsation produce flow disturbances at the vicinity of the constriction of the channel in the downstream direction.
COMPUTATION OF UNSTEADY FLOWS IN THE ALABAMA RIVER.
Jeffcoat, Hillary H.; Jennings, Marshall E.
1987-01-01
An application is described of the branch-network flow model, BRANCH, to the upper Alabama River system in central Alabama. The model is used to simulate one-dimensional unsteady flows and water surface elevations in approximately 60 river miles of the Alabama River system. Preliminary calibration was made using 72 hours of observed data. Simulated discharges are about 10 percent lower than observed discharges at higher discharge rates and computer flows lag observed flows by about 30 minutes.
Computation of flow and heat transfer in rotating cavities with peripheral flow of cooling air.
Kiliç, M
2001-05-01
Numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations have been used to model the flow and the heat transfer that occurs in the internal cooling-air systems of gas turbines. Computations are performed to study the effect of gap ratio, Reynolds number and the mass flow rate on the flow and the heat transfer structure inside isothermal and heated rotating cavities with peripheral flow of cooling air. Computations are compared with some of the recent experimental work on flow and heat transfer in rotating-cavities. The agreement between the computed and the available experimental data is reasonably good. PMID:11460668
Investigation on RANS Computation for an Unsteady Turbulent Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kodama, Kazuya; Toda, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Makoto
With improvements in a computer hardware and CFD software, the problems treated in industry are becoming more complex, both physically and geometrically. Turbulent flow with strong unsteadiness is one such physically complex example. Since Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is still too time-consuming, a great number of unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations have been employed in such engineering applications. However, the applicability of RANS to unsteady flows remains unclear. In the present study, RANS computations for two-dimensional turbulent flow with periodic perturbation over a backward-facing step are performed in order to verify the performance of a low-Reynolds-number type κ-ɛ turbulence model. Visualization and investigation of the temporal change of the flow pattern and the instantaneous term-by-term budget of the governing equations reveals that the RANS computation can reproduce the unsteady nature satisfactorily, and clarifies why the RANS model captures the unsteady turbulent flow reasonably.
LV software for supersonic flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, William A.
1992-01-01
The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) maintains a leadership position in research into advanced aerospace propulsion systems. For the next generation of aircraft, engine designs continue to involve complex, high-speed flows. Performing the detailed flow diagnostics to properly evaluate these designs requires advanced instrumentation to probe these highly turbulent flows. The hostile flow environment often requires nonintrusive measurement techniques such as the laser velocimeter (LV). Since the LV is a proven instrument for nonintrusive flow measurement, it can provide quantitative velocity data with minimal interference to the flow. Based on anticipated flow conditions, laser velocimeter systems were procured from TSI, Inc. The initial system utilized counter processor technology, but later procurements this past year include a more advanced, correlator-based processor, which significantly improves the overall LV performance. To meet the needs of advanced research into propulsion, this instrument must be integrated into an existing VAX/VMS computer system for data acquisition, processing, and presentation. The work done under this grant before this period concentrated on developing the software required to setup and acquire data from the TSI MI-990 multichannel interface, and the RMR 1989 rotating machinery resolver. With the basis established for controlling the operation of the LV system, software development this past year shifted in emphasis from instrumentation control and data acquisition to data analysis and presentation. The progress of the program is reported.
Computer design and analysis of vacuum systems
Santeler, D.J.
1987-07-01
A computer program has been developed for an IBM compatible personal computer to assist in the design and analysis of vacuum systems. The program has a selection of 12 major schematics with several thousand minor variants incorporating diffusion, turbomolecular, cryogenic, ion, mechanical, and sorption pumps as well as circular tubes, bends, valves, traps, and purge gas connections. The gas throughput versus the inlet pressure of the pump is presented on a log--log graphical display. The conductance of each series component is sequentially added to the graph to obtain the net system behavior Q/sub (//sub P//sub )/. The component conductances may be calculated either from the inlet area and the transmission probability or from the tube length and the diameter. The gas-flow calculations are valid for orifices, short tubes, and long tubes throughout the entire pressure range from molecular through viscous to choked and nonchoked exit flows. The roughing-pump and high-vacuum-pump characteristic curves are numerically integrated to provide a graphical presentation of the system pumpdown. Outgassing data for different materials is then combined to produce a graph of the net system ''outgassing pressure.'' Computer routines are provided for differentiating a real pumpdown curve for system analysis. The computer program is included with the American Vacuum Society course, ''Advanced Vacuum System Design and Analysis,'' or it may be purchased from Process Applications, Inc.
Computational flow predictions for hypersonic drag devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tokarcik, Susan A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
1993-01-01
The effectiveness of two types of hypersonic decelerators is examined: mechanically deployable flares and inflatable ballutes. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to predict the flowfield around a solid rocket motor (SRM) with a deployed decelerator. The computations are performed with an ideal gas solver using an effective specific heat ratio of 1.15. The results from the ideal gas solver are compared to computational results from a thermochemical nonequilibrium solver. The surface pressure coefficient, the drag, and the extend of the compression corner separation zone predicted by the ideal gas solver compare well with those predicted by the nonequilibrium solver. The ideal gas solver is computationally inexpensive and is shown to be well suited for preliminary design studies. The computed solutions are used to determine the size and shape of the decelerator that are required to achieve a drag coefficient of 5. Heat transfer rates to the SRM and the decelerators are predicted to estimate the amount of thermal protection required.
Unsteady flow computation of oscillating flexible wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.; Chuang, H. Andrew; Salman, Ahmed A.
1990-01-01
The problem of unsteady flow around flexible wings is solved using the unsteady, compressible, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the unsteady, linearized, Navier-displacement equations. Starting with the initial shape of the wing, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved on an initial structured grid to obtain the steady-flow solution which is used for the initial conditions. The forced deformation motion of the wing boundaries is then applied, and the problem is solved accurately in time. During the time-accurate stepping, the Navier-displacement equations are used to solve for the grid deformation and sequently, the Navier-Stokes equations are used to solve for the flowfield. Two applications are presented; the first is for a pulsating oscillation of a bending-mode airfoil in transonic flow, and the second is for a bending-mode oscillation of a sharp-edged delta wing in supersonic flow.
Inviscid transonic flow computations with shock fitting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, N. J.; Seebass, A. R.
1975-01-01
First-and second-order numerical procedures are presented for calculating two-dimensional transonic flows that treat shock waves as discontinuities. Their application to a simple but nontrivial problem for which there are limited theoretical results is discussed.
Buck Creek River Flow Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John
2009-04-01
Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.
Numerical simulation of supersonic wake flow with parallel computers
Wong, C.C.; Soetrisno, M.
1995-07-01
Simulating a supersonic wake flow field behind a conical body is a computing intensive task. It requires a large number of computational cells to capture the dominant flow physics and a robust numerical algorithm to obtain a reliable solution. High performance parallel computers with unique distributed processing and data storage capability can provide this need. They have larger computational memory and faster computing time than conventional vector computers. We apply the PINCA Navier-Stokes code to simulate a wind-tunnel supersonic wake experiment on Intel Gamma, Intel Paragon, and IBM SP2 parallel computers. These simulations are performed to study the mean flow in the near wake region of a sharp, 7-degree half-angle, adiabatic cone at Mach number 4.3 and freestream Reynolds number of 40,600. Overall the numerical solutions capture the general features of the hypersonic laminar wake flow and compare favorably with the wind tunnel data. With a refined and clustering grid distribution in the recirculation zone, the calculated location of the rear stagnation point is consistent with the 2D axisymmetric and 3D experiments. In this study, we also demonstrate the importance of having a large local memory capacity within a computer node and the effective utilization of the number of computer nodes to achieve good parallel performance when simulating a complex, large-scale wake flow problem.
Theoretical and computational dynamics of a compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pai, Shih-I; Luo, Shijun
1991-01-01
An introduction to the theoretical and computational fluid dynamics of a compressible fluid is presented. The general topics addressed include: thermodynamics and physical properties of compressible fluids; 1D flow of an inviscid compressible fluid; shock waves; fundamental equations of the dynamics of a compressible inviscid non-heat-conducting and radiating fluid, method of small perturbations, linearized theory; 2D subsonic steady potential flow; hodograph and rheograph methods, exact solutions of 2D insentropic steady flow equations, 2D steady transonic and hypersonic flows, method of characteristics, linearized theory of 3D potential flow, nonlinear theory of 3D compressibe flow, anisentropic (rotational) flow of inviscid compressible fluid, electromagnetogasdynamics, multiphase flows, flows of a compressible fluid with transport phenomena.
Natural laminar flow airfoil analysis and trade studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
An analysis of an airfoil for a large commercial transport cruising at Mach 0.8 and the use of advanced computer techniques to perform the analysis are described. Incorporation of the airfoil into a natural laminar flow transport configuration is addressed and a comparison of fuel requirements and operating costs between the natural laminar flow transport and an equivalent turbulent flow transport is addressed.
Virtual Interventions for Image-based Blood Flow Computation
Xiong, Guanglei; Choi, Gilwoo; Taylor, Charles A.
2011-01-01
Image-based blood flow computation provides great promise for evaluation of vascular devices and assessment of surgical procedures. However, many previous studies employ idealized arterial and device models or only patient-specific models from the image data after device deployment, since the tools for model construction are unavailable or limited and tedious to use. Moreover, in contrast to retrospective studies from existing data, there is a pressing need for prospective analysis with the goal of surgical planning. Therefore, it is necessary to construct models with deployed devices in a fast, virtual and interactive fashion. The goal of this paper is to develop new geometric methods to deploy stents or stent grafts virtually to patient-specific geometric models constructed from a 3D segmentation of medical images. A triangular surface representing the vessel lumen boundary is extracted from the segmentation. The diseased portion is either clipped and replaced by the surface of a deployed device or rerouted in the case of a bypass graft. For diseased arteries close to bifurcations, bifurcated device models are generated. A method to map a 2D strut pattern on the surface of a device is also presented. We demonstrate three applications of our methods in personalized surgical planning for aortic aneurysms, aortic coarctation, and coronary artery stenosis using blood flow computation. Our approach enables prospective model construction and may help to expand the throughput required by routine clinical uses in the future. PMID:22121255
Computation of leading-edge vortex flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newsome, R. W.; Thomas, J. L.
1986-01-01
The simulation of the leading edge vortex flow about a series of conical delta wings through solution of the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations is studied. The occurrence, the validity, and the usefulness of separated flow solutions to the Euler equations of particular interest. Central and upwind difference solutions to the governing equations are compared for a series of cross sectional shapes, including both rounded and sharp tip geometries. For the rounded leading edge and the flight condition considered, viscous solutions obtained with either central or upwind difference methods predict the classic structure of vortical flow over a highly swept delta wing. Predicted features include the primary vortex due to leading edge separation and the secondary vortex due to crossflow separation. Central difference solutions to the Euler equations show a marked sensitivity to grid refinement. On a coarse grid, the flow separates due to numerical error and a primary vortex which resembles that of the viscous solution is predicted. In contrast, the upwind difference solutions to the Euler equations predict attached flow even for first-order solutions on coarse grids. On a sufficiently fine grid, both methods agree closely and correctly predict a shock-curvature-induced inviscid separation near the leeward plane of symmetry. Upwind difference solutions to the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations are presented for two sharp leading edge geometries. The viscous solutions are quite similar to the rounded leading edge results with vortices of similar shape and size. The upwind Euler solutions predict attached flow with no separation for both geometries. However, with sufficient grid refinement near the tip or through the use of more accurate spatial differencing, leading edge separation results. Once the leading edge separation is established, the upwind solution agrees with recently published central difference solutions to the Euler equations.
An Aerodynamic Analysis of a Mixed Flow Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Chan M.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.
1994-01-01
The aerodynamic performance of a high-work Mixed Flow Turbine (MFT) is computed and compared with experimental data. A three dimensional (3-D) viscous analysis is applied to the single stage MFT geometry with a relatively long upstream transition duct. Predicted vane surface static pressures and circumferentially averaged spanwise quantities at stator and rotor exits agree favorably with data. Compared to the results of axisymmetric flow analysis from design intent, the 3-D computation agrees much better especially in the endwall regions where throughflow prediction fails to assess the loss mechanism properly. Potential sources of performance loss such as tip leakage and secondary flows are also properly captured by the analysis.
Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow fluid film bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andres, Luis San
1993-01-01
A thermohydrodynamic analysis is presented and a computer code developed for prediction of the static and dynamic force response of hydrostatic journal bearings (HJB's), annular seals or damper bearing seals, and fixed arc pad bearings for cryogenic liquid applications. The study includes the most important flow characteristics found in cryogenic fluid film bearings such as flow turbulence, fluid inertia, liquid compressibility and thermal effects. The analysis and computational model devised allow the determination of the flow field in cryogenic fluid film bearings along with the dynamic force coefficients for rotor-bearing stability analysis.
Flow Analysis Tool White Paper
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boscia, Nichole K.
2012-01-01
Faster networks are continually being built to accommodate larger data transfers. While it is intuitive to think that implementing faster networks will result in higher throughput rates, this is often not the case. There are many elements involved in data transfer, many of which are beyond the scope of the network itself. Although networks may get bigger and support faster technologies, the presence of other legacy components, such as older application software or kernel parameters, can often cause bottlenecks. Engineers must be able to identify when data flows are reaching a bottleneck that is not imposed by the network and then troubleshoot it using the tools available to them. The current best practice is to collect as much information as possible on the network traffic flows so that analysis is quick and easy. Unfortunately, no single method of collecting this information can sufficiently capture the whole endto- end picture. This becomes even more of a hurdle when large, multi-user systems are involved. In order to capture all the necessary information, multiple data sources are required. This paper presents a method for developing a flow analysis tool to effectively collect network flow data from multiple sources and provide that information to engineers in a clear, concise way for analysis. The purpose of this method is to collect enough information to quickly (and automatically) identify poorly performing flows along with the cause of the problem. The method involves the development of a set of database tables that can be populated with flow data from multiple sources, along with an easyto- use, web-based front-end interface to help network engineers access, organize, analyze, and manage all the information.
Computer modelling of turbulent recirculating flows in engineering applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalil, E. E.; Assaf, H. M. W.
A numerical computation procedure for solving the partial differential equations governing turbulent flows is presented, with an emphasis on swirling flows. The conservation equations for mass and momentum are defined, noting the inclusion of turbulence characteristics in Reynolds stress terms. A two-dimensional turbulence model is used, based on an eddy viscosity concept, with the Reynolds stress described in terms of the mean velocity gradient and the eddy viscosity. The model is used for the flow in a rotary air garbage classifier and the flow in a vortex tube. The flexibility of the technique is demonstrated through variations of the initial flow parameters.
Panel-Method Computer Code For Potential Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashby, Dale L.; Dudley, Michael R.; Iguchi, Steven K.
1992-01-01
Low-order panel method used to reduce computation time. Panel code PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center) numerically simulates flow field around or through complex three-dimensional bodies such as complete aircraft models or wind tunnel. Based on potential-flow theory. Facilitates addition of new features to code and tailoring of code to specific problems and computer-hardware constraints. Written in standard FORTRAN 77.
Levitt, Michael R; McGah, Patrick M; Aliseda, Alberto; Mourad, Pierre D; Nerva, John D; Vaidya, Sandeep S; Morton, Ryan P; Ghodke, Basavaraj V; Kim, Louis J
2013-01-01
Background and Purpose Computational fluid dynamics modeling is useful in the study of the hemodynamic environment of cerebral aneurysms, but patient-specific measurements of boundary conditions, such as blood flow velocity and pressure, have not been previously applied to the study of flow-diverting stents. We integrated patient-specific intravascular blood flow velocity and pressure measurements into computational models of aneurysms before and after treatment with flow-diverting stents to determine stent effects on aneurysm hemodynamics. Methods Blood flow velocity and pressure were measured in peri-aneurysmal locations using an intravascular dual-sensor pressure and Doppler velocity guidewire before and after flow-diverting stent treatment of four unruptured cerebral aneurysms. These measurements defined inflow and outflow boundary conditions for computational models. Intra-aneurysmal flow rates, wall shear stress and wall shear stress gradient were calculated. Results Measurements of inflow velocity and outflow pressure were successful in all four patients. Computational models incorporating these measurements demonstrated significant reductions in intra-aneurysmal wall shear stress and wall shear stress gradient, and a trend in reduced intra-aneurysmal blood flow. Conclusions Integration of intravascular dual-sensor guidewire measurements of blood flow velocity and blood pressure provided patient-specific computational models of cerebral aneurysms. Aneurysm treatment with flow-diverting stents reduces blood flow and hemodynamic shear stress in the aneurysm dome. PMID:23868162
PRELIMINARY DESIGN ANALYSIS OF AXIAL FLOW TURBINES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, A. J.
1994-01-01
A computer program has been developed for the preliminary design analysis of axial-flow turbines. Rapid approximate generalized procedures requiring minimum input are used to provide turbine overall geometry and performance adequate for screening studies. The computations are based on mean-diameter flow properties and a stage-average velocity diagram. Gas properties are assumed constant throughout the turbine. For any given turbine, all stages, except the first, are specified to have the same shape velocity diagram. The first stage differs only in the value of inlet flow angle. The velocity diagram shape depends upon the stage work factor value and the specified type of velocity diagram. Velocity diagrams can be specified as symmetrical, zero exit swirl, or impulse; or by inputting stage swirl split. Exit turning vanes can be included in the design. The 1991 update includes a generalized velocity diagram, a more flexible meanline path, a reheat model, a radial component of velocity, and a computation of free-vortex hub and tip velocity diagrams. Also, a loss-coefficient calibration was performed to provide recommended values for airbreathing engine turbines. Input design requirements include power or pressure ratio, mass flow rate, inlet temperature and pressure, and rotative speed. The design variables include inlet and exit diameters, stator angle or exit radius ratio, and number of stages. Gas properties are input as gas constant, specific heat ratio, and viscosity. The program output includes inlet and exit annulus dimensions, exit temperature and pressure, total and static efficiencies, flow angles, blading angles, and last stage absolute and relative Mach numbers. This program is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be ported to any computer with a standard FORTRAN compiler which supports NAMELIST. It was originally developed on an IBM 7000 series computer running VM and has been implemented on IBM PC computers and compatibles running MS-DOS under Lahey FORTRAN, and
Computation of multi-dimensional viscous supersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buggeln, R. C.; Kim, Y. N.; Mcdonald, H.
1986-01-01
A method has been developed for two- and three-dimensional computations of viscous supersonic jet flows interacting with an external flow. The approach employs a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations which allows solution as an initial-boundary value problem in space, using an efficient noniterative forward marching algorithm. Numerical instability associated with forward marching algorithms for flows with embedded subsonic regions is avoided by approximation of the reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations in the subsonic regions of the boundary layers. Supersonic and subsonic portions of the flow field are simultaneously calculated by a consistently split linearized block implicit computational algorithm. The results of computations for a series of test cases associated with supersonic jet flow is presented and compared with other calculations for axisymmetric cases. Demonstration calculations indicate that the computational technique has great promise as a tool for calculating a wide range of supersonic flow problems including jet flow. Finally, a User's Manual is presented for the computer code used to perform the calculations.
Asymmetric energy flow in liquid alkylbenzenes: A computational study
Leitner, David M.; Pandey, Hari Datt
2015-10-14
Ultrafast IR-Raman experiments on substituted benzenes [B. C. Pein et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 10898–10904 (2013)] reveal that energy can flow more efficiently in one direction along a molecule than in others. We carry out a computational study of energy flow in the three alkyl benzenes, toluene, isopropylbenzene, and t-butylbenzene, studied in these experiments, and find an asymmetry in the flow of vibrational energy between the two chemical groups of the molecule due to quantum mechanical vibrational relaxation bottlenecks, which give rise to a preferred direction of energy flow. We compare energy flow computed for all modes of the three alkylbenzenes over the relaxation time into the liquid with energy flow through the subset of modes monitored in the time-resolved Raman experiments and find qualitatively similar results when using the subset compared to all the modes.
A linearized Euler analysis of unsteady transonic flows in turbomachinery
Hall, K.C.; Clark, W.S.; Lorence, C.B. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science)
1994-07-01
A computational method for efficiently predicting unsteady transonic flows in two- and three-dimensional cascades is presented. The unsteady flow is modeled using a linearized Euler analysis whereby the unsteady flow field is decomposed into a nonlinear mean flow plus a linear harmonically varying unsteady flow. The equations that govern the perturbation flow, the linearized Euler equations, are linear variable coefficient equations. For transonic flows containing shocks, shock capturing is used to model the shock impulse (the unsteady load due to the harmonic motion of the shock). A conservative Lax-Wendroff scheme is used to obtain a set of linearized finite volume equations that describe the harmonic small disturbance behavior of the flow. Conditions under which such a discretization will correctly predict the shock impulse are investigated. Computational results are presented that demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the present method as well as the essential role of unsteady shock impulse loads on the flutter stability of fans.
Computation of transonic potential flow about 3 dimensional inlets, ducts, and bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reyhner, T. A.
1982-01-01
An analysis was developed and a computer code, P465 Version A, written for the prediction of transonic potential flow about three dimensional objects including inlet, duct, and body geometries. Finite differences and line relaxation are used to solve the complete potential flow equation. The coordinate system used for the calculations is independent of body geometry. Cylindrical coordinates are used for the computer code. The analysis is programmed in extended FORTRAN 4 for the CYBER 203 vector computer. The programming of the analysis is oriented toward taking advantage of the vector processing capabilities of this computer. Comparisons of computed results with experimental measurements are presented to verify the analysis. Descriptions of program input and output formats are also presented.
Computed Aeroelastic Motions Of Wings In Transonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru P.; Obayashi, Shigeru
1995-01-01
Report describes computational simulations of aeroelastic motions of delta and swept wings in transonic flows. Study directed toward understanding aerodynamic behavior and enhancing maneuverability of fighter airplanes equipped with such wings. Also has implications for gas pumps and turbines, in which flows near tips of vanes and blades reach supersonic speeds.
Computation techniques for the simulation of turbomachinery compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veuillot, J. P.; Cambier, L.
Computation techniques for the simulation of turbomachinery compressible flows via the numerical solution of Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are described. In a discussion of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for turbomachinery flow calculations, attention is given to equations for a rotating system, quasi-three-dimensional formulation, and turbulence modeling. Examples of Navier-Stokes calculations are presented.
Review - Computational methods for internal flows with emphasis on turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcnally, W. D.; Sockol, P. M.
1985-01-01
Current computational methods for analyzing flows in turbomachinery and other related internal propulsion components are presented. The methods are divided into two classes. The inviscid methods deal specifically with turbomachinery applications. Viscous methods, deal with generalized duct flows as well as flows in turbomachinery passages. Inviscid methods are categorized into the potential, stream function, and Euler approaches. Viscous methods are treated in terms of parabolic, partially parabolic, and elliptic procedures. Various grids used in association with these procedures are also discussed.
Computation of subsonic flow around airfoil systems with multiple separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacob, K.
1982-01-01
A numerical method for computing the subsonic flow around multi-element airfoil systems was developed, allowing for flow separation at one or more elements. Besides multiple rear separation also sort bubbles on the upper surface and cove bubbles can approximately be taken into account. Also, compressibility effects for pure subsonic flow are approximately accounted for. After presentation the method is applied to several examples and improved in some details. Finally, the present limitations and desirable extensions are discussed.
Computational methods for internal flows with emphasis on turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcnally, W. D.; Sockol, P. M.
1981-01-01
Current computational methods for analyzing flows in turbomachinery and other related internal propulsion components are presented. The methods are divided into two classes. The inviscid methods deal specifically with turbomachinery applications. Viscous methods, deal with generalized duct flows as well as flows in turbomachinery passages. Inviscid methods are categorized into the potential, stream function, and Euler aproaches. Viscous methods are treated in terms of parabolic, partially parabolic, and elliptic procedures. Various grids used in association with these procedures are also discussed.
Computed Flow About The Integrated Space Shuttle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P. G.; Chiu, I. T.; Obayashi, S.; Rizk, Y. M.; Steger, J. L.
1991-01-01
Report discusses numerical simulations of flow of air about integrated Space Shuttle in ascent. Goal: to improve understanding of, and ability to predict, how integrated Space Shuttle will perform during both nominal and aborted ascent under various conditions. These and other numerical simulations intended both to supplement wind-tunnel data, corrupted to some extent by scaling and wall-interference effects, and to compensate for scarcity of valid flight data.
Bypass flow computations on the LOFA transient in a VHTR
Tung, Yu-Hsin; Johnson, Richard W.; Ferng, Yuh-Ming; Chieng, Ching-Chang
2014-01-01
Bypass flow in the prismatic gas-cooled very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is not intentionally designed to occur, but is present in the gaps between graphite blocks. Previous studies of the bypass flow in the core indicated that the cooling provided by flow in the bypass gaps had a significant effect on temperature and flow distributions for normal operating conditions. However, the flow and heat transports in the core are changed significantly after a Loss of Flow Accident (LOFA). This study aims to study the effect and role of the bypass flow after a LOFA in terms of the temperature and flow distributions and for the heat transport out of the core by natural convection of the coolant for a 1/12 symmetric section of the active core which is composed of images and mirror images of two sub-region models. The two sub-region models, 9 x 1/12 and 15 x 1/12 symmetric sectors of the active core, are employed as the CFD flow models using computational grid systems of 70.2 million and 117 million nodes, respectively. It is concluded that the effect of bypass flow is significant for the initial conditions and the beginning of LOFA, but the bypass flow has little effect after a long period of time in the transient computation of natural circulation.
Barker, Rene A.; Braun, Christopher L.
2000-01-01
In June 1993, the Department of the Navy, Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command (SOUTHDIV), began a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) of the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant (NWIRP) in north-central Texas. The RFI has found trichloroethene, dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, as well as chromium, lead, and other metallic residuum in the shallow alluvial aquifer underlying NWIRP. These findings and the possibility of on-site or off-site migration of contaminants prompted the need for a ground-water-flow model of the NWIRP area. The resulting U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model: (1) defines aquifer properties, (2) computes water budgets, (3) delineates major flowpaths, and (4) simulates hydrologic effects of remediation activity. In addition to assisting with particle-tracking analyses, the calibrated model could support solute-transport modeling as well as help evaluate the effects of potential corrective action. The USGS model simulates steady-state and transient conditions of ground-water flow within a single model layer. The alluvial aquifer is within fluvial terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, which unconformably overlie the relatively impermeable Eagle Ford Shale of Late Cretaceous age. Over small distances and short periods, finer grained parts of the aquifer are separated hydraulically; however, most of the aquifer is connected circuitously through randomly distributed coarser grained sediments. The top of the underlying Eagle Ford Shale, a regional confining unit, is assumed to be the effective lower limit of ground-water circulation and chemical contamination. The calibrated steady-state model reproduces long-term average water levels within +5.1 or ?3.5 feet of those observed; the standard error of the estimate is 1.07 feet with a mean residual of 0.02 foot. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 0.75 to 7.5 feet per day, and average about 4 feet per day. Specific yield values range from 0
Computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Kuraishi, Takashi; Tabata, Shinichiro; Takagi, Hirokazu
2016-06-01
We present computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake, including thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake and heat conduction analysis of the disk. The computational challenges include proper representation of the small-scale thermo-fluid behavior, high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near the spinning solid surfaces, and bringing the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow to the heat conduction analysis of the spinning disk. The disk brake model used in the analysis closely represents the actual configuration, and this adds to the computational challenges. The components of the method we have developed for computational analysis of the class of problems with these types of challenges include the Space-Time Variational Multiscale method for coupled incompressible flow and thermal transport, ST Slip Interface method for high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near spinning solid surfaces, and a set of projection methods for different parts of the disk to bring the HTC calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis. With the HTC coming from the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake, we do the heat conduction analysis of the disk, from the start of the breaking until the disk spinning stops, demonstrating how the method developed works in computational analysis of this complex and challenging problem.
A study of grout flow pattern analysis
Lee, S. Y.; Hyun, S.
2013-01-10
A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.
Computational Modeling of Flow-Altering Surgeries in Basilar Aneurysms
Rayz, V. L.; Abla, A.; Boussel, L.; Leach, J. R.; Acevedo-Bolton, G.; Saloner, D.; Lawton, M. T.
2014-01-01
In cases where surgeons consider different interventional options for flow alterations in the setting of pathological basilar artery hemodynamics, a virtual model demonstrating the flow fields resulting from each of these options can assist in making clinical decisions. In this study, image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were used to simulate the flow in four basilar artery aneurysms in order to evaluate postoperative hemodynamics that would result from flow-altering interventions. Patient-specific geometries were constructed using MR angiography and velocimetry data. CFD simulations carried out for the preoperative flow conditions were compared to in vivo phase-contrast MRI measurements (4DFlowMRI) acquired prior to the interventions. The models were then modified according to the procedures considered for each patient. Numerical simulations of the flow and virtual contrast transport were carried out in each case in order to assess postoperative flow fields and estimate the likelihood of intra-aneurysmal thrombus deposition following the procedures. Postoperative imaging data, when available, were used to validate computational predictions. In two cases, where the aneurysms involved vital pontine perforator arteries branching from the basilar artery, idealized geometries of these vessels were incorporated into the CFD models. The effect of interventions on the flow through the perforators was evaluated by simulating the transport of contrast in these vessels. The computational results were in close agreement with the MR imaging data. In some cases, CFD simulations could help determine which of the surgical options was likely to reduce the flow into the aneurysm while preserving the flow through the basilar trunk. The study demonstrated that image-based computational modeling can provide guidance to clinicians by indicating possible outcome complications and indicating expected success potential for ameliorating pathological aneurysmal flow, prior
Computation of layers in Eulerian gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemker, P. W.
A mixed defect-correction iteration process (MDCP) is applied for the implicit numerical solution of steady Euler flows. Without stability problems, MDCP can be applied with a straightforward 2nd order scheme such as central differences. A nearly monotonous representation of the thin layers is obtained by application of a 2nd order scheme with a proper flux-limiter. When combined with nonlinear multigrid (FAS) cycles, a few FAS-MDCP iteration steps are sufficient to determine the two solutions up to truncation-error accuracy.
Recent developments in multiphysics computational models of physiological flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eldredge, Jeff D.; Mittal, Rajat
2016-04-01
A mini-symposium on computational modeling of fluid-structure interactions and other multiphysics in physiological flows was held at the 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics in July 2014 in Barcelona, Spain. This special issue of Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics contains papers from among the participants of the mini-symposium. The present paper provides an overview of the mini-symposium and the special issue.
Computational and Experimental Investigations of Turbulent Flow Past Projectiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Pasquale; Carlucci, Donald; Thangam, Siva
2008-11-01
Experimental and computational investigations of turbulent flow past projectiles is modeled as axial flow past a cylinder with a free-spinning base. A subsonic wind tunnel with a forward-sting mounted spinning cylinder is used for experiments. In addition, a free-jet facility is used for benchmarking the experimental set up. Experiments are performed for a range of spin rates and free stream flow conditions. An anisotropic two-equation Reynolds-stress model that incorporates the effect of rotation-modified energy spectrum and swirl is used to perform computations for the flow past axially rotating cylinders. Both rigid cylinders as well as that of cylinders with free-spinning base are considered from a computational point of view. Applications involving the design of projectiles are discussed.
Computation of three-dimensional flows using two stream functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greywall, Mahesh S.
1991-01-01
An approach to compute 3-D flows using two stream functions is presented. The method generates a boundary fitted grid as part of its solution. Commonly used two steps for computing the flow fields are combined into a single step in the present approach: (1) boundary fitted grid generation; and (2) solution of Navier-Stokes equations on the generated grid. The presented method can be used to directly compute 3-D viscous flows, or the potential flow approximation of this method can be used to generate grids for other algorithms to compute 3-D viscous flows. The independent variables used are chi, a spatial coordinate, and xi and eta, values of stream functions along two sets of suitably chosen intersecting stream surfaces. The dependent variables used are the streamwise velocity, and two functions that describe the stream surfaces. Since for a 3-D flow there is no unique way to define two sets of intersecting stream surfaces to cover the given flow, different types of two sets of intersecting stream surfaces are considered. First, the metric of the (chi, xi, eta) curvilinear coordinate system associated with each type is presented. Next, equations for the steady state transport of mass, momentum, and energy are presented in terms of the metric of the (chi, xi, eta) coordinate system. Also included are the inviscid and the parabolized approximations to the general transport equations.
Numerical computation of transient coaxial entry tube flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wieber, P. R.; Dewitt, K. J.
1976-01-01
A numerical program was developed to compute transient laminar flows in two dimensions including multicomponent mixing and chemical reaction. The program can compute both incompressible flows and compressible flows at all speeds, and it is applied to describe transient and steady state solutions for low subsonic, coaxial entry, tue flows. Single component, nonreacting flows comprise most of the solutions, but one steady state solution is presented for trace concentration constituents engaging in a second order reaction. Numerical stability was obtained by adding at each calculation point a correction for numerical diffusion errors caused by truncation of the Taylor series used to finite difference the conservation equations. Transient computations were made for fluids initially at rest, then subjected to step velocity inputs that were uniform across each region of the entry plane and were held constant throughout the computation period. For center tube to annulus velocity ratios of 0.5 and 2.0, the bulk fluid in the tube initially moved in plug flow, but strong radial flows developed near the injection plane which moved the fluid into the high shear region between the jets and away from the tube wall.
Computation of multi-dimensional viscous supersonic jet flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Y. N.; Buggeln, R. C.; Mcdonald, H.
1986-01-01
A new method has been developed for two- and three-dimensional computations of viscous supersonic flows with embedded subsonic regions adjacent to solid boundaries. The approach employs a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations which allows solution as an initial-boundary value problem in space, using an efficient noniterative forward marching algorithm. Numerical instability associated with forward marching algorithms for flows with embedded subsonic regions is avoided by approximation of the reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations in the subsonic regions of the boundary layers. Supersonic and subsonic portions of the flow field are simultaneously calculated by a consistently split linearized block implicit computational algorithm. The results of computations for a series of test cases relevant to internal supersonic flow is presented and compared with data. Comparison between data and computation are in general excellent thus indicating that the computational technique has great promise as a tool for calculating supersonic flow with embedded subsonic regions. Finally, a User's Manual is presented for the computer code used to perform the calculations.
Long time behavior of unsteady flow computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1992-01-01
This paper addresses a specific issue of time accuracy in the calculation of external aerodynamic problems. The class of problems discussed consists of inviscid compressible subsonic flows. These problems are governed by a convective equation. A key issue that is not understood is the long time behavior of the solution. This is important if one desires transient calculations of problems governed by the Euler equations or its derivatives such as the small disturbance equations or the potential formulations for the gust problem. Difficulties arise for two dimensional problems where the time rate decay solutions of the wave equation is slow. In concert with the above mentioned problem, exterior flows require proper modeling of the boundary conditions. In particular, this requires the truncation of infinite regions into finite regions with the aid of artificial boundaries. These boundary conditions must be consistent with the physics of the unbounded problem as well as consistent in time and space. Our treatment of the problem is discussed in detail and examples are given to verify the results.
Use of advanced computers for aerodynamic flow simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, F. R.; Ballhaus, W. F.
1980-01-01
The current and projected use of advanced computers for large-scale aerodynamic flow simulation applied to engineering design and research is discussed. The design use of mature codes run on conventional, serial computers is compared with the fluid research use of new codes run on parallel and vector computers. The role of flow simulations in design is illustrated by the application of a three dimensional, inviscid, transonic code to the Sabreliner 60 wing redesign. Research computations that include a more complete description of the fluid physics by use of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes and large-eddy simulation formulations are also presented. Results of studies for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility are used to project the feasibility of design applications employing these more advanced three dimensional viscous flow simulations.
Numerical computation of space shuttle orbiter flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tannehill, John C.
1988-01-01
A new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code has been developed to compute the hypersonic, viscous chemically reacting flow fields around 3-D bodies. The flow medium is assumed to be a multicomponent mixture of thermally perfect but calorically imperfect gases. The new PNS code solves the gas dynamic and species conservation equations in a coupled manner using a noniterative, implicit, approximately factored, finite difference algorithm. The space-marching method is made well-posed by special treatment of the streamwise pressure gradient term. The code has been used to compute hypersonic laminar flow of chemically reacting air over cones at angle of attack. The results of the computations are compared with the results of reacting boundary-layer computations and show excellent agreement.
Transonic Flow Computations Using Nonlinear Potential Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, Terry L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
This presentation describes the state of transonic flow simulation using nonlinear potential methods for external aerodynamic applications. The presentation begins with a review of the various potential equation forms (with emphasis on the full potential equation) and includes a discussion of pertinent mathematical characteristics and all derivation assumptions. Impact of the derivation assumptions on simulation accuracy, especially with respect to shock wave capture, is discussed. Key characteristics of all numerical algorithm types used for solving nonlinear potential equations, including steady, unsteady, space marching, and design methods, are described. Both spatial discretization and iteration scheme characteristics are examined. Numerical results for various aerodynamic applications are included throughout the presentation to highlight key discussion points. The presentation ends with concluding remarks and recommendations for future work. Overall. nonlinear potential solvers are efficient, highly developed and routinely used in the aerodynamic design environment for cruise conditions. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coupled ensemble flow line advection and analysis.
Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru; Huang, Jian; Zhu, Xiaomin
2013-12-01
Ensemble run simulations are becoming increasingly widespread. In this work, we couple particle advection with pathline analysis to visualize and reveal the differences among the flow fields of ensemble runs. Our method first constructs a variation field using a Lagrangian-based distance metric. The variation field characterizes the variation between vector fields of the ensemble runs, by extracting and visualizing the variation of pathlines within ensemble. Parallelism in a MapReduce style is leveraged to handle data processing and computing at scale. Using our prototype system, we demonstrate how scientists can effectively explore and investigate differences within ensemble simulations. PMID:24051840
Computation of flow pressure fields from magnetic resonance velocity mapping.
Yang, G Z; Kilner, P J; Wood, N B; Underwood, S R; Firmin, D N
1996-10-01
Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping has unrivalled capacities for acquiring in vivo multi-directional blood flow information. In this study, the authors set out to derive both spatial and temporal components of acceleration, and hence differences of pressure in a flow field using cine magnetic resonance velocity data. An efficient numerical algorithm based on the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible Newtonian fluid was used. The computational approach was validated with in vitro flow phantoms. This work aims to contribute to a better understanding of cardiovascular dynamics and to serve as a basis for investigating pulsatile pressure/flow relationships associated with normal and impaired cardiovascular function. PMID:8892202
The very local Hubble flow: Computer simulations of dynamical history
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernin, A. D.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Makarov, D. I.
2004-02-01
The phenomenon of the very local (≤3 Mpc) Hubble flow is studied on the basis of the data of recent precision observations. A set of computer simulations is performed to trace the trajectories of the flow galaxies back in time to the epoch of the formation of the Local Group. It is found that the ``initial conditions'' of the flow are drastically different from the linear velocity-distance relation. The simulations enable one also to recognize the major trends of the flow evolution and identify the dynamical role of universal antigravity produced by the cosmic vacuum.
Computer vision in microstructural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.
1992-01-01
The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.
Radioisotope method of compound flow analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petryka, Leszek; Zych, Marcin; Hanus, Robert; Sobota, Jerzy; Vlasak, Pavel; Malczewska, Beata
2015-05-01
The paper presents gamma radiation application to analysis of a multicomponent or multiphase flow. Such information as a selected component content in the mixture transported through pipe is crucial in many industrial or laboratory installations. Properly selected sealed radioactive source and collimators, deliver the photon beam, penetrating cross section of the flow. Detectors mounted at opposite to the source side of the pipe, allow recording of digital signals representing composition of the stream. In the present development of electronics, detectors and computer software, a significant progress in know-how of this field may be observed. The paper describes application of this method to optimization and control of hydrotransport of solid particles and propose monitoring facilitating prevent of a pipe clogging or dangerous oscillations.
Flow-based model of computer hackers' motivation.
Voiskounsky, Alexander E; Smyslova, Olga V
2003-04-01
Hackers' psychology, widely discussed in the media, is almost entirely unexplored by psychologists. In this study, hackers' motivation is investigated, using the flow paradigm. Flow is likely to motivate hackers, according to views expressed by researchers and by hackers themselves. Taken as granted that hackers experience flow, it was hypothesized that flow increases with the increase of hackers' competence in IT use. Self-selected subjects were recruited on specialized web sources; 457 hackers filled out a web questionnaire. Competence in IT use, specific flow experience, and demographic data were questioned. An on-line research was administered within the Russian-speaking community (though one third of Ss are non-residents of Russian Federation); since hacking seems to be international, the belief is expressed that the results are universal. The hypothesis is not confirmed: flow motivation characterizes the least and the most competent hackers, and the members of an intermediate group, that is, averagely competent Ss report the "flow crisis"-no (or less) flow experience. Two differing strategies of task choice were self-reported by Ss: a step-by-step increase of the difficulty of choices leads to a match of challenges and skills (and to preserving the flow experience); putting choices irrespective of the likelihood of solution leads to a "flow crisis." The findings give productive hints on processes of hackers' motivational development. The flow-based model of computer hackers' motivation was developed. It combines both empirically confirmed and theoretically possible ways of hackers' "professional" growth. PMID:12804029
Finite element analysis of inviscid subsonic boattail flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, R. V.; Gerhart, P. M.
1981-01-01
A finite element code for analysis of inviscid subsonic flows over arbitrary nonlifting planar or axisymmetric bodies is described. The code solves a novel primitive variable formulation of the coupled irrotationality and compressible continuity equations. Results for flow over a cylinder, a sphere, and a NACA 0012 airfoil verify the code. Computed subcritical flows over an axisymmetric boattailed afterbody compare well with finite difference results and experimental data. Interative coupling with an integral turbulent boundary layer code shows strong viscous effects on the inviscid flow. Improvements in code efficiency and extensions to transonic flows are discussed.
Numerical simulation of polymer flows: A parallel computing approach
Aggarwal, R.; Keunings, R.; Roux, F.X.
1993-12-31
We present a parallel algorithm for the numerical simulation of viscoelastic fluids on distributed memory computers. The algorithm has been implemented within a general-purpose commercial finite element package used in polymer processing applications. Results obtained on the Intel iPSC/860 computer demonstrate high parallel efficiency in complex flow problems. However, since the computational load is unknown a priori, load balancing is a challenging issue. We have developed an adaptive allocation strategy which dynamically reallocates the work load to the processors based upon the history of the computational procedure. We compare the results obtained with the adaptive and static scheduling schemes.
Analysis of three-dimensional viscous internal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghia, Kirti N.; Ghia, Urmila
1985-12-01
The objective of this study was to acquire improved understanding of viscous internal flows related to turbomachinery components by analyzing appropriate model flow problems. Significant effort was directed towards developing basic computational methods which were made available to interested researchers involved in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research and to users involved in the design of turbomachinery components. Several analyses were developed and included are: an analysis for the fully developed three-dimensional flow in curved ducts, a parabolized Navier-Strokes analysis for developing flow in curved ducts, an unsteady Navier-Strokes analysis for internal and external flows, adaptive grid generation for one and two dimensional viscous flows, analysis of the Neumann problem in generalized orthogonal coordinates, efficient semi-implicit solution techniques consisting of the alternating direction implicit multigrid and strongly implicit multigrid methods, the direct block Gaussian elimination (GBE) method for solution of the Poisson equation for the unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis of incompressible flows. For the flow inside a shear driven cavity, the asymptotic flow in curved ducts and clarity for interpretation of the available corresponding experimental results and have now become benchmark solutions for these problems.
Computational analysis of forebody tangential slot blowing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gee, Ken; Agosta-Greenman, Roxana M.; Rizk, Yehia M.; Schiff, Lewis B.; Cummings, Russell M.
1994-01-01
An overview of the computational effort to analyze forebody tangential slot blowing is presented. Tangential slot blowing generates side force and yawing moment which may be used to control an aircraft flying at high-angle-of-attack. Two different geometries are used in the analysis: (1) The High Alpha Research Vehicle; and (2) a generic chined forebody. Computations using the isolated F/A-18 forebody are obtained at full-scale wind tunnel test conditions for direct comparison with available experimental data. The effects of over- and under-blowing on force and moment production are analyzed. Time-accurate solutions using the isolated forebody are obtained to study the force onset timelag of tangential slot blowing. Computations using the generic chined forebody are obtained at experimental wind tunnel conditions, and the results compared with available experimental data. This computational analysis compliments the experimental results and provides a detailed understanding of the effects of tangential slot blowing on the flow field about simple and complex geometries.
Two-Phase Flow in Geothermal Wells: Development and Uses of a Good Computer Code
Ortiz-Ramirez, Jaime
1983-06-01
A computer code is developed for vertical two-phase flow in geothermal wellbores. The two-phase correlations used were developed by Orkiszewski (1967) and others and are widely applicable in the oil and gas industry. The computer code is compared to the flowing survey measurements from wells in the East Mesa, Cerro Prieto, and Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal fields with success. Well data from the Svartsengi field in Iceland are also used. Several applications of the computer code are considered. They range from reservoir analysis to wellbore deposition studies. It is considered that accurate and workable wellbore simulators have an important role to play in geothermal reservoir engineering.
Computation of supersonic turbulent flow past a spinning cone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agarwal, R. K.
1982-01-01
Computational results are presented for supersonic laminar and turbulent flow past a pointed cone at angle of attack obtained with a parabolic Navier-Stokes marching code. The code takes into account the asymmetries in the flowfield resulting from spinning motion and computes the asymmetric shock shape, crossflow and streamwise shear, heat transfer, crossflow separation, and vortex structure. The Magnus force and moments are also computed. Comparisons are made with other analyses based on boundary-layer equations. For certain laminar flow conditions, an anomaly is discovered in the displacement thickness contribution to the Magnus force when compared with boundary-layer results. For turbulent flow, at small angles of attack, good agreement is obtained with the experimental data and other theoretical results.
Viscous Incompressible Flow Computations for 3-D Steady and Unsteady Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan
2001-01-01
This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of viscous incompressible flow computations for three-dimensional steady and unsteady flows. Details are given on the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an engineering tool, solution methods for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, numerical and physical characteristics of the primitive variable approach, and the role of CFD in the past and in current engineering and research applications.
Semiconductor Device Analysis on Personal Computers
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1993-02-08
PC-1D models the internal operation of bipolar semiconductor devices by solving for the concentrations and quasi-one-dimensional flow of electrons and holes resulting from either electrical or optical excitation. PC-1D uses the same detailed physical models incorporated in mainframe computer programs, yet runs efficiently on personal computers. PC-1D was originally developed with DOE funding to analyze solar cells. That continues to be its primary mode of usage, with registered copies in regular use at more thanmore » 100 locations worldwide. The program has been successfully applied to the analysis of silicon, gallium-arsenide, and indium-phosphide solar cells. The program is also suitable for modeling bipolar transistors and diodes, including heterojunction devices. Its easy-to-use graphical interface makes it useful as a teaching tool as well.« less
Computation of transonic potential flow on helicopter rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costes, M.; Jones, H. E.
1987-01-01
Two computer codes, the full-potential three-dimensional (FP3D) code and the full-potential rotor (FPR) code have recently been developed. Both of these codes solve the three-dimensional conservative formulation of the full potential equation. The FPR code was developed at the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) while the FP3D code was a joint development by ONERA and AFDD. Both of these codes were used to predict the nonlifting, unsteady flow over a rotor operating at high advance ratio and tip speed. Three different rotor tip planform shapes were studied: a rectangular tip, a 30 deg aft swept tip and a 30 deg forward swept tip. Results of these computations are compared to results obtained using an earlier small-disturbances code. Also, the lifting flow over a rectangular tip operating at a slightly different condition was computed. These results are also compared with the small disturbances computations and with experimental results.
Numerical computation of viscous flow about unconventional airfoil shapes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmed, S.; Tannehill, J. C.
1990-01-01
A new two-dimensional computer code was developed to analyze the viscous flow around unconventional airfoils at various Mach numbers and angles of attack. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using an implicit, upwind, finite-volume scheme. Both laminar and turbulent flows can be computed. A new nonequilibrium turbulence closure model was developed for computing turbulent flows. This two-layer eddy viscosity model was motivated by the success of the Johnson-King model in separated flow regions. The influence of history effects are described by an ordinary differential equation developed from the turbulent kinetic energy equation. The performance of the present code was evaluated by solving the flow around three airfoils using the Reynolds time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Excellent results were obtained for both attached and separated flows about the NACA 0012 airfoil, the RAE 2822 airfoil, and the Integrated Technology A 153W airfoil. Based on the comparison of the numerical solutions with the available experimental data, it is concluded that the present code in conjunction with the new nonequilibrium turbulence model gives excellent results.
Computers vs. wind tunnels for aerodynamic flow simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, D. R.; Mark, H.; Pirtle, M. W.
1975-01-01
It is pointed out that in other fields of computational physics, such as ballistics, celestial mechanics, and neutronics, computations have already displaced experiments as the principal means of obtaining dynamic simulations. In the case of aerodynamic investigations, the complexity of the computational work involved in solving the Navier-Stokes equations is the reason that such investigations rely currently mainly on wind-tunnel testing. However, because of inherent limitations of the wind-tunnel approach and economic considerations, it appears that at some time in the future aerodynamic studies will chiefly rely on computational flow data provided by the computer. Taking into account projected development trends, it is estimated that computers with the required capabilities for a solution of the complete viscous, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations will be available in the mid-1980s.
Itu, Lucian; Rapaka, Saikiran; Passerini, Tiziano; Georgescu, Bogdan; Schwemmer, Chris; Schoebinger, Max; Flohr, Thomas; Sharma, Puneet; Comaniciu, Dorin
2016-07-01
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a functional index quantifying the severity of coronary artery lesions and is clinically obtained using an invasive, catheter-based measurement. Recently, physics-based models have shown great promise in being able to noninvasively estimate FFR from patient-specific anatomical information, e.g., obtained from computed tomography scans of the heart and the coronary arteries. However, these models have high computational demand, limiting their clinical adoption. In this paper, we present a machine-learning-based model for predicting FFR as an alternative to physics-based approaches. The model is trained on a large database of synthetically generated coronary anatomies, where the target values are computed using the physics-based model. The trained model predicts FFR at each point along the centerline of the coronary tree, and its performance was assessed by comparing the predictions against physics-based computations and against invasively measured FFR for 87 patients and 125 lesions in total. Correlation between machine-learning and physics-based predictions was excellent (0.9994, P < 0.001), and no systematic bias was found in Bland-Altman analysis: mean difference was -0.00081 ± 0.0039. Invasive FFR ≤ 0.80 was found in 38 lesions out of 125 and was predicted by the machine-learning algorithm with a sensitivity of 81.6%, a specificity of 83.9%, and an accuracy of 83.2%. The correlation was 0.729 (P < 0.001). Compared with the physics-based computation, average execution time was reduced by more than 80 times, leading to near real-time assessment of FFR. Average execution time went down from 196.3 ± 78.5 s for the CFD model to ∼2.4 ± 0.44 s for the machine-learning model on a workstation with 3.4-GHz Intel i7 8-core processor. PMID:27079692
Accuracy considerations in the computational analysis of jet noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, James N.
1993-01-01
The application of computational fluid dynamics methods to the analysis of problems in aerodynamic noise has resulted in the extension and adaptation of conventional CFD to the discipline now referred to as computational aeroacoustics (CAA). In the analysis of jet noise accurate resolution of a wide range of spatial and temporal scales in the flow field is essential if the acoustic far field is to be predicted. The numerical simulation of unsteady jet flow has been successfully demonstrated and many flow features have been computed with reasonable accuracy. Grid refinement and increased solution time are discussed as means of improving accuracy of Navier-Stokes solutions of unsteady jet flow. In addition various properties of different numerical procedures which influence accuracy are examined with particular emphasis on dispersion and dissipation characteristics. These properties are investigated by using selected schemes to solve model problems for the propagation of a shock wave and a sinusoidal disturbance. The results are compared for the different schemes.
Computer simulation of hypersonic flow over the Space Shuttle Orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Inouye, M.
1977-01-01
Computer simulations of the flow field around the Space Shuttle Orbiter are described. Results of inviscid calculations are presented for the shock wave pattern and bottom centerline pressure distribution at 30 deg angle of attack. Results of viscous calculations are presented for wall pressure and heat transfer distributions for simple configurations representative of regions where shock wave-boundary layer interactions occur. The computer codes are verified by comparisons with wind-tunnel data and can be applied to flight conditions.
Combustor flow computations in general coordinates with a multigrid method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shyy, Wei; Braaten, Mark E.
The computational approach presented for single-phase combusting turbulent flowfields balances the requirements of complex physical and chemical flow interactions with those of resolving the three-dimensional geometrical constraints of the combustor contours, film cooling slots, and circular dilution holes. Attention is given to the three-dimensional grid-generation algorithm, the two-dimensional adaptive grid method applied to recirculating turbulent reacting flows, and theory/data assessments for three-dimensional combusting flows in an annular gas turbine combustor.
Assessment of nonequilibrium radiation computation methods for hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharma, Surendra
1993-01-01
The present understanding of shock-layer radiation in the low density regime, as appropriate to hypersonic vehicles, is surveyed. Based on the relative importance of electron excitation and radiation transport, the hypersonic flows are divided into three groups: weakly ionized, moderately ionized, and highly ionized flows. In the light of this division, the existing laboratory and flight data are scrutinized. Finally, an assessment of the nonequilibrium radiation computation methods for the three regimes in hypersonic flows is presented. The assessment is conducted by comparing experimental data against the values predicted by the physical model.
Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolfe, Thomas
2004-01-01
Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.
Viscous compressible flow direct and inverse computation and illustrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, T. T.; Ntone, F.
1986-01-01
An algorithm for laminar and turbulent viscous compressible two dimensional flows is presented. For the application of precise boundary conditions over an arbitrary body surface, a body-fitted coordinate system is used in the physical plane. A thin-layer approximation of tne Navier-Stokes equations is introduced to keep the viscous terms relatively simple. The flow field computation is performed in the transformed plane. A factorized, implicit scheme is used to facilitate the computation. Sample calculations, for Couette flow, developing pipe flow, an isolated airflow, two dimensional compressor cascade flow, and segmental compressor blade design are presented. To a certain extent, the effective use of the direct solver depends on the user's skill in setting up the gridwork, the time step size and the choice of the artificial viscosity. The design feature of the algorithm, an iterative scheme to correct geometry for a specified surface pressure distribution, works well for subsonic flows. A more elaborate correction scheme is required in treating transonic flows where local shock waves may be involved.
OVERSMART Reporting Tool for Flow Computations Over Large Grid Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David L.; Chan, William M.
2012-01-01
Structured grid solvers such as NASA's OVERFLOW compressible Navier-Stokes flow solver can generate large data files that contain convergence histories for flow equation residuals, turbulence model equation residuals, component forces and moments, and component relative motion dynamics variables. Most of today's large-scale problems can extend to hundreds of grids, and over 100 million grid points. However, due to the lack of efficient tools, only a small fraction of information contained in these files is analyzed. OVERSMART (OVERFLOW Solution Monitoring And Reporting Tool) provides a comprehensive report of solution convergence of flow computations over large, complex grid systems. It produces a one-page executive summary of the behavior of flow equation residuals, turbulence model equation residuals, and component forces and moments. Under the automatic option, a matrix of commonly viewed plots such as residual histograms, composite residuals, sub-iteration bar graphs, and component forces and moments is automatically generated. Specific plots required by the user can also be prescribed via a command file or a graphical user interface. Output is directed to the user s computer screen and/or to an html file for archival purposes. The current implementation has been targeted for the OVERFLOW flow solver, which is used to obtain a flow solution on structured overset grids. The OVERSMART framework allows easy extension to other flow solvers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, Dara W.
1993-01-01
The bulk-flow analysis results for this contract are incorporated in the following publications: 'Fluid-Structure Interaction Forces at Pump-Impeller Shroud Surfaces for Axial Vibration Analysis'; 'Centrifugal Acceleration Modes for Incompressible Fluid in the Leakage Annulus Between a Shrouded Pump Impeller and Its Housing'; 'Influence of Impeller Shroud Forces on Pump Rotordynamics'; 'Pressure Oscillation in the Leakage Annulus Between a Shrouded Impeller and Its Housing Due to Impeller-Discharge-Pressure Disturbances'; and 'Compressibility Effects on Rotor Forces in the Leakage Path Between a Shrouded Pump Impeller and Its Housing'. These publications are summarized and included in this final report. Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD) results developed by Dr. Erian Baskharone are reported separately.
IHT: Tools for Computing Insolation Absorption by Particle Laden Flows
Grout, R. W.
2013-10-01
This report describes IHT, a toolkit for computing radiative heat exchange between particles. Well suited for insolation absorption computations, it is also has potential applications in combustion (sooting flames), biomass gasification processes and similar processes. The algorithm is based on the 'Photon Monte Carlo' approach and implemented in a library that can be interfaced with a variety of computational fluid dynamics codes to analyze radiative heat transfer in particle-laden flows. The emphasis in this report is on the data structures and organization of IHT for developers seeking to use the IHT toolkit to add Photon Monte Carlo capabilities to their own codes.
Computational fluid dynamic analysis of liquid rocket combustion instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkateswaran, Sankaran; Grenda, Jeffrey; Merkle, Charles L.
1991-01-01
The paper presents a computational analysis of liquid rocket combustion instability. Consideration is given to both a fully nonlinear unsteady calculation as well as a new CFD-based linearized stability analysis. An analytical solution for the linear stability problem in a constant area combustion chamber with uniform mean flow is developed to verify the numerical analyses.
Computational flow visualization in vibrating flow pump type artificial heart by unstructured grid.
Kato, Takuma; Kawano, Satoyuki; Nakahashi, Kazuhiro; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Nitta, Shin-ichi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki
2003-01-01
Computational flow visualization in the casing of vibrating flow pump (VFP) was made for various conditions based on the novel techniques of fluid dynamics. VFP type artificial heart can generate the oscillated flow and can be applied to the left ventricular assist device. Flow pattern of blood in an artificial heart is closely connected to mechanical performance and serious biomechanical problems such as hemolysis and blood coagulation. To effectively design the VFP for a left ventricular assist device, the numerical codes for solving Navier-Stokes equations were developed for three-dimensional blood flow based on the finite volume method. Furthermore, the simulation techniques based on the artificial compressibility method and the unstructured grid were also developed here. The numerical calculations were based on the precise configurations and the flow conditions of the prototype device. From the viewpoint of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the detailed discussion of flow patterns in the casing of VFP, which were closely connected with hemolysis and blood coagulation, was made and the computational results were visualized by the use of the recent technique of computational graphics. Some useful design data of VFP were presented. PMID:12534712
IHT: Tools for Computing Insolation Absorption by Particle Laden Flows
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2013-09-17
INT is a toolkit for computing radiative heat exchange between particles. The algorithm is based on the the 'Photon Monte Carlo" approach described by Wang and Modest and implemented as a library that can be interfaced with a variety of CFD codes to analyze radiative heat transfer in particle laden flows.
Computation of turbulent flows-state-of-the-art, 1970
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, W. C.
1972-01-01
The state-of-the-art of turbulent flow computation is surveyed. The formulations were generalized to increase the range of their applicability, and the excitement of current debate on equation models was brought into the review. Some new ideas on the modeling of the pressure-strain term in the Reynolds stress equations are also suggested.
New computer program solves wide variety of heat flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Almond, J. C.
1966-01-01
Boeing Engineering Thermal Analyzer /BETA/ computer program uses numerical methods to provide accurate heat transfer solutions to a wide variety of heat flow problems. The program solves steady-state and transient problems in almost any situation that can be represented by a resistance-capacitance network.
Chemical kinetics computer program for static and flow reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bittker, D. A.; Scullin, V. J.
1972-01-01
General chemical kinetics computer program for complex gas mixtures has been developed. Program can be used for any homogeneous reaction in either one dimensional flow or static system. It is flexible, accurate, and easy to use. It can be used for any chemical system for which species thermodynamic data and reaction rate constant data are known.
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR FIRE SUPPRESSANT FLUID FLOW.
The objective of the project is to develop a computer code capable of predicting single and two phase hydrodynamic behavior of fire suppressant fluids during transport through piping systems. This new code will be able to predict pressure losses and flow rates for a wide variety ...
Web-Based Analysis and Publication of Flow Cytometry Experiments
Kotecha, Nikesh; Krutzik, Peter O.; Irish, Jonathan M.
2014-01-01
Cytobank is a web-based application for storage, analysis, and sharing of flow cytometry experiments. Researchers use a web browser to log in and use a wide range of tools developed for basic and advanced flow cytometry. In addition to providing access to standard cytometry tools from any computer, Cytobank creates a platform and community for developing new analysis and publication tools. Figure layouts created on Cytobank are designed to allow transparent access to the underlying experiment annotation and data processing steps. Since all flow cytometry files and analysis data are stored on a central server, experiments and figures can be viewed or edited by anyone with the proper permissions from any computer with Internet access. Once a primary researcher has performed the initial analysis of the data, collaborators can engage in experiment analysis and make their own figure layouts using the gated, compensated experiment files. Cytobank is available to the scientific community at www.cytobank.org PMID:20578106
Experimental, Theoretical, and Computational Investigation of Separated Nozzle Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunter, Craig A.
2004-01-01
A detailed experimental, theoretical, and computational study of separated nozzle flows has been conducted. Experimental testing was performed at the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel Complex. As part of a comprehensive static performance investigation, force, moment, and pressure measurements were made and schlieren flow visualization was obtained for a sub-scale, non-axisymmetric, two-dimensional, convergent- divergent nozzle. In addition, two-dimensional numerical simulations were run using the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and algebraic Reynolds stress modeling. For reference, experimental and computational results were compared with theoretical predictions based on one-dimensional gas dynamics and an approximate integral momentum boundary layer method. Experimental results from this study indicate that off-design overexpanded nozzle flow was dominated by shock induced boundary layer separation, which was divided into two distinct flow regimes; three- dimensional separation with partial reattachment, and fully detached two-dimensional separation. The test nozzle was observed to go through a marked transition in passing from one regime to the other. In all cases, separation provided a significant increase in static thrust efficiency compared to the ideal prediction. Results indicate that with controlled separation, the entire overexpanded range of nozzle performance would be within 10% of the peak thrust efficiency. By offering savings in weight and complexity over a conventional mechanical exhaust system, this may allow a fixed geometry nozzle to cover an entire flight envelope. The computational simulation was in excellent agreement with experimental data over most of the test range, and did a good job of modeling internal flow and thrust performance. An exception occurred at low nozzle pressure ratios, where the two-dimensional computational model was inconsistent with the three-dimensional separation
Computational Flow Modeling of Human Upper Airway Breathing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mylavarapu, Goutham
Computational modeling of biological systems have gained a lot of interest in biomedical research, in the recent past. This thesis focuses on the application of computational simulations to study airflow dynamics in human upper respiratory tract. With advancements in medical imaging, patient specific geometries of anatomically accurate respiratory tracts can now be reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) or Computed Tomography (CT) scans, with better and accurate details than traditional cadaver cast models. Computational studies using these individualized geometrical models have advantages of non-invasiveness, ease, minimum patient interaction, improved accuracy over experimental and clinical studies. Numerical simulations can provide detailed flow fields including velocities, flow rates, airway wall pressure, shear stresses, turbulence in an airway. Interpretation of these physical quantities will enable to develop efficient treatment procedures, medical devices, targeted drug delivery etc. The hypothesis for this research is that computational modeling can predict the outcomes of a surgical intervention or a treatment plan prior to its application and will guide the physician in providing better treatment to the patients. In the current work, three different computational approaches Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Flow-Structure Interaction (FSI) and Particle Flow simulations were used to investigate flow in airway geometries. CFD approach assumes airway wall as rigid, and relatively easy to simulate, compared to the more challenging FSI approach, where interactions of airway wall deformations with flow are also accounted. The CFD methodology using different turbulence models is validated against experimental measurements in an airway phantom. Two case-studies using CFD, to quantify a pre and post-operative airway and another, to perform virtual surgery to determine the best possible surgery in a constricted airway is demonstrated. The unsteady
Computational simulation of flows in an entire centrifugal heart pump.
Nakamura, S; Yano, K
1999-06-01
A prototype computational code to numerically simulate the blood flows in an entire centrifugal heart pump has been developed. The unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved on a parallel computer, the Cray T3E. By domain decomposition, the whole flow space is decomposed to a number of subdomains for each of which a structured algebraic grid is assigned. The grids for the inlet eye and blade regions are on the rotating frame while grids for other regions are on the nonrotating frame, and the edge of the rotating grids slides over the edge of the nonrotating frame, and the edge of the rotating grids slides over the edge of the nonrotating grids. The code is able to simulate the flows in the rotor, volute, and diffuser as well as to find pump performance indicators. The present paper presents an overview of the code and describes a study on the effect of volute width. PMID:10392287
Computer Simulation of Flow Dynamics in Paraclinoidal Aneurysms
Kobayashi, N.; Miyachi, S.; Okamoto, T.; Kojima, T.; Hattori, K.; Qian, S.; Takeda, H.; Yoshida, J.
2005-01-01
Summary Endovascular treatment, which is very useful method especially for paraclinoidal aneurysms, has the limitations of coil compaction and recanalization, which are difficult to predict. We tried to understand flow dynamic features, one of the important factors of such problems, using computer flow dynamics (CFD) simulations. CFD simulations were made in paraclinoidal aneurysm model of different size and protruded directions. Flow patterns, flow velocities and pressure are analyzed. Although the pressure on the aneurismal orifice is highest in the aneurysm protruding vertically upward, the flow velocity is highest in the superior-medial protruding one. Significant difference is not observed in either flow patterns, flow velocities or pressures on the aneurismal orifices between the sizes of aneurismal sac. Among paraclinoidal aneurysms, an aneurysm protruding to superior-medially receives the most severe haemodynamic stresses at the orifice and the aneurysm size does not cause significant differences in the aspect of flow dynamics. It should be considered in the treatment of such aneurysms. PMID:20584475
Implicit preconditioned WENO scheme for steady viscous flow computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Juan-Chen; Lin, Herng; Yang, Jaw-Yen
2009-02-01
A class of lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel implicit weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) schemes is developed for solving the preconditioned Navier-Stokes equations of primitive variables with Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. The numerical flux of the present preconditioned WENO schemes consists of a first-order part and high-order part. For first-order part, we adopt the preconditioned Roe scheme and for the high-order part, we employ preconditioned WENO methods. For comparison purpose, a preconditioned TVD scheme is also given and tested. A time-derivative preconditioning algorithm is devised and a discriminant is devised for adjusting the preconditioning parameters at low Mach numbers and turning off the preconditioning at intermediate or high Mach numbers. The computations are performed for the two-dimensional lid driven cavity flow, low subsonic viscous flow over S809 airfoil, three-dimensional low speed viscous flow over 6:1 prolate spheroid, transonic flow over ONERA-M6 wing and hypersonic flow over HB-2 model. The solutions of the present algorithms are in good agreement with the experimental data. The application of the preconditioned WENO schemes to viscous flows at all speeds not only enhances the accuracy and robustness of resolving shock and discontinuities for supersonic flows, but also improves the accuracy of low Mach number flow with complicated smooth solution structures.
Physiological correlates of the flow experience during computer game playing.
Harmat, László; de Manzano, Örjan; Theorell, Töres; Högman, Lennart; Fischer, Håkan; Ullén, Fredrik
2015-07-01
Flow is the subjective experience of effortless attention, reduced self-awareness, and enjoyment that typically occurs during optimal task performance. Previous studies have suggested that flow may be associated with a non-reciprocal coactivation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems and, on a cortical level, with a state of hypofrontality and implicit processing. Here, we test these hypotheses, using the computer game TETRIS as model task. The participants (n=77) played TETRIS under three conditions that differed in difficulty (Easy
Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing
Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.
1997-10-07
A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.
Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing
Davidson, George S.; Grafe, Victor Gerald
1997-01-01
A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.
Navier-Stokes computations of aft end flow fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinberg, B. C.; McDonald, H.; Shamroth, S. J.
1982-05-01
A Navier-Stokes code to solve the aft end flow field of missile type configurations is presented. The consistently split linearized block implicit method of McDonald and Briley is employed in modified form to handle L-shaped domains with sharp reentrant corners. Appropriate boundary conditions are applied for the supersonic flow in particular at the outer boundary so that waves generated within the flow field are allowed to pass out of the computational domain without reflecting back into it. An adaptive grid option has been incorporated into the code and has been exercised by following the shear layer in a model backstep problem. Results are presented for the supersonic turbulent flow over a nozzle boattail configuration with and without jet exhaust and the results are compared with experiment. Calculations of the 2-D turbulent supersonic flow over a right angle back step with shear layer reattachment on a 20 deg ramp are also shown, and compared with experiments. The computation shows the qualitative physical behavior of the flows and there is generally good agreement with the experimental velocity profiles through most of the free shear layer and the ramp reattachment zone.
Artificial Boundary Conditions for Computation of Oscillating External Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsynkov, S. V.
1996-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new technique for the numerical treatment of external flow problems with oscillatory behavior of the solution in time. Specifically, we consider the case of unbounded compressible viscous plane flow past a finite body (airfoil). Oscillations of the flow in time may be caused by the time-periodic injection of fluid into the boundary layer, which in accordance with experimental data, may essentially increase the performance of the airfoil. To conduct the actual computations, we have to somehow restrict the original unbounded domain, that is, to introduce an artificial (external) boundary and to further consider only a finite computational domain. Consequently, we will need to formulate some artificial boundary conditions (ABC's) at the introduced external boundary. The ABC's we are aiming to obtain must meet a fundamental requirement. One should be able to uniquely complement the solution calculated inside the finite computational domain to its infinite exterior so that the original problem is solved within the desired accuracy. Our construction of such ABC's for oscillating flows is based on an essential assumption: the Navier-Stokes equations can be linearized in the far field against the free-stream back- ground. To actually compute the ABC's, we represent the far-field solution as a Fourier series in time and then apply the Difference Potentials Method (DPM) of V. S. Ryaben'kii. This paper contains a general theoretical description of the algorithm for setting the DPM-based ABC's for time-periodic external flows. Based on our experience in implementing analogous ABC's for steady-state problems (a simpler case), we expect that these boundary conditions will become an effective tool for constructing robust numerical methods to calculate oscillatory flows.
Experimental and Computational Investigations of Flow past Spinning Cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlucci, Pasquale; Mehmedagic, Igbal; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald; Thangam, Siva
2011-11-01
Experiments are performed in a low speed subsonic wind tunnel to analyze flow past spinning cylinders. The sting-mounted cylinders are oriented such that their axis of rotation is aligned with the mean flow. Data from spinning cylinders with both rear-mounted and fore-mounted stings are presented for a Reynolds numbers of up to 260000 and rotation numbers of up to 1.2 (based on cylinder diameter). Computations are performed using a two-equation turbulence model that is capable of capturing the effects of swirl and curvature. The model performance was validated with benchmark experimental flows and implemented for analyzing the flow configuration used in the experimental study. The results are analyzed and the predictive capability of the model is discussed. Funded in part by U. S. Army, ARDEC.
Development of a computational aero/fluids analysis system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, P. B.
1987-01-01
The Computational Aero/Fluids Analysis System (AFAS) provides the analytical capability to perform state-of-the-art computational analyses in two difficult fluid dynamics disciplines associated with the Space Shuttle program. This system provides the analysis tools and techniques for rapidly and efficiently accessing, analyzing, and reformulating the large and expanding external aerodynamic data base while also providing tools for complex fluid flow analyses of the SSME engine components. Both of these fluid flow disciplines, external aerodynamics and internal gasdynamics, required this capability to ensure that MSFC can respond in a timely manner as problems are encountered and operational changes are made in the Space Shuttle.
MEASUREMENTS AND COMPUTATIONS OF FUEL DROPLET TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT FLOWS
Joseph Katz and Omar Knio
2007-01-10
The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions
Flow simulation and analysis of high-power flow batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, E.; Albertus, P.; Cho, K. T.; Weber, A. Z.; Kojic, A.
2015-12-01
The cost of a flow battery system can be reduced by increasing its power density and thereby reducing its stack area. If per-pass utilizations are held constant, higher battery power densities can only be achieved using higher flow rates. Here, a 3D computational fluid dynamics model of a flow battery flow field and electrode is used to analyze the implications of increasing flow rates to high power density operating conditions. Interdigitated and serpentine designs, and cell sizes ranging from 10 cm2 to 400 cm2, are simulated. The results quantify the dependence of pressure loss on cell size and design, demonstrating that the details of the passages that distribute flow between individual channels and the inlet and outlet have a major impact on pressure losses in larger cells. Additionally, in-cell flow behavior is analyzed as a function of cell size and design. Flow structures are interrogated to show how and where electrode parameters influence pressure drops, and how regions where transport is slow are correlated with the presence of experimentally observed cell degradation.
Implementation of Parallel Computing Technology to Vortex Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer
1999-01-01
Mainframe supercomputers such as the Cray C90 was invaluable in obtaining large scale computations using several millions of grid points to resolve salient features of a tip vortex flow over a lifting wing. However, real flight configurations require tracking not only of the flow over several lifting wings but its growth and decay in the near- and intermediate- wake regions, not to mention the interaction of these vortices with each other. Resolving and tracking the evolution and interaction of these vortices shed from complex bodies is computationally intensive. Parallel computing technology is an attractive option in solving these flows. In planetary science vortical flows are also important in studying how planets and protoplanets form when cosmic dust and gases become gravitationally unstable and eventually form planets or protoplanets. The current paradigm for the formation of planetary systems maintains that the planets accreted from the nebula of gas and dust left over from the formation of the Sun. Traditional theory also indicate that such a preplanetary nebula took the form of flattened disk. The coagulation of dust led to the settling of aggregates toward the midplane of the disk, where they grew further into asteroid-like planetesimals. Some of the issues still remaining in this process are the onset of gravitational instability, the role of turbulence in the damping of particles and radial effects. In this study the focus will be with the role of turbulence and the radial effects.
The NCOREL computer program for 3D nonlinear supersonic potential flow computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siclari, M. J.
1983-01-01
An innovative computational technique (NCOREL) was established for the treatment of three dimensional supersonic flows. The method is nonlinear in that it solves the nonconservative finite difference analog of the full potential equation and can predict the formation of supercritical cross flow regions, embedded and bow shocks. The method implicitly computes a conical flow at the apex (R = 0) of a spherical coordinate system and uses a fully implicit marching technique to obtain three dimensional cross flow solutions. This implies that the radial Mach number must remain supersonic. The cross flow solutions are obtained by using type dependent transonic relaxation techniques with the type dependency linked to the character of the cross flow velocity (i.e., subsonic/supersonic). The spherical coordinate system and marching on spherical surfaces is ideally suited to the computation of wing flows at low supersonic Mach numbers due to the elimination of the subsonic axial Mach number problems that exist in other marching codes that utilize Cartesian transverse marching planes.
A Petaflops Era Computing Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Preston, Frank S.
1998-01-01
This report covers a study of the potential for petaflops (1O(exp 15) floating point operations per second) computing. This study was performed within the year 1996 and should be considered as the first step in an on-going effort. 'Me analysis concludes that a petaflop system is technically feasible but not feasible with today's state-of-the-art. Since the computer arena is now a commodity business, most experts expect that a petaflops system will evolve from current technology in an evolutionary fashion. To meet the price expectations of users waiting for petaflop performance, great improvements in lowering component costs will be required. Lower power consumption is also a must. The present rate of progress in improved performance places the date of introduction of petaflop systems at about 2010. Several years before that date, it is projected that the resolution limit of chips will reach the now known resolution limit. Aside from the economic problems and constraints, software is identified as the major problem. The tone of this initial study is more pessimistic than most of the Super-published material available on petaflop systems. Workers in the field are expected to generate more data which could serve to provide a basis for a more informed projection. This report includes an annotated bibliography.
Computer program for aerodynamic and blading design of multistage axial-flow compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crouse, J. E.; Gorrell, W. T.
1981-01-01
A code for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis codes is presented. Compressible flow, which is assumed to be steady and axisymmetric, is the basis for a two-dimensional solution in the meridional plane with viscous effects modeled by pressure loss coefficients and boundary layer blockage. The radial equation of motion and the continuity equation are solved with the streamline curvature method on calculation stations outside the blade rows. The annulus profile, mass flow, pressure ratio, and rotative speed are input. A number of other input parameters specify and control the blade row aerodynamics and geometry. In particular, blade element centerlines and thicknesses can be specified with fourth degree polynomials for two segments. The output includes a detailed aerodynamic solution and, if desired, blading coordinates that can be used for internal flow analysis codes.
Transonic wing analysis using advanced computational methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henne, P. A.; Hicks, R. M.
1978-01-01
This paper discusses the application of three-dimensional computational transonic flow methods to several different types of transport wing designs. The purpose of these applications is to evaluate the basic accuracy and limitations associated with such numerical methods. The use of such computational methods for practical engineering problems can only be justified after favorable evaluations are completed. The paper summarizes a study of both the small-disturbance and the full potential technique for computing three-dimensional transonic flows. Computed three-dimensional results are compared to both experimental measurements and theoretical results. Comparisons are made not only of pressure distributions but also of lift and drag forces. Transonic drag rise characteristics are compared. Three-dimensional pressure distributions and aerodynamic forces, computed from the full potential solution, compare reasonably well with experimental results for a wide range of configurations and flow conditions.
Cooperative integration of stereopsis and optic flow computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sudhir, G.; Banerjee, Subhashis; Biswas, K. K.; Bahl, R.
1995-12-01
A cooperative integration of stereopsis and optic flow computation is presented. Central to our approach is the modeling of the visual processes as a sequence of coupled Markov random fields by definition of suitable interprocess interactions based on some natural constraints. The integration makes each of the individual processes better constrained and more reliable. Further, as a result of the integration, it becomes possible to obtain accurately the discontinuities in both the flow and the disparity fields along with the regions of stereo occlusion. Results on both noisy synthetic image data and real images are presented. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America
Computer programs for calculating potential flow in propulsion system inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stockman, N. O.; Button, S. L.
1973-01-01
In the course of designing inlets, particularly for VTOL and STOL propulsion systems, a calculational procedure utilizing three computer programs evolved. The chief program is the Douglas axisymmetric potential flow program called EOD which calculates the incompressible potential flow about arbitrary axisymmetric bodies. The other two programs, original with Lewis, are called SCIRCL AND COMBYN. Program SCIRCL generates input for EOD from various specified analytic shapes for the inlet components. Program COMBYN takes basic solutions output by EOD and combines them into solutions of interest, and applies a compressibility correction.
Using artificial intelligence to control fluid flow computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gelsey, Andrew
1992-01-01
Computational simulation is an essential tool for the prediction of fluid flow. Many powerful simulation programs exist today. However, using these programs to reliably analyze fluid flow and other physical situations requires considerable human effort and expertise to set up a simulation, determine whether the output makes sense, and repeatedly run the simulation with different inputs until a satisfactory result is achieved. Automating this process is not only of considerable practical importance but will also significantly advance basic artificial intelligence (AI) research in reasoning about the physical world.
Computational techniques for solar wind flows past terrestrial planets: Theory and computer programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahara, S. S.; Chaussee, D. S.; Trudinger, B. C.; Spreiter, J. R.
1977-01-01
The interaction of the solar wind with terrestrial planets can be predicted using a computer program based on a single fluid, steady, dissipationless, magnetohydrodynamic model to calculate the axisymmetric, supersonic, super-Alfvenic solar wind flow past both magnetic and nonmagnetic planets. The actual calculations are implemented by an assemblage of computer codes organized into one program. These include finite difference codes which determine the gas-dynamic solution, together with a variety of special purpose output codes for determining and automatically plotting both flow field and magnetic field results. Comparisons are made with previous results, and results are presented for a number of solar wind flows. The computational programs developed are documented and are presented in a general user's manual which is included.
Conveying Lava Flow Hazards Through Interactive Computer Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, D.; Edwards, H. K.; Harnish, E. P.
2007-12-01
As part of an Information Sciences senior class project, a software package of an interactive version of the FLOWGO model was developed for the Island of Hawaii. The software is intended for use in an ongoing public outreach and hazards awareness program that educates the public about lava flow hazards on the island. The design parameters for the model allow an unsophisticated user to initiate a lava flow anywhere on the island and allow it to flow down-slope to the shoreline while displaying a timer to show the rate of advance of the flow. The user is also able to modify a range of input parameters including eruption rate, the temperature of the lava at the vent, and crystal fraction present in the lava at the source. The flow trajectories are computed using a 30 m digital elevation model for the island and the rate of advance of the flow is estimated using the average slope angle and the computed viscosity of the lava as it cools in either a channel (high heat loss) or lava tube (low heat loss). Even though the FLOWGO model is not intended to, and cannot, accurately predict the rate of advance of a tube- fed or channel-fed flow, the relative rates of flow advance for steep or flat-lying terrain convey critically important hazard information to the public: communities located on the steeply sloping western flanks of Mauna Loa may have no more than a few hours to evacuate in the face of a threatened flow from Mauna Loa's southwest rift whereas communities on the more gently sloping eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea may have weeks to months to prepare for evacuation. Further, the model also can show the effects of loss of critical infrastructure with consequent impacts on access into and out of communities, loss of electrical supply, and communications as a result of lava flow implacement. The interactive model has been well received in an outreach setting and typically generates greater involvement by the participants than has been the case with static maps
Flow Analysis of the Cleveland Clinic Centrifugal Pump
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veres, Joseph P.; Golding, Leonard A. R.; Smith, William A.; Horvath, David; Medvedev, Alexander
1997-01-01
An implantable ventricular assist rotordynamic blood pump is being developed by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in cooperation with the NASA Lewis Research Center. At the nominal design condition, the pump provides blood flow at the rate of 5 liters per minute at a pressure rise of 100 mm of mercury and a rotative speed of 3000 RPM. Bench testing of the centrifugal pump in a water/glycerin mixture has provided flow and pressure data at several rotative speeds. A one-dimensional empirical based pump flow analysis computer code developed at NASA Lewis Research Center has been used in the design process to simulate the flow in the primary centrifugal pump stage. The computer model was used to size key impeller and volute geometric parameters that influence pressure rise and flow. Input requirements to the computer model include a simple representation of the pump geometry. The model estimates the flow conditions at the design and at off-design operating conditions at the impeller leading and trailing edges and the volute inlet and exit. The output from the computer model is compared to flow and pressure data obtained from bench testing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paynter, G. C.; Salemann, V.; Strom, E. E. I.
1984-01-01
A numerical procedure which solves the parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations on a body fitted mesh was used to compute the flow about the forebody of an advanced tactical supercruise fighter configuration in an effort to explore the use of a PNS method for design of supersonic cruise forebody geometries. Forebody flow fields were computed at Mach numbers of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5, and at angles-of-attack of 0 deg, 4 deg, and 8 deg. at each Mach number. Computed results are presented at several body stations and include contour plots of Mach number, total pressure, upwash angle, sidewash angle and cross-plane velocity. The computational analysis procedure was found reliable for evaluating forebody flow fields of advanced aircraft configurations for flight conditions where the vortex shed from the wing leading edge is not a dominant flow phenomenon. Static pressure distributions and boundary layer profiles on the forebody and wing were surveyed in a wind tunnel test, and the analytical results are compared to the data. The current status of the parabolized flow flow field code is described along with desirable improvements in the code.
Two inviscid computational simulations of separated flow about airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnwell, R. W.
1976-01-01
Two inviscid computational simulations of separated flow about airfoils are described. The basic computational method is the line relaxation finite-difference method. Viscous separation is approximated with inviscid free-streamline separation. The point of separation is specified, and the pressure in the separation region is calculated. In the first simulation, the empiricism of constant pressure in the separation region is employed. This empiricism is easier to implement with the present method than with singularity methods. In the second simulation, acoustic theory is used to determine the pressure in the separation region. The results of both simulations are compared with experiment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weed, Richard Allen; Sankar, L. N.
1994-01-01
An increasing amount of research activity in computational fluid dynamics has been devoted to the development of efficient algorithms for parallel computing systems. The increasing performance to price ratio of engineering workstations has led to research to development procedures for implementing a parallel computing system composed of distributed workstations. This thesis proposal outlines an ongoing research program to develop efficient strategies for performing three-dimensional flow analysis on distributed computing systems. The PVM parallel programming interface was used to modify an existing three-dimensional flow solver, the TEAM code developed by Lockheed for the Air Force, to function as a parallel flow solver on clusters of workstations. Steady flow solutions were generated for three different wing and body geometries to validate the code and evaluate code performance. The proposed research will extend the parallel code development to determine the most efficient strategies for unsteady flow simulations.
Experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathaway, M. D.; Chriss, R. M.; Wood, J. R.; Strazisar, A. J.
1992-01-01
An experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor (LSCC) flow field has been conducted using laser anemometry and Dawes' 3D viscous code. The experimental configuration consists of a backswept impeller followed by a vaneless diffuser. Measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field were acquired at several measurement planes through the compressor. The measurements describe both the throughflow and secondary velocity field along each measurement plane. In several cases the measurements provide details of the flow within the blade boundary layers. Insight into the complex flow physics within centrifugal compressors is provided by the computational analysis, and assessment of the CFD predictions is provided by comparison with the measurements. Five-hole probe and hot-wire surveys at the inlet and exit to the rotor as well as surface flow visualization along the impeller blade surfaces provide independent confirmation of the laser measurement technique.
Euler Flow Computations on Non-Matching Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gumaste, Udayan
1999-01-01
Advanced fluid solvers to predict aerodynamic performance-coupled treatment of multiple fields are described. The interaction between the fluid and structural components in the bladed regions of the engine is investigated with respect to known blade failures caused by either flutter or forced vibrations. Methods are developed to describe aeroelastic phenomena for internal flows in turbomachinery by accounting for the increased geometric complexity, mutual interaction between adjacent structural components and presence of thermal and geometric loading. The computer code developed solves the full three dimensional aeroelastic problem of-stage. The results obtained show that flow computations can be performed on non-matching finite-volume unstructured meshes with second order spatial accuracy.
Chemical nonequilibrium and viscous flow computation for conic aerobrake bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, C. P.
1988-01-01
Three-dimensional analyses are presented for the viscous, reactive flow over a complete entry-body configuration with a wide-angle conic surface. The predictive method uses a split approach that solves iteratively the Navier-Stokes and the continuity equations of chemical species. The finite-difference formulation and the computational grid are adapted to the bow shock and the conformally mapped body such that the velocity components are in the computational spherical-polar space. Combinations of several conic forebody and afterbody configurations have been studied using wind-tunnel, Space Shuttle, and aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) entry conditions. The effects of the borebody bluntness and of finite-rate chemical reactions on the shock layer, the wall catalycity on the boundary layer, the shear-layer impingement on the afterbody, and the base-flow environment are discussed.
Hot Flow Anomaly Structure Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.
2010-12-01
Hot Flow Anomaly observed on Interball-Tail on 03.14.1996 is investigated. The normal to the interplanetary current sheet interacting with bow shock was determined in assumption of tangential discontinuity. Calculated motional electric field was directed towards current sheet. The bow shock before HFA arrival to the spacecraft was quasi-perpendicular, and was quasi-parallel after HFA passage. Respectively, of the shocks, bracketing HFA, were quasi-perpendicular before HFA passage and quasi-parallel after it. With averaged velocity of plasma within the body of HFA and duration of HFA observation we determined its size in normal to the current sheet direction as ~ 2.5 RE. HFA consists of two regions separated by thin layer with different plasma characteristics. Convection of plasma within HFA, as observed along spacecraft trajectory by subtracting averaged velocity from observed velocities, show that plasma in each of two regions is moving from separating layer. It indicates that separating layer is the site of energy deposition from interaction of the solar wind with ions reflected from the shock. This is confirmed by analysis of ion velocity distributions in this layer.
Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartshom, Fletcher
2012-01-01
Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.
Turbulent flow in a 180 deg bend: Modeling and computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaul, Upender K.
1989-01-01
A low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was presented which yields accurate predictions of the kinetic energy near the wall. The model is validated with the experimental channel flow data of Kreplin and Eckelmann. The predictions are also compared with earlier results from direct simulation of turbulent channel flow. The model is especially useful for internal flows where the inflow boundary condition of epsilon is not easily prescribed. The model partly derives from some observations based on earlier direct simulation results of near-wall turbulence. The low Reynolds number turbulence model together with an existing curvature correction appropriate to spinning cylinder flows was used to simulate the flow in a U-bend with the same radius of curvature as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Turn-Around Duct (TAD). The present computations indicate a space varying curvature correction parameter as opposed to a constant parameter as used in the spinning cylinder flows. Comparison with limited available experimental data is made. The comparison is favorable, but detailed experimental data is needed to further improve the curvature model.
Transitional flow in aneurysms and the computation of haemodynamic parameters
Poelma, Christian; Watton, Paul N.; Ventikos, Yiannis
2015-01-01
Haemodynamic forces appear to play an influential role in the evolution of aneurysms. This has led to numerous studies, usually based on computational fluid dynamics. Their focus is predominantly on the wall shear stress (WSS) and associated derived parameters, attempting to find correlations between particular patterns of haemodynamic indices and regions subjected to disease formation and progression. The indices are generally determined by integration of flow properties over a single cardiac cycle. In this study, we illustrate that in some cases the transitional flow in aneurysms can lead to significantly different WSS distributions in consecutive cardiac cycles. Accurate determination of time-averaged haemodynamic indices may thus require simulation of a large number of cycles, which contrasts with the common approach to determine parameters using data from a single cycle. To demonstrate the role of transitional flow, two exemplary cases are considered: flow in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and in an intracranial aneurysm. The key differences that are observed between these cases are explained in terms of the integral timescale of the transitional flows in comparison with the cardiac cycle duration: for relatively small geometries, transients will decay before the next cardiac cycle. In larger geometries, transients are still present when the systolic phase produces new instabilities. These residual fluctuations serve as random initial conditions and thus seed different flow patterns in each cycle. To judge whether statistics are converged, the derived indices from at least two successive cardiac cycles should be compared. PMID:25694540
TAIR- TRANSONIC AIRFOIL ANALYSIS COMPUTER CODE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dougherty, F. C.
1994-01-01
The Transonic Airfoil analysis computer code, TAIR, was developed to employ a fast, fully implicit algorithm to solve the conservative full-potential equation for the steady transonic flow field about an arbitrary airfoil immersed in a subsonic free stream. The full-potential formulation is considered exact under the assumptions of irrotational, isentropic, and inviscid flow. These assumptions are valid for a wide range of practical transonic flows typical of modern aircraft cruise conditions. The primary features of TAIR include: a new fully implicit iteration scheme which is typically many times faster than classical successive line overrelaxation algorithms; a new, reliable artifical density spatial differencing scheme treating the conservative form of the full-potential equation; and a numerical mapping procedure capable of generating curvilinear, body-fitted finite-difference grids about arbitrary airfoil geometries. Three aspects emphasized during the development of the TAIR code were reliability, simplicity, and speed. The reliability of TAIR comes from two sources: the new algorithm employed and the implementation of effective convergence monitoring logic. TAIR achieves ease of use by employing a "default mode" that greatly simplifies code operation, especially by inexperienced users, and many useful options including: several airfoil-geometry input options, flexible user controls over program output, and a multiple solution capability. The speed of the TAIR code is attributed to the new algorithm and the manner in which it has been implemented. Input to the TAIR program consists of airfoil coordinates, aerodynamic and flow-field convergence parameters, and geometric and grid convergence parameters. The airfoil coordinates for many airfoil shapes can be generated in TAIR from just a few input parameters. Most of the other input parameters have default values which allow the user to run an analysis in the default mode by specifing only a few input parameters
Computational modelling of slug flow in a capillary microreactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashid, M. N.; Platte, F.; Agar, D. W.; Turek, S.
2007-06-01
The benefits of slug flow capillary microreactor exhibit the ability to adjust two individual transport mechanisms, i.e., convection inside the slug and diffusion between two consecutive slugs. The mass transfer rate is enhanced by internal circulation, which arises due to the shear between slug axis and continuous phase or capillary wall. The knowledge of circulation patterns within the slug plays an important role in the design of a capillary microreactor. Apart from this, well defined slug flow generation is a key activity in the development of methodology to study hydrodynamics and mass transfer. In the present paper we discuss computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling aspects of internal circulations (single phase) and slug flow generation (two-phase).
Fully consistent CFD methods for incompressible flow computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolmogorov, D. K.; Shen, W. Z.; Sørensen, N. N.; Sørensen, J. N.
2014-06-01
Nowadays collocated grid based CFD methods are one of the most efficient tools for computations of the flows past wind turbines. To ensure the robustness of the methods they require special attention to the well-known problem of pressure-velocity coupling. Many commercial codes to ensure the pressure-velocity coupling on collocated grids use the so-called momentum interpolation method of Rhie and Chow [1]. As known, the method and some of its widely spread modifications result in solutions, which are dependent of time step at convergence. In this paper the magnitude of the dependence is shown to contribute about 0.5% into the total error in a typical turbulent flow computation. Nevertheless if coarse grids are used, the standard interpolation methods result in much higher non-consistent behavior. To overcome the problem, a recently developed interpolation method, which is independent of time step, is used. It is shown that in comparison to other time step independent method, the method may enhance the convergence rate of the SIMPLEC algorithm up to 25 %. The method is verified using turbulent flow computations around a NACA 64618 airfoil and the roll-up of a shear layer, which may appear in wind turbine wake.
The free-wake computation of rotor-body flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, K.; Steinhoff, J.; Caradonna, F. X.
1990-01-01
In this paper a method is described for predicting the compressible, free-wake, flow about a lifting rotor-body configuration. The method is an extension of a unique vorticity embedded full-potential method used to calculate free-wake rotor hover performance. An unusual feature of this method is that it obviates the requirement for multiple grids to treat the rotor-body problem. The approach used to treat the body is similar to that used to include the rotor wake in the full potential calculation. The body is modeled as a structured circulation sheet and the strength of this sheet is determined in an iterative manner. Initially the method is tested to compute the flow past simple isolated bodies like cylinders and spheres. After a comparison of these simple computations with exact solutions this procedure is included into the HELIX-I, free-wake rotor code, to compute the flow around a rotor mounted on a large whirl tower. The effects of the tower on rotor wake geometry and load distribution are presented.
Anderson, J B; Wood, H G; Allaire, P E; Bearnson, G; Khanwilkar, P
2000-05-01
A computational fluid dynamics study of blood flow in the continuous flow ventricular assist device, Prototype No. 3 (CFVAD3), which consists of a 4 blade shrouded impeller fully supported in magnetic bearings, was performed. This study focused on the regions within the pump where return flow occurs to the pump inlet, and where potentially damaging shear stresses and flow stagnation might occur: the impeller blade passages and the narrow gap clearance regions between the impeller-rotor and pump housing. Two separate geometry models define the spacing between the pump housing and the impeller's hub and shroud, and a third geometry model defines the pump's impeller and curved blades. The flow fields in these regions were calculated for various operating conditions of the pump. Pump performance curves were calculated, which compare well with experimentally obtained data. For all pump operating conditions, the flow rates within the gap regions were predicted to be toward the inlet of the pump, thus recirculating a portion of the impeller flow. Two smaller gap clearance regions were numerically examined to reduce the recirculation and to improve pump efficiency. The computational and geometry models will be used in future studies of a smaller pump to determine increased pump efficiency and the risk of hemolysis due to shear stress, and to insure the washing of blood through the clearance regions to prevent thrombosis. PMID:10848679
Computational strategies for three-dimensional flow simulations on distributed computer systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Weed, Richard A.
1995-01-01
This research effort is directed towards an examination of issues involved in porting large computational fluid dynamics codes in use within the industry to a distributed computing environment. This effort addresses strategies for implementing the distributed computing in a device independent fashion and load balancing. A flow solver called TEAM presently in use at Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company was acquired to start this effort. The following tasks were completed: (1) The TEAM code was ported to a number of distributed computing platforms including a cluster of HP workstations located in the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Tech; a cluster of DEC Alpha Workstations in the Graphics visualization lab located at Georgia Tech; a cluster of SGI workstations located at NASA Ames Research Center; and an IBM SP-2 system located at NASA ARC. (2) A number of communication strategies were implemented. Specifically, the manager-worker strategy and the worker-worker strategy were tested. (3) A variety of load balancing strategies were investigated. Specifically, the static load balancing, task queue balancing and the Crutchfield algorithm were coded and evaluated. (4) The classical explicit Runge-Kutta scheme in the TEAM solver was replaced with an LU implicit scheme. And (5) the implicit TEAM-PVM solver was extensively validated through studies of unsteady transonic flow over an F-5 wing, undergoing combined bending and torsional motion. These investigations are documented in extensive detail in the dissertation, 'Computational Strategies for Three-Dimensional Flow Simulations on Distributed Computing Systems', enclosed as an appendix.
Chriss, R.M.; Wood, J.R.; Hathaway, M.D.
1996-01-01
The NASA Lewis Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor (LSCC) has been investigated with laser anemometry and computational analysis at two flow conditions: the design condition as well as a lower mass flow condition. Previously reported experimental and computational results at the design condition are in the literature (Hathaway et al., 1993). In that paper extensive analysis showed that inducer blade boundary layers are centrifuged outward and entrained into the tip clearance flow and hence contribute significantly to the throughflow wake. In this report results are presented for a lower mass flow condition along with further results from the design case. The data set contained herein consists of three-dimensional laser velocimeter results upstream, inside, and downstream of the impeller. In many locations data have been obtained in the blade and endwall boundary layers. The data are presented in the form of throughflow velocity contours as well as secondary flow vectors. The results reported herein illustrate the effects of flow rate on the development of the throughflow momentum wake as well as on the secondary flow. The computational results presented confirm the ability of modern computational tools to model the complex flow in a subsonic centrifugal compressor accurately. However, the blade tip shape and tip clearance must be known in order to properly simulate the flow physics. In addition, the ability to predict changes in the throughflow wake, which is largely fed by the tip clearance flow, as the impeller is throttled should give designers much better confidence in using computational tools to improve impeller performance.
A computational technique for turbulent flow of wastewater sludge.
Bechtel, Tom B
2005-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique applied to the turbulent flow of wastewater sludge in horizontal, smooth-wall, circular pipes is presented. The technique uses the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method in conjunction with the variable secant method, an algorithm for determining the pressure gradient of the flow. A simple algebraic turbulence model is used. A Bingham-plastic rheological model is used to describe the shear stress/shear rate relationship for the wastewater sludge. The method computes velocity gradient and head loss, given a fixed volumetric flow, pipe size, and solids concentration. Solids concentrations ranging from 3 to 10% (by weight) and nominal pipe sizes from 0.15 m (6 in.) to 0.36 m (14 in.) are studied. Comparison of the CFD results for water to established values serves to validate the numerical method. The head loss results are presented in terms of a head loss ratio, R(hl), which is the ratio of sludge head loss to water head loss. An empirical equation relating R(hl) to pipe velocity and solids concentration, derived from the results of the CFD calculations, is presented. The results are compared with published values of Rhl for solids concentrations of 3 and 6%. A new expression for the Fanning friction factor for wastewater sludge flow is also presented. PMID:16121510
Study of design and analysis methods for transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, E. M.
1977-01-01
An airfoil design program and a boundary layer analysis were developed. Boundary conditions were derived for ventilated transonic wind tunnels and performing transonic windtunnel wall calculations. A computational procedure for rotational transonic flow in engine inlet throats was formulated. Results and conclusions are summarized.
Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Cryogenic Liquid Turbulent Flow Fluid Film Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
SanAndres, Luis
1996-01-01
Computational programs developed for the thermal analysis of tilting and flexure-pad hybrid bearings, and the unsteady flow and transient response of a point mass rotor supported on fluid film bearings are described. The motion of a cryogenic liquid on the thin film annular region of a fluid film bearing is described by a set of mass and momentum conservation, and energy transport equations for the turbulent bulk-flow velocities and pressure, and accompanied by thermophysical state equations for evaluation of the fluid material properties. Zeroth-order equations describe the fluid flow field for a journal static equilibrium position, while first-order (linear) equations govern the fluid flow for small amplitude-journal center translational motions. Solution to the zeroth-order flow field equations provides the bearing flow rate, load capacity, drag torque and temperature rise. Solution to the first-order equations determines the rotordynamic force coefficients due to journal radial motions.
Computational wing design studies relating to natural laminar flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waggoner, Edgar G.
1986-01-01
Two research studies are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wing planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first study supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second study. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs.
A topological approach to computer-aided sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, S. P.; Munoz, R. M.
1971-01-01
Sensitivities of any arbitrary system are calculated using general purpose digital computer with available software packages for transfer function analysis. Sensitivity shows how element variation within system affects system performance. Signal flow graph illustrates topological system behavior and relationship among parameters in system.
Grid computing in image analysis
2011-01-01
Diagnostic surgical pathology or tissue–based diagnosis still remains the most reliable and specific diagnostic medical procedure. The development of whole slide scanners permits the creation of virtual slides and to work on so-called virtual microscopes. In addition to interactive work on virtual slides approaches have been reported that introduce automated virtual microscopy, which is composed of several tools focusing on quite different tasks. These include evaluation of image quality and image standardization, analysis of potential useful thresholds for object detection and identification (segmentation), dynamic segmentation procedures, adjustable magnification to optimize feature extraction, and texture analysis including image transformation and evaluation of elementary primitives. Grid technology seems to possess all features to efficiently target and control the specific tasks of image information and detection in order to obtain a detailed and accurate diagnosis. Grid technology is based upon so-called nodes that are linked together and share certain communication rules in using open standards. Their number and functionality can vary according to the needs of a specific user at a given point in time. When implementing automated virtual microscopy with Grid technology, all of the five different Grid functions have to be taken into account, namely 1) computation services, 2) data services, 3) application services, 4) information services, and 5) knowledge services. Although all mandatory tools of automated virtual microscopy can be implemented in a closed or standardized open system, Grid technology offers a new dimension to acquire, detect, classify, and distribute medical image information, and to assure quality in tissue–based diagnosis. PMID:21516880
Applications of a new wall function to turbulent flow computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Y. S.
1986-01-01
A new wall function approach is developed based on a wall law suitable for incompressible turbulent boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients. This wall law was derived from a one-dimensional analysis of the turbulent kinetic energy equation with gradient diffusion concept employed in modeling the near-wall shear stress gradient. Numerical testing cases for the present wall functions include turbulent separating flows around an airfoil and turbulent recirculating flows in several confined regions. Improvements on the predictions using the present wall functions are illustrated. For cases of internal recirculating flows, one modification factor for improving the performance of the k-epsilon turbulence model in the flow recirculation regions is also included.
Computational Analyses of Complex Flows with Chemical Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Kang-Sik
The heat and mass transfer phenomena in micro-scale for the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the simulation of oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, and a reduced chemical kinetic modeling of gas turbine combustion for Jet propellant-10 have been studied numerically. For the numerical analysis of the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the governing equations are derived from the cylindrical matrix systems, Krogh cylinder model, which modeling system is comprised of a capillary to a surrounding cylinder tissue along with the arterial distance to veins. ADI (Alternative Direction Implicit) scheme and Thomas algorithm are applied to solve the nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). This study shows that the important factors which have an effect on the drug penetration depth to the tissue are the mass diffusivity and the consumption of relevant species during the time allowed for diffusion to the brain tissue. Also, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the blood flow and oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, which are satisfied in the physiological range of a typical capillary. A three dimensional geometry has been constructed to replicate the one studied by Secomb et al. (2000), and the computational framework features a non-Newtonian viscosity model for blood, the oxygen transport model including in oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation and wall flux due to tissue absorption, as well as an ability to study the diffusion of drugs and other materials in the capillary streams. Finally, a chemical kinetic mechanism of JP-10 has been compiled and validated for a wide range of combustion regimes, covering pressures of 1atm to 40atm with temperature ranges of 1,200 K--1,700 K, which is being studied as a possible Jet propellant for the Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) and other high-speed flight applications such as hypersonic
Flow separation in a computational oscillating vocal fold model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alipour, Fariborz; Scherer, Ronald C.
2004-09-01
A finite-volume computational model that solves the time-dependent glottal airflow within a forced-oscillation model of the glottis was employed to study glottal flow separation. Tracheal input velocity was independently controlled with a sinusoidally varying parabolic velocity profile. Control parameters included flow rate (Reynolds number), oscillation frequency and amplitude of the vocal folds, and the phase difference between the superior and inferior glottal margins. Results for static divergent glottal shapes suggest that velocity increase caused glottal separation to move downstream, but reduction in velocity increase and velocity decrease moved the separation upstream. At the fixed frequency, an increase of amplitude of the glottal walls moved the separation further downstream during glottal closing. Increase of Reynolds number caused the flow separation to move upstream in the glottis. The flow separation cross-sectional ratio ranged from approximately 1.1 to 1.9 (average of 1.47) for the divergent shapes. Results suggest that there may be a strong interaction of rate of change of airflow, inertia, and wall movement. Flow separation appeared to be ``delayed'' during the vibratory cycle, leading to movement of the separation point upstream of the glottal end only after a significant divergent angle was reached, and to persist upstream into the convergent phase of the cycle.
A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 3. [computer programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khalil, I.; Sheoran, Y.; Tabakoff, W.
1980-01-01
A method for analyzing the nonadiabatic viscous flow through turbomachine blade passages was developed. The field analysis is based upon the numerical integration of the full incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, together with the energy equation on the blade-to-blade surface. A FORTRAN IV computer program was written based on this method. The numerical code used to solve the governing equations employs a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system. The flow may be axial, radial or mixed and there may be a change in stream channel thickness in the through-flow direction. The inputs required for two FORTRAN IV programs are presented. The first program considers laminar flows and the second can handle turbulent flows. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the use of the program, and to show the results that are obtained.
Analysis of katabatic flow using infrared imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grudzielanek, M.; Cermak, J.
2013-12-01
We present a novel high-resolution IR method which is developed, tested and used for the analysis of katabatic flow. Modern thermal imaging systems allow for the recording of infrared picture sequences and thus the monitoring and analysis of dynamic processes. In order to identify, visualize and analyze dynamic air flow using infrared imaging, a highly reactive 'projection' surface is needed along the air flow. Here, a design for these types of analysis is proposed and evaluated. Air flow situations with strong air temperature gradients and fluctuations, such as katabatic flow, are particularly suitable for this new method. The method is applied here to analyze nocturnal cold air flows on gentle slopes. In combination with traditional methods the vertical and temporal dynamics of cold air flow are analyzed. Several assumptions on cold air flow dynamics can be confirmed explicitly for the first time. By observing the cold air flow in terms of frequency, size and period of the cold air fluctuations, drops are identified and organized in a newly derived classification system of cold air flow phases. In addition, new flow characteristics are detected, like sharp cold air caps and turbulence inside the drops. Vertical temperature gradients inside cold air drops and their temporal evolution are presented in high resolution Hovmöller-type diagrams and sequenced time lapse infrared videos.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.; Smith, P. J.
1974-01-01
A computer program is presented for compressible fluid flow with friction and area change. The program carries out a quasi-one-dimensional flow analysis which is valid for laminar and turbulent flows under both subsonic and choked flow conditions. The program was written to be applied to gas film seals. The area-change analysis should prove useful for choked flow conditions with small mean thickness, as well as for face seals where radial area change is significant. The program is written in FORTRAN 4.
Computational biorheology of human blood flow in health and disease.
Fedosov, Dmitry A; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George Em; Suresh, Subra
2014-02-01
Hematologic disorders arising from infectious diseases, hereditary factors and environmental influences can lead to, and can be influenced by, significant changes in the shape, mechanical and physical properties of red blood cells (RBCs), and the biorheology of blood flow. Hence, modeling of hematologic disorders should take into account the multiphase nature of blood flow, especially in arterioles and capillaries. We present here an overview of a general computational framework based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) which has broad applicability in cell biophysics with implications for diagnostics, therapeutics and drug efficacy assessments for a wide variety of human diseases. This computational approach, validated by independent experimental results, is capable of modeling the biorheology of whole blood and its individual components during blood flow so as to investigate cell mechanistic processes in health and disease. DPD is a Lagrangian method that can be derived from systematic coarse-graining of molecular dynamics but can scale efficiently up to arterioles and can also be used to model RBCs down to the spectrin level. We start from experimental measurements of a single RBC to extract the relevant biophysical parameters, using single-cell measurements involving such methods as optical tweezers, atomic force microscopy and micropipette aspiration, and cell-population experiments involving microfluidic devices. We then use these validated RBC models to predict the biorheological behavior of whole blood in healthy or pathological states, and compare the simulations with experimental results involving apparent viscosity and other relevant parameters. While the approach discussed here is sufficiently general to address a broad spectrum of hematologic disorders including certain types of cancer, this paper specifically deals with results obtained using this computational framework for blood flow in malaria and sickle cell anemia. PMID:24419829
Critical assessment of automated flow cytometry data analysis techniques.
Aghaeepour, Nima; Finak, Greg; Hoos, Holger; Mosmann, Tim R; Brinkman, Ryan; Gottardo, Raphael; Scheuermann, Richard H
2013-03-01
Traditional methods for flow cytometry (FCM) data processing rely on subjective manual gating. Recently, several groups have developed computational methods for identifying cell populations in multidimensional FCM data. The Flow Cytometry: Critical Assessment of Population Identification Methods (FlowCAP) challenges were established to compare the performance of these methods on two tasks: (i) mammalian cell population identification, to determine whether automated algorithms can reproduce expert manual gating and (ii) sample classification, to determine whether analysis pipelines can identify characteristics that correlate with external variables (such as clinical outcome). This analysis presents the results of the first FlowCAP challenges. Several methods performed well as compared to manual gating or external variables using statistical performance measures, which suggests that automated methods have reached a sufficient level of maturity and accuracy for reliable use in FCM data analysis. PMID:23396282
Data-Flow Based Model Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saad, Christian; Bauer, Bernhard
2010-01-01
The concept of (meta) modeling combines an intuitive way of formalizing the structure of an application domain with a high expressiveness that makes it suitable for a wide variety of use cases and has therefore become an integral part of many areas in computer science. While the definition of modeling languages through the use of meta models, e.g. in Unified Modeling Language (UML), is a well-understood process, their validation and the extraction of behavioral information is still a challenge. In this paper we present a novel approach for dynamic model analysis along with several fields of application. Examining the propagation of information along the edges and nodes of the model graph allows to extend and simplify the definition of semantic constraints in comparison to the capabilities offered by e.g. the Object Constraint Language. Performing a flow-based analysis also enables the simulation of dynamic behavior, thus providing an "abstract interpretation"-like analysis method for the modeling domain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siclari, Michael J.
1988-01-01
A computer code called NCOREL (for Nonconical Relaxation) has been developed to solve for supersonic full potential flows over complex geometries. The method first solves for the conical at the apex and then marches downstream in a spherical coordinate system. Implicit relaxation techniques are used to numerically solve the full potential equation at each subsequent crossflow plane. Many improvements have been made to the original code including more reliable numerics for computing wing-body flows with multiple embedded shocks, inlet flow through simulation, wake model and entropy corrections. Line relaxation or approximate factorization schemes are optionally available. Improved internal grid generation using analytic conformal mappings, supported by a simple geometric Harris wave drag input that was originally developed for panel methods and internal geometry package are some of the new features.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Philip E.
2004-01-01
This final report contains reports of research related to the tasks "Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Lark-Eddy Turbulent FLow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers" and "Devleop High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics Capability for RCS Prediction, Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media, and Dual-Use Applications. The discussion of Scalable High Performance Computing reports on three objectives: validate, access scalability, and apply two parallel flow solvers for three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flows; develop and validate a high-order parallel solver for Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) problems; and Investigate and develop a high-order Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model. The discussion of High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics reports on five objectives: enhancement of an electromagnetics code (CHARGE) to be able to effectively model antenna problems; utilize lessons learned in high-order/spectral solution of swirling 3D jets to apply to solving electromagnetics project; transition a high-order fluids code, FDL3DI, to be able to solve Maxwell's Equations using compact-differencing; develop and demonstrate improved radiation absorbing boundary conditions for high-order CEM; and extend high-order CEM solver to address variable material properties. The report also contains a review of work done by the systems engineer.
Content analysis in information flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grusho, Alexander A.; Grusho, Nick A.; Timonina, Elena E.
2016-06-01
The paper deals with architecture of content recognition system. To analyze the problem the stochastic model of content recognition in information flows was built. We proved that under certain conditions it is possible to solve correctly a part of the problem with probability 1, viewing a finite section of the information flow. That means that good architecture consists of two steps. The first step determines correctly certain subsets of contents, while the second step may demand much more time for true decision.
A novel potential/viscous flow coupling technique for computing helicopter flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.; Yoo, Sungyul
1993-01-01
The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new potential/viscous flow coupling procedure for reducing computational effort while maintaining solution accuracy. This closed-loop, overlapped velocity-coupling concept has been developed in a new two-dimensional code, ZAP2D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 2D), a three-dimensional code for wing analysis, ZAP3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 3D), and a three-dimensional code for isolated helicopter rotors in hover, ZAPR3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program for Rotors - 3D). Comparisons with large domain ARC3D solutions and with experimental data for a NACA 0012 airfoil have shown that the required domain size can be reduced to a few tenths of a percent chord for the low Mach and low angle of attack cases and to less than 2-5 chords for the high Mach and high angle of attack cases while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. This represents CPU time reductions by a factor of 2-4 compared with ARC2D. The current ZAP3D calculation for a rectangular plan-form wing of aspect ratio 5 with an outer domain radius of about 1.2 chords represents a speed-up in CPU time over the ARC3D large domain calculation by about a factor of 2.5 while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. A ZAPR3D simulation for a two-bladed rotor in hover with a reduced grid domain of about two chord lengths was able to capture the wake effects and compared accurately with the experimental pressure data. Further development is required in order to substantiate the promise of computational improvements due to the ZAPR3D coupling concept.
Computer-Based Linguistic Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wright, James R.
Noam Chomsky's transformational-generative grammar model may effectively be translated into an equivalent computer model. Phrase-structure rules and transformations are tested as to their validity and ordering by the computer via the process of random lexical substitution. Errors appearing in the grammar are detected and rectified, and formal…
Bimolecular dynamics by computer analysis
Eilbeck, J.C.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Scott, A.C.
1984-01-01
As numerical tools (computers and display equipment) become more powerful and the atomic structures of important biological molecules become known, the importance of detailed computation of nonequilibrium biomolecular dynamics increases. In this manuscript we report results from a well developed study of the hydrogen bonded polypeptide crystal acetanilide, a model protein. Directions for future research are suggested. 9 references, 6 figures.
Navier-Stokes Flow Field Analysis of Compressible Flow in a Pressure Relief Valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vu, Bruce T.; Wang, Ten-See; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Soni, Bharat K.
1993-01-01
The present study was motivated to analyze the complex flow field involving gaseous oxygen (GOX) flow in a relief valve (RV). The 9391 RV, pictured in Figure 1, was combined with the pilot valve to regulate the actuation pressure of the main valve system. During a high-pressure flow test at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) the valve system developed a resonance chatter, which destroyed most of the valve body. Figures 2-4 show the valve body before and after accident. It was understood that the subject RV has never been operated at 5500 psia. In order to fully understand the flow behavior in the RV, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is carried out to investigate the side load across the piston sleeve and the erosion patterns resulting from flow distribution around piston/nozzle interface.
Navier-Stokes flow field analysis of compressible flow in a pressure relief valve
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vu, Bruce T.; Wang, Ten-See; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Soni, Bharat K.
1993-07-01
The present study was motivated to analyze the complex flow field involving gaseous oxygen (GOX) flow in a relief valve (RV). The 9391 RV, pictured in Figure 1, was combined with the pilot valve to regulate the actuation pressure of the main valve system. During a high-pressure flow test at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) the valve system developed a resonance chatter, which destroyed most of the valve body. Figures 2-4 show the valve body before and after accident. It was understood that the subject RV has never been operated at 5500 psia. In order to fully understand the flow behavior in the RV, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is carried out to investigate the side load across the piston sleeve and the erosion patterns resulting from flow distribution around piston/nozzle interface.
Computation of Free Molecular Flow in Nuclear Materials
Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarsham K.; Hanson, Brady D.
2009-11-11
Generally the transport of gases and vapors in nuclear materials is adequately described by the diffusion equation with an effective diffusion coefficient. There are instances however, such as transport through porous or cracked media (nuclear fuels, cladding and coating materials, fuel-cladding gap, graphite, rocks, soil) where the diffusion description has limitations. In general, molecular transport is governed by intermolecular forces and collisions (interactions between multiple gas/vapor molecules) and by molecule-surface interactions. However, if nano-scale pathways exist within these materials, as has been suggested, then molecular transport can be characterized as being in the free-molecular flow regime where intermolecular interactions can be ignored and flow is determined entirely by molecule-surface collisions. Our purpose in this investigation is to focus on free molecular transport in fine capillaries of a range of shapes and to explore the effect of geometry on this transport. We have employed Monte Carlo techniques in our calculations, and for simple geometries we have benchmarked our results against some analytical and previously available results. We have used Mathematica® which has exceptional built-in symbolic and graphical capabilities, permitting easy handling of the complicated geometries and good visualization of the results. Our computations provide insights into the role of geometry in molecular transport in nuclear materials with narrow pathways for flows, and also will be useful in guiding computations that include intermolecular collisions and more realistic gas-surface collision operators.
A multigrid nonoscillatory method for computing high speed flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, C. P.; Shieh, T. H.
1993-01-01
A multigrid method using different smoothers has been developed to solve the Euler equations discretized by a nonoscillatory scheme up to fourth order accuracy. The best smoothing property is provided by a five-stage Runge-Kutta technique with optimized coefficients, yet the most efficient smoother is a backward Euler technique in factored and diagonalized form. The singlegrid solution for a hypersonic, viscous conic flow is in excellent agreement with the solution obtained by the third order MUSCL and Roe's method. Mach 8 inviscid flow computations for a complete entry probe have shown that the accuracy is at least as good as the symmetric TVD scheme of Yee and Harten. The implicit multigrid method is four times more efficient than the explicit multigrid technique and 3.5 times faster than the single-grid implicit technique. For a Mach 8.7 inviscid flow over a blunt delta wing at 30 deg incidence, the CPU reduction factor from the three-level multigrid computation is 2.2 on a grid of 37 x 41 x 73 nodes.
Axisymmetric Time-Dependent Computations of Expansion Tube Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Gregory J.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The goal of this work is to add insight about the flow within expansion tubes by using computational fluid dynamics. This is accomplished by comparing the results of axisymmetric numerical simulations with finite-rate chemistry to data from the HYPULSE expansion tube facility which was previously the NASA Langley expansion tube. The numerical simulations begin at the opening of the primary diaphragm and compute the flow throughout the whole facility and, thus, are able to follow and assess the effect of many of the flow features created during operation of the facility. One particular issue that will be investigated is the effect of boundary layer formation in the acceleration tube on the test gas volume and test gas conditions. Both laminar and turbulent boundary layers will be implemented. The effect of momentary shock reflection off the secondary diaphragm will also be investigated. There is concern that such a reflection will stagnate the test gas and create high levels of dissociated molecules. This is particularly important in propulsion experiments where a freestream composition different from flight conditions may influence ignition and burning data. Several different models of diaphragm rupture will be implemented in order to help understand the importance of this issue.
Computational techniques for flows with finite-rate condensation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Candler, Graham V.
1993-01-01
A computational method to simulate the inviscid two-dimensional flow of a two-phase fluid was developed. This computational technique treats the gas phase and each of a prescribed number of particle sizes as separate fluids which are allowed to interact with one another. Thus, each particle-size class is allowed to move through the fluid at its own velocity at each point in the flow field. Mass, momentum, and energy are exchanged between each particle class and the gas phase. It is assumed that the particles do not collide with one another, so that there is no inter-particle exchange of momentum and energy. However, the particles are allowed to grow, and therefore, they may change from one size class to another. Appropriate rates of mass, momentum, and energy exchange between the gas and particle phases and between the different particle classes were developed. A numerical method was developed for use with this equation set. Several test cases were computed and show qualitative agreement with previous calculations.
Computational aeroacoustic simulations of leading-edge slat flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeda, K.; Zhang, X.; Nelson, P. A.
2004-02-01
High-lift devices on modern airliners are a major contributor to overall airframe noise. In this paper the aeroacoustics of leading-edge slat devices in a high-lift configuration are investigated computationally. A hierarchical methodology is used to enable the rapid evaluation of different slat configurations. The overall goal is to gain a deeper understanding of the noise generation and amplification mechanisms in and around the slat, and the effects of slat system geometry. In order to perform parametric studies of the aeroacoustics, a simplified 2-D model of the slat is used. The flow and aeroacoustics are computed using a compressible, unsteady, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes code. A robust buffer zone boundary condition is used to prevent the reflection of outgoing acoustic waves from contaminating the long-time solution. A Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver is used to compute the far field acoustic field from the unsteady flow solution and determine the directivity. The spanwise correlation length used is derived from experimental data of this high-lift configuration. The effect of spanwise correlation length on the acoustic far field is examined. The aeroacoustics of the slat system are largely governed by the geometry, especially in terms of slat overlap. We perform a study of the effects of trailing edge thickness, horizontal and vertical overlap settings for the slat on near field wave propagation and far field directivity. The implications for low-noise leading edge slat design are discussed.
Through flow analysis of pumps and fans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neal, A. N.
1980-08-01
Incompressible through flow calculations in axial, mixed and centrifugal flow pumps and fans are described. An iterative scheme is used. A simple blade to blade model is applied on the surfaces of revolution defined by the meridional streamlines. This defines the fluid properties and the mean stream surface (S2 surface) for the next meridional solution. A computer program is available allowing the method to be applied for design purposes. APL is used for input and output and FORTRAN IV for computation. A typical calculation requires 30 sec of Univac 1100 time.
Recurrent flow analysis in spatiotemporally chaotic 2-dimensional Kolmogorov flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, Dan; Kerswell, Rich R.
2015-04-01
Motivated by recent success in the dynamical systems approach to transitional flow, we study the efficiency and effectiveness of extracting simple invariant sets (recurrent flows) directly from chaotic/turbulent flows and the potential of these sets for providing predictions of certain statistics of the flow. Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow (the 2D Navier-Stokes equations with a sinusoidal body force) is studied both over a square [0, 2π]2 torus and a rectangular torus extended in the forcing direction. In the former case, an order of magnitude more recurrent flows are found than previously [G. J. Chandler and R. R. Kerswell, "Invariant recurrent solutions embedded in a turbulent two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow," J. Fluid Mech. 722, 554-595 (2013)] and shown to give improved predictions for the dissipation and energy pdfs of the chaos via periodic orbit theory. Analysis of the recurrent flows shows that the energy is largely trapped in the smallest wavenumbers through a combination of the inverse cascade process and a feature of the advective nonlinearity in 2D. Over the extended torus at low forcing amplitudes, some extracted states mimic the statistics of the spatially localised chaos present surprisingly well recalling the findings of Kawahara and Kida ["Periodic motion embedded in plane Couette turbulence: Regeneration cycle and burst," J. Fluid Mech. 449, 291 (2001)] in low-Reynolds-number plane Couette flow. At higher forcing amplitudes, however, success is limited highlighting the increased dimensionality of the chaos and the need for larger data sets. Algorithmic developments to improve the extraction procedure are discussed.
Recurrent flow analysis in spatiotemporally chaotic 2-dimensional Kolmogorov flow
Lucas, Dan Kerswell, Rich R.
2015-04-15
Motivated by recent success in the dynamical systems approach to transitional flow, we study the efficiency and effectiveness of extracting simple invariant sets (recurrent flows) directly from chaotic/turbulent flows and the potential of these sets for providing predictions of certain statistics of the flow. Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow (the 2D Navier-Stokes equations with a sinusoidal body force) is studied both over a square [0, 2π]{sup 2} torus and a rectangular torus extended in the forcing direction. In the former case, an order of magnitude more recurrent flows are found than previously [G. J. Chandler and R. R. Kerswell, “Invariant recurrent solutions embedded in a turbulent two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 722, 554–595 (2013)] and shown to give improved predictions for the dissipation and energy pdfs of the chaos via periodic orbit theory. Analysis of the recurrent flows shows that the energy is largely trapped in the smallest wavenumbers through a combination of the inverse cascade process and a feature of the advective nonlinearity in 2D. Over the extended torus at low forcing amplitudes, some extracted states mimic the statistics of the spatially localised chaos present surprisingly well recalling the findings of Kawahara and Kida [“Periodic motion embedded in plane Couette turbulence: Regeneration cycle and burst,” J. Fluid Mech. 449, 291 (2001)] in low-Reynolds-number plane Couette flow. At higher forcing amplitudes, however, success is limited highlighting the increased dimensionality of the chaos and the need for larger data sets. Algorithmic developments to improve the extraction procedure are discussed.
Experimental and computational studies of active flow control on a model truck-trailer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Alti, Mohammad; Chernoray, Valery; Jahanmiri, Mohsen; Davidson, Lars
2012-04-01
Active flow control is probably the most challenging research area in vehicle aerodynamics. Being able to manipulate a flow field in order to achieve desired results beneficial to engineering is the only way to meet today's demands for competitive and efficient solutions in the automotive industry. The current work studies the flow control on a semi detailed model truck by using detached-eddy simulations and wind tunnel experiments aiming at reducing the aerodynamic drag. This study combines both passive and active flow control applied on the rear end of the trailer. An indigenous fluidic actuator (loudspeaker in cavity with slots) is used as a synthetic jet in the experiment. Both experiments and computations demonstrate that the active flow control works successfully and results in flow reattachment to the flaps. The numerical simulations show that the drag coefficient, CD decreased by 3.9% when AFC was activated compared to the baseline case without flaps. The corresponding decrease when AFC was deactivated (with flaps) was only 0.7%. The experimental results show a decrease of CD by 3.1% for the case with activated AFC compared to the baseline case. When AFC was deactivated the corresponding decrease in CD was 1.8%. A detailed flow analysis made in computations and experiments is used to explain these results.
Method for computing three-dimensional turbulent flows
Bernard, P.S.; Berger, B.S.
1982-06-01
The MVC (mean vorticity and covariance) turbulence closure is derived for three-dimensional turbulent flows. The derivation utilizes Lagrangian time expansion techniques applied to the unclosed terms of the mean vorticity and covariance equations. The closed mean vorticity equation is applied to the numerical solution of fully developed three-dimensional channel flow. Anisotropies in the wall region are modelled by pairs of counterrotating streamwise vortices. The numerical results are in close agreement with experimental data. Analysis of the contributions of the terms in the mean vorticity equation gives insight into the dynamics of the turbulent boundary. 41 references, 7 figures.
Computational and Experimental Investigations of Flow past Spinning Cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehmedagic, Igbal; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Pasquale; Carlucci, Donald; Aljalis, Elias; Thangam, Siva; Stevens-Ardec Collaboration
2012-11-01
An anisotropic two-equation Reynolds-stress model is developed by considering the modifications to the energy spectrum and through invariance based scaling. In this approach the effect of rotation is used to modify the energy spectrum, while the influence of swirl is modeled based on scaling laws. The resulting generalized model is validated for benchmark turbulent flows with swirl and curvature. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. Computations for flow past an axially rotating cylinder with a free-spinning base are performed along with experiments for a range of spin rates and free stream flow conditions. A subsonic wind tunnel with a forward-sting mounted spinning cylinder is used for experiments. The experimental results of Carlucci & Thangam (2001) are used to benchmark flow over spinning cylinders. The data is extended to munitions spinning in the wake of other munitions and applications involving the design of projectiles are discussed. This work was funded in part by U. S. Army ARDEC.
A Homemade Autosampler/Injector Commutator for Flow Injection Analysis
de Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; de Souza, Leandro Ruela; de Magalhães, Cristiana Schmidt; Wisniewski, Célio
2006-01-01
An autosampler/injector commutator for flow injection analysis (FIA) was constructed with electronic components of used equipments. The apparatus is controlled by commercially available multifunctional interface (PCL711B) connected to a personal computer, and the software was written in Visual Basic language. The system was applied to water analysis and it presented satisfactory results. The low cost and simplicity are the principal characteristics of the autosampler/injector commutator. PMID:17671617
Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miloud, Abdelkrim; Aounallah, Mohammed; Belkadi, Mustapha; Adjlout, Lahouari; Imine, Omar; Imine, Bachir
2014-03-01
Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The performances of standard k-ɛ and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.
Computation of viscous transonic flow about a lifting airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walitt, L.; Liu, C. Y.
1976-01-01
The viscous transonic flow about a stationary body in free air was numerically investigated. The geometry chosen was a symmetric NACA 64A010 airfoil at a freestream Mach number of 0.8, a Reynolds number of 4 million based on chord, and angles of attack of 0 and 2 degrees. These conditions were such that, at 2 degrees incidence unsteady periodic motion was calculated along the aft portion of the airfoil and in its wake. Although no unsteady measurements were made for the NACA 64A010 airfoil at these flow conditions, interpolated steady measurements of lift, drag, and surface static pressures compared favorably with corresponding computed time-averaged lift, drag, and surface static pressures.
Viscous computation of a space shuttle flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaussee, D. S.; Rizk, Y. M.; Buning, P. G.
1984-01-01
A procedure is presented, as well as some results, to calculate the flow over the winged orbiter. This necessitates the use of two computer codes. A parabolized marching Navier-Stokes code is used to obtain the solution up to the bow shock-wing shock interaction region and for the region after the interaction. An unsteady Navier-Stokes code is to be used in the region of the shock interaction. Only resuls for the marching code are presented. For the flow conditions calculated, M infinity = 7.9, alpha = 25 deg, T(wall) = 540 R, Re(L) = 60728 per inch, laminar or turbulent, the PNS code was marched up to an X/L = 0.7 which is where the bow shock-wing shock interaction region occurs.
On convergence of computation of chemically reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, C.
1985-01-01
The computational problems associated with high-temperature flows undergoing finite-rate ionization reactions is investigated. The conservation equations governing chemical species and vibrational and electron energies are solved simultaneously with those for overall mass, momentum, and energy for a one-dimensional subsonic flow, through a constant-area duct, originating behind a normal shock wave, using an implicit time-marching technique. Boundary conditions are imposed in the form of characteristic wave variables accounting for the effects of chemical reactions on the speed of sound. Converging solutions are obtained for cases in which chemical reactions are weak, but difficulty is encountered in other cases. The cause of the difficulty is investigated and shown to be the sharp pressure disturbances produced by such reactions.
Two-Dimensional Computational Model for Wave Rotor Flow Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Gerard E.
1996-01-01
A two-dimensional (theta,z) Navier-Stokes solver for multi-port wave rotor flow simulation is described. The finite-volume form of the unsteady thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are integrated in time on multi-block grids that represent the stationary inlet and outlet ports and the moving rotor passages of the wave rotor. Computed results are compared with three-port wave rotor experimental data. The model is applied to predict the performance of a planned four-port wave rotor experiment. Two-dimensional flow features that reduce machine performance and influence rotor blade and duct wall thermal loads are identified. The performance impact of rounding the inlet port wall, to inhibit separation during passage gradual opening, is assessed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Massey, Steven J.; Thomas, Russell H.; AbdolHamid, Khaled S.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.
2003-01-01
A computational and experimental flow field analyses of separate flow chevron nozzles is presented. The goal of this study is to identify important flow physics and modeling issues required to provide highly accurate flow field data which will later serve as input to the Jet3D acoustic prediction code. Four configurations are considered: a baseline round nozzle with and without a pylon, and a chevron core nozzle with and without a pylon. The flow is simulated by solving the asymptotically steady, compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using an implicit, up-wind, flux-difference splitting finite volume scheme and standard two-equation kappa-epsilon turbulence model with a linear stress representation and the addition of a eddy viscosity dependence on total temperature gradient normalized by local turbulence length scale. The current CFD results are seen to be in excellent agreement with Jet Noise Lab data and show great improvement over previous computations which did not compensate for enhanced mixing due to high temperature gradients.
Domain decomposition methods for the parallel computation of reacting flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keyes, David E.
1989-05-01
Domain decomposition is a natural route to parallel computing for partial differential equation solvers. In this procedure, subdomains of which the original domain of definition is comprised are assigned to independent processors at the price of periodic coordination between processors to compute global parameters and maintain the requisite degree of continuity of the solution at the subdomain interfaces. In the domain-decomposed solution of steady multidimensional systems of PDEs by finite difference methods using a pseudo-transient version of Newton iteration, the only portion of the computation which generally stands in the way of efficient parallelization is the solution of the large, sparse linear systems arising at each Newton step. For some Jacobian matrices drawn from an actual two-dimensional reacting flow problem, we make comparisons between relaxation-based linear solvers and also preconditioned iterative methods of Conjugate Gradient and Chebyshev type, focusing attention on both iteration count and global inner product count. The generalized minimum residual method with block-ILU preconditioning is judged the best serial method among those considered, and parallel numerical experiments on the Encore Multimax demostrate for it approximately 10-fold speedup on 16 processsors. The three special features of reacting flow models in relation to these linear systems are: the possibly large number of degrees of freedom per gridpoint, the dominance of dense intra-point source-term coupling over inter-point convective-diffusive coupling throughout significant portions of the flow-field and strong nonlinearities which restrict the time step to small values (independent of linear algebraic considerations) throughout significant portions of the iteration history. Though these features are exploited to advantage herein, many aspects of the paper are applicable to the modeling of general convective-diffusive systems.
Grid generation and inviscid flow computation about aircraft geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Robert E.
1989-01-01
Grid generation and Euler flow about fighter aircraft are described. A fighter aircraft geometry is specified by an area ruled fuselage with an internal duct, cranked delta wing or strake/wing combinations, canard and/or horizontal tail surfaces, and vertical tail surfaces. The initial step before grid generation and flow computation is the determination of a suitable grid topology. The external grid topology that has been applied is called a dual-block topology which is a patched C (exp 1) continuous multiple-block system where inner blocks cover the highly-swept part of a cranked wing or strake, rearward inner-part of the wing, and tail components. Outer-blocks cover the remainder of the fuselage, outer-part of the wing, canards and extend to the far field boundaries. The grid generation is based on transfinite interpolation with Lagrangian blending functions. This procedure has been applied to the Langley experimental fighter configuration and a modified F-18 configuration. Supersonic flow between Mach 1.3 and 2.5 and angles of attack between 0 degrees and 10 degrees have been computed with associated Euler solvers based on the finite-volume approach. When coupling geometric details such as boundary layer diverter regions, duct regions with inlets and outlets, or slots with the general external grid, imposing C (exp 1) continuity can be extremely tedious. The approach taken here is to patch blocks together at common interfaces where there is no grid continuity, but enforce conservation in the finite-volume solution. The key to this technique is how to obtain the information required for a conservative interface. The Ramshaw technique which automates the computation of proportional areas of two overlapping grids on a planar surface and is suitable for coding was used. Researchers generated internal duct grids for the Langley experimental fighter configuration independent of the external grid topology, with a conservative interface at the inlet and outlet.
Analysis of lipid flow on minimal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahmani, Fatemeh; Christenson, Joel; Rangamani, Padmini
2016-03-01
Interaction between the bilayer shape and surface flow is important for capturing the flow of lipids in many biological membranes. Recent microscopy evidence has shown that minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids) occur often in cellular membranes. In this study, we explore lipid flow in these geometries using a `stream function' formulation for viscoelastic lipid bilayers. Using this formulation, we derive two-dimensional lipid flow equations for the commonly occurring minimal surfaces in lipid bilayers. We show that for three minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids), the surface flow equations satisfy Stokes flow equations. In helicoids and catenoids, we show that the tangential velocity field is a Killing vector field. Thus, our analysis provides fundamental insight into the flow patterns of lipids on intracellular organelle membranes that are characterized by fixed shapes reminiscent of minimal surfaces.
A linearized Euler analysis of unsteady flows in turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Kenneth C.; Crawley, Edward F.
1987-01-01
A method for calculating unsteady flows in cascades is presented. The model, which is based on the linearized unsteady Euler equations, accounts for blade loading shock motion, wake motion, and blade geometry. The mean flow through the cascade is determined by solving the full nonlinear Euler equations. Assuming the unsteadiness in the flow is small, then the Euler equations are linearized about the mean flow to obtain a set of linear variable coefficient equations which describe the small amplitude, harmonic motion of the flow. These equations are discretized on a computational grid via a finite volume operator and solved directly subject to an appropriate set of linearized boundary conditions. The steady flow, which is calculated prior to the unsteady flow, is found via a Newton iteration procedure. An important feature of the analysis is the use of shock fitting to model steady and unsteady shocks. Use of the Euler equations with the unsteady Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions correctly models the generation of steady and unsteady entropy and vorticity at shocks. In particular, the low frequency shock displacement is correctly predicted. Results of this method are presented for a variety of test cases. Predicted unsteady transonic flows in channels are compared to full nonlinear Euler solutions obtained using time-accurate, time-marching methods. The agreement between the two methods is excellent for small to moderate levels of flow unsteadiness. The method is also used to predict unsteady flows in cascades due to blade motion (flutter problem) and incoming disturbances (gust response problem).
A linearized Euler analysis of unsteady flows in turbomachinery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Kenneth C.; Crawley, Edward F.
1987-06-01
A method for calculating unsteady flows in cascades is presented. The model, which is based on the linearized unsteady Euler equations, accounts for blade loading shock motion, wake motion, and blade geometry. The mean flow through the cascade is determined by solving the full nonlinear Euler equations. Assuming the unsteadiness in the flow is small, then the Euler equations are linearized about the mean flow to obtain a set of linear variable coefficient equations which describe the small amplitude, harmonic motion of the flow. These equations are discretized on a computational grid via a finite volume operator and solved directly subject to an appropriate set of linearized boundary conditions. The steady flow, which is calculated prior to the unsteady flow, is found via a Newton iteration procedure. An important feature of the analysis is the use of shock fitting to model steady and unsteady shocks. Use of the Euler equations with the unsteady Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions correctly models the generation of steady and unsteady entropy and vorticity at shocks. In particular, the low frequency shock displacement is correctly predicted. Results of this method are presented for a variety of test cases. Predicted unsteady transonic flows in channels are compared to full nonlinear Euler solutions obtained using time-accurate, time-marching methods. The agreement between the two methods is excellent for small to moderate levels of flow unsteadiness. The method is also used to predict unsteady flows in cascades due to blade motion (flutter problem) and incoming disturbances (gust response problem).
Anharmonic analysis of arterial blood pressure and flow pulses.
Voltairas, P A; Fotiadis, D I; Massalas, C V; Michalis, L K
2005-07-01
Fourier analysis is usually employed for the computation of blood flow in arteries. Although the orthogonality of Fourier eigenfunctions guarantees the accurate mathematical modeling of the blood pressure and flow waveforms, the physics behind this objective function is frequently missing. We propose a new method to account for the blood pressure and flow, single-cycle (systole-diastole) waveforms. It is based on the one dimensional hydrodynamic mass and momentum conservation equations for viscous flow. The similarity of the linear problem, under discussion, with related transmission line theory in electromagnetic wave propagation, permits expansion in anharmonic, non-separable eigenfunctions. In some cases one term in the expansion is adequate to fit the main peak of the observed waveforms. Analytical formulas are derived for the dependence of the pressure and flow main peaks on whole blood viscosity and distance from the heart, which interpret observations related to hypertension. PMID:15922753
An integral turbulent kinetic energy analysis of free shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters, C. E.; Phares, W. J.
1973-01-01
Mixing of coaxial streams is analyzed by application of integral techniques. An integrated turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is solved simultaneously with the integral equations for the mean flow. Normalized TKE profile shapes are obtained from incompressible jet and shear layer experiments and are assumed to be applicable to all free turbulent flows. The shear stress at the midpoint of the mixing zone is assumed to be directly proportional to the local TKE, and dissipation is treated with a generalization of the model developed for isotropic turbulence. Although the analysis was developed for ducted flows, constant-pressure flows were approximated with the duct much larger than the jet. The axisymmetric flows under consideration were predicted with reasonable accuracy. Fairly good results were also obtained for the fully developed two-dimensional shear layers, which were computed as thin layers at the boundary of a large circular jet.
Development of a three-dimensional turbulent duct flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eiseman, P. R.; Levy, R.; Mcdonald, H.; Briley, W. R.
1978-01-01
A method for computing three-dimensional turbulent subsonic flow in curved ducts is described. An approximate set of governing equations is given for viscous flows which have a primary flow direction. The derivation is coordinate invariant, and the resulting equations are expressed in terms of tensors. General tube-like coordinates were developed for a general class of geometries applicable to many internal flow problems. The coordinates are then particularized to pipes having superelliptic cross sections whose shape can vary continuously between a circle and a near rectangle. The analysis is applied to a series of relevant aerodynamic problems including transition from nearly square to round pipes and flow through a pipe with an S-shaped bend.
Computation of three-dimensional flow about aerobrake configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, C. P.
1986-01-01
Ellipsoid, cone and cylinder aerobrake configurations are analyzed to provide comparison data between experimental and model predictions. An analytical model was devised to account for the shock layer ahead of the body and in the near-wake region in terms of the Navier-Stokes equations expressed in conformal polar and azimuthal-angle coordinates. Using polar coordinates simplified the equations by mapping the body onto a sphere, a procedure which also reduced the magnitude of the discretization errors. The equations are then solved using an alternating direction implicit (ADI) factorization technique. Computations were carried out for Mach 3-10 at various grid resolutions and compared with available wind tunnel data. The model generated pressure distributions, heat transfer coefficients and velocity profile data that agreed relatively well with experimental data at a reduced computational cost. Further work is necessary to identify the location of shocks and to model flows about asymmetric configurations.
Simulating subsurface flow and transport on ultrascale computers using PFLOTRAN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran Mills, Richard; Lu, Chuan; Lichtner, Peter C.; Hammond, Glenn E.
2007-07-01
We describe PFLOTRAN, a recently developed code for modeling multi-phase, multi-component subsurface flow and reactive transport using massively parallel computers. PFLOTRAN is built on top of PETSc, the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation. Leveraging PETSc has allowed us to develop—with a relatively modest investment in development effort—a code that exhibits excellent performance on the largest-scale supercomputers. Very significant enhancements to the code are planned during our SciDAC-2 project. Here we describe the current state of the code, present an example of its use on Jaguar, the Cray XT3/4 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory consisting of 11706 dual-core Opteron processor nodes, and briefly outline our future plans for the code.
Simulating Subsurface Flow and Transport on Ultrascale Computers using PFLOTRAN
Mills, Richard T; Lu, Chuan; Hammond, Glenn; Lichtner, Peter
2007-01-01
We describe PFLOTRAN, a recently developed code for modeling multi-phase, multicomponent subsurface flow and reactive transport using massively parallel computers. PFLOTRAN is built on top of PETSc, the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation. Leveraging PETSc has allowed us to develop--with a relatively modest investment in development effort--a code that exhibits excellent performance on the largest-scale supercomputers. Very significant enhancements to the code are planned during our SciDAC-2 project. Here we describe the current state of the code, present an example of its use on Jaguar, the Cray XT3/4 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory consisting of 11706 dual-core Opteron processor nodes, and briefly outline our future plans for the code.
Computational investigation of slot blowing for fuselage forebody flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, Scott M.; Rizk, Yehia M.; Schiff, Lewis B.; Cummings, Russell M.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a computational investigation of a tangential slot blowing concept for generating lateral control forces on an aircraft fuselage forebody. The effects of varying both the jet width and jet exit velocity for a fixed location slot are analyzed. This work is aimed at aiding researchers in designing future experimental and computational models of tangential slot blowing. The primary influence on the resulting side force of the forebody is seen to be the jet mass flow rate. This influence is sensitive to different combinations of slot widths and jet velocities over the range of variables considered. Both an actuator plane and an overset grid technique are used to model the tangential slot. The overset method successfully resolves the details of the actual slot geometry, extending the generality of the numerical method. The actuator plane concept predicts side forces similar to those produced by resolving the actual slot geometry.
An Improved Treatment of External Boundary for Three-Dimensional Flow Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsynkov, Semyon V.; Vatsa, Veer N.
1997-01-01
We present an innovative numerical approach for setting highly accurate nonlocal boundary conditions at the external computational boundaries when calculating three-dimensional compressible viscous flows over finite bodies. The approach is based on application of the difference potentials method by V. S. Ryaben'kii and extends our previous technique developed for the two-dimensional case. The new boundary conditions methodology has been successfully combined with the NASA-developed code TLNS3D and used for the analysis of wing-shaped configurations in subsonic and transonic flow regimes. As demonstrated by the computational experiments, the improved external boundary conditions allow one to greatly reduce the size of the computational domain while still maintaining high accuracy of the numerical solution. Moreover, they may provide for a noticeable speedup of convergence of the multigrid iterations.
Parallel Computation of Unsteady Flows on a Network of Workstations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Parallel computation of unsteady flows requires significant computational resources. The utilization of a network of workstations seems an efficient solution to the problem where large problems can be treated at a reasonable cost. This approach requires the solution of several problems: 1) the partitioning and distribution of the problem over a network of workstation, 2) efficient communication tools, 3) managing the system efficiently for a given problem. Of course, there is the question of the efficiency of any given numerical algorithm to such a computing system. NPARC code was chosen as a sample for the application. For the explicit version of the NPARC code both two- and three-dimensional problems were studied. Again both steady and unsteady problems were investigated. The issues studied as a part of the research program were: 1) how to distribute the data between the workstations, 2) how to compute and how to communicate at each node efficiently, 3) how to balance the load distribution. In the following, a summary of these activities is presented. Details of the work have been presented and published as referenced.
High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: II. Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gourdain, N.; Gicquel, L.; Staffelbach, G.; Vermorel, O.; Duchaine, F.; Boussuge, J.-F.; Poinsot, T.
2009-01-01
Present regulations in terms of pollutant emissions, noise and economical constraints, require new approaches and designs in the fields of energy supply and transportation. It is now well established that the next breakthrough will come from a better understanding of unsteady flow effects and by considering the entire system and not only isolated components. However, these aspects are still not well taken into account by the numerical approaches or understood whatever the design stage considered. The main challenge is essentially due to the computational requirements inferred by such complex systems if it is to be simulated by use of supercomputers. This paper shows how new challenges can be addressed by using parallel computing platforms for distinct elements of a more complex systems as encountered in aeronautical applications. Based on numerical simulations performed with modern aerodynamic and reactive flow solvers, this work underlines the interest of high-performance computing for solving flow in complex industrial configurations such as aircrafts, combustion chambers and turbomachines. Performance indicators related to parallel computing efficiency are presented, showing that establishing fair criterions is a difficult task for complex industrial applications. Examples of numerical simulations performed in industrial systems are also described with a particular interest for the computational time and the potential design improvements obtained with high-fidelity and multi-physics computing methods. These simulations use either unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods or large eddy simulation and deal with turbulent unsteady flows, such as coupled flow phenomena (thermo-acoustic instabilities, buffet, etc). Some examples of the difficulties with grid generation and data analysis are also presented when dealing with these complex industrial applications.
Fast computation of Lagrangian coherent structures: algorithms and error analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunton, Steven; Rowley, Clarence
2009-11-01
This work investigates a number of efficient methods for computing finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields in unsteady flows by approximating the particle flow map and eliminating redundant particle integrations in neighboring flow maps. Ridges of the FTLE fields are Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) and provide an unsteady analogue of invariant manifolds from dynamical systems theory. The fast methods fall into two categories, unidirectional and bidirectional, depending on whether flow maps in one or both time directions are composed to form an approximate flow map. An error analysis is presented which shows that the unidirectional methods are accurate while the bidirectional methods have significant error which is aligned with the opposite time coherent structures. This relies on the fact that material from the positive time LCS attracts onto the negative time LCS near time-dependent saddle points.
Analysis for flow of Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayat, T.; Asad, Sadia; Alsaedi, A.
2015-04-01
An analysis of the boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a Jeffrey fluid containing nanoparticles is presented in this paper. Here, fluid motion is due to a stretchable cylinder. The thermal conductivity of the fluid is taken to be temperature-dependent. The partial differential equations of velocity, temperature, and concentration fields are transformed to a dimensionless system of ordinary differential equations. Nonlinear governing analysis is computed for the homotopy solutions. The behaviors of Brownian motion and thermophoresis diffusion of nanoparticles have been examined graphically. Numerical values of the local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed.
Two-Phase Flow within Geological Flow Analogies--A Computational Study
Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G.; Smith, D.H.; Ferer, M.V.; Richards, M.; Bromhal, G.S.
2006-10-01
Displacement of a viscous fluid in heterogeneous geological media by a less viscous one does not evacuate 100% of the defending fluid due to capillary and viscous fingering. This is of importance in geological flows that are encountered in secondary oil recovery and carbon dioxide sequestration in saturated brine fields. Hele-Shaw and pore/throat cells are commonly used to study this in the labratory. Numerical simulations of this flow phenomenon with pore-throat models have been prevalent for over two decades. This current work solves the full Navier-Stokes equations of conservation within random pore-throat geometries with varying properties to study the resulting flow properties. Verification of the solution method is performed by comparison of the model predictions with the available experimental data in the literature. Experimental flows in a pore-throat cell with a known geometrical structure are shown to be in good agreement with the model. Dynamic comparisons to a computational pore-throat model have been shown to be in good agreement as well. There are also additional two-phase immiscible flow patterns that can be identified from the current solutions for which the corresponding laboratory counter part or the pore-throat model predictions are not available. The identification of these flow patterns may allow more accurate modeling of fluid displacement on the reservoir scale.
Computational methods for global/local analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ransom, Jonathan B.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.
1992-01-01
Computational methods for global/local analysis of structures which include both uncoupled and coupled methods are described. In addition, global/local analysis methodology for automatic refinement of incompatible global and local finite element models is developed. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local analysis methods.
Analysis of stratified flow mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soo, S. L.; Lyczkowski, R. W.
1985-06-01
The Creare 1/5-scale Phase II experiments which model fluid and thermal mixing of relatively cold high pressure injection (PHI) water into a cold leg of a full-scale pressurized water reactor (PWR) having loop flow are analyzed and found that they cannot achieve complete similarity with respect to characteristic Reynolds and Froude numbers and developing hydrodynamic entry length. Several analyses show that these experiments fall into two distinct regimes of mixing: momentum controlled and gravity controlled (stratification).
Analysis of stratified flow mixing
Soo, S.L.; Lyckowski, R.W.
1985-11-01
The Creare one-fifth-scale Phase II experiments which model fluid and thermal mixing of relatively cold high-pressure injection water into a cold leg of a full-scale pressurized water reactor having loop flow, are analyzed. It is found that they cannot achieve complete similarity with respect to characteristic Reynolds and Froude numbers and developing hydrodynamic entry length. Several analyses show that these experiments fall into two distinct regimes of mixing: momentum and gravity controlled (stratification).
Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Thoracic Aortic Dissection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yik; Fan, Yi; Cheng, Stephen; Chow, Kwok
2011-11-01
Thoracic Aortic Dissection (TAD) is a cardiovascular disease with high mortality. An aortic dissection is formed when blood infiltrates the layers of the vascular wall, and a new artificial channel, the false lumen, is created. The expansion of the blood vessel due to the weakened wall enhances the risk of rupture. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is performed to study the hemodynamics of this pathological condition. Both idealized geometry and realistic patient configurations from computed tomography (CT) images are investigated. Physiological boundary conditions from in vivo measurements are employed. Flow configuration and biomechanical forces are studied. Quantitative analysis allows clinicians to assess the risk of rupture in making decision regarding surgical intervention.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walitt, L.; Trulio, J. G.
1971-01-01
A numerical method is presented for the calculation of steady, three-dimensional, viscous, compressible flow fields about slender bodies at angle of attack and at supersonic speeds. Approximations are introduced in modeling the flow in the longitudinal direction. Accordingly, the flow fields calculated with the program were computed with a model that permits viscous crossflow together with inviscid axial flow. An analysis of the errors introduced by such a treatment is presented. Numerical calculations were made and compared with experimental results for an ogive-cylinder and an airplane fuselage configuration. Generally, good agreement with experiment was obtained. However, boundary layer separation and body vortex positions differed from experimental locations on the ogive-cylinder, and the shock induced by the fuselage canopy was predicted at a slightly different location.
Isolating Curvature Effects in Computing Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.
2001-01-01
The flow over the zero-pressure-gradient So-Mellor convex curved wall is simulated using the Navier-Stokes equations. An inviscid effective outer wall shape, undocumented in the experiment, is obtained by using an adjoint optimization method with the desired pressure distribution on the inner wall as the cost function. Using this wall shape with a Navier-Stokes method, the abilities of various turbulence models to simulate the effects of curvature without the complicating factor of streamwise pressure gradient can be evaluated. The one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model overpredicts eddy viscosity, and its boundary layer profiles are too full. A curvature-corrected version of this model improves results, which are sensitive to the choice of a particular constant. An explicit algebraic stress model does a reasonable job predicting this flow field. However, results can be slightly improved by modifying the assumption on anisotropy equilibrium in the model's derivation. The resulting curvature-corrected explicit algebraic stress model possesses no heuristic functions or additional constants. It lowers slightly the computed skin friction coefficient and the turbulent stress levels for this case (in better agreement with experiment), but the effect on computed velocity profiles is very small.
Computation of noise from separated flows using large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitzkorski, Zane; Mahesh, Krishnan
2014-11-01
We investigate noise production from turbulent flow over bluff bodies using the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy. We propose a dynamic end cap methodology to account for volumetric contributions to the far-field sound within the context of the FW-H acoustic analogy. The quadrupole source terms are correlated over multiple planes to obtain a convection velocity that is then used to determine a corrective convective flux at the FW-H porous surface. The proposed approach is first demonstrated for a convecting potential vortex. It is then applied to compute the noise from a cylinder at ReD = 89 k, and a 45 degree beveled trailing edge at Rec = 1.9 M. We compare our results for base flow and acoustic data to available computations and experiments. We demonstrate insensitivity of the end cap correction approach to end plane location and spacing, discuss the effect of dynamic convection velocity, and show better performance than commonly used end cap corrections. Finally, we discuss some physical mechanisms that generate the far-field noise. Office of Naval Research.
Computational optimization of a pneumatic forebody flow control concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gee, Ken; Tavella, Domingo; Schiff, Lewis B.
1991-01-01
The effectiveness of a tangential slot blowing concept for generating lateral control forces on an aircraft forebody is analyzed using computational fluid dynamics. The flow about a fighter forebody is computed using a multiple-zone, thin-layer Navier-Stokes code. Tangential slot blowing is modeled by the use of an actuator plane. The effects of slot location and slot length on the efficiency of the system are analyzed. Results of the study indicate that placement of the slot near the nose of the aircraft greatly enhances the efficiency of the system, while the length and circumferential location of the slot are of secondary importance. Efficiency is defined by the amount of side force or yawing moment obtained per unit blowing coefficient. The effect of sideslip on the system is also analyzed. The system is able to generate incremental changes in forces and moments in flows with sideslip angles up to 10 deg comparable to those obtained at zero sideslip. These results are used to determine a baseline configuration for an experimental study of the tangential slot blowing concept.
Modern hardware architectures accelerate porous media flow computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulczewski, Michal; Kurowski, Krzysztof; Kierzynka, Michal; Dohnalik, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Borujeni, Ali Takbiri
2012-05-01
Investigation of rock properties, porosity and permeability particularly, which determines transport media characteristic, is crucial to reservoir engineering. Nowadays, micro-tomography (micro-CT) methods allow to obtain vast of petro-physical properties. The micro-CT method facilitates visualization of pores structures and acquisition of total porosity factor, determined by sticking together 2D slices of scanned rock and applying proper absorption cut-off point. Proper segmentation of pores representation in 3D is important to solve the permeability of porous media. This factor is recently determined by the means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), a popular method to analyze problems related to fluid flows, taking advantage of numerical methods and constantly growing computing powers. The recent advent of novel multi-, many-core and graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware architectures allows scientists to benefit even more from parallel processing and built-in new features. The high level of parallel scalability offers both, the time-to-solution decrease and greater accuracy - top factors in reservoir engineering. This paper aims to present research results related to fluid flow simulations, particularly solving the total porosity and permeability of porous media, taking advantage of modern hardware architectures. In our approach total porosity is calculated by the means of general-purpose computing on multiple GPUs. This application sticks together 2D slices of scanned rock and by the means of a marching tetrahedra algorithm, creates a 3D representation of pores and calculates the total porosity. Experimental results are compared with data obtained via other popular methods, including Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), helium porosity and nitrogen permeability tests. Then CFD simulations are performed on a large-scale high performance hardware architecture to solve the flow and permeability of porous media. In our experiments we used Lattice Boltzmann
Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.
1995-01-01
The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at Mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.
Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.
1995-01-01
The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10 (exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.
Steady and unsteady three-dimensional transonic flow computations by integral equation method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Hong
1994-01-01
This is the final technical report of the research performed under the grant: NAG1-1170, from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The report consists of three parts. The first part presents the work on unsteady flows around a zero-thickness wing. The second part presents the work on steady flows around non-zero thickness wings. The third part presents the massively parallel processing implementation and performance analysis of integral equation computations. At the end of the report, publications resulting from this grant are listed and attached.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glazunov, A. V.
2014-03-01
Computations of turbulent flows over surfaces with explicitly specified roughness elements that imitate an urban built-up area have been performed using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. Results are presented for neutral stratification. Some statistics of the flow over an inhomogeneous surface are compared with those over a flat surface. Results of spectral analysis performed to identify characteristic length scales are discussed. A relation is established between the Prandtl mixing length and the turbulence scale defined through the cospectrum-weighted-mean wave number. Values of the roughness parameter and displacement height are determined for three different configurations of objects on the surface.
High-performance computing-based exploration of flow control with micro devices.
Fujii, Kozo
2014-08-13
The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator that controls flow separation is one of the promising technologies to realize energy savings and noise reduction of fluid dynamic systems. However, the mechanism for controlling flow separation is not clearly defined, and this lack of knowledge prevents practical use of this technology. Therefore, large-scale computations for the study of the DBD plasma actuator have been conducted using the Japanese Petaflops supercomputer 'K' for three different Reynolds numbers. Numbers of new findings on the control of flow separation by the DBD plasma actuator have been obtained from the simulations, and some of them are presented in this study. Knowledge of suitable device parameters is also obtained. The DBD plasma actuator is clearly shown to be very effective for controlling flow separation at a Reynolds number of around 10(5), and several times larger lift-to-drag ratio can be achieved at higher angles of attack after stall. For higher Reynolds numbers, separated flow is partially controlled. Flow analysis shows key features towards better control. DBD plasma actuators are a promising technology, which could reduce fuel consumption and contribute to a green environment by achieving high aerodynamic performance. The knowledge described above can be obtained only with high-end computers such as the supercomputer 'K'. PMID:25024414
High-performance computing-based exploration of flow control with micro devices
Fujii, Kozo
2014-01-01
The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator that controls flow separation is one of the promising technologies to realize energy savings and noise reduction of fluid dynamic systems. However, the mechanism for controlling flow separation is not clearly defined, and this lack of knowledge prevents practical use of this technology. Therefore, large-scale computations for the study of the DBD plasma actuator have been conducted using the Japanese Petaflops supercomputer ‘K’ for three different Reynolds numbers. Numbers of new findings on the control of flow separation by the DBD plasma actuator have been obtained from the simulations, and some of them are presented in this study. Knowledge of suitable device parameters is also obtained. The DBD plasma actuator is clearly shown to be very effective for controlling flow separation at a Reynolds number of around 105, and several times larger lift-to-drag ratio can be achieved at higher angles of attack after stall. For higher Reynolds numbers, separated flow is partially controlled. Flow analysis shows key features towards better control. DBD plasma actuators are a promising technology, which could reduce fuel consumption and contribute to a green environment by achieving high aerodynamic performance. The knowledge described above can be obtained only with high-end computers such as the supercomputer ‘K’. PMID:25024414
Topology and grid adaption for high-speed flow computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1989-01-01
This study investigates the effects of grid topology and grid adaptation on numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. In the first part of this study, a general procedure is presented for computation of high-speed flow over complex three-dimensional configurations. The flow field is simulated on the surface of a Butler wing in a uniform stream. Results are presented for Mach number 3.5 and a Reynolds number of 2,000,000. The O-type and H-type grids have been used for this study, and the results are compared together and with other theoretical and experimental results. The results demonstrate that while the H-type grid is suitable for the leading and trailing edges, a more accurate solution can be obtained for the middle part of the wing with an O-type grid. In the second part of this study, methods of grid adaption are reviewed and a method is developed with the capability of adapting to several variables. This method is based on a variational approach and is an algebraic method. Also, the method has been formulated in such a way that there is no need for any matrix inversion. This method is used in conjunction with the calculation of hypersonic flow over a blunt-nose body. A movie has been produced which shows simultaneously the transient behavior of the solution and the grid adaption.
Special session: computational predictability of natural convection flows in enclosures
Christon, M A; Gresho, P M; Sutton, S B
2000-08-14
Modern thermal design practices often rely on a ''predictive'' simulation capability--although predictability is rarely quantified and often difficult to confidently achieve in practice. The computational predictability of natural convection in enclosures is a significant issue for many industrial thermal design problems. One example of this is the design for mitigation of optical distortion due to buoyancy-driven flow in large-scale laser systems. In many instances the sensitivity of buoyancy-driven enclosure flows can be linked to the presence of multiple bifurcation points that yield laminar thermal convective processes that transition from steady to various modes of unsteady flow. This behavior is brought to light by a problem as ''simple'' as a differentially-heated tall rectangular cavity (8:1 height/width aspect ratio) filled with a Boussinesq fluid with Pr = 0.71--which defines, at least partially, the focus of this special session. For our purposes, the differentially-heated cavity provides a virtual fluid dynamics laboratory.
Computation of asymmetric supersonic flows around cones at large incidence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Degani, David
1987-01-01
The Schiff-Steger parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code has been modified to allow computation of conical flowfields around cones at high incidence. The improved algorithm of Degani and Schiff has been incorporated with the PNS code. This algorithm adds the cross derivative and circumferential viscous terms to the original PNS code and modifies the algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model to take into account regions of so called cross-flow separation. Assuming the flowfield is conical (but not necessarily symmetric) a marching stepback procedure is used: the solution is marched one step downstream using improved PNS code and the flow variables are then scaled to place the solution back to the original station. The process is repeated until no change in the flow variables is observed with further marching. The flow variables are then constant along rays of the flowfield. The experiments obtained by Bannik and Nebbeling were chosen as a test case. In these experiments a cone of 7.5 deg. half angle at Mach number 2.94 and Reynolds number 1.372 x 10(7) was tested up 34 deg. angle of attack. At high angle of attack nonconical asymmetric leeward side vortex patterns were observed. In the first set of computations, using an earlier obtained solution of the above cone for angle of attack of 22.6 deg. and at station x=0.5 as a starting solution, the angle of attack was gradually increased up to 34 deg. During this procedure the grid was carfully adjusted to capture the bow shock. A stable, converged symmetric solution was obtained. Since the numerical code converged to a symmetric solution which is not the physical one, the stability was tested by a random perturbation at each point. The possible effect of surface roughness or non perfect body shape was also investigated. It was concluded that although the assumption of conical viscous flows can be very useful for certain cases, it can not be used for the present case. Thus the second part of the investigation attempted to
Sensitivity Analysis of Chaotic Flow around Two-Dimensional Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blonigan, Patrick; Wang, Qiqi; Nielsen, Eric; Diskin, Boris
2015-11-01
Computational methods for sensitivity analysis are invaluable tools for fluid dynamics research and engineering design. These methods are used in many applications, including aerodynamic shape optimization and adaptive grid refinement. However, traditional sensitivity analysis methods, including the adjoint method, break down when applied to long-time averaged quantities in chaotic fluid flow fields, such as high-fidelity turbulence simulations. This break down is due to the ``Butterfly Effect'' the high sensitivity of chaotic dynamical systems to the initial condition. A new sensitivity analysis method developed by the authors, Least Squares Shadowing (LSS), can compute useful and accurate gradients for quantities of interest in chaotic dynamical systems. LSS computes gradients using the ``shadow trajectory'', a phase space trajectory (or solution) for which perturbations to the flow field do not grow exponentially in time. To efficiently compute many gradients for one objective function, we use an adjoint version of LSS. This talk will briefly outline Least Squares Shadowing and demonstrate it on chaotic flow around a Two-Dimensional airfoil.
Impeller flow field measurement and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fagan, J. R.; Fleeter, S.
1991-01-01
A series of experiments are performed to investigate and quantify the three-dimensional mean flow field in centrifugal compressor flow passages and to evaluate contemporary internal flow models. The experiments include the acquisition and analysis of LDV data in the impeller passages of a low-speed moderate-scale research mixed-flow centrifugal compressor operating at its design point. Predictions from a viscous internal flow model are then correlated with these data. The LDV data show the traditional jet-wake structure observed in many centrifugal compressors, with the wake observed along the shroud 70 percent of the length from the pressure to suction surface. The viscous model predicts the major flow phenomena. However, the correlations of the viscous predictions with the LDV data were poor.
CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF AUTOMATED FLOW CYTOMETRY DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
Aghaeepour, Nima; Finak, Greg; Hoos, Holger; Mosmann, Tim R.; Gottardo, Raphael; Brinkman, Ryan; Scheuermann, Richard H.
2013-01-01
Traditional methods for flow cytometry (FCM) data processing rely on subjective manual gating. Recently, several groups have developed computational methods for identifying cell populations in multidimensional FCM data. The Flow Cytometry: Critical Assessment of Population Identification Methods (FlowCAP) challenges were established to compare the performance of these methods on two tasks – mammalian cell population identification to determine if automated algorithms can reproduce expert manual gating, and sample classification to determine if analysis pipelines can identify characteristics that correlate with external variables (e.g., clinical outcome). This analysis presents the results of the first of these challenges. Several methods performed well compared to manual gating or external variables using statistical performance measures, suggesting that automated methods have reached a sufficient level of maturity and accuracy for reliable use in FCM data analysis. PMID:23396282
Transonic Flow Field Analysis for Wing-Fuselage Configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boppe, C. W.
1980-01-01
A computational method for simulating the aerodynamics of wing-fuselage configurations at transonic speeds is developed. The finite difference scheme is characterized by a multiple embedded mesh system coupled with a modified or extended small disturbance flow equation. This approach permits a high degree of computational resolution in addition to coordinate system flexibility for treating complex realistic aircraft shapes. To augment the analysis method and permit applications to a wide range of practical engineering design problems, an arbitrary fuselage geometry modeling system is incorporated as well as methodology for computing wing viscous effects. Configuration drag is broken down into its friction, wave, and lift induced components. Typical computed results for isolated bodies, isolated wings, and wing-body combinations are presented. The results are correlated with experimental data. A computer code which employs this methodology is described.
Dimensional analysis of natural debris flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Gordon; Ouyang, Chaojun
2015-04-01
Debris flows occur when masses of poorly sorted sediment, agitated and saturated with water, surge down slopes in response to gravitational attraction. They are of great concern because they often cause catastrophic disasters due to the long run-out distance and large impact forc-es. Different from rock avalanches and sediment-laden water floods, both solid and fluid phases affected by multiple parameters can influence the motion of debris flows and govern their rheological properties. A dimensional analysis for a systematic study of the governing parameters is presented in this manuscript. Multiple dimensionless numbers with clear physical meanings are critically reviewed. Field data on natural debris flows are available here based on the fifty years' observation and measurement in the Jiangjia Gully, which is located in the Dongchuan City, Yunnan Province of China. The applications of field data with the dimensional analysis for studying natural debris flows are demonstrated. Specific values of dimensionless numbers (e.g., modified Savage Number, Reynolds number, Friction number) for classifying flowing regimes of natural debris flows on the large scales are obtained. Compared to previous physical model tests conducted mostly on small scales, this study shows that the contact friction between particles dominates in natural debris flows. In addition, the solid inertial stress due to particle collisions and the pore fluid viscous shear stress play key roles in governing the dynamic properties of debris flows and the total normal stress acting on the slope surfaces. The channel width as a confinement to the flows can affect the solids discharge per unit width significantly. Furthermore, a dimensionless number related to pore fluid pressure dissipation is found for distinguishing surge flows and continuous flows in field satisfactorily. It indicates that for surge debris flows, the high pore fluid pressures generated in granular body dissipate quite slowly and may
Analysis of stratified flow mixing
Soo, S.L.; Lyczkowski, R.W.
1985-01-01
The Creare 1/5-scale Phase II experiments which model fluid and thermal mixing of relatively cold high pressure injection (HPI) water into a cold leg of a full-scale pressurized water reactor (PWR) having loop flow are analyzed and found that they cannot achieve complete similarity with respect to characteristic Reynolds and Froude numbers and developing hydrodynamic entry length. Several analyses show that these experiments fall into two distinct regimes of mixing: momentum controlled and gravity controlled (stratification). 18 refs., 9 figs.
Power flow analysis of an L-shaped plate structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1987-01-01
In the analysis of the vibration response and structure-borne vibration transmission between elements of a complex structure, statistical energy analysis (SEA) or finite element analysis (FEA) are generally used. However, an alternative method is using vibrational power flow techniques which can be especially useful in the mid frequencies between the optimum frequency regimes for FEA and SEA. Power flow analysis has in general been used on one-dimensional beam-like structures or between structures with point joints. In this paper, the power flow technique is extended to two-dimensional plate like structures joined along a common edge without frequency or spatial averaging the results, such that the resonant response of the structure is determined. The power flow results are compared to results obtained using FEA at low frequencies and SEA at high frequencies. The agreement with FEA results is good but the power flow technique has an improved computational efficiency. Compared to the SEA results the power flow results show a closer representation of the actual response of the structure.
Domain decomposition methods for the parallel computation of reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keyes, David E.
1988-01-01
Domain decomposition is a natural route to parallel computing for partial differential equation solvers. Subdomains of which the original domain of definition is comprised are assigned to independent processors at the price of periodic coordination between processors to compute global parameters and maintain the requisite degree of continuity of the solution at the subdomain interfaces. In the domain-decomposed solution of steady multidimensional systems of PDEs by finite difference methods using a pseudo-transient version of Newton iteration, the only portion of the computation which generally stands in the way of efficient parallelization is the solution of the large, sparse linear systems arising at each Newton step. For some Jacobian matrices drawn from an actual two-dimensional reacting flow problem, comparisons are made between relaxation-based linear solvers and also preconditioned iterative methods of Conjugate Gradient and Chebyshev type, focusing attention on both iteration count and global inner product count. The generalized minimum residual method with block-ILU preconditioning is judged the best serial method among those considered, and parallel numerical experiments on the Encore Multimax demonstrate for it approximately 10-fold speedup on 16 processors.
Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S. K.
1991-10-01
Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequence of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.
Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis
Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S.K.
1991-01-01
Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequences of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.
Analysis and control of supersonic vortex breakdown flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.
1990-01-01
Analysis and computation of steady, compressible, quasi-axisymmetric flow of an isolated, slender vortex are considered. The compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a simpler set by using the slenderness and quasi-axisymmetry assumptions. The resulting set along with a compatibility equation are transformed from the diverging physical domain to a rectangular computational domain. Solving for a compatible set of initial profiles and specifying a compatible set of boundary conditions, the equations are solved using a type-differencing scheme. Vortex breakdown locations are detected by the failure of the scheme to converge. Computational examples include isolated vortex flows at different Mach numbers, external axial-pressure gradients and swirl ratios.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kwang-Ho
Three-dimensional computation of turbulent flow in curved ducts and spiral turbine casings is performed. Mathematical models are described by basic equations resolved by a developed numerical partial parabolic computation procedure. Effect of turbulent oscillations on friction force is analyzed by Prandtl mixing length flow theory. Computational procedure is tested on a 90 deg curved channel. Main flow characteristics, secondary flow, double vortex formation, retroaction, and outlet boundary conditions are considered. Mathematical and experimental results are concordant.
Computer tomography of flows external to test models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prikryl, I.; Vest, C. M.
1982-01-01
Computer tomographic techniques for reconstruction of three-dimensional aerodynamic density fields, from interferograms recorded from several different viewing directions were studied. Emphasis is on the case in which an opaque object such as a test model in a wind tunnel obscures significant regions of the interferograms (projection data). A method called the Iterative Convolution Method (ICM), existing methods in which the field is represented by a series expansions, and analysis of real experimental data in the form of aerodynamic interferograms are discussed.
CFD Analysis and Design Optimization Using Parallel Computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martinelli, Luigi; Alonso, Juan Jose; Jameson, Antony; Reuther, James
1997-01-01
A versatile and efficient multi-block method is presented for the simulation of both steady and unsteady flow, as well as aerodynamic design optimization of complete aircraft configurations. The compressible Euler and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are discretized using a high resolution scheme on body-fitted structured meshes. An efficient multigrid implicit scheme is implemented for time-accurate flow calculations. Optimum aerodynamic shape design is achieved at very low cost using an adjoint formulation. The method is implemented on parallel computing systems using the MPI message passing interface standard to ensure portability. The results demonstrate that, by combining highly efficient algorithms with parallel computing, it is possible to perform detailed steady and unsteady analysis as well as automatic design for complex configurations using the present generation of parallel computers.
IUE Data Analysis Software for Personal Computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, R.; Caplinger, J.; Taylor, L.; Lawton , P.
1996-01-01
This report summarizes the work performed for the program titled, "IUE Data Analysis Software for Personal Computers" awarded under Astrophysics Data Program NRA 92-OSSA-15. The work performed was completed over a 2-year period starting in April 1994. As a result of the project, 450 IDL routines and eight database tables are now available for distribution for Power Macintosh computers and Personal Computers running Windows 3.1.
Environmental studies: Mathematical, computational, and statistical analysis
Wheeler, M.F.
1996-12-31
The Summer Program on Mathematical, Computational, and Statistical Analyses in Environmental Studies held 6--31 July 1992 was designed to provide a much needed interdisciplinary forum for joint exploration of recent advances in the formulation and application of (A) environmental models, (B) environmental data and data assimilation, (C) stochastic modeling and optimization, and (D) global climate modeling. These four conceptual frameworks provided common themes among a broad spectrum of specific technical topics at this workshop. The program brought forth a mix of physical concepts and processes such as chemical kinetics, atmospheric dynamics, cloud physics and dynamics, flow in porous media, remote sensing, climate statistical, stochastic processes, parameter identification, model performance evaluation, aerosol physics and chemistry, and data sampling together with mathematical concepts in stiff differential systems, advective-diffusive-reactive PDEs, inverse scattering theory, time series analysis, particle dynamics, stochastic equations, optimal control, and others. Nineteen papers are presented in this volume. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Computer Programming in a Spatial Analysis Course.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gesler, Wilbert; Kaplan, Abram
1993-01-01
Contends that students in spatial analysis courses generally are familiar with computer use and programs but lack basic computer programing skills. Describes four exercises in which students learn programing using BASIC and dBASE. Asserts that programming exercises help students clarify concepts, understand the rationale behind calculations, use…
Discourse Analysis of Teaching Computing Online
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bower, Matt
2009-01-01
This paper analyses the teaching and learning of computing in a Web-conferencing environment. A discourse analysis of three introductory programming learning episodes is presented to demonstrate issues and effects that arise when teaching computing using such an approach. The subject of discussion, the interactive nature of discussion and any…
A Computer Language for ECG Contour Analysis
McConnochie, John W.
1982-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate contructively that criteria for ECG contour analysis can be interpreted directly by a computer. Thereby, the programming task is greatly reduced. Direct interpretation is achieved by the creation of a computer language that is well-suited for the expression of such criteria. Further development of the language is planned.
Interactive analysis of thermal imagery. [computer graphics terminal for photointerpretation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madding, R. P.; Fisher, L. T.
1976-01-01
Necessary knowledge is presented on data acquisition and preparation for analysis of thermal imagery of power plant heated discharges remotely sensed from an aircraft, with special emphasis on analog to digital conversion of analog tapes acquired during scanning and to geometrical scaling. The central element in the interactive analysis of thermal imagery is an interactive graphics computer terminal which allows an interpreter to effectively interact with a large-scale computer, providing decisions or data as computations are carried out. A temperature calibration is performed, which the interpreter may test anywhere on the image. When satisfied that calibration is correct, the portion of the image to be analyzed is outlined. Printed and microfiche analyses of the plume are produced. The flow chart of programs for analysis of thermal imagery is presented and discussed in some detail.
Dual Solutions for Nonlinear Flow Using Lie Group Analysis
Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Saleem, Salman
2015-01-01
`The aim of this analysis is to investigate the existence of the dual solutions for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a porous shrinking wall. We have employed the Lie group analysis for the simplification of the nonlinear differential system and computed the absolute invariants explicitly. An efficient numerical technique namely the shooting method has been employed for the constructions of solutions. Dual solutions are computed for velocity profile of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid flow. Plots reflecting the impact of dual solutions for the variations of Deborah number, Hartman number, wall mass transfer are presented and analyzed. Streamlines are also plotted for the wall mass transfer effects when suction and blowing situations are considered. PMID:26575996
Lagrangian analysis of fluid transport in empirical vortex ring flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shadden, Shawn C.; Dabiri, John O.; Marsden, Jerrold E.
2006-04-01
In this paper we apply dynamical systems analyses and computational tools to fluid transport in empirically measured vortex ring flows. Measurements of quasisteadily propagating vortex rings generated by a mechanical piston-cylinder apparatus reveal lobe dynamics during entrainment and detrainment that are consistent with previous theoretical and numerical studies. In addition, the vortex ring wake of a free-swimming Aurelia aurita jellyfish is measured and analyzed in the framework of dynamical systems to elucidate similar lobe dynamics in a naturally occurring biological flow. For the mechanically generated rings, a comparison of the net entrainment rate based on the present methods with a previous Eulerian analysis shows good correspondence. However, the current Lagrangian framework is more effective than previous analyses in capturing the transport geometry, especially when the flow becomes more unsteady, as in the case of the free-swimming jellyfish. Extensions of these results to more complex flow geometries is suggested.
Finite element analysis of aeroacoustic jet-flap flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.; Manhardt, P. D.
1977-01-01
A computational analysis was performed on the steady, turbulent aerodynamic flowfields associated with a jet-blown flap. For regions devoid of flow separation, a parabolic approximation to the governing time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations was applied. Numerical results are presented for the symmetry plane flow of a slot-nozzle planar jet flap geometry, including prediction of flowfield evolution within the secondary mixing region immediately downstream of the trailing edge. Using a two equation turbulence kinetic energy closure model, rapid generation and decay of large spatial gradients in mean and correlated fluctuating velocity components within the immediate wake region were predicted. Modifications to the turbulent flow structure, as induced by porous surface treatment of the flap, were evaluated. The recirculating flow within a representative discrete slot in the surface was evaluated, using the two dimensional, time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations.
Flow Analysis of X-34 Main Propulsion System Feedlines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vu, Bruce; Garcia, Robert
2000-01-01
The X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) configuration includes the liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant #1 (RP-1) feedlines. The flow analyses of these feedlines were performed and documented in previous studies. These analyses predicted a relatively low inlet distortion and nearly even flow split at the engine interface. The new design for these MPS feedlines has been recommended recently. The new configuration includes a tighter radius in the RP-1 feedline and a neck-down section between the gimbals. Conversely, the LOX feedline is very similar to the previous design. There were concerns that this new RP-1 configuration might generate a greater flow distortion at the engine interface than the original design. To resolve this issue, a Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to determine the flow Field in the new RP-1 feedlines.
Users manual for updated computer code for axial-flow compressor conceptual design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, Arthur J.
1992-01-01
An existing computer code that determines the flow path for an axial-flow compressor either for a given number of stages or for a given overall pressure ratio was modified for use in air-breathing engine conceptual design studies. This code uses a rapid approximate design methodology that is based on isentropic simple radial equilibrium. Calculations are performed at constant-span-fraction locations from tip to hub. Energy addition per stage is controlled by specifying the maximum allowable values for several aerodynamic design parameters. New modeling was introduced to the code to overcome perceived limitations. Specific changes included variable rather than constant tip radius, flow path inclination added to the continuity equation, input of mass flow rate directly rather than indirectly as inlet axial velocity, solution for the exact value of overall pressure ratio rather than for any value that met or exceeded it, and internal computation of efficiency rather than the use of input values. The modified code was shown to be capable of computing efficiencies that are compatible with those of five multistage compressors and one fan that were tested experimentally. This report serves as a users manual for the revised code, Compressor Spanline Analysis (CSPAN). The modeling modifications, including two internal loss correlations, are presented. Program input and output are described. A sample case for a multistage compressor is included.
Turbulent reacting flow computations including turbulence-chemistry interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narayan, J. R.; Girimaji, S. S.
1992-01-01
A two-equation (k-epsilon) turbulence model has been extended to be applicable for compressible reacting flows. A compressibility correction model based on modeling the dilatational terms in the Reynolds stress equations has been used. A turbulence-chemistry interaction model is outlined. In this model, the effects of temperature and species mass concentrations fluctuations on the species mass production rates are decoupled. The effect of temperature fluctuations is modeled via a moment model, and the effect of concentration fluctuations is included using an assumed beta-pdf model. Preliminary results obtained using this model are presented. A two-dimensional reacting mixing layer has been used as a test case. Computations are carried out using the Navier-Stokes solver SPARK using a finite rate chemistry model for hydrogen-air combustion.
Numerical method for computing flow through partially saturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eaton, R. R.
This paper discusses the development of the finite element computer code SAGUARO which calculates the two-dimensional flow of mass and energy through porous media. The media may be saturated or partially saturated. SAGUARO solves the parabolic time-dependent mass transport equation which accounts for the presence of partially saturated zones through the use of highly non-linear material characteristic curves. The energy equation accounts for the possibility of partially-saturated regions by adjusting the thermal capacitances and thermal conductivities according to the volume fraction of water present in the local pores. The code capabilities are demonstrated through the presentation of a sample problem involving the one dimensional calculation of simultaneous energy transfer and water infiltration into partially saturated hard rock.
Vibrational Power Flow Analysis of Rods and Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wohlever, James Christopher; Bernhard, R. J.
1988-01-01
A new method to model vibrational power flow and predict the resulting energy density levels in uniform rods and beams is investigated. This method models the flow of vibrational power in a manner analogous to the flow of thermal power in a heat conduction problem. The classical displacement solutions for harmonically excited, hysteretically damped rods and beams are used to derive expressions for the vibrational power flow and energy density in the rod and beam. Under certain conditions, the power flow in these two structural elements will be shown to be proportional to the energy density gradient. Using the relationship between power flow and energy density, an energy balance on differential control volumes in the rod and beam leads to a Poisson's equation which models the energy density distribution in the rod and beam. Coupling the energy density and power flow solutions for rods and beams is also discussed. It is shown that the resonant behavior of finite structures complicates the coupling of solutions, especially when the excitations are single frequency inputs. Two coupling formulations are discussed, the first based on the receptance method, and the second on the travelling wave approach used in Statistical Energy Analysis. The receptance method is the more computationally intensive but is capable of analyzing single frequency excitation cases. The traveling wave approach gives a good approximation of the frequency average of energy density and power flow in coupled systems, and thus, is an efficient technique for use with broadband frequency excitation.
Advanced stability analysis for laminar flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orszag, S. A.
1981-01-01
Five classes of problems are addressed: (1) the extension of the SALLY stability analysis code to the full eighth order compressible stability equations for three dimensional boundary layer; (2) a comparison of methods for prediction of transition using SALLY for incompressible flows; (3) a study of instability and transition in rotating disk flows in which the effects of Coriolis forces and streamline curvature are included; (4) a new linear three dimensional instability mechanism that predicts Reynolds numbers for transition to turbulence in planar shear flows in good agreement with experiment; and (5) a study of the stability of finite amplitude disturbances in axisymmetric pipe flow showing the stability of this flow to all nonlinear axisymmetric disturbances.
Computational Fluid Dynamic simulations of pipe elbow flow.
Homicz, Gregory Francis
2004-08-01
One problem facing today's nuclear power industry is flow-accelerated corrosion and erosion in pipe elbows. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is performing experiments in their Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) test loop to better characterize these phenomena, and develop advanced sensor technologies for the condition monitoring of critical elbows on a continuous basis. In parallel with these experiments, Sandia National Laboratories is performing Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the flow in one elbow of the FAC test loop. The simulations are being performed using the FLUENT commercial software developed and marketed by Fluent, Inc. The model geometry and mesh were created using the GAMBIT software, also from Fluent, Inc. This report documents the results of the simulations that have been made to date; baseline results employing the RNG k-e turbulence model are presented. The predicted value for the diametrical pressure coefficient is in reasonably good agreement with published correlations. Plots of the velocities, pressure field, wall shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy adjacent to the wall are shown within the elbow section. Somewhat to our surprise, these indicate that the maximum values of both wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy occur near the elbow entrance, on the inner radius of the bend. Additional simulations were performed for the same conditions, but with the RNG k-e model replaced by either the standard k-{var_epsilon}, or the realizable k-{var_epsilon} turbulence model. The predictions using the standard k-{var_epsilon} model are quite similar to those obtained in the baseline simulation. However, with the realizable k-{var_epsilon} model, more significant differences are evident. The maximums in both wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy now appear on the outer radius, near the elbow exit, and are {approx}11% and 14% greater, respectively, than those predicted in the baseline calculation
“Virtual” (Computed) Fractional Flow Reserve
Morris, Paul D.; van de Vosse, Frans N.; Lawford, Patricia V.; Hose, D. Rodney; Gunn, Julian P.
2015-01-01
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the “gold standard” for assessing the physiological significance of coronary artery disease during invasive coronary angiography. FFR-guided percutaneous coronary intervention improves patient outcomes and reduces stent insertion and cost; yet, due to several practical and operator related factors, it is used in <10% of percutaneous coronary intervention procedures. Virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR) is computed using coronary imaging and computational fluid dynamics modeling. vFFR has emerged as an attractive alternative to invasive FFR by delivering physiological assessment without the factors that limit the invasive technique. vFFR may offer further diagnostic and planning benefits, including virtual pullback and virtual stenting facilities. However, there are key challenges that need to be overcome before vFFR can be translated into routine clinical practice. These span a spectrum of scientific, logistic, commercial, and political areas. The method used to generate 3-dimensional geometric arterial models (segmentation) and selection of appropriate, patient-specific boundary conditions represent the primary scientific limitations. Many conflicting priorities and design features must be carefully considered for vFFR models to be sufficiently accurate, fast, and intuitive for physicians to use. Consistency is needed in how accuracy is defined and reported. Furthermore, appropriate regulatory and industry standards need to be in place, and cohesive approaches to intellectual property management, reimbursement, and clinician training are required. Assuming successful development continues in these key areas, vFFR is likely to become a desirable tool in the functional assessment of coronary artery disease. PMID:26117471
"Virtual" (Computed) Fractional Flow Reserve: Current Challenges and Limitations.
Morris, Paul D; van de Vosse, Frans N; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P
2015-07-01
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the "gold standard" for assessing the physiological significance of coronary artery disease during invasive coronary angiography. FFR-guided percutaneous coronary intervention improves patient outcomes and reduces stent insertion and cost; yet, due to several practical and operator related factors, it is used in <10% of percutaneous coronary intervention procedures. Virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR) is computed using coronary imaging and computational fluid dynamics modeling. vFFR has emerged as an attractive alternative to invasive FFR by delivering physiological assessment without the factors that limit the invasive technique. vFFR may offer further diagnostic and planning benefits, including virtual pullback and virtual stenting facilities. However, there are key challenges that need to be overcome before vFFR can be translated into routine clinical practice. These span a spectrum of scientific, logistic, commercial, and political areas. The method used to generate 3-dimensional geometric arterial models (segmentation) and selection of appropriate, patient-specific boundary conditions represent the primary scientific limitations. Many conflicting priorities and design features must be carefully considered for vFFR models to be sufficiently accurate, fast, and intuitive for physicians to use. Consistency is needed in how accuracy is defined and reported. Furthermore, appropriate regulatory and industry standards need to be in place, and cohesive approaches to intellectual property management, reimbursement, and clinician training are required. Assuming successful development continues in these key areas, vFFR is likely to become a desirable tool in the functional assessment of coronary artery disease. PMID:26117471
Computer aided analysis of phonocardiogram.
Singh, J; Anand, R S
2007-01-01
In the present paper analysis of phonocardiogram (PCG) records are presented. The analysis has been carried out in both time and frequency domains with the aim of detecting certain correlations between the time and frequency domain representations of PCG. The analysis is limited to first and second heart sounds (S1 and S2) only. In the time domain analysis the moving window averaging technique is used to determine the occurrence of S1 and S2, which helps in determination of cardiac interval and absolute and relative time duration of individual S1 and S2, as well as absolute and relative duration between them. In the frequency domain, fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the complete PCG record, and short time Fourier transform (STFT) and wavelet transform of individual heart sounds have been carried out. The frequency domain analysis gives an idea about the dominant frequency components in individual records and frequency spectrum of individual heart sounds. A comparative observation on both the analyses gives some correlation between time domain and frequency domain representations of PCG. PMID:17701776
POD analysis of turbulent pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smits, Alexander J.; Hellström, Leo; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2015-11-01
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition was introduced into the analysis of turbulent flow by Lumley (1967, 1981). Turbulent flows pose particular challenges for POD analysis because the energy is distributed over a wide range of scales. It has recently been found, however, that POD can be a powerful experimental tool for identifying the largest scales, especially the Large Scale Motions (LSMs) and Very Large Scale Motions (VLSMs) in turbulent pipe flow. It has also been useful, for example, to identify the large-scale motions that dominate the unsteady behavior of the flow downstream of a right-angled bend. Here, we summarize some of these experimental results, and discuss their implications for the understanding of turbulence structure. Supported under ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0174 and ERC Grant No. 277472.
A Computational Model of Deformable Cell Rolling in Shear Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eggleton, Charles; Jadhav, Sameer
2005-03-01
Selectin-mediated rolling of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) on activated endothelium is critical to their recruitment to sites of inflammation. The cell rolling velocity is influenced by bond interactions on the molecular scale that oppose hydrodynamic forces at the mesoscale. Recent studies have shown that PMN rolling velocity on selectin-coated surfaces in shear flow is significantly slower compared to that of microspheres bearing a similar density of selectin ligands. To investigate whether cell deformability is responsible for these differences, we developed a 3-D computational model which simulates rolling of a deformable cell on a selectin-coated surface under shear flow with a stochastic description of receptor-ligand bond interaction. We observed that rolling velocity increases with increasing membrane stiffness and this effect is larger at high shear rates. The average bond lifetime, number of receptor-ligand bonds and the cell-substrate contact area decreased with increasing membrane stiffness. This study shows that cellular properties along with the kinetics of selectin-ligand interactions affect leukocyte rolling on selectin-coated surfaces.
Choice of velocity variables for complex flow computation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shyy, W.; Chang, G. C.
1991-01-01
The issue of adopting the velocity components as dependent velocity variables for the Navier-Stokes flow computations is investigated. The viewpoint advocated is that a numerical algorithm should preferably honor both the physical conservation law in differential form and the geometric conservation law in discrete form. With the use of Cartesian velocity vector, the momentum equations in curvilinear coordinates can retain the full conservation-law form and satisfy the physical conservation laws. With the curvilinear velocity components, source terms appear in differential equations and hence the full conservation law form can not be retained. In discrete expressions, algorithms based on the Cartesian components can satisfy the geometric conservation-law form for convection terms but not for viscous terms; those based on the curvilinear components, on the other hand, cannot satisfy the geometric conservation-law form for either convection or viscous terms. Several flow solutions for domain with 90 and 360 degree turnings are presented to illustrate the issues of using the Cartesian velocity components and the staggered grid arrangement.
Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2001-08-28
RSAC-6 is the latest version of the RSAC program. It calculates the consequences of a release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Using a personal computer, a user can generate a fission product inventory; decay and in-grow the inventory during transport through processes, facilities, and the environment; model the downwind dispersion of the activity; and calculate doses to downwind individuals. Internal dose from the inhalation and ingestion pathways is calculated. External dose from ground surface andmore » plume gamma pathways is calculated. New and exciting updates to the program include the ability to evaluate a release to an enclosed room, resuspension of deposited activity and evaluation of a release up to 1 meter from the release point. Enhanced tools are included for dry deposition, building wake, occupancy factors, respirable fraction, AMAD adjustment, updated and enhanced radionuclide inventory and inclusion of the dose-conversion factors from FOR 11 and 12.« less
Computational analysis of scramjet dual mode operation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1985-01-01
One critical element in the design of a Scramjet is the detailed understanding of the complex flow field in the engine during various phases of operation. One area of interest is the computation of chemically reacting flows in the vicinity of flame holders. The characteristics of a method for solving the Navier-Stokes equations with chemical reactions are proposed. Also of interest are the flame holding characteristics of simple ramp and rearward facing steps. Both of these configurations are considered candidates for Scramjet flame holders.
Recent advances in flow injection analysis.
Trojanowicz, Marek; Kołacińska, Kamila
2016-04-01
A dynamic development of methodologies of analytical flow injection measurements during four decades since their invention has reinforced the solid position of flow analysis in the arsenal of techniques and instrumentation of contemporary chemical analysis. With the number of published scientific papers exceeding 20 000, and advanced instrumentation available for environmental, food, and pharmaceutical analysis, flow analysis is well established as an extremely vital field of modern flow chemistry, which is developed simultaneously with methods of chemical synthesis carried out under flow conditions. This review work is based on almost 300 original papers published mostly in the last decade, with special emphasis put on presenting novel achievements from the most recent 2-3 years in order to indicate current development trends of this methodology. Besides the evolution of the design of whole measuring systems, and including especially new applications of various detections methods, several aspects of implications of progress in nanotechnology, and miniaturization of measuring systems for application in different field of modern chemical analysis are also discussed. PMID:26906258
Methods for Computationally Efficient Structured CFD Simulations of Complex Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrick, Gregory P.; Chen, Jen-Ping
2012-01-01
This research presents more efficient computational methods by which to perform multi-block structured Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of turbomachinery, thus facilitating higher-fidelity solutions of complicated geometries and their associated flows. This computational framework offers flexibility in allocating resources to balance process count and wall-clock computation time, while facilitating research interests of simulating axial compressor stall inception with more complete gridding of the flow passages and rotor tip clearance regions than is typically practiced with structured codes. The paradigm presented herein facilitates CFD simulation of previously impractical geometries and flows. These methods are validated and demonstrate improved computational efficiency when applied to complicated geometries and flows.
Numerical computation of viscous flow around bodies and wings moving at supersonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tannehill, J. C.
1984-01-01
Research in aerodynamics is discussed. The development of equilibrium air curve fits; computation of hypersonic rarefield leading edge flows; computation of 2-D and 3-D blunt body laminar flows with an impinging shock; development of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric real gas blunt body code; a study of an over-relaxation procedure forthe MacCormack finite-difference scheme; computation of 2-D blunt body turbulent flows with an impinging shock; computation of supersonic viscous flow over delta wings at high angles of attack; and computation of the Space Shuttle Orbiter flowfield are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Wen-Sheng
This thesis is aimed at improved understanding of unsteady turbomachinery flow physics using time-accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Two pressure-based algorithms have been adapted for the numerical computation of turbulent, two and three-dimensional, steady and unsteady flows through turbomachinery. The differential model employed is the incompressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. In this work, several new and/or modern techniques have been adapted, implemented, and applied. These include higher order accurate structured and hybrid unstructured discretization, an inlet wake passing strategy, an interface sliding technique for the computation of rotor-stator interactions, parallel processing capability and full-two-fluid modeling for multiphase flow analysis. The methods are employed in the analysis of several unsteady turbomachinery flows. These results are presented, compared with experimental data and interpreted, elucidating several important intrinsically unsteady physics in these machines. Details of the physical and numerical modeling strategies of these algorithms are presented, with emphasis placed on new contributions. Specifically, details of the wake passing and rotor-stator interaction schemes are treated, as are details of the discretization practices, structured and unstructured grid generation strategies, multiphase flow analysis treatments, and parallel processing implementation. Several unsteady turbomachinery test cases are computed and compared with available experimental data. These results illustrate the effectiveness and generality of the schemes developed, and elucidate important, unsteady physics in the machines considered: First, the unsteady flow field through a second stage stator of a two-stage compressor is carried out with the inlet wake passing strategy. The effects of rotor-stator blade row spacing and the rotor/stator blade count ratio on the turbomachinery unsteady flows are investigated. It is
Computation of Three-Dimensional Compressible Flow From a Rectangular Nozzle with Delta Tabs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, D. R.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
1999-01-01
A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis is performed using a time-marching Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code for a 3:1 rectangular nozzle with two delta tabs located at the nozz1e exit plane to enhance mixing. Two flow configurations, a subsonic jet case and a supersonic jet case using the same rate configuration, which were previously studied experimentally, are computed and compared with the experimental data. The experimental data include streamwise velocity and vorticity distributions for the subsonic case, and Mach number distributions for the supersonic case, at various axial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. The computational results show very good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the effect of compressibility on vorticity dynamics is examined by comparing the vorticity contours of the subsonic jet case with those of the supersonic jet case which were not measured in the experiment.
Distributed computing and nuclear reactor analysis
Brown, F.B.; Derstine, K.L.; Blomquist, R.N.
1994-03-01
Large-scale scientific and engineering calculations for nuclear reactor analysis can now be carried out effectively in a distributed computing environment, at costs far lower than for traditional mainframes. The distributed computing environment must include support for traditional system services, such as a queuing system for batch work, reliable filesystem backups, and parallel processing capabilities for large jobs. All ANL computer codes for reactor analysis have been adapted successfully to a distributed system based on workstations and X-terminals. Distributed parallel processing has been demonstrated to be effective for long-running Monte Carlo calculations.
Simulating Subsurface Reactive Flows on Ultrascale Computers with PFLOTRAN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, R. T.; Hammond, G. E.; Lichtner, P. C.; Lu, C.; Smith, B. F.; Philip, B.
2009-12-01
To provide true predictive utility, subsurface simulations often must accurately resolve--in three dimensions--complicated, multi-phase flow fields in highly heterogeneous geology with numerous chemical species and complex chemistry. This task is especially daunting because of the wide range of spatial scales involved--from the pore scale to the field scale--ranging over six orders of magnitude, and the wide range of time scales ranging from seconds or less to millions of years. This represents a true "Grand Challenge" computational problem, requiring not only the largest-scale ("ultrascale") supercomputers, but accompanying advances in algorithms for the efficient numerical solution of systems of PDEs using these machines, and in mathematical modeling techniques that can adequately capture the truly multi-scale nature of these problems. We describe some of the specific challenges involved and present the software and algorithmic approaches that are being using in the computer code PFLOTRAN to provide scalable performance for such simulations on tens of thousands of processors. We focus particularly on scalable techniques for solving the large (up to billions of total degrees of freedom), sparse algebraic systems that arise. We also describe ongoing work to address disparate time and spatial scales by both the development of adaptive mesh refinement methods and the use of multiple continuum formulations. Finally, we present some examples from recent simulations conducted on Jaguar, the 150152 processor core Cray XT5 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that is currently one of the most powerful supercomputers in the world.
Computer aided cogeneration feasibility analysis
Anaya, D.A.; Caltenco, E.J.L.; Robles, L.F.
1996-12-31
A successful cogeneration system design depends of several factors, and the optimal configuration can be founded using a steam and power simulation software. The key characteristics of one of this kind of software are described below, and its application on a process plant cogeneration feasibility analysis is shown in this paper. Finally a study case is illustrated. 4 refs., 2 figs.
Economic Analysis. Computer Simulation Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.
A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This volume of the text discusses the simulation of behavioral relationships among variable elements in an economy and presents…
Is the modal approach appropriate for analysis of energy flow?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavic, Goran
2002-11-01
Modal superposition is a most commonly used approach in a numerical analysis of vibration. However, the computation requirements of a typical analysis of energy flow limit the attractiveness of the modal approach because, as a rule, a very large number of modes have to be taken into account in order to produce realistic results. The reason for this particularity is that the energy analysis involves not only vibration displacements but also higher derivatives of these which are contributed by higher modes, the higher the derivative order. More careful analysis of structure-borne vibration shows that the modal truncation is not the only inconvenience where the modal approach is used. An equally important factor limiting its use is the representation of vibration dissipation by modal damping. The paper shows comparisons of computed energy flow in plates using modal and wave approaches. The differences between the two are noticeable, in particular where the vectorial functions of energy flow field, divergence and curl, are concerned. The wave approach to vibration analysis is shown to be more physically consistent than the modal approach.
Ferrofluids: Modeling, numerical analysis, and scientific computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomas, Ignacio
This dissertation presents some developments in the Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) describing the behavior of ferrofluids. The most widely accepted PDE model for ferrofluids is the Micropolar model proposed by R.E. Rosensweig. The Micropolar Navier-Stokes Equations (MNSE) is a subsystem of PDEs within the Rosensweig model. Being a simplified version of the much bigger system of PDEs proposed by Rosensweig, the MNSE are a natural starting point of this thesis. The MNSE couple linear velocity u, angular velocity w, and pressure p. We propose and analyze a first-order semi-implicit fully-discrete scheme for the MNSE, which decouples the computation of the linear and angular velocities, is unconditionally stable and delivers optimal convergence rates under assumptions analogous to those used for the Navier-Stokes equations. Moving onto the much more complex Rosensweig's model, we provide a definition (approximation) for the effective magnetizing field h, and explain the assumptions behind this definition. Unlike previous definitions available in the literature, this new definition is able to accommodate the effect of external magnetic fields. Using this definition we setup the system of PDEs coupling linear velocity u, pressure p, angular velocity w, magnetization m, and magnetic potential ϕ We show that this system is energy-stable and devise a numerical scheme that mimics the same stability property. We prove that solutions of the numerical scheme always exist and, under certain simplifying assumptions, that the discrete solutions converge. A notable outcome of the analysis of the numerical scheme for the Rosensweig's model is the choice of finite element spaces that allow the construction of an energy-stable scheme. Finally, with the lessons learned from Rosensweig's model, we develop a diffuse-interface model describing the behavior of two-phase ferrofluid flows and present an energy-stable numerical scheme for this model. For a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballhaus, W. F.
1976-01-01
Although the development of a finite difference relaxation procedure to solve the steady form of equations of motion gave birth to the study of computational transonic aerodynamics and considerable progress has been made using the small disturbance theory, no general analytical solution method yet exists for transonic flows that include three dimensional unsteady, and viscous effects. Two techniques are described which are useful in computational transonic aerodynamics applications. The finite volume method simplifies the application of boundary conditions without introducing the constriction associated with small disturbance theory. Governing equations are solved in a Cartesian coordinate system using a body-oriented and shock-oriented mesh network. Only the volume and surface normal directions of the volume elements must be known. The other method, configuration design by numerical optimization, can be used by aircraft designers to develop configurations that satisfy specific geometric performance constraints. Two examples of airfoil design by numerical optimization are presented.
Computational Analysis in Support of the SSTO Flowpath Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duncan, Beverly S.; Trefny, Charles J.
1994-01-01
A synergistic approach of combining computational methods and experimental measurements is used in the analysis of a hypersonic inlet. There are four major focal points within this study which examine the boundary layer growth on a compression ramp upstream of the cowl lip of a scramjet inlet. Initially, the boundary layer growth on the NASP Concept Demonstrator Engine (CDE) is examined. The follow-up study determines the optimum diverter height required by the SSTO Flowpath test to best duplicate the CDE results. These flow field computations are then compared to the experimental measurements and the mass average Mach number is determined for this inlet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lockard, David Patrick
This thesis makes contributions towards the use of computational aeroacoustics (CAA) as a tool for noise analysis. CAA uses numerical methods to simulate acoustic phenomena. CAA algorithms have been shown to reproduce wave propagation much better than traditional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. In the current approach, a finite-difference, time-domain algorithm is used to simulate unsteady, compressible flows. Dispersion-relation-preserving methodology is used to extend the range of frequencies that can be represented properly by the scheme. Since CAA algorithms are relatively inefficient at obtaining a steady-state solution, multigrid methods are applied to accelerate the convergence. All of the calculations are performed on parallel computers. Excellent speedup ratios are obtained for the explicit, time-stepping algorithm used in this research. A common problem in the area of broadband noise is the prediction of the acoustic field generated by a vortical gust impinging on a solid body. The problem is modeled initially in two-dimensions by a flat plate experiencing a uniform mean flow with a sinusoidal, vertical velocity perturbation. Good agreement is obtained with results from semi-analytic methods for several gust frequencies. Then, a cascade of plates is used to simulate a turbomachinery blade row. A new approach is used to impose the vortical disturbance inside the computational domain rather than imposing it at the computational boundary. The influence of the mean flow on the radiated noise is examined by considering NACA0012 and RAE2822 airfoils. After a steady-state is obtained from the multigrid method, the un-steady simulation is used to model the vortical gust's interaction with the airfoil. The mean loading on the airfoil is shown to have a significant effect on the directivity of the sound with the strongest influence observed for high frequencies. Camber is shown to have a similar effect as the angle of attack. A three-dimensional problem
TAIR: A transonic airfoil analysis computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dougherty, F. C.; Holst, T. L.; Grundy, K. L.; Thomas, S. D.
1981-01-01
The operation of the TAIR (Transonic AIRfoil) computer code, which uses a fast, fully implicit algorithm to solve the conservative full-potential equation for transonic flow fields about arbitrary airfoils, is described on two levels of sophistication: simplified operation and detailed operation. The program organization and theory are elaborated to simplify modification of TAIR for new applications. Examples with input and output are given for a wide range of cases, including incompressible, subcritical compressible, and transonic calculations.
Steady, Nonrotating, Blade-to-Blade Potential Transonic Cascade Flow Analysis Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, D. S.
1983-01-01
CAS2D computer program numerically solves artifically time-dependent form of actual full potential equation, providing steady, nonrotating, bladeto-blade potential transonic cascade flow analysis code. CAS2D written in FORTRAN IV.
Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong
2013-01-01
This is the presentation related to the paper of the same name describing Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of low speed stall aerodynamics of a swept wing with a laminar flow wing glove.
A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Swirling Flow Reduction by using Anti-vortex Baffle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John W.; West, Jeff S..
2013-01-01
An anti-vortex baffle is a liquid propellant management device placed adjacent to an outlet of the propellant tank. Its purpose is to substantially reduce or eliminate the formation of free surface dip and vortex, as well as prevent vapor ingestion into the outlet, as the liquid drains out through the flight. To design an effective anti-vortex baffle, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations were undertaken for the NASA Ares I vehicle LOX tank subjected to the simulated flight loads with and without the anti-vortex baffle. The Six Degree-Of-Freedom (6- DOF) dynamics experienced by the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) during ascent were modeled by modifying the momentum equations in a CFD code to accommodate the extra body forces from the maneuvering in a non-inertial frame. The present analysis found that due to large moments, the CLV maneuvering has significant impact on the vortical flow generation inside the tank. Roll maneuvering and side loading due to pitch and yaw are shown to induce swirling flow. The vortical flow due to roll is symmetrical with respect to the tank centerline, while those induced by pitch and yaw maneuverings showed two vortices side by side. The study found that without the anti-vortex baffle, the swirling flow caused surface dip during the late stage of drainage and hence early vapor ingestion. The flow can also be non-uniform in the drainage pipe as the secondary swirling flow velocity component can be as high as 10% of the draining velocity. An analysis of the vortex dynamics shows that the swirling flow in the drainage pipe during the Upper Stage burn is mainly the result of residual vortices inside the tank due to conservation of angular momentum. The study demonstrated that the swirling flow in the drainage pipe can be effectively suppressed by employing the anti-vortex baffle.
Image Cross-Correlation Analysis of Time Varying Flows.
Marquezin, Cassia A; Ceffa, Nicolò G; Cotelli, Franco; Collini, Maddalena; Sironi, Laura; Chirico, Giuseppe
2016-07-19
In vivo studies of blood circulation pathologies have great medical relevance and need methods for the characterization of time varying flows at high spatial and time resolution in small animal models. We test here the efficacy of the combination of image correlation techniques and single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) in characterizing time varying flows in vitro and in vivo. As indicated by numerical simulations and by in vitro experiments on straight capillaries, the complex analytical form of the cross-correlation function for SPIM detection can be simplified, in conditions of interest for hemodynamics, to a superposition of Gaussian components, easily amenable to the analysis of variable flows. The possibility to select a wide field of view with a good spatial resolution along the collection optical axis and to compute the cross-correlation between regions of interest at varying distances on a single time stack of images allows one to single out periodic flow components from spurious peaks on the cross-correlation functions and to infer the duration of each flow component. We apply this cross-correlation analysis to the blood flow in Zebrafish embryos at 4 days after fertilization, measuring the average speed and the duration of the systolic and diastolic phases. PMID:27348197
Nylund, L.; Lunell, N.O.; Lewander, R.; Persson, B.; Sarby, B.
1982-10-01
The uteroplacental blood flow index in the last trimester of pregnancy in 26 women with diabetes mellitus was compared to that in 41 healthy control subjects. After an intravenous injection of 1 mCi of indium 113m, the radiation over the placenta was recorded with a computer-linked gamma camera. From time-activity analysis of the isotope accumulation curve, a uteroplacental blood flow index could be calculated. In the diabetic pregnant women, the maternal-placental blood flow index was reduced 35% to 45% compared to that in healthy women. The blood flow index tended to be further impaired in those diabetic women who had higher blood glucose values.
Statistical energy analysis computer program, user's guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trudell, R. W.; Yano, L. I.
1981-01-01
A high frequency random vibration analysis, (statistical energy analysis (SEA) method) is examined. The SEA method accomplishes high frequency prediction of arbitrary structural configurations. A general SEA computer program is described. A summary of SEA theory, example problems of SEA program application, and complete program listing are presented.
Use of Some "Discriminant Analysis" Computer Programs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huberty, Carl J.
1977-01-01
The objective of this paper is to review the outputs of selected computer programs often used to carry out a "discriminant analysis" with respect to two purposes of such an analysis, discrimination and classification. The programs selected are three BMD programs. (Author/JKS)
A computational image analysis glossary for biologists.
Roeder, Adrienne H K; Cunha, Alexandre; Burl, Michael C; Meyerowitz, Elliot M
2012-09-01
Recent advances in biological imaging have resulted in an explosion in the quality and quantity of images obtained in a digital format. Developmental biologists are increasingly acquiring beautiful and complex images, thus creating vast image datasets. In the past, patterns in image data have been detected by the human eye. Larger datasets, however, necessitate high-throughput objective analysis tools to computationally extract quantitative information from the images. These tools have been developed in collaborations between biologists, computer scientists, mathematicians and physicists. In this Primer we present a glossary of image analysis terms to aid biologists and briefly discuss the importance of robust image analysis in developmental studies. PMID:22872081
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sockol, P. M. (Editor); Ghia, K. N. (Editor)
1983-01-01
The present conference covers computational method applications, viscous-inviscid interaction techniques, viscous flow computational methods, and design-related methods. Attention is given to viscous flows in turbomachinery cascades, forbidden signals and apparent Mach numbers in supersonic cascades, the flow field in an engine particle separator, two-dimensional separated channel flows, turbulent separating flows over a rearward-facing step, the semielliptic analysis of two-dimensional internal and compressible viscous flows, spline solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a mildly nonorthogonal coordinate system, the design of highly loaded blades with blockage in cascade, and a finite analytic method for unsteady, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juanes, R.; Jha, B.
2014-12-01
The coupling between subsurface flow and geomechanical deformation is critical in the assessment of the environmental impacts of groundwater use, underground liquid waste disposal, geologic storage of carbon dioxide, and exploitation of shale gas reserves. In particular, seismicity induced by fluid injection and withdrawal has emerged as a central element of the scientific discussion around subsurface technologies that tap into water and energy resources. Here we present a new computational approach to model coupled multiphase flow and geomechanics of faulted reservoirs. We represent faults as surfaces embedded in a three-dimensional medium by using zero-thickness interface elements to accurately model fault slip under dynamically evolving fluid pressure and fault strength. We incorporate the effect of fluid pressures from multiphase flow in the mechanical stability of faults and employ a rigorous formulation of nonlinear multiphase geomechanics that is capable of handling strong capillary effects. We develop a numerical simulation tool by coupling a multiphase flow simulator with a mechanics simulator, using the unconditionally stable fixed-stress scheme for the sequential solution of two-way coupling between flow and geomechanics. We validate our modeling approach using several synthetic, but realistic, test cases that illustrate the onset and evolution of earthquakes from fluid injection and withdrawal. We also present the application of the coupled flow-geomechanics simulation technology to the post mortem analysis of the Mw=5.1, May 2011 Lorca earthquake in south-east Spain, and assess the potential that the earthquake was induced by groundwater extraction.
Stokeslets-meshfree computations and theory for flow in a collapsible microchannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aboelkassem, Yasser; Staples, Anne E.
2013-09-01
We present both a theoretical model and Stokeslets-meshfree computations to study the induced flow motions and transport in a 2 D microchannel with moving multiple prescribed dynamic collapses (contractions) along the upper wall. The channel is assumed to have a length that is much greater than its width, i.e., . The wall contractions are set to move with or without time (phase) lags with respect to each other. The theoretical analysis presented is based on the quasi-steady state approximations and the lubrication theory at the low Reynolds number flow regime. The meshfree numerical method is based on the method of fundamental solutions MFS, which uses a set of singularized force elements called Stokeslets to induce the flow motions. The flow field developments and structures induced by these wall contractions are given at various time snapshots during the collapsing cycle. The effect of the wall contractions amplitudes and the phase lags between individual contractions on the flow variables and on the time-averaged net flow over a complete cycle of contractions motions is studied. The present study is motivated by pumping mechanisms observed in insects, physiological systems that use multiple contractions to transport fluid, and the emerging novel microfluidic devices that mimic these systems.
Computational approach to estimating the effects of blood properties on changes in intra-stent flow.
Benard, Nicolas; Perrault, Robert; Coisne, Damien
2006-08-01
In this study various blood rheological assumptions are numerically investigated for the hemodynamic properties of intra-stent flow. Non-newtonian blood properties have never been implemented in blood coronary stented flow investigation, although its effects appear essential for a correct estimation and distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) exerted by the fluid on the internal vessel surface. Our numerical model is based on a full 3D stent mesh. Rigid wall and stationary inflow conditions are applied. Newtonian behavior, non-newtonian model based on Carreau-Yasuda relation and a characteristic newtonian value defined with flow representative parameters are introduced in this research. Non-newtonian flow generates an alteration of near wall viscosity norms compared to newtonian. Maximal WSS values are located in the center part of stent pattern structure and minimal values are focused on the proximal stent wire surface. A flow rate increase emphasizes fluid perturbations, and generates a WSS rise except for interstrut area. Nevertheless, a local quantitative analysis discloses an underestimation of WSS for modelisation using a newtonian blood flow, with clinical consequence of overestimate restenosis risk area. Characteristic viscosity introduction appears to present a useful option compared to rheological modelisation based on experimental data, with computer time gain and relevant results for quantitative and qualitative WSS determination. PMID:16799830
Extended forward sensitivity analysis of one-dimensional isothermal flow
Johnson, M.; Zhao, H.
2013-07-01
Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification is an important part of nuclear safety analysis. In this work, forward sensitivity analysis is used to compute solution sensitivities on 1-D fluid flow equations typical of those found in system level codes. Time step sensitivity analysis is included as a method for determining the accumulated error from time discretization. The ability to quantify numerical error arising from the time discretization is a unique and important feature of this method. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time step with other physical parameters, the simulation is allowed to run at optimized time steps without affecting the confidence of the physical parameter sensitivity results. The time step forward sensitivity analysis method can also replace the traditional time step convergence studies that are a key part of code verification with much less computational cost. One well-defined benchmark problem with manufactured solutions is utilized to verify the method; another test isothermal flow problem is used to demonstrate the extended forward sensitivity analysis process. Through these sample problems, the paper shows the feasibility and potential of using the forward sensitivity analysis method to quantify uncertainty in input parameters and time step size for a 1-D system-level thermal-hydraulic safety code. (authors)
Winters, W.S.
1984-01-01
An overview of the computer code TOPAZ (Transient-One-Dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer) is presented. TOPAZ models the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids through complex and arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, flow branches and vessels. Heat transfer to and from the fluid containment structures (i.e. vessel and pipe walls) can also be modeled. This document includes discussions of the fluid flow equations and containment heat conduction equations. The modeling philosophy, numerical integration technique, code architecture, and methods for generating the computational mesh are also discussed.
A cavitation model for computations of unsteady cavitating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yu; Wang, Guoyu; Huang, Biao
2016-04-01
A local vortical cavitation (LVC) model for the computation of unsteady cavitation is proposed. The model is derived from the Rayleigh-Plesset equations, and takes into account the relations between the cavitation bubble radius and local vortical effects. Calculations of unsteady cloud cavitating flows around a Clark-Y hydrofoil are performed to assess the predictive capability of the LVC model using well-documented experimental data. Compared with the conventional Zwart's model, better agreement is observed between the predictions of the LVC model and experimental data, including measurements of time-averaged flow structures, instantaneous cavity shapes and the frequency of the cloud cavity shedding process. Based on the predictions of the LVC model, it is demonstrated that the evaporation process largely concentrates in the core region of the leading edge vorticity in accordance with the growth in the attached cavity, and the condensation process concentrates in the core region of the trailing edge vorticity, which corresponds to the spread of the rear component of the attached cavity. When the attached cavity breaks up and moves downstream, the condensation area fully transports to the wake region, which is in accordance with the dissipation of the detached cavity. Furthermore, using vorticity transport equations, we also find that the periodic formation, breakup, and shedding of the sheet/cloud cavities, along with the associated baroclinic torque, are important mechanisms for vorticity production and modification. When the attached cavity grows, the liquid-vapour interface that moves towards the trailing edge enhances the vorticity in the attached cavity closure region. As the re-entrant jet moves upstream, the wavy/bubbly cavity interface enhances the vorticity near the trailing edge. At the end of the cycle, the break-up of the stable attached cavity is the main reason for the vorticity enhancement near the suction surface.
The computation of thermo-chemical nonequilibrium hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Candler, Graham
1989-01-01
Several conceptual designs for vehicles that would fly in the atmosphere at hypersonic speeds have been developed recently. For the proposed flight conditions the air in the shock layer that envelops the body is at a sufficiently high temperature to cause chemical reaction, vibrational excitation, and ionization. However, these processes occur at finite rates which, when coupled with large convection speeds, cause the gas to be removed from thermo-chemical equilibrium. This non-ideal behavior affects the aerothermal loading on the vehicle and has ramifications in its design. A numerical method to solve the equations that describe these types of flows in 2-D was developed. The state of the gas is represented with seven chemical species, a separate vibrational temperature for each diatomic species, an electron translational temperature, and a mass-average translational-rotational temperature for the heavy particles. The equations for this gas model are solved numerically in a fully coupled fashion using an implicit finite volume time-marching technique. Gauss-Seidel line-relaxation is used to reduce the cost of the solution and flux-dependent differencing is employed to maintain stability. The numerical method was tested against several experiments. The calculated bow shock wave detachment on a sphere and two cones was compared to those measured in ground testing facilities. The computed peak electron number density on a sphere-cone was compared to that measured in a flight test. In each case the results from the numerical method were in excellent agreement with experiment. The technique was used to predict the aerothermal loads on an Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle including radiative heating. These results indicate that the current physical model of high temperature air is appropriate and that the numerical algorithm is capable of treating this class of flows.
Automating sensitivity analysis of computer models using computer calculus
Oblow, E.M.; Pin, F.G.
1985-01-01
An automated procedure for performing sensitivity analyses has been developed. The procedure uses a new FORTRAN compiler with computer calculus capabilities to generate the derivatives needed to set up sensitivity equations. The new compiler is called GRESS - Gradient Enhanced Software System. Application of the automated procedure with ''direct'' and ''adjoint'' sensitivity theory for the analysis of non-linear, iterative systems of equations is discussed. Calculational efficiency consideration and techniques for adjoint sensitivity analysis are emphasized. The new approach is found to preserve the traditional advantages of adjoint theory while removing the tedious human effort previously needed to apply this theoretical methodology. Conclusions are drawn about the applicability of the automated procedure in numerical analysis and large-scale modelling sensitivity studies. 24 refs., 2 figs.
A clinical flow cytometry data analysis assistant
Salzman, G.C. ); Stewart, C.C. ); Duque, R.E. ); Braylan, R.C. . Coll. of Medicine)
1990-01-01
A rule-based expert system is being developed to assist clinicians in the analysis of multivariate flow cytometry data for patients with leukemias or lymphomas. The cells are stained with fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies and the cell fluorescence is measured with a flow cytometer. Cluster analysis is used to isolate subpopulations in the data on which the clinical decisions are made. Symbolic facts for the expert system are instantiated using these numerical data and the knowledge of the clinicians and experts in flow cytometry. The first prototype used a decision tree and rigid rules. Is successfully classified only nine of eleven leukemia cases. A second prototype incorporating certainty factors into the rules is now being developed that should remove the need for a rigid decision tree. 9 refs.
Computer aided nonlinear electrical networks analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slapnicar, P.
1977-01-01
Techniques used in simulating an electrical circuit with nonlinear elements for use in computer-aided circuit analysis programs are described. Elements of the circuit include capacitors, resistors, inductors, transistors, diodes, and voltage and current sources (constant or time varying). Simulation features are discussed for dc, ac, and/or transient circuit analysis. Calculations are based on the model approach of formulating the circuit equations. A particular solution of transient analysis for nonlinear storage elements is described.
Experimental and computational investigation of the NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathaway, Michael D.; Chriss, Randall M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Strazisar, Anthony J.
1993-01-01
An experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Lewis Research Center's low-speed centrifugal compressor (LSCC) flow field was conducted using laser anemometry and Dawes' three-dimensional viscous code. The experimental configuration consisted of a backswept impeller followed by a vaneless diffuser. Measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field were acquired at several measurement planes through the compressor. The measurements describe both the throughflow and secondary velocity field along each measurement plane. In several cases the measurements provide details of the flow within the blade boundary layers. Insight into the complex flow physics within centrifugal compressors is provided by the computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD), and assessment of the CFD predictions is provided by comparison with the measurements. Five-hole probe and hot-wire surveys at the inlet and exit to the impeller as well as surface flow visualization along the impeller blade surfaces provided independent confirmation of the laser measurement technique. The results clearly document the development of the throughflow velocity wake that is characteristic of unshrouded centrifugal compressors.
Equilibria with incompressible flows from symmetry analysis
Kuiroukidis, Ap E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr; Throumoulopoulos, G. N. E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr
2015-08-15
We identify and study new nonlinear axisymmetric equilibria with incompressible flow of arbitrary direction satisfying a generalized Grad Shafranov equation by extending the symmetry analysis presented by Cicogna and Pegoraro [Phys. Plasmas 22, 022520 (2015)]. In particular, we construct a typical tokamak D-shaped equilibrium with peaked toroidal current density, monotonically varying safety factor, and sheared electric field.
Computer aided stress analysis of long bones utilizing computer tomography
Marom, S.A.
1986-01-01
A computer aided analysis method, utilizing computed tomography (CT) has been developed, which together with a finite element program determines the stress-displacement pattern in a long bone section. The CT data file provides the geometry, the density and the material properties for the generated finite element model. A three-dimensional finite element model of a tibial shaft is automatically generated from the CT file by a pre-processing procedure for a finite element program. The developed pre-processor includes an edge detection algorithm which determines the boundaries of the reconstructed cross-sectional images of the scanned bone. A mesh generation procedure than automatically generates a three-dimensional mesh of a user-selected refinement. The elastic properties needed for the stress analysis are individually determined for each model element using the radiographic density (CT number) of each pixel with the elemental borders. The elastic modulus is determined from the CT radiographic density by using an empirical relationship from the literature. The generated finite element model, together with applied loads, determined from existing gait analysis and initial displacements, comprise a formatted input for the SAP IV finite element program. The output of this program, stresses and displacements at the model elements and nodes, are sorted and displayed by a developed post-processor to provide maximum and minimum values at selected locations in the model.
Computer analysis of foetal monitoring signals.
Nunes, Inês; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo
2016-01-01
Five systems for computer analysis of foetal monitoring signals are currently available, incorporating the evaluation of cardiotocographic (CTG) or combined CTG with electrocardiographic ST data. All systems have been integrated with central monitoring stations, allowing the simultaneous monitoring of several tracings on the same computer screen in multiple hospital locations. Computer analysis elicits real-time visual and sound alerts for health care professionals when abnormal patterns are detected, with the aim of prompting a re-evaluation and subsequent clinical action, if considered necessary. Comparison between the CTG analyses provided by the computer and clinical experts has been carried out in all systems, and in three of them, the accuracy of computer alerts in predicting newborn outcomes was evaluated. Comparisons between these studies are hampered by the differences in selection criteria and outcomes. Two of these systems have just completed multicentre randomised clinical trials comparing them with conventional CTG monitoring, and their results are awaited shortly. For the time being, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of computer analysis of foetal monitoring signals on perinatal indicators and on health care professionals' behaviour. PMID:26211832
Massively parallel computation of 3D flow and reactions in chemical vapor deposition reactors
Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Moffat, H.K.
1997-12-01
Computer modeling of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactors can greatly aid in the understanding, design, and optimization of these complex systems. Modeling is particularly attractive in these systems since the costs of experimentally evaluating many design alternatives can be prohibitively expensive, time consuming, and even dangerous, when working with toxic chemicals like Arsine (AsH{sub 3}): until now, predictive modeling has not been possible for most systems since the behavior is three-dimensional and governed by complex reaction mechanisms. In addition, CVD reactors often exhibit large thermal gradients, large changes in physical properties over regions of the domain, and significant thermal diffusion for gas mixtures with widely varying molecular weights. As a result, significant simplifications in the models have been made which erode the accuracy of the models` predictions. In this paper, the authors will demonstrate how the vast computational resources of massively parallel computers can be exploited to make possible the analysis of models that include coupled fluid flow and detailed chemistry in three-dimensional domains. For the most part, models have either simplified the reaction mechanisms and concentrated on the fluid flow, or have simplified the fluid flow and concentrated on rigorous reactions. An important CVD research thrust has been in detailed modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in the reactor vessel, treating transport and reaction of chemical species either very simply or as a totally decoupled problem. Using the analogy between heat transfer and mass transfer, and the fact that deposition is often diffusion limited, much can be learned from these calculations; however, the effects of thermal diffusion, the change in physical properties with composition, and the incorporation of surface reaction mechanisms are not included in this model, nor can transitions to three-dimensional flows be detected.
ASTEC: Controls analysis for personal computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Downing, John P.; Bauer, Frank H.; Thorpe, Christopher J.
1989-01-01
The ASTEC (Analysis and Simulation Tools for Engineering Controls) software is under development at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The design goal is to provide a wide selection of controls analysis tools at the personal computer level, as well as the capability to upload compute-intensive jobs to a mainframe or supercomputer. The project is a follow-on to the INCA (INteractive Controls Analysis) program that has been developed at GSFC over the past five years. While ASTEC makes use of the algorithms and expertise developed for the INCA program, the user interface was redesigned to take advantage of the capabilities of the personal computer. The design philosophy and the current capabilities of the ASTEC software are described.
On the Dynamics of Computing a Chemically Relaxed Nonequilibrium Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sweby, P. K.; Lafon, A.; Yee, H. C.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
In order to gain insights into the strong dependence of numerical solutions on initial data for finite time steps, a set of nonlinear test problems rich enough to capture the behavior of difference schemes were recently identified and the numerical basins of attraction for these problems were computed using commonly used time discretizations in CFD. Our study revealed a wealth of surprisingly nonlinear behavior of numerical schemes that were not observed before, in particular for the implicit time discretizations that are commonly used in CFD. The goal of this work is to apply these tools to study a practical model from non-equilibrium flowfield relaxation. This type of problem arises in chemically nonequilibrium hypersonic flows such as in a shock tube experiment or an expanding nozzle. Here we consider a reacting mixture of (N2, N) for an inviscid one-dimensional steady model. Preliminary numerical results indicate that, aside from the possibility of spurious numerical solutions being introduced by the time discretizations, limitations on the model for physical or accurate solutions may also play a part in the dynamics observed.
Computations of flow in an anchored Solar Vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Min, Dahhea; Fischer, Paul F.; Pearlstein, Arne J.
2015-11-01
In regions with high solar insolation, there is a potential to extract mechanical energy from the gravitationally unstable ground-heated air layer, using the substantial axial and azimuthal momentum of an anchored buoyancy-induced columnar vortex to drive a vertical-axis turbine. The seasonal and diurnal availability (which extends well into the late afternoon and even past sunset, due to utilization of the thermal capacity of the ground to heat the air, rather than direct use of photons) is well-matched to air-conditioning loads in the southwestern US. Critical issues in the design of such systems are the geometry of the enclosure that serves to anchor the dust devil-like vortex and prevent it from being blown away by ambient wind, as well as the geometry of the stationary vanes used both to enhance entrainment of ground-heated air into the vortex from a collection area much larger than that of the enclosure, and to utilize any ambient wind to enhance the vortex. Here, we report computations (using the spectral-element code Nek5000) of heated and unheated flows in several geometries of interest. The results are discussed in the context of field experiments. Supported by ARPA-E award DE-AR0000296.
Computation of Cavitating Flow in a Francis Hydroturbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonard, Daniel; Lindau, Jay
2013-11-01
In an effort to improve cavitation characteristics at off-design conditions, a steady, periodic, multiphase, RANS CFD study of an actual Francis hydroturbine was conducted and compared to experimental results. It is well-known that operating hydroturbines at off-design conditions usually results in the formation of large-scale vaporous cavities. These cavities, and their subsequent collapse, reduce efficiency and cause damage and wear to surfaces. The conventional hydro community has expressed interest in increasing their turbine's operating ranges, improving their efficiencies, and reducing damage and wear to critical turbine components. In this work, mixing planes were used to couple rotating and stationary stages of the turbine which have non-multiple periodicity, and provide a coupled solution for the stay vanes, wicket gates, runner blades, and draft tube. The mixture approach is used to simulate the multiphase flow dynamics, and cavitation models were employed to govern the mass transfer between liquid and gas phases. The solution is compared with experimental results across a range of cavitation numbers which display all the major cavitation features in the machine. Unsteady computations are necessary to capture inherently unsteady cavitation phenomena, such as the precessing vortex rope, and the shedding of bubbles from the wicket gates and their subsequent impingement upon the leading edge of the runner blades. To display these features, preliminary unsteady simulations of the full machine are also presented.
Discrete computer analysis in petroleum geology
Zakharian, A.Z.
1995-08-01
Computer analysis must not be resembling on geologist`s work, having its own way because of uncertainty and shortness of geological information even on mature stage of exploration, when our original system of formal discrete computer analysis, realised on {open_quotes}FoxPro for Windows{close_quotes} with not substantial but probabilistic (without ever driving the usual maps) representation of geological situation was used for picking out the sets of best points for exploration drilling in south part of Dheprovsko-Donetzky oil-gas basin.
Temporal fringe pattern analysis with parallel computing
Tuck Wah Ng; Kar Tien Ang; Argentini, Gianluca
2005-11-20
Temporal fringe pattern analysis is invaluable in transient phenomena studies but necessitates long processing times. Here we describe a parallel computing strategy based on the single-program multiple-data model and hyperthreading processor technology to reduce the execution time. In a two-node cluster workstation configuration we found that execution periods were reduced by 1.6 times when four virtual processors were used. To allow even lower execution times with an increasing number of processors, the time allocated for data transfer, data read, and waiting should be minimized. Parallel computing is found here to present a feasible approach to reduce execution times in temporal fringe pattern analysis.
Interfacing Computer Aided Parallelization and Performance Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
When porting sequential applications to parallel computer architectures, the program developer will typically go through several cycles of source code optimization and performance analysis. We have started a project to develop an environment where the user can jointly navigate through program structure and performance data information in order to make efficient optimization decisions. In a prototype implementation we have interfaced the CAPO computer aided parallelization tool with the Paraver performance analysis tool. We describe both tools and their interface and give an example for how the interface helps within the program development cycle of a benchmark code.
Analysis of three-dimensional viscous internal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghia, K. N.; Ghia, U.
1983-08-01
In the first research category, two different areas were studied: Analysis of laminar duct flows, and study of laminar and turbulent separated flows. These studies were aimed at acquiring a better understanding of isolated physical phenomena significant to turbomachinery applications via the use of appropriate model problems. The second research category is aimed at obtaining flow-dependent computational grids efficiently so that critical regions can be accurately modeled. The final research category includes the analysis of numerical methods, with the goal of improving the efficiency and accuracy of the various methods developed and implemented. Preliminary fine-grid marching solutions were obtained in the entrance region of the duct for eight different duct configurations. Streamwise separation was examined, using the model problem of laminar flow through a constricted asymmetric channel. True transient results were obtained for several flow configurations with extremely fine grids, so as to provide benchmark solutions which can permit assessment of other solutions obtained using approximate methods. Turbulence modeling was pursued, with the wall region being described by low-remodeling. Although the wall region can be modeled more accurately by this method, the fine grids required retard the convergence rate of the approximate factorization method used. Flow-dependent grids were generated for a 1-D nonlinear viscous Burgers' equation. For the first time, accurate results were computed using totally central-difference schemes for Re up to 10,000. Finally, in the last category, in the area of semi-implicit methods, a multi-grid method was developed to provide fine-grid solutions for the Neumann problem.
Computer code for predicting coolant flow and heat transfer in turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meitner, Peter L.
1990-01-01
A computer code was developed to analyze any turbomachinery coolant flow path geometry that consist of a single flow passage with a unique inlet and exit. Flow can be bled off for tip-cap impingement cooling, and a flow bypass can be specified in which coolant flow is taken off at one point in the flow channel and reintroduced at a point farther downstream in the same channel. The user may either choose the coolant flow rate or let the program determine the flow rate from specified inlet and exit conditions. The computer code integrates the 1-D momentum and energy equations along a defined flow path and calculates the coolant's flow rate, temperature, pressure, and velocity and the heat transfer coefficients along the passage. The equations account for area change, mass addition or subtraction, pumping, friction, and heat transfer.
Analysis of Fluid Flow over a Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCloud, Peter L. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
A method, apparatus, and computer program product for modeling heat radiated by a structure. The flow of a fluid over a surface of a model of the structure is simulated. The surface has a plurality of surface elements. Heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements in response to the fluid flowing over the surface of the model of the structure is identified. An effect of heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other is identified. A model of the heat radiated by the structure is created using the heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements and the effect of the heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other.
Navier-Stokes flow field analysis of compressible flow in a high pressure safety relief valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vu, Bruce; Wang, Ten-See; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Soni, Bharat
1993-01-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the complex three-dimensional flowfield of an oxygen safety pressure relieve valve during an incident, with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis. Specifically, the analysis will provide a flow pattern that would lead to the expansion of the eventual erosion pattern of the hardware, so as to combine it with other findings to piece together a most likely scenario for the investigation. The CFD model is a pressure based solver. An adaptive upwind difference scheme is employed for the spatial discretization, and a predictor, multiple corrector method is used for the velocity-pressure coupling. The computational result indicated vortices formation near the opening of the valve which matched the erosion pattern of the damaged hardware.
Navier-Stokes flow field analysis of compressible flow in a high pressure safety relief valve
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vu, Bruce; Wang, Ten-See; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Soni, Bharat
1993-12-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the complex three-dimensional flowfield of an oxygen safety pressure relieve valve during an incident, with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis. Specifically, the analysis will provide a flow pattern that would lead to the expansion of the eventual erosion pattern of the hardware, so as to combine it with other findings to piece together a most likely scenario for the investigation. The CFD model is a pressure based solver. An adaptive upwind difference scheme is employed for the spatial discretization, and a predictor, multiple corrector method is used for the velocity-pressure coupling. The computational result indicated vortices formation near the opening of the valve which matched the erosion pattern of the damaged hardware.
Not Available
1993-08-01
The bibliography contains citations concerning computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a new technology in computational science for complex flow simulations using supercomputers. Citations discuss the design, analysis, and performance evaluation of aircraft, rockets and missiles, and automobiles. References to supercomputers, array processes, parallel processes, and computational software packages are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)
Automated Protein Assay Using Flow Injection Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolfe, Carrie A. C.; Oates, Matthew R.; Hage, David S.
1998-08-01
The technique of flow injection analysis (FIA) is a common instrumental method used in detecting a variety of chemical and biological agents. This paper describes an undergraduate laboratory that uses FIA to perform a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) colorimetric assay for quantitating protein samples. The method requires less than 2 min per sample injection and gives a response over a broad range of protein concentrations. This method can be used in instrumental analysis labs to illustrate the principles and use of FIA, or as a means for introducing students to common methods employed in the analysis of biological agents.
Compressible, turbulent flow computation and drag optimization for axisymmetric afterbodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cummings, Russell Mark
A new parallel implicit adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm is developed for the prediction of unsteady behaviour of laminar flames. The scheme is applied to the solution of the system of partial-differential equations governing time-dependent, two- and three-dimensional, compressible laminar flows for reactive thermally perfect gaseous mixtures. A high-resolution finite-volume spatial discretization procedure is used to solve the conservation form of these equations on body-fitted multi-block hexahedral meshes. A local preconditioning technique is used to remove numerical stiffness and maintain solution accuracy for low-Mach-number, nearly incompressible flows. A flexible block-based octree data structure has been developed and is used to facilitate automatic solution-directed mesh adaptation according to physics-based refinement criteria. The data structure also enables an efficient and scalable parallel implementation via domain decomposition. The parallel implicit formulation makes use of a dual-time-stepping like approach with an implicit second-order backward discretization of the physical time, in which a Jacobian-free inexact Newton method with a preconditioned generalized minimal residual (GMRES) algorithm is used to solve the system of nonlinear algebraic equations arising from the temporal and spatial discretization procedures. An additive Schwarz global preconditioner is used in conjunction with block incomplete LU type local preconditioners for each sub-domain. The Schwarz preconditioning and block-based data structure readily allow efficient and scalable parallel implementations of the implicit AMR approach on distributed-memory multi-processor architectures. The scheme was applied to solutions of steady and unsteady laminar diffusion and premixed methane-air combustion and was found to accurately predict key flame characteristics. For a premixed flame under terrestrial gravity, the scheme accurately predicted the frequency of the natural
Computational investigations of axial and radial flow compressor aeromechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramakrishnan, Kishore
The focus of this research is aeromechanics issues in advanced compressors of the type used in modern day high thrust-to-weight ratio aircraft gas turbine engines. The driving factor for the studies undertaken is the High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) failure of gas turbine blades. HCF is a key technology issue in the development and endurance of gas turbine engines that arises primarily due to resonant response of turbomachine blading to unsteady aerodynamic excitation. Because it is a truly coupled nonlinear fluid-structure problem, predicting HCF requires a unified approach to modeling both the fluid and the structure. Considering the serious nature of HCF and the inadequacy of lower order design systems to accurately predict blade vibratory stress, the need to develop advanced predictive tools is pressing. The first aspect of this research therefore addresses the development of a turbomachinery coupled fluid-structure interaction tool to predict flow-induced blade vibration. To this end, the TAM-ALE3D solver is further developed as a derivative of the ALE3D code of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the second aspect of this research, TAM-ALE3D is validated by predicting viscous blade row unsteady aerodynamics and the modal properties of the stator vane in the baseline configuration of the Purdue Transonic Compressor. It is then used to predict the vane vibratory response excited by rotor wakes at resonance, with the resulting stresses in the range expected. For radial flow compressors, a very limited knowledge base exists on the unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic mechanisms that result in HCF. The bulk of this research is thus directed at the understanding of these fundamental unsteady phenomena using TAM-ALE3D as an investigative tool. The energy transfer from the downstream diffuser generated forcing function to the impeller blading is addressed by means of unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses. From these computational investigations, the details of