Science.gov

Sample records for computer aided education

  1. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  2. Continuing education through computer-aided instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    1981-01-01

    Computer-aided and managed instruction has been incorporated into the continuing education program in the Electronics Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two Control Data Corporation PLATO terminals have been installed in the learning center, and have been providing individualized instruction to the employees for approximately 2 years. Reactions from users and total usage figures indicate that there are unique advantages to computer-aided instruction. User interaction with a computer assures individual response from a student. The learner must be actively involved in the course and cannot passively allow content to flow by. Complex simulations can be programed and used in the learning process; thus, expensive equipment can be spared the wear and tear attributed to learners. The breadth of course topics included in the on-line library assures that PLATO has a continuing education offering for most employees. New lessons appear on line at the rate of three or four per week; PLATO cost effectiveness is thus certified. Comparisons of courses taken on the terminal to the same or similar courses offered elsewhere indicate that PLATO is advantageous. Computer-aided instruction is available when the learner is ready for initial instruction and later for reviews. At Los Alamos, the demand for PLATO service is growing. The Laboratory will have eight terminals installed and operating by April 1981. 8 tables.

  3. Computer Instructional Aids for Undergraduate Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Richard A.; And Others

    Engineering is coming to rely more and more heavily upon the computer for computations, analyses, and graphic displays which aid the design process. A general purpose simulation system, the Time-shared Automatic Control Laboratory (TACL), and a set of computer-aided design programs, Control Oriented Interactive Graphic Analysis and Design…

  4. Intelligent Image Based Computer Aided Education (IICAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Amos A.; Thiery, Odile; Crehange, Marion

    1989-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) has found its way into Computer Aided Education (CAE), and there are several systems constructed to put in evidence its interesting advantages. We believe that images (graphic or real) play an important role in learning. However, the use of images, outside their use as illustration, makes it necessary to have applications such as AI. We shall develop the application of AI in an image based CAE and briefly present the system under construction to put in evidence our concept. We shall also elaborate a methodology for constructing such a system. Futhermore we shall briefly present the pedagogical and psychological activities in a learning process. Under the pedagogical and psychological aspect of learning, we shall develop areas such as the importance of image in learning both as pedagogical objects as well as means for obtaining psychological information about the learner. We shall develop the learner's model, its use, what to build into it and how. Under the application of AI in an image based CAE, we shall develop the importance of AI in exploiting the knowledge base in the learning environment and its application as a means of implementing pedagogical strategies.

  5. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  6. A Model for Intelligent Computer-Aided Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Johan P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a model for intelligent computer-aided education systems that is based on cooperative learning, constructive problem-solving, object-oriented programming, interactive user interfaces, and expert system techniques. Future research is discussed, and a prototype for teaching mathematics to 10- to 12-year-old students is appended. (LRW)

  7. Computer Aided Evaluation of Higher Education Tutors' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xenos, Michalis; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a method for computer-aided tutor evaluation: Bayesian Networks are used for organizing the collected data about tutors and for enabling accurate estimations and predictions about future tutor behavior. The model provides indications about each tutor's strengths and weaknesses, which enables the evaluator to exploit strengths…

  8. Computer-Aided Drafting. Education for Technology Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Dept. of Technology.

    This computer-aided drafting (CAD) curriculum was developed to provide drafting instructors in Illinois with a useful guide for relating an important new technological advance to the vocational classroom. The competency-based learning activity guides are written to be used with any CAD system being used at the secondary and postsecondary levels.…

  9. Enhancing Engineering Computer-Aided Design Education Using Lectures Recorded on the PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, Roy T. R.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) is a course that is required during the third year in the mechanical engineering curriculum at Binghamton University. The primary objective of the course is to educate students in the procedures of computer-aided engineering design. The solid modeling and analysis program Pro/Engineer[TM] (PTC[R]) is used as the…

  10. Development of a Computer-Aided Evaluation System for Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Tim L.; Roegge, Chris A.

    1989-01-01

    The computer-aided self-evaluation system for vocational education programs involves three stages: vital sign assessment, in-depth analysis, and program improvement planning. The six vital signs that give an overall picture of program quality are placement/continuing education, enrollment, employer satisfaction, student satisfaction, employability…

  11. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The study, "Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction," examined whether the "I CAN Learn"[R] computer-based curriculum is more effective than traditional classroom instruction at teaching pre-algebra and algebra concepts to middle- and high-school students. The study included about 1,600 students in 15 high schools…

  12. Computer Instructional Aids for Undergraduate Control Education. 1978 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Richard A.; And Others

    This work represents the development of computer tools for undergraduate students. Emphasis is on automatic control theory using hybrid and digital computation. The routine calculations of control system analysis are presented as students would use them on the University of Michigan's central digital computer and the time-shared graphic terminals…

  13. Experiments Using Cell Phones in Physics Classroom Education: The Computer-Aided "g" Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen; Muller, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues the collection of experiments that describe the use of cell phones as experimental tools in physics classroom education. We describe a computer-aided determination of the free-fall acceleration "g" using the acoustical Doppler effect. The Doppler shift is a function of the speed of the source. Since a free-falling objects…

  14. Computer Aided Drafting Packages for Secondary Education. Edition 1. Apple II and Macintosh. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim

    This report reviews software packages for Apple Macintosh and Apple II computers available to secondary schools to teach computer-aided drafting (CAD). Products for the report were gathered through reviews of CAD periodicals, computers in education periodicals, advertisements, and teacher recommendations. The first section lists the primary…

  15. Computer-Aided Engineering Education at the K.U. Leuven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoeys, R.; Gobin, R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some recent initiatives and developments in the computer-aided design program in the engineering faculty of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). Provides a survey of the engineering curriculum, the computer facilities, and the main software packages available. (TW)

  16. Computer Aided Drafting Packages for Secondary Education. Edition 2. PC DOS Compatible Programs. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim

    This report reviews eight IBM-compatible software packages that are available to secondary schools to teach computer-aided drafting (CAD). Software packages to be considered were selected following reviews of CAD periodicals, computers in education periodicals, advertisements, and recommendations of teachers. The packages were then rated by…

  17. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In…

  18. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  19. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  20. Experiments Using Cell Phones in Physics Classroom Education: The Computer-Aided g Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen; Müller, Sebastian

    2011-09-01

    This paper continues the collection of experiments that describe the use of cell phones as experimental tools in physics classroom education.1-4 We describe a computer-aided determination of the free-fall acceleration g using the acoustical Doppler effect. The Doppler shift is a function of the speed of the source. Since a free-falling objects speed is changing linearly with time, the Doppler shift is also changing with time. It is possible to measure this shift using software that is both easy to use and readily available. Students will use the time-dependency of the Doppler shift to experimentally determine the acceleration due to gravity by using a cell phone as a freely falling object emitting a sound with constant frequency.

  1. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  2. Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction. NBER Working Paper No. 14240

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lisa; Markman, Lisa; Rouse, Cecilia E.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from a randomized study of a well-defined use of computers in schools: a popular instructional computer program for pre-algebra and algebra. We assess the program using a test designed to target pre-algebra and algebra skills. Students randomly assigned to computer-aided instruction score 0.17 of a standard deviation higher on…

  3. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  4. Assessment of the Effectiveness of the Educational Environment Supported by Computer Aided Presentations at Primary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Erdogan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of the educational environment supported by computer aided presentations at primary school. The effectiveness of the environment has been evaluated in terms of students' learning and remembering what they have learnt. In the study, we have compared experimental group and control group in…

  5. Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Graham

    This report discusses the impact of and presents guidelines for developing a computer-aided instructional (CAI) system. The first section discusses CAI in terms of the need for the countries of Asia to increase their economic self-sufficiency. The second section examines various theories on the nature of learning with special attention to the role…

  6. Utilizing computerized entertainment education in the development of decision aids for lower literate and naïve computer users.

    PubMed

    Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Volk, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Decision aids have been developed by using various delivery methods, including interactive computer programs. Such programs, however, still rely heavily on written information, health and digital literacy, and reading ease. We describe an approach to overcome these potential barriers for low-literate, underserved populations by making design considerations for poor readers and naïve computer users and by using concepts from entertainment education to engage the user and to contextualize the content for the user. The system design goals are to make the program both didactic and entertaining and the navigation and graphical user interface as simple as possible. One entertainment education strategy, the soap opera, is linked seamlessly to interactive learning modules to enhance the content of the soap opera episodes. The edutainment decision aid model (EDAM) guides developers through the design process. Although designing patient decision aids that are educational, entertaining, and targeted toward poor readers and those with limited computer skills is a complex task, it is a promising strategy for aiding this population. Entertainment education may be a highly effective approach to promoting informed decision making for patients with low health literacy. PMID:17934944

  7. Evaluation of Sports Trainers Perceptions on Computer Aided Education Related to the Attitudes toward Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murathan, Talha; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Technologic developments have--the same as they have done it in every sector--influenced the education system. These influences have forced to use the computer in the education-training applications within the education system. The aim of this research is to determine, compare, and examine the influences on the conduct for learning of sport…

  8. Computer aided manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  9. Prerequisites for Computer-Aided Cognitive Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Colette

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation for mentally deficient persons. It lists motor, cognitive, emotional, and educational prerequisites to such rehabilitation and states advantages and disadvantages in using the prerequisites. (JDD)

  10. Computer Aided Engineering Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Anupam; Sahay, Birendra

    This book amalgamates geometric modelling, analysis and optimization, the three important aspects in Computer Aided Engineering Design. While the three subjects are well developed by themselves, a detailed discussion on engineering visualization (transformations and projections) and mathematical background of free form, parametric and piecewise design of curves and surfaces is provided. A topological basis is given when discussing wireframe, boundary representation and constructive solid geometry as solid modelling techniques. http://www.springeronline.com/alert/article?a=3D1_1fva7w_9hjul_18j_6

  11. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  12. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  13. Computer-Aided Instruction in Education Basics for Indian Students. Proceedings of the Indian Education Conference (Orem, Utah, June 28-30, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.; Sawyer, T. E.

    A 3-phase project to adapt, develop, and evaluate computer-aided instructional materials in elementary education basics (specifically word recognition, reading comprehension, and mathematics) for Alaska Native and American Indian students included in its design and planning phase a conference with project staff and six nationally recognized…

  14. Intelligent computer aided training systems in the real world: Making the technology accessible to the educational mainstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.

  15. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  16. The Impact of Numerical Control Technology and Computer Aided Manufacturing on Curriculum Development in Industrial Education and Technology. A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Klaus Dieter

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of Numerical Control Technology and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (NC/CAM) in American industry on industrial education and engineering technology education. The specific purpose was to identify a data base and rationale for curriculum development in NC/CAM through a comparison of views by…

  17. Computer aided inspection qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, D.; McNab, A.; Potts, A.; Toft, M.; McDonald, J.

    2002-05-01

    Inspection Qualification under the ENIQ methodology uses a Technical Justification as a key element in assuring the performance of the inspection. It combines a mixture of physical reasoning and modeling linked to limited experimental trial data from identified worst-case defects, but the qualification process is costly and time-consuming. This paper describes an investigation into providing an integrated set of intelligent software tools to aid the process of inspection qualification.

  18. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In this study, domain ontology about the field of lead-lag compensator design has been built and used for automatic exercise generation, graphical user interface population and interaction with the user at any level of detail, including explanations about why things occur. An application called Onto-CELE (ontology-based control engineering learning environment) uses the ontology for implementing a learning environment that can be used for self and lifelong learning purposes. The experience has shown that the use of knowledge models as the basis for educational software applications is capable of showing students the whole complexity of the analysis and design processes at any level of detail. A practical experience with postgraduate students has shown the mentioned benefits and possibilities of the approach.

  19. Computer-aided drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Computational approaches are an integral part of interdisciplinary drug discovery research. Understanding the science behind computational tools, their opportunities, and limitations is essential to make a true impact on drug discovery at different levels. If applied in a scientifically meaningful way, computational methods improve the ability to identify and evaluate potential drug molecules, but there remain weaknesses in the methods that preclude naïve applications. Herein, current trends in computer-aided drug discovery are reviewed, and selected computational areas are discussed. Approaches are highlighted that aid in the identification and optimization of new drug candidates. Emphasis is put on the presentation and discussion of computational concepts and methods, rather than case studies or application examples. As such, this contribution aims to provide an overview of the current methodological spectrum of computational drug discovery for a broad audience. PMID:26949519

  20. Computer-Aided Design (CAD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the field of computer-aided design, which combines the skills and creativity of the architect, designer, drafter, and engineer with the power of the computer. Reports on job tasks, applications, background of the field, job outlook, and necessary training. (CH)

  1. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  2. AIDS Awareness in Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Lyndall L.

    1994-01-01

    Survey responses from 88 of 293 industrial technology education department heads found that 68% could not identify courses in which acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is covered; 52% were not aware of AIDS-related activities on their campuses; and 48% had AIDS education programs at their institutions. (SK)

  3. The Potential Impact of Computer-Aided Assessment Technology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshibalo, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Distance learning generally separates students from educators, and demands that interventions be put in place to counter the constraints that this distance poses to learners and educators. Furthermore "Increased number of students in Higher Education and the corresponding increase in time spent by staff on assessment has encouraged interest into…

  4. AIDS Education for the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Jeffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    Sun Life in Wellesley, Massachusetts, has an ongoing education program about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that provides employees with facts and works to change attitudes about the implications of AIDS for the workplace. (SK)

  5. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  6. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1991-04-02

    Modern computing resources permit the generation of large amounts of numerical data. These large data sets, if left in numerical form, can be overwhelming. Such large data sets are usually discrete points from some underlying physical phenomenon. Because we need to evaluate the phenomenon at places where we don't have data, a continuous representation (a surface'') is required. A simple example is a weather map obtained from a discrete set of weather stations. (For more examples including multi-dimensional ones, see the article by Dr. Rosemary Chang in the enclosed IRIS Universe). In order to create a scientific structure encompassing the data, we construct an interpolating mathematical surface which can evaluate at arbitrary locations. We can also display and analyze the results via interactive computer graphics. In our research we construct a very wide variety of surfaces for applied geometry problems that have sound theoretical foundations. However, our surfaces have the distinguishing feature that they are constructed to solve short or long term practical problems. This DOE-funded project has developed the premiere research team in the subject of constructing surfaces (3D and higher dimensional) that provide smooth representations of real scientific and engineering information, including state of the art computer graphics visualizations. However, our main contribution is in the development of fundamental constructive mathematical methods and visualization techniques which can be incorporated into a wide variety of applications. This project combines constructive mathematics, algorithms, and computer graphics, all applied to real problems. The project is a unique resource, considered by our peers to be a de facto national center for this type of research.

  7. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: An Effective and Economical Method for Short- and Long-Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Kinsner, W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a computer program based on Keller's Personalized System of Instruction that has been used for on-campus and off-campus teaching by the University of Manitoba. Highlights include electronic mail, student attitudes and roles, costs, suggestions for future research, and examples from computer-aided personalized system of instruction…

  8. Computer aided airship design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Rosenstein, H.

    1975-01-01

    The Comprehensive Airship Sizing and Performance Computer Program (CASCOMP) is described which was developed and used in the design and evaluation of advanced lighter-than-air (LTA) craft. The program defines design details such as engine size and number, component weight buildups, required power, and the physical dimensions of airships which are designed to meet specified mission requirements. The program is used in a comparative parametric evaluation of six advanced lighter-than-air concepts. The results indicate that fully buoyant conventional airships have the lightest gross lift required when designed for speeds less than 100 knots and the partially buoyant concepts are superior above 100 knots. When compared on the basis of specific productivity, which is a measure of the direct operating cost, the partially buoyant lifting body/tilting prop-rotor concept is optimum.

  9. Computer Aided Drafting. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michael A.

    This guide is intended for use in introducing students to the operation and applications of computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: understanding CAD (CAD versus traditional manual drafting and care of software and hardware); using the components of a CAD system (primary and other input…

  10. Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, S. J.; Stiffler, J. J.; Bryant, L. A.; Petersen, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    CARE III (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation, Third Generation) helps estimate reliability of complex, redundant, fault-tolerant systems. Program specifically designed for evaluation of fault-tolerant avionics systems. However, CARE III general enough for use in evaluation of other systems as well.

  11. Computer-Aided Geometry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler); Fulton, R. E. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques in computer-aided geometry modeling and their application are addressed. Mathematical modeling, solid geometry models, management of geometric data, development of geometry standards, and interactive and graphic procedures are discussed. The applications include aeronautical and aerospace structures design, fluid flow modeling, and gas turbine design.

  12. Boolean Logic: An Aid for Searching Computer Databases in Special Education and Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Edward G.

    1989-01-01

    The article discusses using Boolean logic as a tool for searching computerized information retrieval systems in special education and rehabilitation technology. It includes discussion of the Boolean search operators AND, OR, and NOT; Venn diagrams; and disambiguating parentheses. Six suggestions are offered for development of good Boolean logic…

  13. Usage of Thin-Client/Server Architecture in Computer Aided Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimen, Caghan; Kavurucu, Yusuf; Aydin, Halit

    2014-01-01

    With the advances of technology, thin-client/server architecture has become popular in multi-user/single network environments. Thin-client is a user terminal in which the user can login to a domain and run programs by connecting to a remote server. Recent developments in network and hardware technologies (cloud computing, virtualization, etc.)…

  14. Incorporating Partial Credit in Computer-Aided Assessment of Mathematics in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Helen S.; Beevers, Cliff E.; Korabinski, Athol A.; Youngson, Martin A.

    2006-01-01

    In a mathematical examination on paper, partial credit is normally awarded for an answer that is not correct, but, nevertheless, contains some of the correct working. Assessment on computer normally marks an incorrect answer wrong and awards no marks. This can lead to discrepancies between marks awarded for the same examination given in the two…

  15. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  16. Computer-aided drug designing.

    PubMed

    Gore, Mohini; Desai, Neetin S

    2014-01-01

    Computer-aided drug designing has emerged as a cost-effective and rapid tool for the discovery of newer therapeutic agents. Several algorithms have been developed to analyze protein structure and function, to identify interacting ligands, active site residues, and to study protein-ligand interactions, which can eventually lead to the identification of new drugs. In silico drug designing involves identification of the target protein which is responsible for the development of the disease under study. The three-dimensional structure of the protein can be predicted using homology modeling, while molecular docking is applied to study the interaction of a drug molecule with the protein. The best orientation of the ligand-protein docked structure which has overall minimum energy needs to be obtained. In silico methods can be used to identify potential drugs for various diseases. Thus, computer-aided drug designing has become an indispensible and integral part of the drug discovery process. PMID:24870144

  17. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  18. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  19. Publishing Trends in Educational Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hair, Marilyn; Johnson, D. LaMont

    1989-01-01

    Describes results of a survey of secondary school and college teachers that was conducted to determine subject matter that should be included in educational computing journals. Areas of interest included computer applications; artificial intelligence; computer-aided instruction; computer literacy; computer-managed instruction; databases; distance…

  20. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Significant Risks Remain to Department of Education's Student Financial Aid Systems. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemssen, Joel C.

    This testimony discusses the risks faced by the U.S. Department of Education due to the year 2000 (Y2K) computing crisis, focusing on student financial aid systems, the actions the Department has taken in recent months to address these risks, and the key issues the Department must deal with if its computer systems are to be ready for the century…

  1. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  2. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

  3. Computer-aided lens assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, Richard; Alcock, Rob; Petzing, Jon; Coupland, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    We propose a computer-aided method of lens manufacture that allows assembly, adjustment, and test phases to be run concurrently until an acceptable level of optical performance is reached. Misalignment of elements within a compound lens is determined by a comparison of the results of physical ray tracing by use of an array of Gaussian laser beams with numerically obtained geometric ray traces. An estimate of misalignment errors is made, and individual elements are adjusted in an iterative manner until performance criteria are achieved. The method is illustrated for the alignment of an air-spaced doublet.

  4. Computer-Aided Remote Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1994-01-01

    System for remote control of robotic land vehicle requires only small radio-communication bandwidth. Twin video cameras on vehicle create stereoscopic images. Operator views cross-polarized images on two cathode-ray tubes through correspondingly polarized spectacles. By use of cursor on frozen image, remote operator designates path. Vehicle proceeds to follow path, by use of limited degree of autonomous control to cope with unexpected conditions. System concept, called "computer-aided remote driving" (CARD), potentially useful in exploration of other planets, military surveillance, firefighting, and clean-up of hazardous materials.

  5. Computer aided coordinate measuring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastri, J. W.

    Sikorsky's computer-aided inspection system and equipment utilized to assure that manufactured parts meet drawing tolerance specifications are discussed. An overview of the system is given, and the software is described, including the monitor console routine and commands and the language commands. The system's three coordinate measuring machines are discussed, and the part inspection methods are described in stepwise fashion. System benefits and time savings items are detailed, including quick and accurate measurement of parts difficult to inspect by conventional methods, significant reduction in inspection time, a consistent baseline that highlights variances, and the use of personnel with lower skill levels to effectively inspect critical parts.

  6. Computer Aided Drafting Workshop. Workshop Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, David L.

    This mini-course and article are presentations from a workshop on computer-aided drafting. The purpose of the mini-course is to assist drafting instructors in updating their occupational knowledge to include computer-aided drafting (CAD). Topics covered in the course include general computer information, the computer in drafting, CAD terminology,…

  7. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  8. Construction computer-aided engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Yoshinaga, T.; Atkins, D.; Astleford, R.

    1987-01-01

    Hitachi Ltd. and Bechtel Power Corporation are presently designing nuclear power plants for Japanese utilities exclusively on three-dimensional computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems. To make these three-dimensional CADD models more effective for construction activities, Hitachi and Bechtel are jointly developing a software package that allows construction engineers and planners to effectively empty an area of the three-dimensional CADD model and rebuild it electronically to simulate, animate, and optimize the construction sequence and methodology. The components in the three-dimensional CADD model are placed as they would be for actual construction (i.e., piping spool pieces, skid-mounted systems, piping, and equipment modules, etc.). The construction engineer and planners can then select the components along with appropriate handling equipment and simulate/animate the actual construction sequence. After the construction sequence has been optimized, it is captured on videotape for use in the field. The results of the simulated activities are then passed on to computer program module (CPM) scheduling and work breakdown structure programs for accurate bottom-up construction activity planning and commodity tracking. This entire process can be iterated to an optimum solution before the actual construction begins. Once construction is in progress, the program can compare the actual status and allow resimulations for workarounds.

  9. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  10. A Controlled Pre-Post Evaluation of a Computer-based HIV/AIDS Education on Students' Sexual Behaviors, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Musiimenta, Angella

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traditional approaches to sexuality and HIV education which can be constrained by the sensitive nature of the subject, Information Technology (IT) can be an innovative teaching tool that can be used to educate people about HIV. This is especially relevant to interventions targeting young people; the population group fond of using IT, and the same group that is more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Yet, there are significantly few empirical studies that rigorously evaluated computer-assisted school-based HIV/AIDS interventions in developing countries. The modest studies conducted in this area have largely been conducted in developed countries, leaving little known about the effectiveness of such interventions in low resource settings, which moreover host the majority of HIV/AIDS infections. This research addresses this gap by conducting a controlled pre-post intervention evaluation of the impacts of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a computer-assisted HIV/AIDS intervention implemented in schools in Uganda. The research question was: did the WSWM intervention significantly influence students' sexual behaviors, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy? To address this question, questionnaires were simultaneously administering to 146 students in an intervention group (the group receiving the WSWM intervention) and 146 students in a comparison group (the group who did not receive the WSWM intervention), before (February 2009) and after the intervention (December 2009). Findings indicate that the intervention significantly improved students' HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes self-efficacy, sex abstinence and fidelity, but had no significant impact on condom use. The major reason for non-use of condoms was lack of knowledge about condom use which can be attributed to teachers' failure and inabilities to demonstrate condom use in class. To address this challenge, intervention teachers should be continuously trained in skills-based and interactive sexuality education. This

  11. California Department of Education and California Community College Chancellor's Office Vocational and Technical Education Computer-Managed and Aided Instruction Project: Project Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This description of the Computer-Managed and Aided Instruction (CMAI) Project includes a summary of a December 1989 CMAI planning meeting, the text of a paper presented at the meeting, and descriptions of each of the five phases of the project. The paper, "Programming the Future," by Gerald C. Angove and Scott Smith, discusses: (1) the…

  12. Risk Communication about AIDS in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of education as the primary response of higher education to the epidemic associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Focuses on the personal, social and institutional issues that bear on AIDS education on college campuses and the important features of AIDS education programs. (TW)

  13. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were paper, but…

  14. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  15. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  16. Literature Searches: Audio-Visual Aids and Computer Assisted and Programmed Instruction In: Medical Education, Nursing Education, Allied Health Occupation Education, and Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Geraldine D.

    Four computer-generated bibliographies were produced by the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The bibliographies, prepared on the basis of selections of significant current interest of the subject matter for substantial audience, covered subsets of the general topic area of…

  17. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  18. Purchasing Computer-Aided Design Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Roger A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a model for the purchase of computer-aided design (CAD) software: collect general information, observe CAD in use, arrange onsite demonstrations, select CAD software and hardware, and choose a vendor. (JOW)

  19. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  20. Integrated Computer-Aided Drafting Instruction (ICADI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C. Y.; McCampbell, David H.

    Until recently, computer-aided drafting and design (CAD) systems were almost exclusively operated on mainframes or minicomputers and their cost prohibited many schools from offering CAD instruction. Today, many powerful personal computers are capable of performing the high-speed calculation and analysis required by the CAD application; however,…

  1. Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.

  2. Computer-Aided Instruction and Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Dieter

    1990-01-01

    Investigates effect of computer-aided instruction (CAI) on acquisition of communication skills. Sketches a tutorial of the basic communication structure. Recommends confining CAI to cognitive learning because CAI cannot advance communication skills. Maintains that integrating CAI in social arrangements will allow the computer to remain an…

  3. Photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design

    SciTech Connect

    Keneflick, J.F.; Chirillo, R.D.

    1985-02-18

    Three-dimensional measurements taken from photographs of a plant model can be digitized and linked with computer-aided piping design. This can short-cut the design and construction of new plants and expedite repair and retrofitting projects. Some designers bridge the gap between model and computer by digitizing from orthographic prints obtained via orthography or the laser scanning of model sections. Such valve or fitting then processed is described in this paper. The marriage of photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design can economically produce such numerical drawings.

  4. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  5. Educating Students about HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Phyllis

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) issue presents two opportunities for feminist educators: providing basic information on AIDS and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and analyzing societal responses to AIDS in terms of a feminist perspective. Provides three classroom exercises designed to explore student attitudes…

  6. State Aid for Undergraduates in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John B.; Clery, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines differences among undergraduates who attended postsecondary education in states that provide different levels of state student financial aid. Describes aid types and sources, the price of college attendance, and personal characteristics of students. Also considers undergraduates' probability of attending institutions in high-aid or…

  7. Computer aided evaluation of phonetograms.

    PubMed

    Klingholz, F

    1992-03-01

    The phonetogram represents an area limited by piano and forte contours of the sound pressure levels along the vocal range. Phonetograms are used in the diagnosis of voice status. Apart from reference phonetograms and the extraction of single parameters, phonetograms have not been evaluated quantitatively in medical practice. The present computer program divided the phonetogram into subareas which were approximated by simple patterns (ellipses). The ellipse parameters were used to evaluate voice efficiency, to recognize voice categories, and to derive diagnostic comments. PMID:1643854

  8. Education for Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslep, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The computer engineers who refer to the education of computers do not have a definite idea of education and do not bother to justify the fuzzy ones to which they allude. Hence, they logically cannot specify the features a computer must have in order to be educable. This paper puts forth a non-standard, but not arbitrary, concept of education that…

  9. Computer Technology and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Joy

    1981-01-01

    Examines educational tasks in general computing, including computer-assisted instruction, computer-managed instruction, word processing, secretarial and business applications, time sharing, and networking to larger computers. (CT)

  10. Aid Effectiveness in Education: Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermingham, Desmond; Christensen, Olav Rex; Mahn, Timo Casjen

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the special issue of "Prospects" on "Aid effectiveness in education". It brings together case studies of attempts in several very different contexts to improve the effectiveness of the use of aid in the education sector. By drawing on the historical evolution of the new paradigm over the last 20 years, the authors make the…

  11. Computer Aids Delineation Of Boundaries In Farmlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slyle, R.; Cheng, T.; Ma, M.; Angelici, G.

    1992-01-01

    Computer-aided stratification (CAS) procedure developmental procedure of image-processing computer equipment and programs partly automating delineation of boundaries between areas. These areas, "primary sampling units", are images of primarily agricultural lands composed by melding digital Landsat Thematic Mapper data and Digital Line Graph data from United States Geological Survey. CAS output data used as inputs for subsequent sampling procedures from which statistics on uses of agricultural lands developed.

  12. Continuity of computer-aided drafting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, L.D.

    1987-09-01

    The operating performance, operating procedures, and equipment added are discussed for the Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) operation at UNC Nuclear Industries before consolidation of operating contracts at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities located at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington.

  13. Teaching Computer Aided Architectural Design at UCLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, William J.

    This brief overview includes a rationale for the program and describes course goals and objectives, curriculum content, teaching methods and materials, staffing, and problems of integrating computer aided design with traditional architectural curricula at the School of Architecture and Urban Planning at UCLA. A list of texts for use in teaching…

  14. Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics: Software Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yushau, B.; Bokhari, M. A.; Wessels, D. C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics (CALM) has been in use for some time in the Prep-Year Mathematics Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Different kinds of software (both locally designed and imported) have been used in the quest of optimizing the recitation/problem session hour of the mathematics classes. This paper…

  15. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF DIFFUSED AERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CADDAS (Computer Aided Design of Diffused Aeration Systems) is a microcomputer-based program that analyzes the cost and performance of diffused aeration used in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. The program can analyze both coarse bubble and fine pore diffusers as we...

  16. Scaled Ellipses For Computer-Aided Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schembri, Anthony J.

    1990-01-01

    An addition to CAD-PACK, computer-aided design program, speeds preparation of iosmetric drawings, particularly cutaway views showing bores and threads. Consists of set of 50 scaled ellipses on detail pages of program. Designer selects ellipse, rotates it, and draws feature. Then erases reference lines on video screen.

  17. Experiments in Computer-Aided Inductive Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, J.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    This research is concerned with human problem-solving behavior that involves inductive reasoning or concept formation when that behavior is being assisted by certain computer and display aids (called symbol manipulation functions). Human subjects use a variety of systematic operations when they are solving such problems. In order to analyze…

  18. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  19. Audio-Visual Aids and Computer Assisted and Programmed Instruction in Dental Education. (Updates Literature Search 72-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Geraldine D.

    National Library of Medicine (NLM) Literature Searches are selected computer-generated bibliographies produced by the Library's Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS). Selection is made on the basis of a significant current interest of the subject matter to a substantial audience of health professionals. Each Literature Search…

  20. Audio-Visual Aids and Computer Assisted and Programmed Instruction in Medical Education. (Updates Literature Search No. 72-10).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Geraldine D.

    National Library of Medicine (NLM) Literature Searches are selected computer-generated bibliographies produced by the Library's Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS). Selection is made on the basis of a significant current interest of the subject matter to a substantial audience of health professionals. Each Literature Search…

  1. AIDS education video: Karate Kids.

    PubMed

    Lowry, C

    1993-01-01

    Street Kids International, in cooperation with the World Health Organization and the National Film Board of Canada, has developed an animated action-adventure video, "Karate Kids," as part of a cross-cultural program of health education that concerns human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and targets street children in developing countries. Simple, but explicit, information is delivered during the 22-minute cartoon; the package also includes a training book for educators, and a pocket comic book. Distributed in 17 languages (it is readily adapted to new language versions, independent of the original producers) in over 100 countries, the video is shown in community theaters, hospitals, schools, and prisons, and out of the backs of trucks. It is easily copied, which is encouraged. After 3 years in distribution, field evaluation has demonstrated that the greatest strength of the video is its ability to stimulate discussion where no discussion was taking place before. Critics include those who believe there is no need for it and those who feel it should be used alone. The results of one evaluation study showed use of the video alone was insufficient; those of a cross-cultural participatory evaluation survey indicated a significant impact on knowledge and attitudes when the video was followed by discussion. Another significant aspect of the project is that it treats street children with respect; they are actors, not victims, who have legitimate needs and rights. They become visible in a world that is often unaware of them. PMID:12179317

  2. The Educator's Guide to Computer Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlabay, Les R.

    1982-01-01

    This annotated directory of periodicals on computers and computer-related topics is divided into three sections: (1) seven major periodicals designed specifically for teachers who wish to use computers as a classroom aid; (2) 12 general-interest computer periodicals for educators; and (3) 15 additional periodicals for specialized interest. (JL)

  3. Educational Aids for Visually Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY.

    Listings specifying source and cost are provided of tactile aids and materials designed for the visually handicapped. Items are presented in the following categories: supply sources and catalogs for aids; braille devices, including duplicators, reading and writing aids, reading readiness materials, and writing machines, slates, and styluses; deaf…

  4. Computer-Aided Light Sheet Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images, along with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. A description is provided of the photogrammetric reconstruction technique, and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment. Results of the computer aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images and CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  5. Computer-Aided Drafting and Design Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry, Course Syllabi, [and] Instructor's Handbook. Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and a student laboratory manual for a 2-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level employment in computer-aided drafting and design in the machine tool industry. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum)…

  6. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 1: Communication Aids. Rehab/Education Technology ResourceBook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Sara A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    One of a series of three resource guides concerned with communication, control, and computer access for disabled and elderly individuals, the directory focuses on communication aids. The book's six chapters each cover products with the same primary function. Cross reference indexes allow access to listings of products by function, input/output…

  7. Computer-Aided-Instruction (user/CSO computer security training)

    SciTech Connect

    Twyman, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses a Computer-Aided-Instruction (CAI) course that has been implemented at Rocky Flats. Trying to train 2000 computer users and Computer Security Officers (CSO) has been a real dilemma at Rocky Flats. In order to resolve this problem, our Training Department implemented a CAI training course on Computer Security. Presently, we are training approximately 100 users/CSOs per month, and soon these numbers should increase. The duration of the User course is about an hour and the CSO's is about an hour and a half. CAI is being used on the unclassified VAX computer system in conjunction with IBM PC XTs.

  8. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  9. Computer aided nonlinear electrical networks analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slapnicar, P.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques used in simulating an electrical circuit with nonlinear elements for use in computer-aided circuit analysis programs are described. Elements of the circuit include capacitors, resistors, inductors, transistors, diodes, and voltage and current sources (constant or time varying). Simulation features are discussed for dc, ac, and/or transient circuit analysis. Calculations are based on the model approach of formulating the circuit equations. A particular solution of transient analysis for nonlinear storage elements is described.

  10. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  11. Interfacing Computer Aided Parallelization and Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    When porting sequential applications to parallel computer architectures, the program developer will typically go through several cycles of source code optimization and performance analysis. We have started a project to develop an environment where the user can jointly navigate through program structure and performance data information in order to make efficient optimization decisions. In a prototype implementation we have interfaced the CAPO computer aided parallelization tool with the Paraver performance analysis tool. We describe both tools and their interface and give an example for how the interface helps within the program development cycle of a benchmark code.

  12. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  13. HIV/AIDS/STD. Education for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Jane Ruthven, Ed.

    The contents of this booklet come from contributions to the 1995 Global Conference on School Health and HIV/AIDS Prevention. The objectives of the booklet are: (1) to strengthen the awareness of teachers and education personnel regarding the importance of developing school health and HIV/AIDS prevention curricula; (2) to show the specific roles of…

  14. Developmentally-Based AIDS/HIV Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mary E.; Bibace, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Presents a developmental approach to educating school-age children about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV). The paper describes, for three age groups, general characteristics of children's thought processes, ways in which they assimilate information about aspects of AIDS, and implications for educating…

  15. The AIDS Challenge: Prevention Education for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia, Ed.; And Others

    This book on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education was developed by national and international experts to aid educators, professionals, parents, and youth leaders in developing and implementing AIDS education programs. Included are: (1) "Living with AIDS" (Jack Martin Balcer); (2) "The AIDS Epidemic: Problems in Limiting Its Impact"…

  16. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  17. Computer Education: Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Anne

    Designed to assist teachers who are not familiar with computer applications in elementary education, this guide provides information on personal skill development, computer terminology, software organization and evaluation, and troubleshooting. A tentative set of computer education objectives is outlined, and examples and strategies for effective…

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis of genodermatoses.

    PubMed

    Aksungur, Varol Lütfü; Marakli, Selma Sönmezoğlu; Akman, Ayşe; Homan, Seydo

    2004-02-01

    Genodermatoses are not usually easily diagnosed by inexperienced physicians. We developed a computer program to aid their clinical diagnoses and compared its accuracy rate to those of five residents in dermatology. The database of the program contained the clinical findings of 100 genodermatoses. Findings related to the skin, its appendages, mucous membranes and physiognomy were recorded in detail; but the involvements of other organs, only as headings. Twenty test cases were prepared from previously published reports. Their clinical findings were evaluated both by the program and five residents, who were at the end of the third year of their training in dermatology. The program gave the correct diagnosis in all of the test cases, but the residents failed to do so in one to seven cases. The high accuracy rate of the program suggests that it can aid inexperienced physicians in their clinical diagnosis of genodermatoses. PMID:15160860

  19. Multiculturalism and AIDS: different communities mean different educational messages required

    PubMed Central

    Lechky, O

    1997-01-01

    Having a multitude of different ethnic communities forces Canada's AIDS educators to use many different methods to deliver their messages. These range from an AIDS bingo game that has been used to educate natives in northern Manitoba to attempts to take AIDS education to the streets of Toronto. With AIDS education, reports Olga Lechky, one message definitely does not fit all. PMID:9164407

  20. Computer-aided forensic facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Evenhouse, R; Rasmussen, M; Sadler, L

    1992-01-01

    The reconstruction of facial features on the human skull for identification purposes has, in the past, utilized either two-dimensional drafting or three-dimensional sculpting techniques. We have developed two- and three-dimensional computer-aided routines to minimize errors introduced by limits of artistic ability or by inconsistencies in the application of techniques. These routines allow generalized facial features to be manipulated to conform to the size and shape of a specific skull. Subtle alterations of the surface form, texture, and color, based on age, sex, and race, enhance the individuality of the generated facial form. PMID:1624477

  1. Survey of Intelligent Computer-Aided Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems integrate artificial intelligence and simulation technologies to deliver training for complex, procedural tasks in a distributed, workstation-based environment. Such systems embody both the knowledge of how to perform a task and how to train someone to perform that task. This paper briefly reviews the antecedents of ICAT systems and describes the approach to their creation developed at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. In addition to the general ICAT architecture, specific ICAT applications that have been or are currently under development are discussed. ICAT systems can offer effective solutions to a number of training problems of interest to the aerospace community.

  2. Computer Innovations in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Andrew R.

    Computers in education are put in context by a brief review of current social and technological trends, a short history of the development of computers and the vast expansion of their use, and a brief description of computers and their use. Further chapters describe instructional applications, administrative uses, uses of computers for libraries…

  3. Level of Education, Sexual Promiscuity, and AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Catherine D.

    1994-01-01

    Responses of 595 unmarried persons on the 1991 General Social Survey suggest that educational attainment indirectly increases promiscuous sexual behavior by liberalizing sexual attitudes. In a second study, the incidence of AIDS was partly explained by educational attainment, liberal sexual attitudes, and promiscuous sexual practices. (KS)

  4. Open File: New Modalities for Educational Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Lene, Ed.; Epskamp, Kees, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal focuses on comparative education and has four major sections. The "Viewpoint/Controversy" section contains one article: "Is the Globalization of the Economy Creating Values for a New Civilization?" (Koichiro Matsuura). The "Open File: Rethinking Educational Aid" section contains the following articles: "From Project to Programme to…

  5. Computer Aided Design in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duelm, Brian Lee

    Estimates calling for 1.2 million computer-assisted design (CAD) operator positions to be available by 1990 have prompted educational institutions throughout the country to incorporate instruction in CAD into their industrial arts curricula. Therefore, the question for schools is not whether to buy but rather what to buy. An effective strategy for…

  6. Education to meet the challenge of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Walton, R A; Rukeyser, J; Mastroianni, P; Doyle, S; Hunter, A; Mautner, B; Whitaker, P

    1989-01-01

    Studies of health care providers' attitudes have revealed that many have misconceptions and fears about AIDS and possess negative attitudes about caring for people with the disease. Merely transmitting the basic facts about AIDS is insufficient to prepare health care workers to deal with AIDS patients. This article discusses the need for continuing education for health care professionals and educators and offers a model for the development of educational programs. The model is being developed in the School of Allied Health Professions, State University of New York at Stony Brook. Principles of "andragogy"--involvement of both the learner and the educator in identifying students' needs, planning learning experiences, and ongoing evaluation of the learning process--are discussed. PMID:10294008

  7. Using Computers in Fluids Engineering Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    Three approaches for using computers to improve basic fluids engineering education are presented. The use of computational fluid dynamics solutions to fundamental flow problems is discussed. The use of interactive, highly graphical software which operates on either a modern workstation or personal computer is highlighted. And finally, the development of 'textbooks' and teaching aids which are used and distributed on the World Wide Web is described. Arguments for and against this technology as applied to undergraduate education are also discussed.

  8. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, it has been the primary goal of this grant to design and implement software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. The work carried out under this grant was performed jointly with members of the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of NASA LaRC, Computer Sciences Corp., and Vigyan Corp. This has resulted in the development of several packages and design studies. Primary among these are the interactive geometric modeling tool, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (smart), and the integration and execution tools provided by the Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). In addition, it is the purpose of the personnel of this grant to provide consultation in the areas of structural design, algorithm development, and software development and implementation, particularly in the areas of computer aided design, geometric surface representation, and parallel algorithms.

  9. Effective Computer Aided Instruction in Biomedical Science

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Lawrence L.

    1985-01-01

    A menu-driven Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) package was integrated with word processing and effectively applied in five curricula at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Integration with word processing facilitates the ease of CAI development by instructors and was found to be the most important step in the development of CAI. CAI modules were developed and are currently used to reinforce lectures in medical pathology, laboratory quality control, computer programming and basic science reviews of medicine. Modules help the lecturer efficiently cover fundamentals and provide the student with a self-directed learning alternative. A structured approach to CAI has helped build a CAI program which supports other traditional modes of instruction at MCW.

  10. Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, R. C.; Johnson, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    The Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT) developed by Essex Corporation or NASA and the Federal Emergency Management Administration's (FEMA) National Fire Academy (NFA) is described. It is a computer based training system for fire fighting personnel. A prototype EMCAT system was developed by NASA first using video tape images and then video disk images when the technology became available. The EMCAT system is meant to fill the training needs of the fire fighting community with affordable state-of-the-art technologies. An automated real time simulation of the fire situation was needed to replace the outdated manual training methods currently being used. In order to be successful, this simulator had to provide realism, be user friendly, be affordable, and support multiple scenarios. The EMCAT system meets these requirements and therefore represents an innovative training tool, not only for the fire fighting community, but also for the needs of other disciplines.

  11. A Suggested Computer Aided Drafting Curriculum (Dacum Based).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedras, Melvin J.; Hoggard, David

    Computer-aided drawing can bring new technology into the drafting classroom. One approach to computer-aided drafting (CAD) involves use of a personal computer and purchased software. Existing school computers could be shared to reduce costs. Following this narrative introduction, a suggested curriculum for the teaching of CAD is presented in…

  12. Strategies for Overcoming Obstacles in AIDS Education for Preteens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrick-Athans, Linda; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

    1997-01-01

    Points out that every four months the number of reported AIDS cases among adolescents doubles. Describes and evaluates a comprehensive AIDS prevention education program for preteens. Identifies adolescent attitudes as barriers to effective AIDS education. Presents strategies to break down barriers and promote acceptance of AIDS education,…

  13. Computers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Carole; Pytlik, Mark

    The Canadian Department of Education developed this manual to provide teachers and administrators with information about the potential use of computers. Part I describes at length the five components of the computer input, output, storage, control, and arithmetic/logic functions) and gives a discussion of computer languages, programing, batch…

  14. Hispanic AIDS education in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J

    1988-04-01

    The Hispanic AIDS Committee for Education and Resources (HACER) was established in 1987 as an AIDS education program targeted at the Mexicano population of South Texas. The word "Mexicano" is used because "Hispanic" refers to a larger, more diversified group. "Mexicano" refers specifically to people of South Texas who are either Mexican-Americans (people of Mexican descent, born and educated in the US) or Mexicans (people born and educated in Mexico). Mexicanos constitute 56% of the population of South Texas and 54% of the population of San Antonio. Mexican-Americans, in general, speak and read English and listen to English-language television and radio. Mexicans are poorer and less educated, Spanish-speaking, and often illiterate. The Mexicanos do not constitute a high risk group for AIDS; at present there are only 64 Mexicano AIDS patients in San Antonio. AIDS education campaigns on television which are directed at the whole Hispanic community may be counter-productive when directed at the Mexicano population because they know that AIDS is not yet a serious problem among them, and scare tactics only cause hysteria. AIDS education is essential, but it must be specifically geared to the Mexicano community, which, in general, is a very conservative community, in which subjects like sex, homosexuality, condoms, or anal intercourse are not discussed in public. But it is also a community of young (median age 23) sexually active people. An AIDS education program directed at them must use simple, elementary language in standard Mexican Spanish for the Mexicans and in English for the young Mexican-Americans. The single most effective way to reach the Mexicano population would be public service announcements aired on television during the time when the telenovelas (soap operas) are on. Not only are the telenovelas widely watched, but their actors are popular heros, who will be listened to by their audience. The use of radio for public service announcements would be useful

  15. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  16. 5 Axes computer aided laser milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccolini, G.; Orazi, L.; Fortunato, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper a 5 axes CAM procedure for the laser milling of free form surfaces has been developed and experimentally verified. The laser beam is deflected by a galvanometric scanning head and is directly moved on the working surface by the CNC controlled axes of a machine center. The procedure has been implemented in a software called CALM (computer aided laser manufacturing) able to generate the laser paths and the movements of the controlled axes reducing the defects on the workpiece. The approach is based on the sequential overlapping of the scanning passes on the working area. The different working areas in every laser displacement are obtained directly from the triangulation of the whole surface to machine.

  17. An Expert Assistant for Computer Aided Parallelization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    The prototype implementation of an expert system was developed to assist the user in the computer aided parallelization process. The system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. By fusing static program structure information and dynamic performance analysis data the expert system can help the user to filter, correlate, and interpret the data gathered by the existing tools. Sections of the code that show poor performance and require further attention are rapidly identified and suggestions for improvements are presented to the user. In this paper we describe the components of the expert system and discuss its interface to the existing tools. We present a case study to demonstrate the successful use in full scale scientific applications.

  18. Intelligent computer-aided training authoring environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    Although there has been much research into intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), there are few authoring systems available that support ITS metaphors. Instructional developers are generally obliged to use tools designed for creating on-line books. We are currently developing an authoring environment derived from NASA's research on intelligent computer-aided training (ICAT). The ICAT metaphor, currently in use at NASA has proven effective in disciplines from satellite deployment to high school physics. This technique provides a personal trainer (PT) who instructs the student using a simulated work environment (SWE). The PT acts as a tutor, providing individualized instruction and assistance to each student. Teaching in an SWE allows the student to learn tasks by doing them, rather than by reading about them. This authoring environment will expedite ICAT development by providing a tool set that guides the trainer modeling process. Additionally, this environment provides a vehicle for distributing NASA's ICAT technology to the private sector.

  19. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The goal was the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. Several packages and design studies were completed, including two software tools currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) and the Environment for Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and additionally provides initial mass property analysis. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand alone analysis codes that result in the streamlining of the exchange of data between programs, reducing errors and improving efficiency.

  20. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  1. AIDS Education: Gaps in Coverage Still Exist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadel, Mark V.

    This document presents testimony given before the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs concerning a General Accounting Office (GAO) review of education programs for youth designed to limit the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It notes that most American teenagers have…

  2. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  3. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes. PMID:24704607

  4. Computer-Aided Video Differential Planimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Michael; Djoleto, Ben D.

    1984-08-01

    THE VIDEO DIFFERENTIAL PLANIMETER (VDP)1 is a re-mote sensing instrument that can measure minute changes in the area of any object seen by an optical scanning system. The composite video waveforms obtained by scanning the object against a contrasting back-ground are amplified and shaped to yield a sequence of constant amplitude pulses whose polarity distinguishes the studied area from its background and whose varying widths reflect the dynamics of the viewed object. These pulses are passed through a relatively long time-constant capacitor-resistor circuit and are then fed into an integrator. The net integration voltage resulting from the most recent sequence of object-background time pulses is recorded and the integrator is returned to zero at the end of each video frame. If the object's area remains constant throughout the following frame, the integrator's summation will also remain constant. However, if the object's area varies, the positive and negative time pulses entering the integrator will change, and the integrator's summation will vary proportionately. The addition of a computer interface and a video recorder enhances the versatility and the resolving power of the VDP by permitting the repeated study and analysis of selected portions of the recorded data, thereby uncovering the major sources of the object's dynamics. Among the medical and biological procedures for which COMPUTER-AIDED VIDEO DIFFERENTIAL PLANIMETRY is suitable are Ophthalmoscopy, Endoscopy, Microscopy, Plethysmography, etc. A recent research study in Ophthalmoscopy2 will be cited to suggest a useful application of Video Differential Planimetry.

  5. A pipeline for computer aided polyp detection.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Qiu, Feng; Kaufman, Arie

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel pipeline for computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps by integrating texture and shape analysis with volume rendering and conformal colon flattening. Using our automatic method, the 3D polyp detection problem is converted into a 2D pattern recognition problem. The colon surface is first segmented and extracted from the CT data set of the patient's abdomen, which is then mapped to a 2D rectangle using conformal mapping. This flattened image is rendered using a direct volume rendering technique with a translucent electronic biopsy transfer function. The polyps are detected by a 2D clustering method on the flattened image. The false positives are further reduced by analyzing the volumetric shape and texture features. Compared with shape based methods, our method is much more efficient without the need of computing curvature and other shape parameters for the whole colon surface. The final detection results are stored in the 2D image, which can be easily incorporated into a virtual colonoscopy (VC) system to highlight the polyp locations. The extracted colon surface mesh can be used to accelerate the volumetric ray casting algorithm used to generate the VC endoscopic view. The proposed automatic CAD pipeline is incorporated into an interactive VC system, with a goal of helping radiologists detect polyps faster and with higher accuracy. PMID:17080810

  6. Computers, Networks and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Alan C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is how globally networked, easy-to-use computers can enhance learning only within an educational environment that encourages students to question "facts" and seek challenges. The strengths and weaknesses of computers used as amplifiers for learning are described. (KR)

  7. Supporting teachers in making innovative changes in the use of computer-aided practical work to support concept development in physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Roy

    2005-03-01

    There continues to be a gulf between what have been identified from the literature as the potential benefits of using computer-aided practical work and the difficulties of realizing them as reported by practising teachers, even from those who are committed to the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This article reports on a pilot study that aimed to explore ways in which teachers could be supported as they explore the extent to which this approach could enhance the development of pupils' understanding of physics concepts. The study was based on a collaborative partnership between a researcher and a classroom teacher. The indications are that there is the potential for considerable benefits from such an approach, with the need for further development of materials and teaching methods being identified.

  8. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  9. Developing an Intelligent Computer-Aided Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Grace

    1990-01-01

    The Payload-assist module Deploys/Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (PD/ICAT) system was developed as a prototype for intelligent tutoring systems with the intention of seeing PD/ICAT evolve and produce a general ICAT architecture and development environment that can be adapted by a wide variety of training tasks. The proposed architecture is composed of a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model and a training scenario generator. The PD/ICAT prototype was developed in the LISP environment. Although it has been well received by its peers and users, it could not be delivered toe its end users for practical use because of specific hardware and software constraints. To facilitate delivery of PD/ICAT to its users and to prepare for a more widely accepted development and delivery environment for future ICAT applications, we have ported this training system to a UNIX workstation and adopted use of a conventional language, C, and a C-based rule-based language, CLIPS. A rapid conversion of the PD/ICAT expert system to CLIPS was possible because the knowledge was basically represented as a forward chaining rule base. The resulting CLIPS rule base has been tested successfully in other ICATs as well. Therefore, the porting effort has proven to be a positive step toward our ultimate goal of building a general purpose ICAT development environment.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jia; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths, and ranks third for new cancer cases and cancer mortality for both men and women. However, its death rate can be dramatically reduced by appropriate treatment when early detection is available. The purpose of colonoscopy is to identify and assess the severity of lesions, which may be flat or protruding. Due to the subjective nature of the examination, colonoscopic proficiency is highly variable and dependent upon the colonoscopist's knowledge and experience. An automated image processing system providing an objective, rapid, and inexpensive analysis of video from a standard colonoscope could provide a valuable tool for screening and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design, functionality and preliminary results of its Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colonoscopy - ColonoCAD TM. ColonoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-algorithm image processing system, incorporating data management and visualization, video quality assessment and enhancement, calibration, multiple view based reconstruction, feature extraction and classification. As this is a new field in medical image processing, our hope is that this paper will provide the framework to encourage and facilitate collaboration and discussion between industry, academia, and medical practitioners.

  11. Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang

    2011-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer (CAPO) automates the insertion of compiler directives (see figure) to facilitate parallel processing on Shared Memory Parallel (SMP) machines. While CAPO currently is integrated seamlessly into CAPTools (developed at the University of Greenwich, now marketed as ParaWise), CAPO was independently developed at Ames Research Center as one of the components for the Legacy Code Modernization (LCM) project. The current version takes serial FORTRAN programs, performs interprocedural data dependence analysis, and generates OpenMP directives. Due to the widely supported OpenMP standard, the generated OpenMP codes have the potential to run on a wide range of SMP machines. CAPO relies on accurate interprocedural data dependence information currently provided by CAPTools. Compiler directives are generated through identification of parallel loops in the outermost level, construction of parallel regions around parallel loops and optimization of parallel regions, and insertion of directives with automatic identification of private, reduction, induction, and shared variables. Attempts also have been made to identify potential pipeline parallelism (implemented with point-to-point synchronization). Although directives are generated automatically, user interaction with the tool is still important for producing good parallel codes. A comprehensive graphical user interface is included for users to interact with the parallelization process.

  12. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.; Olariu, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this grant has been the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles particularly focused on the elements of geometric design, graphical user interfaces, and the interaction of the multitude of software typically used in this engineering environment. This has resulted in the development of several analysis packages and design studies. These include two major software systems currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are SMART, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool, and EASIE, the Environment for Software Integration and Execution. Additional software tools were designed and implemented to address the needs of the engineer working in the conceptual design environment. SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and several engineering analysis capabilities. In addition, SMART has a carefully engineered user interface that makes it easy to learn and use. Finally, a number of specialty characteristics have been built into SMART which allow it to be used efficiently as a front end geometry processor for other analysis packages. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand-alone, analysis codes. Resulting in a streamlining of the exchange of data between programs reducing errors and improving the efficiency. EASIE provides both a methodology and a collection of software tools to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes.

  13. Intelligent computer-aided training and tutoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Specific autonomous training systems based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel that demonstrate an alternative to current training systems are described. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide, for the trainee, much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training. By integrating domain expertise with a knowledge of appropriate training methods, an ICAT session should duplicate, as closely as possible, the trainee undergoing on-the-job training in the task environment, benefitting from the full attention of a task expert who is also an expert trainer. Thus, the philosophy of the ICAT system is to emulate the behavior of an experienced individual devoting his full time and attention to the training of a novice - proposing challenging training scenarios, monitoring and evaluating the actions of the trainee, providing meaningful comments in response to trainee errors, responding to trainee requests for information, giving hints (if appropriate), and remembering the strengths and weaknesses displayed by the trainee so that appropriate future exercises can be designed.

  14. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  15. Computer-Aided Instruction in Mathematics Remediation at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocato, Mary Anne

    2009-01-01

    Over the past ten years, traditional lecture style delivery has given way to computer-aided instruction (CAI) in post-secondary education. Developmental mathematics courses have been one of the most widely used applications. At a small community college in the Mississippi Delta, a computer assisted version of Intermediate Algebra was implemented.…

  16. Computer Aided Instruction: A Study of Student Evaluations and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, David; Deck, Alan; McCrickard, Myra

    2008-01-01

    Computer aided instruction (CAI) encompasses a broad range of computer technologies that supplement the classroom learning environment and can dramatically increase a student's access to information. Criticism of CAI generally focuses on two issues: it lacks an adequate foundation in educational theory and the software is difficult to implement…

  17. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  18. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture). A Brief Guide to Materials in the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, George D.

    This brief guide to materials in the Library of Congress (LC) on computer aided design and/or computer aided manufacturing lists reference materials and other information sources under 13 headings: (1) brief introductions; (2) LC subject headings used for such materials; (3) textbooks; (4) additional titles; (5) glossaries and handbooks; (6)…

  19. Computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) for colposcopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Holger; Ferris, Daron G.

    2005-04-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Colposcopy is a diagnostic method, whereby a physician (colposcopist) visually inspects the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva and vagina), with special emphasis on the subjective appearance of metaplastic epithelium comprising the transformation zone on the cervix. Cervical cancer precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain distinctly abnormal morphologic features. Lesion characteristics such as margin; color or opacity; blood vessel caliber, intercapillary spacing and distribution; and contour are considered by colposcopists to derive a clinical diagnosis. Clinicians and academia have suggested and shown proof of concept that automated image analysis of cervical imagery can be used for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis, having the potential to have a direct impact on improving women"s health care and reducing associated costs. STI Medical Systems is developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colposcopy -- ColpoCAD. At the heart of ColpoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-feature image analysis system. A functional description is presented of the envisioned ColpoCAD system, broken down into: Modality Data Management System, Image Enhancement, Feature Extraction, Reference Database, and Diagnosis and directed Biopsies. The system design and development process of the image analysis system is outlined. The system design provides a modular and open architecture built on feature based processing. The core feature set includes the visual features used by colposcopists. This feature set can be extended to include new features introduced by new instrument technologies, like fluorescence and impedance, and any other plausible feature that can be extracted from the cervical data. Preliminary results of our research on detecting the three most important features: blood vessel structures, acetowhite regions and lesion margins are shown. As this is a new

  20. Mammographic computer-aided detection systems.

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    While mammography is regarded as the best means available to screen for breast cancer, reading mammograms is a tedious, error-prone task. Given the repetitiveness of the process and the fact that less than 1% of mammograms in the average screening population contain cancer, it's no wonder that a significant number of breast cancers--about 28%--are missed by radiologists. The fact that human error is such a significant obstacle makes mammography screening an ideal application for computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. CAD systems serve as a "second pair of eyes" to ensure that radiologists don't miss a suspect area on an image. They analyze patterns on a digitized mammographic image, identify regions that may contain an abnormality indicating cancer, and mark these regions. The marks are then inspected and classified by a radiologist. But CAD systems provide no diagnosis of any kind--it's up to the radiologist to analyze the marked area and decide if it shows cancer. In this Evaluation, we describe the challenges posed by screening mammography, the operating principles and overall efficacy of CAD systems, and the characteristics to consider when purchasing a system. We also compare the performance of two commercially available systems, iCAD's MammoReader and R2's ImageChecker. Because the two systems offer comparable sensitivity, our judgments are based on other performance characteristics, including their ease of use, the number of false marks they produce, the degree to which they can integrate with hospital information systems, and their processing speed. PMID:12760158

  1. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  2. Computer aided stress analysis of long bones utilizing computer tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Marom, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    A computer aided analysis method, utilizing computed tomography (CT) has been developed, which together with a finite element program determines the stress-displacement pattern in a long bone section. The CT data file provides the geometry, the density and the material properties for the generated finite element model. A three-dimensional finite element model of a tibial shaft is automatically generated from the CT file by a pre-processing procedure for a finite element program. The developed pre-processor includes an edge detection algorithm which determines the boundaries of the reconstructed cross-sectional images of the scanned bone. A mesh generation procedure than automatically generates a three-dimensional mesh of a user-selected refinement. The elastic properties needed for the stress analysis are individually determined for each model element using the radiographic density (CT number) of each pixel with the elemental borders. The elastic modulus is determined from the CT radiographic density by using an empirical relationship from the literature. The generated finite element model, together with applied loads, determined from existing gait analysis and initial displacements, comprise a formatted input for the SAP IV finite element program. The output of this program, stresses and displacements at the model elements and nodes, are sorted and displayed by a developed post-processor to provide maximum and minimum values at selected locations in the model.

  3. Computing and Handicapped Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Everett L.

    1984-01-01

    Brief description of an evaluation of PLATO terminal and software in a handicapped educational environment notes several problems handicapped students would have in using the system and proposed solutions. Information is provided on the Committee on Computing and the Handicapped of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer…

  4. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1996-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: First, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities. PMID:9462062

  5. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  6. Computer-aided techniques for chromogenic immunohistochemistry: status and directions.

    PubMed

    Di Cataldo, Santa; Ficarra, Elisa; Macii, Enrico

    2012-10-01

    Although immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a popular imaging technique, the quantitative analysis of IHC images via computer-aided methods is an emerging field that is gaining more and more importance thanks to the new developments in digital high-throughput scanners. In this paper, we discuss the main steps of IHC and review the techniques for computer-aided chromogenic IHC analysis, including methods to determine the location of interest of the antigens and quantify their activations. Moreover, we discuss the issues arising from the standardization of the immunostaining process, that are generally overlooked by the current literature, and finally provide requirements for reliable computer-aided IHC quantification. PMID:22980752

  7. State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusere, Marlena; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey; Norman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    TG provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This issue of "State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas"…

  8. COMPUTER-AIDED DATA ACQUISITION FOR COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes the use of computer-aided data acquisition techniques to aid the research program of the Combustion Research Branch (CRB) of the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in Research Triangle Park, NC, in particular on CRB's bench-sca...

  9. Enrollment and Financial Aid Models for Higher Education, Phase II Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematica, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    In this report four models are formulated which forecast the enrollment and financial needs of students in higher education. The four models are: the undergraduate enrollment model, postbaccalaureate enrollment model, undergraduate student aid model, and postbaccalaureate student aid model. In addition to computing total financial needs, these…

  10. Culturally sensitive AIDS education and perceived AIDS risk knowledge: reaching the "know-it-all" teenager.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, H C; Gay, K M; Josar, L

    1995-04-01

    Video education is the most popular and effective medium for informing the adolescent population. This study investigated the impact of a culturally relevant HIV/AIDS video education. One hundred and ninety-four African-American teenagers were assigned to either a culturally sensitive or culturally dissimilar video education intervention. Results indicate that both interventions were effective in increasing AIDS knowledge scores. An interaction effect was found between levels of perceived AIDS risk knowledge and participation in the culturally sensitive intervention (CSV). Only the CSV intervention was effective with adolescents who claimed to "know a lot" about AIDS (e.g., "Know-It-All" subgroup). Students in both conditions who were worried about getting AIDS demonstrated higher AIDS risk knowledge at post-assessment. This study provides further evidence of within-ethnicity diversity among African-American youth and for developing culture- and subgroup-specific HIV/AIDS education. PMID:7542465

  11. Computer Education for Colleges of Education. TOPICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jean B., Ed.

    The first of 18 papers in this collection is a committee report of a workshop held in Kansas City, Missouri, June 26-27, 1982, to consider instructional uses of computers in pre-college education and what colleges of education should be doing. In "Computer Education and Colleges of Education," J. Philip East provides an overview of the issues…

  12. School District Uses Computer Aided Design and Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentz, Gordon S.

    1988-01-01

    Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) programs are used to teach drafting at an Indiana high school. The school system's maintenance department shared use of the software and equipment to produce original drawings of school buildings. (MLF)

  13. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  14. AIDS: Setting Policy, Educating Employees at Bank of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagel, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how Bank of America has responded to the problem of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the workplace by devising a comprehensive policy on life-threatening illnesses and initiating an employee education program on AIDS. (CH)

  15. TARGET: Research in Computer Aids for Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Donald; Strazds, Andris E.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the background of the "TARGET Project for Aids to Translation," its current facilities, and its goals. Describes the system's central feature as an interactive, multilingual terminology database intended to eliminate time wasted in researching unknown terms and to facilitate final document production, study of person-machine interface…

  16. Evaluation of a Comprehensive AIDS Education Curriculum in Hungary--The Role of Good Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Molnar, Andrea; Morse, Dale L.; DeHovitz, Jack; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Szmad, Szabolcs

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate a school-based AIDS education program in Eastern Europe. Four evaluation segments were undertaken: process and outcome evaluations of the training of AIDS educators and of the educational activities for students. While most AIDS education curricula focus on the content of the education, findings demonstrate…

  17. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  18. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1994-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: first, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the dentist who will offer this new technology directly to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities. PMID:8032444

  19. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  20. Teacher Aides in Comprehensive Career Education. An In-service Training Program for the Teacher Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational Education.

    This study guide for teacher aides is one of a 4-volume series to be used in an in-service program designed to create an awareness in teacher aides, teachers, and administrators of the potential contribution of teacher aides to career education. (The other three volumes are a coordinator's manual and the separate programs for teachers and for…

  1. The digital hearing aid, wearable computing, and electrophysiological response.

    PubMed

    Doyle, T E; Kucerovsky, Z; Greason, W D

    2002-01-01

    Presbycusis is the most common form of hearing loss caused by aging and long-term exposure to sound energy. This type of ailment decreases the ear's ability to perceive high frequencies and localize sound, thus making comprehension more difficult. To compensate for this loss, the choice of a digital hearing aid has become more common. However, most digital hearing aids do little more that their analogue predecessor's by providing a single, fixed hearing response. Such a fixed response is not suitable for all of a user's auditory environments and typically causes a more rapid loss of hearing. Significant advancement in processing power and reduction in size of computing hardware has produced increasingly more powerful, more portable, and more personal computing devices. These advances have spurred research and development of wearable computing devices towards integrating both man and machine. By definition, the digital hearing aid is a wearable computing device. The development of a digital hearing aid with increased onboard processing that is aware of its owner's electrophysiological and auditory environments is an obvious progression. This awareness will give the hearing aid the ability to autonomously modify its own parameters to improve audibility and comprehension. Electrophysiological signals can be classified as naturally occurring or voluntarily controlled. Employing these signals will allow the hearing aid to adapt to its owner's external and internal stimuli. Research and initial experiments into the monitoring and use of electrophysiological response for the control of the digital hearing aid shall be presented. PMID:12085589

  2. Curriculum Planning Guidelines for HIV/AIDS Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This curriculum planning guide helps districts design an appropriate educational program on HIV/AIDS prevention. The chapters focus on the following topics: "Montana Board of Public Education Position Statement on HIV/AIDS"; "Instructional Guidelines: Key Issues in Program Planning, Major Health Education Content Areas, Summary, and Curriculum…

  3. What Works? HIV/AIDS Education in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Vicki

    By May 1989, 29 states and territories had mandated HIV/AIDS education in their public schools. Rural schools face special problems in the delivery of such education. From telephone interviews and a survey questionnaire, 32 rural school districts across the country were identified that use effective strategies in their HIV/AIDS education programs.…

  4. School-Based HIV-AIDS Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Margaret C.

    Health and education matters in Canada are the responsibility of the government of each individual province. These opportunities for improvement in the Canadian system regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education exist. First, a nationally standardized curriculum is needed. Second, more time allocated for AIDS education is…

  5. Aides to Career Education, 1975-76: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Alan N.

    The Aides to Career Education (ACE) Program employs instructional aides to help disadvantaged vocational education students in Los Angeles develop positive attitudes toward education and employment, more cooperative behavior, pride in their course work, efficiency in completing assigned tasks, and improved attendance. In 1975-76 (the fourth year)…

  6. Sexual education / AIDS prevention. Peruvian schools.

    PubMed

    Caceres, C F

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation of AIDS prevention and sex education program during a 3-month period in 190 in Peruvian schools (7 controls and 7 with the program) found that the intervention, based on behavioral change models, influenced knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge of sexuality and AIDS was greater among study participants than among controls. Attitudes toward erotophobia, condoms, contraception, and people with AIDS were also different among participants. Intentions to adopt prevention-oriented behaviors were also greater among study participants. A follow-up of 250 students was conducted in order to assess actual behavior change; analysis is pending. The curriculum is easy to implement and low-cost. The intervention and evaluation were developed by researchers and planners at the Cayetano Heredia University in Lima. The curriculum emphasized empowerment, self-esteem, information, attitude change, skill development, and a supportive environment. The 14-hour program covered the following topics: 1) puberty and adolescence, 2) sexual anatomy and physiology and human sexual responses, 3) conception and pregnancy (delivery, breast feeding, and unwanted pregnancy), 4) planned parenthood and contraceptive technologies including abortion, 5) sex and gender (social and cultural aspects and sexual orientation), 6) AIDS/STDs and condom skills, and 7) personal decision making about sexual issues (assertive communication skills and self-determination). Two hours of instruction were provided for each of the 7 units. Support materials included teacher and student training manuals, charts, a sample contraceptive kit, and condoms. Teaching techniques ranged from role playing and brainstorming to collaborative study with friends, family, and community heath institutions. Teachers received special training prior to the intervention. PMID:12286360

  7. Computer Technology and Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing, Atlanta, GA.

    The influences of computer technology on college nursing education programs and health care delivery systems are discussed in eight papers. The use of computers is considered, with attention to clinical care, nursing education and continuing education, administration, and research. Attention is also directed to basic computer terminology, computer…

  8. Virtual Worlds in Computing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, Jonathan; Duke-Williams, Emma; Chandler, Jane; Collinson, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a virtual world ("Second Life") in computing education, and identifies the precursors of current virtual world systems. The article reviews the potential for virtual worlds as tools in computing education. It describes two areas where "Second Life" has been used in computing education: as a development…

  9. Educational Computer Utilization and Computer Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jai P.; Morgan, Robert P.

    As part of an analysis of educational needs and telecommunications requirements for future educational satellite systems, three studies were carried out. 1) The role of the computer in education was examined and both current status and future requirements were analyzed. Trade-offs between remote time sharing and remote batch process were explored…

  10. Effect of an AIDS education program for older adults.

    PubMed

    Rose, M A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an age-specific AIDS education program on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and perceived severity of AIDS in older adults. The health belief model served as a framework. The age-specific AIDS education program was developed based on a knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors survey of 458 older adults at senior citizen centers. The program included case study presentations of actual older people with AIDS along with an emphasis on myths identified in the initial survey. There was a significant increase in total knowledge about AIDS (p < .001), perceived susceptibility (p < .01), and perceived severity (p < .001) after the educational program. Based on the results of this study, nurses are in an excellent position to provide primary and secondary AIDS prevention strategies for all age groups, including the older adult population. PMID:8916603

  11. AIDS education is not our only weapon.

    PubMed

    Decosas, J

    1992-01-01

    The author criticizes international health professional and policy focus upon individual behavioral change as the key to preventing the further spread of AIDS, and instead writes in favor of fundamental social change. In addition to the negative effects of victim-blaming, discrimination, and incarceration which may result from programmatic focus upon the individual, no convincing evidence exists that the health education approach has the desired effect in stemming the transmission of HIV. While apparent success has been met from interventions targeted to select populations, greater individual exposure to education does not necessitate higher degrees of behavioral change. The author notes a critical failure to examine environmental and structural risk factors in the world's most affected societies, and suggests a need to re-evaluate and reorient our approach. HIV transmission in Africa and African cities typically with unbalanced gender mixes, and the fact that women in these settings tend to become infected at younger ages than men are 2 known observations deserving study and action. These phenomena are respectively based i colonial structure dictating large, all-male workforce communities, and a broad lack of educational opportunity for girls and women. Industrial development policies which minimize social disruption and remove men from the center of the workforce, and education policy ensuring greater gender equity in access to schooling should be adopted by national governments and international development donors as measures to directly combat the root of structural risk factors. PMID:12317125

  12. Trends in Higher Education Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the effects which changes in computer technology are having on the organization, staffing, and budgets at institutions of higher education. Trends in computer hardware, computer software, and in office automation are also discussed. (JN)

  13. Computers, Schools and Families: A Radical Vision for Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debenham, Jerry; Smith, Gerald R.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses computer-aided instruction from home computers as an alternative or an adjunct to public school education. Topics addressed include the partnership between parents and schools; new roles for parents and schools; financial considerations; educational software; a program to help teachers develop their own software; and field testing in…

  14. Computer-Aided Instruction in Automated Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, David T.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses functions of automated instrumentation systems, i.e., systems which combine electrical measuring instruments and a controlling computer to measure responses of a unit under test. The computer-assisted tutorial then described is programmed for use on such a system--a modern microwave spectrum analyzer--to introduce engineering students to…

  15. Computer Aided Instruction in Teaching Thematic Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Paul R.

    A newly developed instructional system for introductory college geography links the computer with the geographer's most traditional and essential tool--the thematic map. The use of the computer overcomes the logistical and mechanical problems associated with the teaching of thematic mapping to large groups and helps the students to focus upon the…

  16. Interactive graphical computer-aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    System is used for design, layout, and modification of large-scale-integrated (LSI) metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) arrays. System is structured around small computer which provides real-time support for graphics storage display unit with keyboard, slave display unit, hard copy unit, and graphics tablet for designer/computer interface.

  17. Gathering Empirical Evidence Concerning Links between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Norman, Eddie; Hodgson, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Discussion is often reported concerning potential links between computer-aided designing and creativity, but there is a lack of systematic enquiry to gather empirical evidence concerning such links. This paper reports an indication of findings from other research studies carried out in contexts beyond general education that have sought evidence…

  18. Revisiting Computer-Aided Notetaking Technological Assistive Devices for Hearing-Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Dana L.; Pendegraft, Norman

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this article describes the use of Computer-aided note taking (CAN) for a fifth-grade student with a profound hearing loss who has been mainstreamed in her local grade school since first grade. As such, this is a case study of how technology can directly and dramatically impact the educational experience of a student with a…

  19. Cultural identification in aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Hill, P S; Murphy, G J

    1992-06-01

    The emergence of the disease AIDS in the early 1980s has resulted in a unique response. Medical, sociocultural, political, sexual, moral and racial issues have all been raised. This paper examines the way in which participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has resulted in the culturally appropriate and distinctive approaches evident in health education materials produced in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Specific cultural issues relevant to AIDS education are considered, including the use of visual and narrative communication for AIDS education; the significance of the specific concepts related to communication on sexual issues; perceptions of AIDS as alien and genocidal; the use of the Dreaming in AIDS educational resources; and implications for AIDS education. PMID:1391156

  20. WINCADRE INORGANIC (WINDOWS COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed in...

  1. WINCADRE (COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed ...

  2. Cooperation Support in Computer-Aided Authoring and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhauser, Max; Rudebusch, Tom

    This paper discusses the use of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) techniques for computer-aided learning (CAL); the work was started in the context of project Nestor, a joint effort of German universities about cooperative multimedia authoring/learning environments. There are four major categories of cooperation for CAL: author/author,…

  3. Synthetic Speech and Computer Aided Reading for Reading Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Ake

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of a computer program that pronounces words for Scandinavian students with word decoding problems. Finds that second-grade children did not perform better on a reading comprehension test when using computer-aided reading and that older students benefited more than younger students. Discusses reasons for letting the…

  4. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Novak, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of a computer-aided personalized system of instruction program in two undergraduate psychology courses. The computer presented short essay tests and arranged for students who had completed various assignments satisfactorily to help evaluate other students' mastery of those assignments. Student response generally was…

  5. The study on computer aided peripheral visual field diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shuyi, Wang; Xingsan, Qian

    2005-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread adoption of automated perimetry, there is still a role for peripheral perimetry. So far there was no accurate quantitative analysis on the change of visual field, most analysis were qualitative and depend on doctor's experience. Method Computer aided diagnose system was designed to judge the accurate change in visual field. Tabu Seach technology was used to identify visual field from the result of Peripheral perimeter test, and accurate visual filed defect dimension can be concluded by compared with point to point. At the same time liable eye diseases were predicted by computer. Conclusion Computer aided peripheral visual field diagnose system can identify defect in visual field, and provide reliable clinical diagnosis. Key words peripheral visual field, Computer aided diagnose, tabu search. PMID:17282924

  6. The provision of HIV/AIDS education in English colleges of further education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Faith

    1995-06-01

    This paper focuses on the provision of HIV/AIDS education for 16 19 year olds in colleges of further education and offers both qualitative and quantitative insights into the English approach to HIV/AIDS education for this age group. It outlines the findings from two pieces of research conducted in England by the Health Education Authority 16 19 HIV/AIDS Project.

  7. Computer-Aided Collaborative Music Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, James A.

    1991-01-01

    At the New England Conservatory of Music, computer-assisted instruction is used not only to teach harmony through collaborative learning and aural feedback, but also to bring the roles of composer, performer, and audience closer together. (SK)

  8. AIDS: What Early Childhood Educators Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spar, Ruth

    Noting that Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is expected to become the fifth leading cause of death for children ages 1 to 4, this paper provides relevant information on AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to help educators understand that they can work with children and adults who are HIV positive or who have AIDS. The…

  9. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  10. AIDS/HIV education for preservice elementary teachers.

    PubMed

    Ballard, D J; White, D M; Glascoff, M A

    1990-08-01

    Professional preparation programs should provide future elementary teachers opportunities to develop competence in dealing with school-related AIDS issues. Curriculum writers and instructors of preservice elementary teachers could be more effective if they were aware of this groups' beliefs about school-related AIDS issues. A survey was conducted to assess the beliefs and opinions of preservice elementary teachers about school-related AIDS issues. Subjects (n = 157) generally agreed they would eventually have a child with AIDS in their classroom and agreed AIDS education should be included in the elementary grades, yet a substantial number did not believe they understood the basics about AIDS. Less than one-third indicated they knew how to clean up blood or body fluids safely. About one-third indicated they would feel personally threatened to teach a student with AIDS. These results are reflected in recommended AIDS educational content and resources for preservice elementary teachers and future research in this area. PMID:2232729

  11. Graduate and Professional Education (Including Admissions and Financial Aid)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and University, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Topics covered at the AACRAO's 63rd annual meeting include: graduate education forecasting, admissions management, aid, and recruitment; quality control in nontraditional graduate education; and financial planning for the professional school student. (LBH)

  12. Computer aided integrated FMECA and FTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junshan; Tu, Qingci; Lu, Tingxiao

    1992-01-01

    The integrated FMECA and FTA method presented in this paper is used to transform the system reliability block diagram required to conduct FMECA to an equivalent generalized fault tree (FT) and input into a computer. In order to conduct the product's reliability analysis, we perform FMECA of lowest level products, and input them into the computer. Using the matrix method, the FMECA of higher level products can be conducted automatically. Based on the various top events selected from the output of FMECA, the generalized FT can be turned into different specified FTs for automatic analysis. The base events and related data of that specified FT are obtained from FMECA retrieved by computer. Following the principle described above, the integrated FMECA and FTA software package was developed. The qualitative and quantitative reliability analysis can then be conducted. Through some practical applications, it is shown that this software package is a powerful reliability analysis tool. It can save large amounts of analysis time and manpower.

  13. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  14. Sex education is key to combatting AIDS in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Csillag, C

    1999-06-26

    About 60,000 children in Brazil were born from an AIDS-affected mother, and 16,000 were orphaned by AIDS. These stark figures were released by the Global Orphan Project and the Instituto Promundo at the EducAids conference. About 90% of childhood AIDS cases were a result of perinatal exposure, and the other 10% from unknown exposure. In response to these prevalences, the EducAids initiative, which aims to promote AIDS education in schools, was considering sex education for preschool children. The coordinator of the government's AIDS prevention program, Pedro Chequer, believes sex education for children as young as 4 years old would reduce AIDS among teenagers and help avoid unwanted pregnancies. The Minister of Health supported this concept. Jose Serra, the Minister of Health declared that it was not the aim of the ministry to avoid teenage pregnancy but to prevent early sexual intercourse. In 1997 the number of deliveries by girls aged 15-19 years had risen to 25.27%, from 21.41% in 1993. However, the number of deliveries for women over age 20 are falling. Pedro Chequer, EducAids coordinator, stated that despite these facts, campaigns for sex education would be opposed by the Roman Catholic Church. PMID:10392998

  15. Computer Technology in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slider, Patty; Hodges, Kathy; Carter, Cea; White, Barbara

    This publication provides materials to help adult educators use computer technology in their teaching. Section 1, Computer Basics, contains activities and materials on these topics: increasing computer literacy, computer glossary, parts of a computer, keyboard, disk care, highlighting text, scrolling and wrap-around text, setting up text,…

  16. Computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisition/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined.

  17. Computer Program Aids Design Of Impeller Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Chung; Galazin, John V.

    1992-01-01

    Impeller blades for centrifugal turbopumps designed quickly with help of computer program. Generates blade contours and continually subjects them to evaluation. Checks physical parameters to ensure they are compatible with required performance and recycles design if criteria not met. Program written for centrifugal turbomachinery, also adapted to such axial pump components as inducer blades and stator vanes.

  18. Computer Aided Instruction in Teaching Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, David A.; Binette, Holly A. Lizotte

    This paper reports the results of two semesters of experience using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach topics in program evaluation to undergraduate and graduate psychology students at California State University, Long Beach. (The topics addressed are models of evaluation, evaluability assessment, needs assessment, experimental and…

  19. Computer aided design of spur gear teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Mavriplis, D.; Oswald, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for computer-modeling of spur gear tooth fabrication are given. It is shown that the standard involute tooth form results from a cutter with an involute shape rolling onto a gear blank. Specifically, the envelope of an involute is an involute. Examples are given and applications are discussed.

  20. Computer-Aided Instruction in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dan

    1986-01-01

    All 600 high schools and about one-third of the 1,600 elementary schools in Israel are now using computers. Most installations use one of four highly developed courseware systems. Experiences with these systems (Mashow, Semel, Toam 2, and Tapauch) are described. (JN)

  1. Proceedings of the 1993 Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Patricia R.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1993-01-01

    The volume 2 proceedings from the 1993 Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology are presented. Topics discussed include intelligent computer assisted training (ICAT) systems architectures, ICAT educational and medical applications, virtual environment (VE) training and assessment, human factors engineering and VE, ICAT theory and natural language processing, ICAT military applications, VE engineering applications, ICAT knowledge acquisition processes and applications, and ICAT aerospace applications.

  2. Optimal control of HIV/AIDS dynamic: Education and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2014-07-01

    A mathematical model which describes the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS is developed. The optimal control representing education and treatment for this model is explored. The existence of optimal Control is established analytically by the use of optimal control theory. Numerical simulations suggest that education and treatment for the infected has a positive impact on HIV/AIDS control.

  3. Technical Aids to Teaching in Higher Education. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Colin Flood; Kitching, John

    Third in a series on teaching methods in higher education, this updated volume reviews and evaluates research on audiovisual aids and related instructional hardware. While the emphasis is on the effectiveness of technical aids in higher education as instructional tools, some information on technical and administrative problems is also provided.…

  4. HIV/AIDS Teaching Behaviors of Educators in Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Lise D.; Mueller, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the predictive power of knowledge, attitudes, support for AIDS education, teaching comfort, perceived behavioral control, religious (Vodoun and Christian) beliefs, and subjective norms on Haitian educators' teaching of HIV/AIDS to their students. Two hundred and fourteen teachers from Jeremie and surrounding areas in Haiti…

  5. HIV/AIDS Education for Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colson, Steven E.; Carlson, Judith K.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses human immune deficiency disease, the role of education as a prevention tool, a rationale for the inclusion of students with special needs in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education, a scope and sequence of skills related to AIDS, suggestions for implementing objectives across curricular areas, and multimedia…

  6. Why Not Competence? A Guide for Training Special Education Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrau, Barbara L.; And Others

    The manual is designed for use by trainers of special education teacher aides to provide a competency based course which will enable teacher aides to assist in the implementation of the requirements of P.L. 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act). The first section provides background information to give trainers the grasp of…

  7. Computer-aided navigation in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Grunert, P; Darabi, K; Espinosa, J; Filippi, R

    2003-05-01

    The article comprises three main parts: a historical review on navigation, the mathematical basics for calculation and the clinical applications of navigation devices. Main historical steps are described from the first idea till the realisation of the frame-based and frameless navigation devices including robots. In particular the idea of robots can be traced back to the Iliad of Homer, the first testimony of European literature over 2500 years ago. In the second part the mathematical calculation of the mapping between the navigation and the image space is demonstrated, including different registration modalities and error estimations. The error of the navigation has to be divided into the technical error of the device calculating its own position in space, the registration error due to inaccuracies in the calculation of the transformation matrix between the navigation and the image space, and the application error caused additionally by anatomical shift of the brain structures during operation. In the third part the main clinical fields of application in modern neurosurgery are demonstrated, such as localisation of small intracranial lesions, skull-base surgery, intracerebral biopsies, intracranial endoscopy, functional neurosurgery and spinal navigation. At the end of the article some possible objections to navigation-aided surgery are discussed. PMID:12962294

  8. Computer Science Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun-Lin, Su

    1988-01-01

    Describes the history of computer science departments at universities in China. Educational principles that characterize Chinese computer science education are discussed, selection of students for universities is described, and curricula for both undergraduate and graduate computer science studies are outlined. (LRW)

  9. Computer aided radiation analysis for manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew H.; Griffin, Brand N.; Tanner, Ernest R., II; Pogue, William R.; Golightly, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assist in the design of radiation shielding an analytical tool is presented that can be employed in combination with CAD facilities and NASA transport codes. The nature of radiation in space is described, and the operational requirements for protection are listed as background information for the use of the technique. The method is based on the Boeing radiation exposure model (BREM) for combining NASA radiation transport codes and CAD facilities, and the output is given as contour maps of the radiation-shield distribution so that dangerous areas can be identified. Computational models are used to solve the 1D Boltzmann transport equation and determine the shielding needs for the worst-case scenario. BREM can be employed directly with the radiation computations to assess radiation protection during all phases of design which saves time and ultimately spacecraft weight.

  10. Program for computer aided reliability estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, F. P. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A computer program for estimating the reliability of self-repair and fault-tolerant systems with respect to selected system and mission parameters is presented. The computer program is capable of operation in an interactive conversational mode as well as in a batch mode and is characterized by maintenance of several general equations representative of basic redundancy schemes in an equation repository. Selected reliability functions applicable to any mathematical model formulated with the general equations, used singly or in combination with each other, are separately stored. One or more system and/or mission parameters may be designated as a variable. Data in the form of values for selected reliability functions is generated in a tabular or graphic format for each formulated model.

  11. Computer aided design study of hypermixing nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mefferd, L. A.; Bevilacqua, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a nozzle which combines the hypermixing and lobe mechanisms to achieve further increases in jet entrainment and ejector performance is investigated. A computer program which incorporates a two equation turbulence model and is used to predict and compare the evolution of jets from various nozzle designs is discussed. Increasing the length of the nozzle lobes and an alternating lobe nozzle are a methods examined for increasing the entrainment rate.

  12. Computer-aided surface representation and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhill, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    New methods for representing and approximating three and four dimensional surfaces were created. These schemes are the core of our forthcoming Surface Software Package. Surfaces are understood adequately only through the use of dynamic computer graphics; therefore, graphics capability is also included. The numerous applications of surface methods include modeling physical phenomena (e.g., combustion) and designing objects (e.g., airplanes and cars).

  13. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-05-03

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility.

  14. PCACE-Personal-Computer-Aided Cabling Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    PCACE computer program developed to provide inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. Directly emulates typical manual engineering methods of handling data, thus making interface between user and program very natural. Apple version written in P-Code Pascal and IBM PC version of PCACE written in TURBO Pascal 3.0

  15. Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kenwright, David

    2003-01-01

    Unsteady Flow Analysis Toolkit (UFAT) is a computer program that synthesizes motions of time-dependent flows represented by very large sets of data generated in computational fluid dynamics simulations. Prior to the development of UFAT, it was necessary to rely on static, single-snapshot depictions of time-dependent flows generated by flow-visualization software designed for steady flows. Whereas it typically takes weeks to analyze the results of a largescale unsteady-flow simulation by use of steady-flow visualization software, the analysis time is reduced to hours when UFAT is used. UFAT can be used to generate graphical objects of flow visualization results using multi-block curvilinear grids in the format of a previously developed NASA data-visualization program, PLOT3D. These graphical objects can be rendered using FAST, another popular flow visualization software developed at NASA. Flow-visualization techniques that can be exploited by use of UFAT include time-dependent tracking of particles, detection of vortex cores, extractions of stream ribbons and surfaces, and tetrahedral decomposition for optimal particle tracking. Unique computational features of UFAT include capabilities for automatic (batch) processing, restart, memory mapping, and parallel processing. These capabilities significantly reduce analysis time and storage requirements, relative to those of prior flow-visualization software. UFAT can be executed on a variety of supercomputers.

  16. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing.

  17. Mathematical modelling in the computer-aided process planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, S.; Bochkarev, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents new approaches to organization of manufacturing preparation and mathematical models related to development of the computer-aided multi product process planning (CAMPP) system. CAMPP system has some peculiarities compared to the existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems: fully formalized developing of the machining operations; a capacity to create and to formalize the interrelationships among design, process planning and process implementation; procedures for consideration of the real manufacturing conditions. The paper describes the structure of the CAMPP system and shows the mathematical models and methods to formalize the design procedures.

  18. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  19. Memory interface simulator: A computer design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. S.; Williams, T.; Weatherbee, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a study conducted with a digital simulation model being used in the design of the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System (ARMMS), a candidate computer system for future manned and unmanned space missions. The model simulates the activity involved as instructions are fetched from random access memory for execution in one of the system central processing units. A series of model runs measured instruction execution time under various assumptions pertaining to the CPU's and the interface between the CPU's and RAM. Design tradeoffs are presented in the following areas: Bus widths, CPU microprogram read only memory cycle time, multiple instruction fetch, and instruction mix.

  20. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  1. Intelligent computer-aided instruction in statics

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system was developed to model the problem solving knowledge of Dr. J.L. Meriam from his text Engineering Mechanics Volume I, Statics. The rules of heuristics for solving two-dimensional truss problems were then implemented in the MRS language. The expert system was then validated by solving problems from the text in the same manner as Meriam. Linked to the expert system were three learning-style modules. The learning styles modeled in this study were drill-and-practice, learning-by-example, and a new style called buddy-study. The buddy-state learning style represents an implementation of the Whimbley-pairs technique for computer-based learning. The learning system comprising the expert system, learning-style modules, and associated support programs were then tested for correctness and completeness. Results of the expert system validation demonstrated a system capable of solving problems within the domain as Meriam did. The learning-style module testing showed procedures commensurate with accepted classroom uses of the styles. The buddy-study method demonstrated a computer-learning strategy that places the expert system and the student user as colleagues in a problem-solving environment.

  2. Computer-aided kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daw-Tung; Lei, Chung-Chih; Hung, Siu-Wan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an effective model-based approach for computer-aided kidney segmentation of abdominal CT images with anatomic structure consideration is presented. This automatic segmentation system is expected to assist physicians in both clinical diagnosis and educational training. The proposed method is a coarse to fine segmentation approach divided into two stages. First, the candidate kidney region is extracted according to the statistical geometric location of kidney within the abdomen. This approach is applicable to images of different sizes by using the relative distance of the kidney region to the spine. The second stage identifies the kidney by a series of image processing operations. The main elements of the proposed system are: 1) the location of the spine is used as the landmark for coordinate references; 2) elliptic candidate kidney region extraction with progressive positioning on the consecutive CT images; 3) novel directional model for a more reliable kidney region seed point identification; and 4) adaptive region growing controlled by the properties of image homogeneity. In addition, in order to provide different views for the physicians, we have implemented a visualization tool that will automatically show the renal contour through the method of second-order neighborhood edge detection. We considered segmentation of kidney regions from CT scans that contain pathologies in clinical practice. The results of a series of tests on 358 images from 30 patients indicate an average correlation coefficient of up to 88% between automatic and manual segmentation. PMID:16445250

  3. Single photon emission computed tomography in AIDS dementia complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, P.; Vogl, G.; Fill, H.; Roessler, H.Z.; Zangerle, R.; Gerstenbrand, F.

    1988-08-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed in AIDS dementia complex using IMP in 12 patients (and HM-PAO in four of these same patients). In all patients, SPECT revealed either multiple or focal uptake defects, the latter corresponding with focal signs or symptoms in all but one case. Computerized tomography showed a diffuse cerebral atrophy in eight of 12 patients, magnetic resonance imaging exhibited changes like atrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy in two of five cases. Our data indicate that both disturbance of cerebral amine metabolism and alteration of local perfusion share in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex. SPECT is an important aid in the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and contributes to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder.

  4. Using Computer Technology To Aid the Disabled Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balajthy, Ernest

    When matched for achievement level and educational objectives, computer technology can be particularly effective with at-risk students. Computer-assisted instructional software is the most widely available type of software. An exciting development pertinent to literacy education is the development of the "electronic book" (also called "interactive…

  5. Computer Applications in Educational Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Lisa Lucks; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how computer technologies can be used by educational audiologists. Computer technologies are classified into three categories: (1) information systems applications; (2) screening and diagnostic applications; and (3) intervention applications. (Author/DB)

  6. Computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H.; Jerath, Maya R.; Lewis, R. Stephen; Dillard, Bryan C.; Rylander, Henry G.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin's Biomedical Engineering Laser Laboratory and the U.S. Air Force Academy's Department of Electrical Engineering are developing a computer-assisted prototype retinal photocoagulation system. The project goal is to rapidly and precisely automatically place laser lesions in the retina for the treatment of disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal tears while dynamically controlling the extent of the lesion. Separate prototype subsystems have been developed to control lesion parameters (diameter or depth) using lesion reflectance feedback and lesion placement using retinal vessels as tracking landmarks. Successful subsystem testing results in vivo on pigmented rabbits using an argon continuous wave laser are presented. A prototype integrated system design to simultaneously control lesion parameters and placement at clinically significant speeds is provided.

  7. Connect Computer Education to Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmelman, Paul

    1985-01-01

    The computer phenomenon has made rapid inroads into school curricula, often without proper board guidance or approval. Accordingly, this pamphlet discusses why and how computer education should be provided in schools and sets forth guidelines for school board policy regarding computers. An umbrella policy is proposed, defining "computer literacy"…

  8. Computers and Educators: Some Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Kim T.

    Four observations about computers and education are offered. 1) By 1972, development of new computer systems had fallen off, and several systems developed in the mid-1960's had been terminated. The decline was particularly intense in computer-based vocational guidance systems and in computer-assisted instruction projects. The only area showing…

  9. Improving radiation survey data using CADD/CAE (computer-aided design and drafting computer-aided engineering)

    SciTech Connect

    Palau, G.L.; Tarpinian, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new application of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup is improving the quality of radiation survey data taken in the plant. The use of CADD/CAE-generated survey maps has increased both the accuracy of survey data and the capability to perform analyses with these data. In addition, health physics technician manhours and radiation exposure can be reduced in situations where the CADD/CAE-generated drawings are used for survey mapping.

  10. Computer-aided petrographic analysis of sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, P.A.; Helmold, K.P.

    1987-05-01

    Thin-section point counting, mathematical and statistical analysis of petrographic-petrophysical data, report generation, and graphical presentation of results can be done efficiently by computer. Compositional and textural data are collected with a modified Schares point-counting system. The system uses an MS-DOS microcomputer programmed in BASIC to drive a motorized stage attached to a polarizing microscope. Numeric codes for up to 500 different categories of minerals, cements, pores, etc, are input using a separate keypad. Calculation and printing of constituent percentages, QFR, Folk name, and grain-size distribution are completed in seconds after data entry. Raw data files, compatible with software such as Lotus 1-2-3, SPSS, and SAS, are stored on floppy disk. Petrographic data files are transferred directly to a mainframe, merged with log and petrophysical data, analyzed statistically with SAS, and reports generated. SAS/GRAPH and TELL-A-GRAF routines linked with SAS generate a variety of cross plots, histograms, pie and bar charts, ternary diagrams, and vertical variation diagrams (e.g., depth vs. porosity, permeability, mean size, sorting, and percent grains-matrix-cement).

  11. Computer aided coordination of line protection schemes IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Postforoosh, J.M.; Akamine, J.; Banerjee, H.N.; Cornelison, J.R.; Enns, M.K.; Grier, S.E.; Hass, R.W.; Hasenwinkle, I.O.; Johnson, R.W.; Mozina, C.J.; Ramaswami, R.; Smith, H.S.; Taylor, R.P.; Turley, J.R.; Zipp, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    IEEE PSRC working group on Computer Aided Coordination of Line Protection Schemes was established in 1985 to investigate the application of computers to the task of setting and verifying the setting of line protective devices. This report provides the findings of the working group regarding functional requirements of the data base, software, and hardware for this system as well as the methods of presenting the results to the protection engineer.

  12. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  13. Audio-Visual Aids and Computer Assisted and Programmed Instruction in Allied Health Occupation Education. (Updates Literature Search 72-13).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Geraldine D.

    National Library of Medicine (NLM) Literature Searches are selected computer-generated bibliographies produced by the Library's Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS). Selection is made on the basis of a significant current interest of the subject matter to a substantial audience of health professionals. Each Literature Search…

  14. Audio-Visual Aids and Computer Assisted and Programmed Instruction in Nursing Education. (Updates but also includes Citations from Literature Search 72-11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Geraldine D.

    National Library of Medicine (NLM) Literature Searches are selected computer-generated bibliographies produced by the Library's Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS). Selection is made on the basis of a significant current interest of the subject matter to a substantial audience of health professionals. Each literature search…

  15. The Use of Computers to Aid Instruction in Beginning Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandey, Robert C.

    1971-01-01

    Describes computer-aided lessons for determining chemical formulas from composition by weight, quantities from chemical equations, and balancing equations for oxidation-reduction reactions. Lessons were developed and used on the PLATO system at the University of Illinois. A brief analysis of student attitudes and of effectiveness of the programs…

  16. Caesy: A software tool for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matt

    1993-01-01

    A new software tool, Caesy, is described. This tool provides a strongly typed programming environment for research in the development of algorithms and software for computer-aided control system design. A description of the user language and its implementation as they currently stand are presented along with a description of work in progress and areas of future work.

  17. Preparing Students for Computer Aided Drafting (CAD). A Conceptual Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, A. R.; Duelm, Brian

    This presentation outlines guidelines for developing and implementing an introductory course in computer-aided drafting (CAD) that is geared toward secondary-level students. The first section of the paper, which deals with content identification and selection, includes lists of mechanical drawing and CAD competencies and a list of rationales for…

  18. PROGRAMMING EXERCISES FOR COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Junior Coll., FL.

    REFERENCE MATERIAL AND PROGRAMING EXERCISES USED FOR THE COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING SUMMER INSTITUTE AT MIAMI-DADE JUNIOR COLLEGE, JULY 10-28, 1967, ARE PRESENTED. THE EXERCISES, TO BE PROGRAMED FOR EXECUTION ON THE IBM SYSTEM 1620 WITH AN ON-LINE 1627 PLOTTER, PROVIDE A MEDIUM FOR COVERING AND ENFORCING THE SUBJECT MATERIAL. ALSO INCLUDED ARE (1)…

  19. National Occupational Skill Standards. CADD: Computer Aided Drafting and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing, Washington, DC.

    This document identifies computer-aided drafting and design (CADD) skills that companies require of training programs and future employees. The information was developed by two committees of technically knowledgeable CADD users from across the United States and validated by several hundred other CADD users. The skills are aimed at a beginner CADD…

  20. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  1. A Complete Interactive Graphical Computer-Aided Instruction System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Steven Selby

    The use of interactive graphics in computer-aided instruction systems is discussed with emphasis placed on two requirements of such a system. The first is the need to provide the teacher with a useful tool with which to design and modify teaching sessions tailored to the individual needs and capabilities of the students. The second is the…

  2. Does Computer-Aided Formative Assessment Improve Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, John; James, Alex; Williams, Phillipa

    2014-01-01

    Two first-year engineering mathematics courses used computer-aided assessment (CAA) to provide students with opportunities for formative assessment via a series of weekly quizzes. Most students used the assessment until they achieved very high (>90%) quiz scores. Although there is a positive correlation between these quiz marks and the final…

  3. An Elective Course on Computer-Aided Process Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemical engineering course which has been offered at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The objectives, structure, instructional materials and content of this course, which emphasizes the structure and usage of computer-aided design systems, are also included. (HM)

  4. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  5. eWorkbook: A Computer Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costagliola, Gennaro; Ferrucci, Filomena; Fuccella, Vittorio; Oliveto, Rocco

    2007-01-01

    Computer aided assessment (CAA) tools are more and more widely adopted in academic environments mixed to other assessment means. In this article, we present a CAA Web application, named eWorkbook, which can be used for evaluating learner's knowledge by creating (the tutor) and taking (the learner) on-line tests based on multiple choice, multiple…

  6. Off-Line Computer Aided Learning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, W. R.

    The Borough of Havering in London, England undertook a project to devise and implement a computer aided learning program which involved teachers in the production of materials and provided students with a flexible, individualized system of instruction. Materials were developed, and three trials were conducted: (1) a program and equipment test; (2)…

  7. Computer Assisted Financial Aid Disbursement and Loan Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry K.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the computer assisted system in use at Washington State University. It controls and reports funds requested by students, offered to students, and disbursed to students, writes financial aid checks, prepares fiscal year-end statements and performs loan collection processes according to federal government regulations, and provides internal…

  8. Evaluation and Assessment of a Biomechanics Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, N.; Parnianpour, M.; Fraser, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Biomechanics Tutorial, a computer-aided instructional tool that was developed at Ohio State University to expedite the transition from lecture to application for undergraduate students. Reports evaluation results that used statistical analyses and student questionnaires to show improved performance on posttests as well as positive…

  9. Computer-Assisted Instruction in AIDS Infection Control for Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A microcomputer program to provide health care workers with instruction in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) infection control was assessed by medical residents. The experimental group (n=24) acquired more knowledge than controls (n=33). Response to the method was positive, and computer-assisted instruction is seen as useful for AIDS…

  10. Specification and Development of Computer Aids to ISD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, A. Fred

    This paper first notes the evolution of instructional development which has led to a need for the specification and development of computer aids to ISD activities, then notes several current efforts to meet this need, and finally describes the development of an Authoring Management System (AMS) designed to help manage the development phase of ISD.…

  11. User interface for integrated computer aided design systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was the development of a user interface and other appropriate tools to be used in Computer Aided Design systems which can integrate a wide variety of independently developed design and analysis tools. The interface was intended for the integration of programs to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace systems. A user's manual is included.

  12. Critiquing the Computer-Aided Design of Dental Prostheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, F. J.; And Others

    This paper describes RaPiD, a computer-aided assistant for the design of dental prostheses called removable partial dentures. The user manipulates icons directly to indicate the desired design solution to a given clinical situation. A developing design is represented as a logic database of components in a design; expert rules are applied as…

  13. National Survey of Computer Aided Manufacturing in Industrial Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Farzin

    The current status of computer-aided manufacturing in the 4-year industrial technology programs in the United States was studied. All industrial technology department chairs were mailed a questionnaire divided into program information, equipment information, and general comments sections. The questionnaire was designed to determine the subjects…

  14. Computer aided gene mining for gingerol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    James, Priyanka; Baby, Bincy; Charles, SonaSona; Nair, Lekshmysree Saraschandran; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    Inspite of the large body of genomic data obtained from the transcriptome of Zingiber officinale, very few studies have focused on the identification and characterization of miRNAs in gingerol biosynthesis. Zingiber officinale transcriptome was analyzed using EST dataset (38169 total) deposited in public domains. In this paper computational functional annotation of the available ESTs and identification of genes which play a significant role in gingerol biosynthesis are described. Zingiber officinale transcriptome was analyzed using EST dataset (38169 total) from ncbi. ESTs were clustered and assembled, resulting in 8624 contigs and 8821 singletons. Assembled dataset was then submitted to the EST functional annotation workflow including blast, gene ontology (go) analysis, and pathway enrichment by kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (kegg) and interproscan. The unigene datasets were further exploited to identify simple sequence repeats that enable linkage mapping. A total of 409 simple sequence repeats were identified from the contigs. Furthermore we examined the existence of novel miRNAs from the ESTs in rhizome, root and leaf tissues. EST analysis revealed the presence of single hypothetical miRNA in rhizome tissue. The hypothetical miRNA is warranted to play an important role in controlling genes involved in gingerol biosynthesis and hence demands experimental validation. The assembly and associated information of transcriptome data provides a comprehensive functional and evolutionary characterization of genomics of Zingiber officinale. As an effort to make the genomic and transcriptomic data widely available to the public domain, the results were integrated into a web-based Ginger EST database which is freely accessible at http://www.kaubic.in/gingerest/. PMID:26229293

  15. Computational... Physics Education: Letting physics learning drive the computational learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonacky, Norman

    2011-03-01

    For several years I have been part of a team researching and rethinking why physicists are more willing to admit the value of computational modeling than to include it in what they teach. We have concluded that undergraduate faculty face characteristic barriers that discourage them from starting to integrate computation into their courses. Computational tools and resources are already developed and freely available for them to use. But there loom ill-defined ``costs'' to their course learning objectives and to them personally as instructors in undertaking this. In an attempt to understand these issues more deeply, I placed myself in the mindset of a relative novice to computational applications. My approach: focus on a physics problem first and then on the computation needed to address it. I asked: could I deepen my understanding of physics while simultaneously mastering new computational skills? My results may aid appreciation of the plight of both a novice professor contemplating the introduction of computation into a course and the students taking it. These may also provide insight into practical ways that computational physics might be integrated into an entire undergraduate curriculum. Research support from: Shodor Education Foundation; IEEE-Computer Society; and Teragrid Project. Research collaboration from Partnership for Integration of Computation into Undergraduate Physics.

  16. Computers and Information Technology as a Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    Reflects on major advantage of computers as learning devices--interaction--and discusses stages involved in production of materials for computer-based learning. Use of authoring languages is discouraged. A vision of the future includes hardware; producers, distributors, and users of computer-based learning materials; and educational changes…

  17. Introduction to Computer Aided Instruction in the Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughett, Harvey L.

    The first half of this book focuses on the rationale, ideas, and information for the use of technology, including microcomputers, to improve language teaching efficiency. Topics discussed include foreign language computer assisted instruction (CAI), hardware and software selection, computer literacy, educational computing organizations, ease of…

  18. What Older Adults Know about HIV/AIDS: Lessons from an HIV/AIDS Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, La Fleur F.

    2010-01-01

    Despite being one of the fastest growing segments of the HIV/AIDS caseload, persons age 50 and older have been largely neglected in terms of HIV/AIDS education. This study describes a project involving HIV-related health education for persons [greater than or equal] 50 in an urban area of Ohio. Data from 50 persons age [greater than or equal] 50…

  19. Cultural conditionally and aid to education in east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    1995-05-01

    Aid to African education often involves the imposition of conditions that create dependency and undermine indigenous educational patterns. Such conditions can include the insistence on textbooks written and published abroad, the use of examination systems devised in Europe or North America, and the neglect of African culture and languages. In the first part of this article the author examines the attempts at educational reform after the African states had achieved independence. The second part highlights the renewed dangers of educational dependency following the 1990 World Conference on Education for All, held in Jomtien, Thailand. The last part of the article discusses whether there is such a thing as "educational aid for empowerment" and gives some examples of good educational aid projects in Africa.

  20. Current insights into computer-aided immunotherapeutic design strategies.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhi; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, Xuejin; Liu, Yan; Fu, Xiaojing

    2015-09-01

    Drug designing costs as well as design of immunotherapeutic agents could be nearly halved through the involvement of computer-aided drug designing methods in discovery and research. The inter-disciplinary, time-, and money-consuming process of drug discovery is amended by the development of drug designing, the technique of creating or finding a molecule that can render stimulatory or inhibitory activity upon various biological organisms. Meanwhile, the advancements made within this scientific domain in the last couple of decades have significantly modified and affected the way new bioactive molecules have been produced by the pharmaceutical industry. In this regard, improvements made in hardware solutions and computational techniques along with their efficient integration with biological processes have revolutionized the in silico methods in speeding up the lead identification and optimization processes. In this review, we will discuss various methods of recent computer-aided drug designing techniques that forms the basis of modern day drug discovery projects. PMID:26091813

  1. Current topics in computer-aided drug design.

    PubMed

    Taft, Carlton A; Da Silva, Vinicius Barreto; Da Silva, Carlos Henrique Tomich De Paula

    2008-03-01

    The addition of computer-aided drug design (CADD) technologies to the research and drug discovery approaches could lead to a reduction of up to 50% in the cost of drug design. Designing a drug is the process of finding or creating a molecule which has a specific activity on a biological organism. Development and drug discovery is a time-consuming, expensive, and interdisciplinary process whereas scientific advancements during the past two decades have altered the way pharmaceutical research produces new bioactive molecules. Advances in computational techniques and hardware solutions have enabled in silico methods to speed up lead optimization and identification. We will review current topics in computer-aided molecular design underscoring some of the most recent approaches and interdisciplinary processes. We will discuss some of the most efficient pathways and design. PMID:18214973

  2. Evaluation of computer-aided detection and diagnosis systemsa)

    PubMed Central

    Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Armato, Samuel G.; Bert, Alberto; Correale, Loredana; Delsanto, Silvia; Freedman, Matthew T.; Fryd, David; Gur, David; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Huo, Zhimin; Jiang, Yulei; Morra, Lia; Paquerault, Sophie; Raykar, Vikas; Samuelson, Frank; Summers, Ronald M.; Tourassi, Georgia; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems are increasingly being used as an aid by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. Computer-aided detection systems mark regions of an image that may reveal specific abnormalities and are used to alert clinicians to these regions during image interpretation. Computer-aided diagnosis systems provide an assessment of a disease using image-based information alone or in combination with other relevant diagnostic data and are used by clinicians as a decision support in developing their diagnoses. While CAD systems are commercially available, standardized approaches for evaluating and reporting their performance have not yet been fully formalized in the literature or in a standardization effort. This deficiency has led to difficulty in the comparison of CAD devices and in understanding how the reported performance might translate into clinical practice. To address these important issues, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed the Computer Aided Detection in Diagnostic Imaging Subcommittee (CADSC), in part, to develop recommendations on approaches for assessing CAD system performance. The purpose of this paper is to convey the opinions of the AAPM CADSC members and to stimulate the development of consensus approaches and “best practices” for evaluating CAD systems. Both the assessment of a standalone CAD system and the evaluation of the impact of CAD on end-users are discussed. It is hoped that awareness of these important evaluation elements and the CADSC recommendations will lead to further development of structured guidelines for CAD performance assessment. Proper assessment of CAD system performance is expected to increase the understanding of a CAD system's effectiveness and limitations, which is expected to stimulate further research and development efforts on CAD technologies, reduce problems due to improper use, and eventually improve the utility and efficacy of CAD

  3. The Early Days of Computer Aided Newspaper Production Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enlund, Nils; Andersin, Hans E.

    During the years 1970-1973, the Laboratory of Information Processing Science at the Helsinki Uni versity of Technology carried out the Computer Graph ics Pro ject (CGP). The activities foc us ed on the problems of producing news paper text, ad vert isements, and com plete pages using inter act ive computer graphics. The project and its commercial spin-off, Typlan, as well as the BUNPAPS continuation project 1973-1975, cre ated a num ber of innovative, pioneering solutions for computer aided news pap er production, laying the found at ion for the digitalization of media production.

  4. Sex Education on Film. A Guide to Visual Aids & Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Laura J.; Buskin, Judith

    This is an annotated guide to visual aids and programs in sex education covering the topics of family relationships, physical and emotional development, the creation of life, masculinity and feminity, attitudes and values, marriage, social problems, philosophy and implementation of sex education, together with a sample program in sex education for…

  5. Computers in Science and Mathematics Education in the ASEAN Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talisayon, Vivien M.

    1989-01-01

    Compares policies and programs on computers in science and mathematics education in the six ASEAN countries: Brunei, Indonesia; Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Limits discussion to the computer as a teaching aid and object of study, attendant problems, and regional cooperation. (MVL)

  6. HIV/AIDS Education in Teacher Preparation Programs. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skripak, Danielle; Summerfield, Liane

    Experts agree that prevention through education is the best way to fight the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which causes Acquired Immune Deficiency (AIDS). However, the capacity of teachers to provide instruction about AIDS and other related health problems with knowledge and comfort may be limited by a lack of preservice…

  7. Enhancing Ethical Decision Making in Sexuality and AIDS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, C. Everett; Piercy, Fred P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates providing sexuality and AIDS education in a way that helps adolescents explore the ethical meaning of sexual behavior. Presents principles for Rest's model of moral development, which describes four internal processes that produce moral behavior, as one example of an ethical framework that could inform sexuality and AIDS education…

  8. Computer-aided light sheet flow visualization using photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1994-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and a visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. The photogrammetric reconstruction technique and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment are described. Results of the computer-aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images with CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  9. Computer Sciences in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Speeches presented to an international seminar on computer science are reprinted. These aspects of computer science courses in secondary education are considered: the significance of including such courses in the curriculum; objectives and contents for such courses; the integration of computer courses with other school subjects; methods and…

  10. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1997-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface system. The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and/or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  11. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1996-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the Computer Aided Grid Interface system (CAGI). The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and / or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  12. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  13. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  14. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  15. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  16. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  17. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  18. School Health Education To Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. WHO AIDS Series 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide provides a framework within which education authorities can work with teachers, parents, and community leaders to help young people learn the facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). It emphasizes the importance of education about human behavior and sexuality that is appropriate to…

  19. Discriminating coastal rangeland production and improvements with computer aided techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A.; Faulkner, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and utility of using satellite data and computer-aided remote sensing analysis techniques to conduct range inventories were tested. This pilot study was focused over a 250,000 acre site in Galveston and Brazoria Counties along the Texas Gulf Coast. Rectified enlarged aircraft color infrared photographs of this site were used as the ground truth base. The different land categories were identified, delineated, and measured. Multispectral scanner (MSS) bulk data from LANDSAT-1 was received and analyzed with the Image 100 pattern recognition system. Features of interest were delineated on the image console giving the number of picture elements classified; the picture elements were converted to acreages and the accuracy of the technique was evaluated by comparison with data base results for three test sites. The accuracies for computer aided classification of coastal marshes ranged from 89% to 96%.

  20. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  1. Microstereolithography-based computer-aided manufacturing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Various solid freeform fabrication technologies have been introduced for constructing three-dimensional (3-D) freeform structures. Of these, microstereolithography (MSTL) technology performs the best in 3-D space because it not only has high resolution, but also fast fabrication speed. Using this technology, 3-D structures with mesoscale size and microscale resolution are achievable. Many researchers have been trying to apply this technology to tissue engineering to construct medically applicable scaffolds, which require a 3-D shape that fits a defect with a mesoscale size and microscale inner architecture for efficient regeneration of artificial tissue. This chapter introduces the principles of MSTL technology and representative systems. It includes fabrication and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) processes to show the automation process by which measurements from medical images are used to fabricate the required 3-D shape. Then, various tissue engineering applications based on MSTL are summarized. PMID:22692621

  2. Method of computer-aided measurement in a shooting range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanlao; Zhang, Yun; Xiong, Rensheng; Sun, Yishang

    2000-10-01

    In the view of the blindness of photoelectric measurement scheme argument and the danger of live shell measurement in shooting range, this paper provided a computer aided measurement method guiding the measurement scheme argument and equipment researching and producing and driving the measurement process visiblization and standardization. The computer aided measurement in shooting range can be divided into the mathematical simulation of targets moving, the mathematical simulation of measurement method, the mathematical simulation of photoelectric system, the animated displaying of measurement process, and so on. By adding random jamming, Gaussian white noise and so on, the live measurement environment and condition was built. By using mathematical discretization, the time series pictures was obtained. By controlling the time changing and time unifying of several equipment, the animated displaying of measurement process was built. The programming language was MATLAB. The method was proved through simulating the intersection measurement trajectory of antiaircraft gun's shell successfully.

  3. A computer aided design procedure for generating gear teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure for computer aided design (CAD) of gear teeth is presented. It is developed for generated teeth fabricated by a hob cutter or a shaper. It provides a means for analytically and numerically determining the tooth profile, given the cutter profile. An illustrative example with involute tooth profiles is given. Application with non-standard profiles and with bevel, spiral bevel, and hypoid gears is discussed.

  4. Computer-Aided Design of a Sulfate Encapsulating Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Bosano, Jerome J; Bonnesen, Peter V; Kertesz, Vilmos; Hay, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    A promising new approach towards more efficient self-assembled cage receptors through computer-aided design is demonstrated. The resulting M{sub 4}L{sub 6} tetrahedral cage, internally functionalized with accurately positioned urea hydrogen-bonding groups (see structure; yellow: predicted, blue: experimental, space-filling: SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), proved to be a remarkably strong sulfate receptor in water.

  5. Information and computer-aided system for structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrashevitch, Ju. G.; Nizametdinov, Sh. U.; Polkovnikov, A. V.; Rumjantzev, V. P.; Surina, O. N.; Kalinin, G. M.; Sidorenkov, A. V.; Strebkov, Ju. S.

    1992-09-01

    An information and computer-aided system for structural materials data has been developed to provide data for the fusion and fission reactor system design. It is designed for designers, industrial engineers, and material science specialists and provides a friendly interface in an interactive mode. The database for structural materials contains the master files: chemical composition, physical, mechanical, corrosion, technological properties, regulatory and technical documentation. The system is implemented on a PC/AT running the PS/2 operating system.

  6. [Computer-aided surgery of the paranasal sinuses and the anterior skull base].

    PubMed

    Caversaccio, M; Zheng, G; Nolte, L-P

    2008-04-01

    Endoscopic or microscopic surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps is a routine intervention in daily practice. It is often a delicate and difficult minimally invasive intervention in a narrow space, with a tunnel view of 4 mm in the case of endoscopy and frequent bleeding in chronically inflamed tissue. Therefore, orientation in such a "labyrinth" is often difficult. In the case of polyp recurrence or tumors, the normal anatomical landmarks are often missing, which renders orientation even more difficult. In such cases, computer-aided navigation together with images such as those from computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can support the surgeon to make the operation more accurate and, in some cases, faster. Computer-aided surgery also has great potential for education. PMID:18345525

  7. Computer Education and Computer Use by Preschool Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have found that teachers seldom use computers in the preschool classroom. However, little research has examined why preschool teachers elect not to use computers. This case study focused on identifying whether community colleges that prepare teachers for early childhood education include in their curriculum how teachers can effectively…

  8. Computers in Traffic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, O. P.

    1983-01-01

    Traffic education covers basic road skills, legal/insurance aspects, highway code, accident causation/prevention, and vehicle maintenance. Microcomputer applications to traffic education are outlined, followed by a selected example of programs currently available (focusing on drill/practice, simulation, problem-solving, data manipulation, games,…

  9. Computer-aided design of antenna structures and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses computer-aided design procedures for antenna reflector structures and related components. The primary design aid is a computer program that establishes cross sectional sizes of the structural members by an optimality criterion. Alternative types of deflection-dependent objectives can be selected for designs subject to constraints on structure weight. The computer program has a special-purpose formulation to design structures of the type frequently used for antenna construction. These structures, in common with many in other areas of application, are represented by analytical models that employ only the three translational degrees of freedom at each node. The special-purpose construction of the program, however, permits coding and data management simplifications that provide advantages in problem size and execution speed. Size and speed are essentially governed by the requirements of structural analysis and are relatively unaffected by the added requirements of design. Computation times to execute several design/analysis cycles are comparable to the times required by general-purpose programs for a single analysis cycle. Examples in the paper illustrate effective design improvement for structures with several thousand degrees of freedom and within reasonable computing times.

  10. Computer Developments and Educational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riding, R. J.; Buckle, C. F.

    1987-01-01

    Examines some of the research and development implications of classroom computer use for educational psychology. Considers the implications of further developments in tutorial uses, reading instruction, and facilitation of thinking. (RKM)

  11. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  12. The Evaluation of Educational Help in Aids Prevention among Youth for Educators Working Outside the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreau, Louise; And Others

    Training of professionals as educators in the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and sex education domains has been seen as part of the solution to slow down the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission and eventually stop it. This study evaluated an educational guide for AIDS prevention which was distributed to youth workers…

  13. Computer Networking for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Ted D. E.; Ekelund, Mark

    This book is intended to introduce the basic concepts of connecting computers together and to equip individuals with the technical background necessary to begin constructing small networks. For those already experienced with creating and maintaining computer networks, the book can help in considering the creation of a schoolwide network. The book…

  14. Roles of Computer Technology in the Mathematics Education of the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandgenett, Neal

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews technological advances in educational computer use and discusses applications for computers as tools, tutors, and tutees in mathematics education of gifted students. Computer-assisted instruction, artificial intelligence, multimedia, numeric processing, computer-aided design, LOGO, robotics, and hypercard software packages are…

  15. Features of Computer-Based Decision Aids: Systematic Review, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. Objective The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Methods Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Results Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however

  16. Harnessing Computer Games in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Morris S. Y.; Shang, Junjie; Lee, Fong-Lok; Lee, Jimmy H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Besides the ability of making learning more interesting, educators and researchers have been exploring other pedagogical potentials of computer games. How to employ games for constructivist learning and teaching has become an attention in the field of education and game design in recent years. This article gives an introduction to game-based…

  17. Alberta Education's Computer Technology Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Jim

    This description of activities initiated through the Computer Technology Project of the provincial education ministry in Alberta, Canada, covers the 2-year period beginning with establishment of the project by the Alberta Department of Education in October 1981. Activities described include: (1) the establishment of the Office of Educational…

  18. Ubiquitous Computing Technologies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Wu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yen-Jung

    2007-01-01

    The prosperous development of wireless communication and sensor technologies has attracted the attention of researchers from both computer and education fields. Various investigations have been made for applying the new technologies to education purposes, such that more active and adaptive learning activities can be conducted in the real world.…

  19. Education: the key to curb HIV and AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, D N; Aryal, U R; Khanal, K

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelming impact has been established among different aspects and burden of incurable HIV and AIDS is increasing day-by-day globally. The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits and strengths of an education system in the absence of remedy and help to develop future strategies. Education has great impact on HIV and AIDS and vice-versa. An education plays a vital role to curb the transmission of HIV and AIDS thorough capacity building, provides information, reduces vulnerability, empowerment, improve life skill, maintain equity, reduce dependence, stigma, and discrimination, where are abundance foundations for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS has role for devastation of education system and level which has great impact on productivity, economic growth, demand, supply and daily life of human being. Low and middle income countries needs to be improve recording and reporting systems related to impact of HIV and AIDS on education. By analyzing preceding evidences, policy makers or governance feels to reformulate policies relating to education and health. Evidence based policy and program will be more useful to address distressing squall of epidemic. PMID:24096225

  20. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  1. The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; De, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and…

  2. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: Report on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of State, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For too many children, education has been a casualty of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Yet schooling remains an essential element of a robust individual and societal future, and partnerships with the education sector provide important opportunities to fight back against the pandemic. The United States Government (USG) supports efforts to address the…

  3. Addressing Educational Needs of Children with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Hendrina; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews medical and neuropsychological effects of HIV/AIDS in children and relates these findings specifically to educational difficulties. It then proposes an instructional delivery framework for these children that stresses the importance of addressing their educational needs and includes specific suggestions for reading instruction,…

  4. Prevention of HIV/AIDS Education in Rural Communities III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This third special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents 9 articles on: "Rural Adolescent Views of HIV Prevention: Focus Groups at Two Indiana Rural 4-H Clubs" (William L. Yarber and Stephanie A. Sanders); "Implementing HIV Education: Beyond Curriculum" (Susan Frelick Wooley);…

  5. Financial Aid, Access, and America's Social Contract with Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last century, Americans have formed a social contract with higher education through the development of and changes to student financial aid programs. These federal, state, and institutional programs are the manifestation of the value we place on who should and who does pay the costs of higher education. Grants versus loans and low-income…

  6. HIV/AIDS Education: What Works for Swaziland University Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukati, C. W. S.; Vilakati, Nokuthula; Esampally, Chandraiah

    2010-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS poses a major threat to development and poverty alleviation, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Education has been declared an effective preventative approach and the single most powerful weapon against HIV transmission. However, there is a paucity of research on the type of education required, the appropriate…

  7. Recruiting Public Aid Recipients into Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, William B.

    This program description provides a detailed summary of the efforts employed at the North Chicago Community High School in North Chicago, Illinois, to recruit public aid recipients into adult education programs. Outlined first are the educational needs of the North Chicago community. Then various agencies cooperating with the high school's…

  8. Education and HIV/AIDS--30 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment…

  9. Audiovisual Media for Computer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Aa, H. J., Ed.

    The result of an international survey, this catalog lists over 450 films dealing with computing methods and automation and is intended for those who wish to use audiovisual displays as a means of instruction of computer education. The catalog gives the film's title, running time, and producer and tells whether the film is color or black-and-white,…

  10. Computer Navigation-aided Resection of Sacral Chordomas

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong-Kun; Chan, Chung-Ming; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Hai-Rong; Niu, Xiao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Resection of sacral chordomas is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and there are often no bony landmarks to guide the resection. Achieving adequate surgical margins is, therefore, difficult, and the recurrence rate is high. Use of computer navigation may allow optimal preoperative planning and improve precision in tumor resection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of computer navigation-aided resection of sacral chordomas. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, a total of 26 patients with sacral chordoma underwent computer navigation-aided surgery were included and followed for a minimum of 18 months. There were 21 primary cases and 5 recurrent cases, with a mean age of 55.8 years old (range: 35–84 years old). Tumors were located above the level of the S3 neural foramen in 23 patients and below the level of the S3 neural foramen in 3 patients. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed with a computed tomography-based navigation system combined with the magnetic resonance images using the navigation software. Tumors were resected via a posterior approach assisted by the computer navigation. Mean follow-up was 38.6 months (range: 18–84 months). Results: Mean operative time was 307 min. Mean intraoperative blood loss was 3065 ml. For computer navigation, the mean registration deviation during surgery was 1.7 mm. There were 18 wide resections, 4 marginal resections, and 4 intralesional resections. All patients were alive at the final follow-up, with 2 (7.7%) exhibiting tumor recurrence. The other 24 patients were tumor-free. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score was 27.3 (range: 19–30). Conclusions: Computer-assisted navigation can be safely applied to the resection of the sacral chordomas, allowing execution of preoperative plans, and achieving good oncological outcomes. Nevertheless, this needs to be accomplished by surgeons with adequate experience and skill. PMID:26830986

  11. AIDS education for a low literate audience in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Msimuko, A K

    1988-04-01

    A workshop funded by the USA Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) was an effort by Zambia toward prevention and control of AIDS. The lack of educational materials about AIDS for a low-literate audience was the major problem addressed by the workshop. Other problems include the lack of collaborative effort in the development of materials on AIDS, and the lack of skills needed in the development of such materials in Zambia. 1 of the objectives of the workshop was to launch the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia's (PPAZ) materials development project. The scope of this project includes the production of educational materials on AIDS for low-literate audiences and a counseling handbook for family planning workers. Print materials should be simply written, using words, idioms, and graphics that are familiar to the target audience. Other workshop objectives included the establishment of collaborative relationships between organizations involved in existing AIDS educational activities in Zambia, and the development of practical skills needed to produce print materials. Education was identified as the most important strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and PPAZ should be the executing agency of the print materials project. Audience research, using focus group techniques, focus group discussions, behavioral messages, and pretesting of messages, should be the most effective means of reaching targeted audiences. PPAZ is contracted by PATH to begin development of educational materials, and 2 committees have formed to implement the project and to establish interagency collaboration. Audience research was begun between January and March of 1988, focusing on people's beliefs, practices, and ideas about AIDS. The final phase of the project will be the printing, distribution, and use of the AIDS materials and the training of family planning field workers in the proper use of these materials. PMID:12315435

  12. PACS-Based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K. (Bernie); Liu, Brent J.; Le, Anh HongTu; Documet, Jorge

    The ultimate goal of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)-based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis (CAD) is to integrate CAD results into daily clinical practice so that it becomes a second reader to aid the radiologist's diagnosis. Integration of CAD and Hospital Information System (HIS), Radiology Information System (RIS) or PACS requires certain basic ingredients from Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for textual data, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard for images, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles in order to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requirements to be a healthcare information system. Among the DICOM standards and IHE workflow profiles, DICOM Structured Reporting (DICOM-SR); and IHE Key Image Note (KIN), Simple Image and Numeric Report (SINR) and Post-processing Work Flow (PWF) are utilized in CAD-HIS/RIS/PACS integration. These topics with examples are presented in this chapter.

  13. SAFE: Stopping AIDS through Functional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Judith

    This functional curriculum is intended to teach people with developmental disabilities or other learning problems how to prevent infection with HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The entire curriculum includes six video segments, four illustrated brochures, 28 slides and illustrations, as well as a guide…

  14. Preventing AIDS Tomorrow through Education Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, Vercie M.; And Others

    In an effort to prevent the further spread of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections, and to minimize unwarranted fear about HIV transmission, as well as the subtle and overt limitation of people's rights resulting from this fear, the North Carolina Department of Community Colleges developed a course entitled "Preventing AIDS (Acquired…

  15. Optometric Education's Challenge: AIDS in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    A national survey of schools of optometry suggests that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) needs to be more thoroughly addressed in some curricula. Suggestions are made for curriculum development in the areas of public health, basic coursework, immunology, clinical medicine, psychology, ocular manifestations, and contact lenses. (MSE)

  16. The Computer Aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalif, Guy U.

    1994-01-01

    The preliminary design of an aircraft is a complex, labor-intensive, and creative process. Since the 1970's, many computer programs have been written to help automate preliminary airplane design. Time and resource analyses have identified, 'a substantial decrease in project duration with the introduction of an automated design capability'. Proof-of-concept studies have been completed which establish 'a foundation for a computer-based airframe design capability', Unfortunately, today's design codes exist in many different languages on many, often expensive, hardware platforms. Through the use of a module-based system architecture, the Computer aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP) will eventually bring together many of the most useful features of existing programs. Through the use of an expert system, it will add an additional feature that could be described as indispensable to entry level engineers and students: the incorporation of 'expert' knowledge into the automated design process.

  17. Centurion Educational Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahl, David H.

    1983-01-01

    Centurion manufactures 10 "microcomputers" (cannot be programed in Basic) which function solely as education drill-practice devices. Two of these devices are reviewed: Versator (for mathematics) and Skillmaster (for generalized drill in any subject area). Instructional materials available for use with the devices are also reviewed. (JN)

  18. CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface. A work in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Yu, Tzu-Yi; Vaughn, David

    1992-01-01

    Progress realized in the development of a Computer Aided Grid Interface (CAGI) software system in integrating CAD/CAM geometric system output and/or Interactive Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) files, geometry manipulations associated with grid generation, and robust grid generation methodologies is presented. CAGI is being developed in a modular fashion and will offer fast, efficient and economical response to geometry/grid preparation, allowing the ability to upgrade basic geometry in a step-by-step fashion interactively and under permanent visual control along with minimizing the differences between the actual hardware surface descriptions and corresponding numerical analog. The computer code GENIE is used as a basis. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) representation of sculptured surfaces is utilized for surface grid redistribution. The computer aided analysis system, PATRAN, is adapted as a CAD/CAM system. The progress realized in NURBS surface grid generation, the development of IGES transformer, and geometry adaption using PATRAN will be presented along with their applicability to grid generation associated with rocket propulsion applications.

  19. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Utilizing Interactive Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M. A.

    1984-08-01

    Interactive or display-oriented pattern recognition algorithms can be utilized with advantage in the design of efficient computer-aided diagnostic systems. These visual methods may provide a powerful alternative to the pure numerical approach of data analysis for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Functional as well as pictorial representation techniques are discussed in conjunction with some newly developed semi-fuzzy classification techniques. The blend between the two methodologies leads to the design of a very flexible, yet powerful diagnostic system. Results obtained when applying the proposed system on a group of patients representing several classes of liver dysfunction are also reported, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  20. DOE workshop on computer-aided engineering. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The aims and objectives in organizing this workshop were to discuss the needs, activities, and plans for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) within the DOE Laboratories and major DOE contractors. The intent was to provide a forum for exchange of information and ideas, and to foster CAE communications among DOE Laboratories and contractors. This report abstracts each of the workshop subject areas. These areas were, CAE Overviews, Networking and Data Transfer, Integrated Circuits, Engineering Systems, Mechanical CAE and Systems, CAE Workstations and Tools, and Drafting and PCB Layouts.

  1. Computer-aided reliability estimation. [for fault-tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiffler, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-aided reliability estimation (CARE) programs are developed to improve the tools available for estimating the reliability of fault-tolerant systems. A description is presented of a program, called CARE II, which was developed after the first program reported by Mathur (1971). Attention is given to the CARE II reliability model, the CARE II coverage model, and CARE II limitations which are to be rectified in CARE III. It is pointed out that the present coverage model in CARE II is extremely versatile. The major limitation is related to the burden placed on the user to determine the basic parameters from which the coverage calculations are made.

  2. Computer-Aided Design Of Sheet-Material Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Paternoster, Vincent Y.; Levitt, Maureen L.; Osterloh, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-aided-design system partly automates tedious process of designing and guiding assembly of small pieces of flat sheet material into large surfaces that approximate smoothly curved surfaces having complicated three-dimensional shapes. Capability provides for flexibility enabling designer to assess quickly and easily effects of changes in design in making engineering compromises among various sizes and shapes. Saves time and money in both design and fabrication. Used in rocket-engine application and other applications requiring design of sheet-material parts.

  3. A computer-aided approach to nonlinear control systhesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Anthony, Tobin

    1988-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to develop a computer-aided approach to nonlinear stability analysis and nonlinear control system design. This goal is to be obtained by refining the describing function method as a synthesis tool for nonlinear control design. The interim report outlines the approach by this study to meet these goals including an introduction to the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program which was instrumental in meeting these study objectives. A single-input describing function (SIDF) design methodology was developed in this study; coupled with the software constructed in this study, the results of this project provide a comprehensive tool for design and integration of nonlinear control systems.

  4. Computer aided design and analysis of gear tooth geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A simulation method for gear hobbing and shaping of straight and spiral bevel gears is presented. The method is based upon an enveloping theory for gear tooth profile generation. The procedure is applicable in the computer aided design of standard and nonstandard tooth forms. An inverse procedure for finding a conjugate gear tooth profile is presented for arbitrary cutter geometry. The kinematic relations for the tooth surfaces of straight and spiral bevel gears are proposed. The tooth surface equations for these gears are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated numerical development and solution.

  5. Computer aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  6. Computer-aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuo, Hung Chang; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  7. Computer aided design of multi-phase switched reluctance motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, N. K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive computer-aided design (CAD) procedure of multiphase switched reluctance motor (SRM) is presented. Better approach for calculation of the outer dimensions, phase inductance, flux linkage and losses, and also a different concept for calculating the average torque of the motor are incorporated in the CAD program. The average torque is calculated based on the most effective 15° (for 8/6 SRM) of the static torque profile of the motor. A sample design of a 5hp SRM is presented in detail and the design is validated by conducting a two-dimensional finite element analysis of the motor.

  8. Computer-aided structural design of a lunar radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgul, Ferhat; Gerstle, Walter H.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided structural design of the main reflector of a fully steerable radio telescope to be located (in the 21st century) on the moon, and presents the results of the structural analysis of the reflector. The reflector is a paraboloid with a surface area of 12,660 sq m and a focal ratio of 0.42. The reflector's surface will be covered by a 5.08 cm-thick sandwich panel made of thin-walled aluminum cells filled with low-density foam. The low weight of the design will be achieved by using graphite-epoxy as the structural material.

  9. A computer aided engineering tool for ECLS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangham, Michal E.; Reuter, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis tool used by NASA for environmental control and life support system design studies is capable of simulating atmospheric revitalization systems, water recovery and management systems, and single-phase active thermal control systems. The designer/analysis interface used is graphics-based, and allows the designer to build a model by constructing a schematic of the system under consideration. Data management functions are performed, and the program is translated into a format that is compatible with the solution routines.

  10. SNL Mechanical Computer Aided Design (MCAD) guide 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Brandon; Pollice, Stephanie L.; Martinez, Jack R.

    2007-12-01

    This document is considered a mechanical design best-practice guide to new and experienced designers alike. The contents consist of topics related to using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, performing basic analyses, and using configuration management. The details specific to a particular topic have been leveraged against existing Product Realization Standard (PRS) and Technical Business Practice (TBP) requirements while maintaining alignment with sound engineering and design practices. This document is to be considered dynamic in that subsequent updates will be reflected in the main title, and each update will be published on an annual basis.

  11. Application of infrared thermography in computer aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Oliver; Rajendra Acharya, U.; Ng, E. Y. K.; Hong, Tan Jen; Yu, Wenwei

    2014-09-01

    The invention of thermography, in the 1950s, posed a formidable problem to the research community: What is the relationship between disease and heat radiation captured with Infrared (IR) cameras? The research community responded with a continuous effort to find this crucial relationship. This effort was aided by advances in processing techniques, improved sensitivity and spatial resolution of thermal sensors. However, despite this progress fundamental issues with this imaging modality still remain. The main problem is that the link between disease and heat radiation is complex and in many cases even non-linear. Furthermore, the change in heat radiation as well as the change in radiation pattern, which indicate disease, is minute. On a technical level, this poses high requirements on image capturing and processing. On a more abstract level, these problems lead to inter-observer variability and on an even more abstract level they lead to a lack of trust in this imaging modality. In this review, we adopt the position that these problems can only be solved through a strict application of scientific principles and objective performance assessment. Computing machinery is inherently objective; this helps us to apply scientific principles in a transparent way and to assess the performance results. As a consequence, we aim to promote thermography based Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. Another benefit of CAD systems comes from the fact that the diagnostic accuracy is linked to the capability of the computing machinery and, in general, computers become ever more potent. We predict that a pervasive application of computers and networking technology in medicine will help us to overcome the shortcomings of any single imaging modality and this will pave the way for integrated health care systems which maximize the quality of patient care.

  12. AIDS--Policies and Prospects: I. The Failure of AIDS--Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannemeyer, William E.; Franc, Michael G

    1989-01-01

    Discusses failure of education programs to affect spread of AIDS by intravenous drug users in inner cities. Suggests following policy responses: confidential, identity-linked reporting of HIV test results; programs to alert the sexual partners of HIV-positive persons; elimination of barriers to HIV testing; routine offering of HIV testing; and…

  13. Instructional Aids for Adaptive Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, James F.

    This idea book on remedial physical education is divided into four sections. Each section contains drawings and brief explanations on ways to adapt physical education for the physically handicapped. The first section covers homemade equipment for developing muscular strength and endurance in specific muscles. Also included are resistive exercises…

  14. The Role of Computer-Aided Assessment in Health Professional Education: A Comparison of Student Performance in Computer-Based and Paper-and-Pen Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gary; Weerakoon, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the differences of student performance between computerized and paper-and-pen multiple-choice tests and assesses the extent and effect of "computer anxiety." Uses the LXR.TEST 5.1 software for computerized tests and suggests that computer-based assessment could be used with confidence for the purposes of ranking students, but care…

  15. Computer-Aided Instruction: College Algebra Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aichele, Douglas B.; Tree, D. Rae; Utley, Juliana; Wescoatt, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Technology permeates our daily lives; education has not been untouched. Liaw (2002) points out that "teachers, trainers, and instructional designers of computer-based or Web-based instruction would benefit by being more attentive to learners' perceptions toward Web-based environments." Reviewing the earlier research into student perceptions toward…

  16. Use of symbolic computation in robotics education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vira, Naren; Tunstel, Edward

    1992-01-01

    An application of symbolic computation in robotics education is described. A software package is presented which combines generality, user interaction, and user-friendliness with the systematic usage of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence techniques. The software utilizes MACSYMA, a LISP-based symbolic algebra language, to automatically generate closed-form expressions representing forward and inverse kinematics solutions, the Jacobian transformation matrices, robot pose error-compensation models equations, and Lagrange dynamics formulation for N degree-of-freedom, open chain robotic manipulators. The goal of such a package is to aid faculty and students in the robotics course by removing burdensome tasks of mathematical manipulations. The software package has been successfully tested for its accuracy using commercially available robots.

  17. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akio; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Örtengren, Ulf; Niwano, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar crowns were fabricated: CAD/CAM-generated composite resin-based crowns (LU crowns); manually built-up monolayer composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-monolayer crowns); manually built-up layered composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-layered crowns); and EMP crowns. Each type of crown was cemented to dies and the fracture resistance was tested. EC&B-layered crowns showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared with LU and EMP crowns, although there was no significant difference in flexural strength or fracture toughness between LU and EC&B materials. Micro-computed tomography and fractographic analysis showed that decreased strength probably resulted from internal voids in the EC&B-layered crowns introduced by the layering process. There was no significant difference in fracture resistance among LU, EC&B-monolayer, and EMP crowns. Both types of composite resin-based crowns showed fracture loads of >2000 N, which is higher than the molar bite force. Therefore, CAD/CAM-generated crowns, without internal defects, may be applied to molar regions with sufficient fracture resistance. PMID:25683749

  18. Providing Formative Feedback From a Summative Computer-aided Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Robert D. E.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of providing formative feedback for summative computer-aided assessment. Design Two groups of first-year undergraduate life science students in pharmacy and neuroscience who were studying an e-learning package in a common pharmacology module were presented with a computer-based summative assessment. A sheet with individualized feedback derived from each of the 5 results sections of the assessment was provided to each student. Students were asked via a questionnaire to evaluate the form and method of feedback. Assessment The students were able to reflect on their performance and use the feedback provided to guide their future study or revision. There was no significant difference between the responses from pharmacy and neuroscience students. Students' responses on the questionnaire indicated a generally positive reaction to this form of feedback. Conclusions Findings suggest that additional formative assessment conveyed by this style and method would be appreciated and valued by students. PMID:17533442

  19. A Computer-Aided Detection System for Digital Chest Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; García-Mateos, Ginés; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Hernández-Hernández, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided detection systems aim at the automatic detection of diseases using different medical imaging modalities. In this paper, a novel approach to detecting normality/pathology in digital chest radiographs is proposed. The problem tackled is complicated since it is not focused on particular diseases but anything that differs from what is considered as normality. First, the areas of interest of the chest are found using template matching on the images. Then, a texture descriptor called local binary patterns (LBP) is computed for those areas. After that, LBP histograms are applied in a classifier algorithm, which produces the final normality/pathology decision. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposal, with success rates above 87% in the best cases. Moreover, our technique is able to locate the possible areas of pathology in nonnormal radiographs. Strengths and limitations of the proposed approach are described in the Conclusions. PMID:27372536

  20. The ergonomics of computer aided design within advanced manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    John, P A

    1988-03-01

    Many manufacturing companies have now awakened to the significance of computer aided design (CAD), although the majority of them have only been able to purchase computerised draughting systems of which only a subset produce direct manufacturing data. Such companies are moving steadily towards the concept of computer integrated manufacture (CIM), and this demands CAD to address more than draughting. CAD architects are thus having to rethink the basic specification of such systems, although they typically suffer from an insufficient understanding of the design task and have consequently been working with inadequate specifications. It is at this fundamental level that ergonomics has much to offer, making its contribution by encouraging user-centred design. The discussion considers the relationships between CAD and: the design task; the organisation and people; creativity; and artificial intelligence. It finishes with a summary of the contribution of ergonomics. PMID:15676646

  1. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  2. Comparative study viruses with computer-aided phase microscope AIRYSCAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Koufal, Georgy E.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.

    1996-12-01

    Traditionally viruses are studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after complicated procedure of sample preparation without the possibility to study it under natural conditions. We obtained images of viruses (Vaccinia virus, Rotavirus) and rickettsias (Rickettsia provazekii, Coxiella burnetti) in native state with computer-aided phase microscope airyscan -- the interference microscope of Linnik layout with phase modulation of the reference wave with dissector image tube as coordinate-sensitive photodetector and computer processing of phase image. A light source was the He-Ne laser. The main result is coincidence of dimensions and shape of phase images with available information concerning their morphology obtained with SEM and other methods. The fine structure of surface and nuclei is observed. This method may be applied for virus recognition and express identification, investigation of virus structure and the analysis of cell-virus interaction.

  3. Computer-aided surgical reduction of facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Kokoska, M S; Citardi, M J

    2000-01-01

    The successful surgical treatment of facial fractures is based primarily on the spatial judgment of the surgeon, who may utilize occlusal and skeletal relationships to confirm adequacy of the reduction. Although computed tomography (CT) scans are helpful visual representations of the fractures, they cannot be used directly to guide the reduction. Currently the surgeon may extract an approximate measurement of displacement or defect size from a CT scan, but intraoperatively he must reduce a fracture or place an implant based on his best guess, using adjacent normal skeleton as landmarks. Computer-aided surgery (CAS) can be used to bridge the discontinuity between preoperative CT scan images and intraoperative facial fracture reduction. This article summarizes our experience with CAS applications in the treatment of facial fractures. PMID:11802366

  4. Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Computer Simulation: Future Applications in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gwendolyn B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes possible applications of new technologies to special education. Discusses results of a study designed to explore the use of robotics, artificial intelligence, and computer simulations to aid people with handicapping conditions. Presents several scenarios in which specific technological advances may contribute to special education…

  5. Private Higher Education and the Constitutions; Constitutionality of State Aid to Private Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ann Van Wynen; Thomas, A. J., Jr.

    This report discusses the constitutionality of state aid to church-related institutions of higher education. The introduction deals with the important role that private institutions play in the total system of higher education, the seriousness of their financial plight, and the necessity for increased state aid to these institutions. Sections 2…

  6. Aiding Education in Conflict: The Role of International Education Providers Operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, Adele; Stoddard, Abby; DiDomenico, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Amid rising violence against civilian aid operations in insecure environments, attacks on the education sector pose a unique set of challenges for international aid actors. In recent years incidents of violence targeting the education sector in Afghanistan and the conflict-affected areas of Pakistan have increased. This article synthesizes recent…

  7. HIV/AIDS in Dance Education: A Pilot Study in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Thompson, Shara

    2005-01-01

    A pilot research project was conducted to address issues related to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in dance in higher education. The primary goals were to summarize the impact of HIV/AIDS on dance and dance education, to document the profession's response (research, curricula, programs,…

  8. Accuracy of different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guides for dental implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of implants placed using different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides, including partially guided and totally guided templates, and determine the accuracy of these guides Materials and methods: In total, 111 implants were placed in 24 patients using CAD/CAM surgical guides. After implant insertion, the positions and angulations of the placed implants relative to those of the planned ones were determined using special software that matched pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) images, and deviations were calculated and compared between the different guides and templates. Results: The mean angular deviations were 1.72 ± 1.67 and 2.71 ± 2.58, the mean deviations in position at the neck were 0.27 ± 0.24 and 0.69 ± 0.66 mm, the mean deviations in position at the apex were 0.37 ± 0.35 and 0.94 ± 0.75 mm, and the mean depth deviations were 0.32 ± 0.32 and 0.51 ± 0.48 mm with tooth- and mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides, respectively (P < .05 for all). The mean distance deviations when partially guided (29 implants) and totally guided templates (30 implants) were used were 0.54 ± 0.50 mm and 0.89 ± 0.78 mm, respectively, at the neck and 1.10 ± 0.85 mm and 0.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively, at the apex, with corresponding mean angular deviations of 2.56 ± 2.23° and 2.90 ± 3.0° (P > .05 for all). Conclusions: Tooth-supported surgical guides may be more accurate than mucosa-supported guides, while both partially and totally guided templates can simplify surgery and aid in optimal implant placement. PMID:26309497

  9. Computer Aided Orthopaedic Surgery: Incremental shift or paradigm change?

    PubMed

    Joskowicz, Leo; Hazan, Eric J

    2016-10-01

    Computer Aided Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS) is now about 25 years old. Unlike Neurosurgery, Computer Aided Surgery has not become the standard of care in Orthopaedic Surgery. In this paper, we provide the technical and clinical context raised by this observation in an attempt to elucidate the reasons for this state of affairs. We start with a brief outline of the history of CAOS, review the main CAOS technologies, and describe how they are evaluated. We then identify some of the current publications in the field and present the opposing views on their clinical impact and their acceptance by the orthopaedic community worldwide. We focus on total knee replacement surgery as a case study and present current clinical results and contrasting opinions on CAOS technologies. We then discuss the challenges and opportunities for research in medical image analysis in CAOS and in musculoskeletal radiology. We conclude with a suggestion that while CAOS acceptance may be more moderate than that of other fields in surgery, it still has a place in the arsenal of useful tools available to orthopaedic surgeons. PMID:27407004

  10. Computer-aided planning of SS/TDMA network operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuike, Takeshi; Nguyen, Lan N.; Ito, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Eijiro

    1991-01-01

    A computer-aided approach to the planning of SS/TDMA network operation is proposed. SS/TDMA is a sophisticated satellite communication network based on an onboard switch matrix, whose operation planning is formulated as a large-scale scheduling problem. An overall planning and scheduling model is presented to deal with practical SS/TDMA systems, such as a two-frequency channel network and nondisjoint beam coverage. For systematic planning suitable for a computer-aided approach, the entire scheduling process is divided into several steps, for each of which an efficient mathematical model is proposed. A linear programming model is used for distribution of traffic on a beam-to-beam basis and the generated switching sequence is further refined by a model using the traveling salesman problem. Burst scheduling is carried out by the Bin packing algorithm and scheduling models for practical networks allowing transponder hopping and multidestination bursts. An algorithm called enhanced rescheduling is presented to further improve the scheduling capability of the existing methods. The performance of the proposed methods is demonstrated by simulation results.

  11. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  12. Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Computer Aided Interactive Testing System (CAITS). Focus on the Trained Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    This report describes the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the Computer Aided Interactive Testing System (CAITS) and addresses the applicability of the system in the Naval Education and Training Command. In addition to an introduction (section one), the report contains four sections and three appendices. Section two describes…

  13. The Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Learning Structures on Achievement in a College-Level Computer-Aided Drafting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swab, A. Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study of cooperative learning in post-secondary engineering education investigated achievement of engineering students enrolled in two intact sections of a computer-aided drafting (CAD) course. Quasi-experimental and qualitative methods were employed in comparing student achievement resulting from out-of-class cooperative and individualistic…

  14. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  15. Computer Aided Phenomenography: The Role of Leximancer Computer Software in Phenomenographic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn-Edwards, Sorrel

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research methodology of phenomenography has traditionally required a manual sorting and analysis of interview data. In this paper I explore a potential means of streamlining this procedure by considering a computer aided process not previously reported upon. Two methods of lexicological analysis, manual and automatic, were examined…

  16. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit. PMID:25459375

  17. AIDS Education for Tanzanian Youth: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigler, Melissa H.; Kugler, K. C.; Komro, K. A.; Leshabari, M. T.; Klepp, K. I.

    2006-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical technique that can be used to identify mechanisms by which intervention programs achieve their effects. This paper presents the results of a mediation analysis of Ngao, an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education program that was implemented with school children in Grades 6 and 7 in Tanzania in the…

  18. Smarter Spending: Reforming Federal Financial Aid for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In higher education, three generally recognized rationales for federal involvement in financial aid exist: (1) Promoting equality of opportunity: Those from poor households are less likely to attend college for a variety of reasons; (2) Credit market imperfections: Students may not have access to the credit needed to make profitable investments in…

  19. Prevention of HIV/AIDS Education in Rural Communities II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This second special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents seven articles: (1) "Preventing Maternal-Infant Transmission of HIV: Social and Ethical Issues" (James G. Anderson, Marilyn M. Anderson, and Tara Booth); (2) "HIV Infection in Diverse Rural Population: Migrant Farm Workers in…

  20. AIDS Education: Does It Change Attitudes toward Gay Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, Morgan P.; Anderson, Craig A.

    Two studies were conducted to examine how attitudes toward homosexual men might affect reactions to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education efforts, or how those attitudes might be changed by those efforts. The first study involved 69 male and 75 female subjects, randomly assigned to four conditions receiving different information…

  1. Aid Effectiveness, Transaction Costs and Conditionality in the Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Richard; Biswas, Shampa

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of transaction costs is a commonly mentioned yet rarely elaborated goal for aid effectiveness in educational development. The casual use of the concept of transaction costs conceals which costs may be reduced, which costs are required and, indeed, what transaction costs actually are. Examining issues related to harmonizing the…

  2. Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation of AIDS Education Programs for Dentists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbert, Barbara; And Others

    1991-01-01

    An office-based continuing education program on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) for dentists is described, including needs assessment, model development, local piloting, national implementation with 119 dentists, and evaluation phases. Program evaluation indicated an improvement in risk perception, knowledge, and practice resulted, but…

  3. Future Directions: HIV/AIDS Education in the Nation's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sex Information and Education Council of the United States, Inc., New York, NY.

    While states have developed the infrastructure to support effective education programs on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), inadequacies exist in the content of curricula, guidelines, and program design. Many state programs fail to provide children with all the information they need in order to avoid and…

  4. HIV/AIDS Education Program, 1993-94. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Peggy

    This publication reports on an evaluation of the "HIV/AIDS Education Program" in the New York City public schools during the 1993-94 school year. The program involved the cooperation of many offices within the school system, including the Division of High Schools, the Division of Student Support Services, the six high school superintendencies, the…

  5. Impact Aid and the Education of Military Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddin, Richard; Gill, Brian P.; Zimmer, Ron W.

    This report focuses on the workings of the Impact Aid program with a special emphasis on the implications of the statute for military children. The main purpose of the statute is to defray the local share of expenses for educating federally connected students. The assertion is that military and other federal activities bring additional students…

  6. HIV/AIDS--An Issue in Nurse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Geoffrey W.

    1995-01-01

    A survey found that many of British nurses (n=717) had inadequate knowledge and attitudes about people with AIDS. Educational programs should include the following content: attitudes/stereotypes, safer sex and infection control, confidentiality, epidemiology and statistics, and signs, symptoms, and progression of the syndrome. (SK)

  7. Constructing Identities through Literacy Events in HIV/AIDS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the literacy events in HIV/AIDS education in Tanzania to investigate how they construct social identities for participants and to what extent they provide opportunities for critical health literacies. The projects took place as collaborative research partnerships with local Tanzanian NGOs in an effort to analyse and improve…

  8. The Constitutional Implications of Federal Aid to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William D.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the problems of federal aid to private higher education and focuses particular attention on the implications for church related institutions of the recent court cases of Lemon vs Kurtzman and Tilton vs Richardson. The author suggests that it might be necessary to provide emergency assistance to failing smaller colleges and universities.…

  9. Facts for Education Advocates: Price of College and Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The price of college, particularly relative to the amount of available financial aid, has been increasing and has been cited as a major barrier to college attendance and completion. And given the recent economic downturn, these issues have taken on even greater significance to students, their families, educators, employers, policymakers and…

  10. AIDS at 30: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews themes and changes in the teaching of HIV/AIDS content in social work programs over the first three decades of the epidemic. Social work education in the first decade of the epidemic was largely focused on helping clients in the death and dying process, while medical and pharmaceutical advancements in the mid-1990s drastically…

  11. Grade Retention, Postsecondary Education, and Public Aid Receipt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children growing up in an inner city, this study investigated whether retention is associated with participation in postsecondary education and public aid receipt. The study sample included 1,367 participants whose data were available…

  12. Perceived Risk of AIDS among Prisoners Following Educational Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Angela D.; Martin, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the impact of an AIDS education program on inmates' (N=140) perceived risk of HIV infection on the street and in prison. Results reveal that the men's perceived risk declined significantly, whereas the women's increased. Regression analyses indicated that change in perceptions was related to various variables outside of the prison's…

  13. Computing in Hydraulic Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Civil engineers, pioneers of our civilization, are rarely perceived as leaders and innovators in modern society because of retardations in technology innovation. This crisis has resulted in the decline of the prestige of civil engineering profession, reduction of federal funding on deteriorating infrastructures, and problems with attracting the most talented high-school students. Infusion of cutting-edge computer technology and stimulating creativity and innovation therefore are the critical challenge to civil engineering education. To better prepare our graduates to innovate, this paper discussed the adaption of problem-based collaborative learning technique and integration of civil engineering computing into a traditional civil engineering curriculum. Three interconnected courses: Open Channel Flow, Computational Hydraulics, and Sedimentation Engineering, were developed with emphasis on computational simulations. In Open Channel flow, the focuses are principles of free surface flow and the application of computational models. This prepares students to the 2nd course, Computational Hydraulics, that introduce the fundamental principles of computational hydraulics, including finite difference and finite element methods. This course complements the Open Channel Flow class to provide students with in-depth understandings of computational methods. The 3rd course, Sedimentation Engineering, covers the fundamentals of sediment transport and river engineering, so students can apply the knowledge and programming skills gained from previous courses to develop computational models for simulating sediment transport. These courses effectively equipped students with important skills and knowledge to complete thesis and dissertation research.

  14. Switzerland's videotex computer sex education programme.

    PubMed

    Barbey, M A

    1991-05-01

    Switzerland's videotex computer sex education program in French is a telematic service set up in youth centers, schools and post offices, or for a monthly home rental charge of 9 swiss francs. German and Italian versions will be available by the end of 1991. CIAO receives 100 calls a month, or 20,000 screen page consultations. Anonymity is assured for caller and specialist through identification by pseudonym. This article discusses the experience of 2 trained specialists, a social worker and a sex education teacher, who answer questions. 70% of callers are boys, perhaps due to greater familiarity with computers, and to public location and freer attitude talking about sex in a group. Girls may use family planning centers for their questions. The typical boys 13-15 years questions concern anatomy and the size of the penis, breast stimulation, masturbation. Guilt and fear of consequences are communicated. Adolescents tend to focus on relationships, with shyness a typical pattern. There is expressed concern for whether it's OK to sexually explore certain sex zones, and what tells me she's happy. Communication between partners about sex is the difficulty and specialists emphasize asking the girl herself how she feels. With increasing age, the focus is very specific; i.e., premature ejaculation, STD's, homosexuality, but also with concern for knowledge about normal love-making and worry about not wanting it enough. In general, questions tend to be bound by traditional roles and questions on contraception are rare. Condom questions are usually related to AIDs. Questions express self-doubt and honesty, which sometimes focuses on the tragedy of sexual abuse, rape, AIDS, and suicide. Specialists find the work rewarding and helpful in sex education discussions in the classroom; great respect for young people is generated. PMID:12343175

  15. "He can be good and still have AIDS". Peer education prevents AIDS in Thai women workers.

    PubMed

    Cash, K

    1993-01-01

    Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex. PMID:12345370

  16. Slide Star: An Approach to Videodisc/Computer Aided Instruction

    PubMed Central

    McEnery, Kevin W.

    1984-01-01

    One of medical education's primary goals is for the student to be proficient in the gross and microscopic identification of disease. The videodisc, with its storage capacity of up to 54,000 photomicrographs is ideally suited to assist in this educational process. “Slide Star” is a method of interactive instruction which is designed for use in any subject where it is essential to identify visual material. The instructional approach utilizes a computer controlled videodisc to display photomicrographs. In the demonstration program, these are slides of normal blood cells. The program is unique in that the instruction is created by the student's commands manipulating the photomicrograph data base. A prime feature is the use of computer generated multiple choice questions to reinforce the learning process.

  17. Computer-aided analysis of a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Qualheim, B.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The groundwater investigation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was initiated in 1983 after perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) were detected in the groundwater. Since that time, more than 300 monitor wells have been completed, logged, sampled, and hydraulically tested. In 1987, the Livermore site was placed on the Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List (Superfund). The Livermore valley is relatively flat, underlain by a complex alluvial sedimentary basin drained by two intermittent streams. The subsurface consists of unconsolidated sand, gravel, silt, and clay with multiple water-bearing zones of relatively high permeability. The hydrogeologic system is characterized as leaky, with horizontal hydraulic communication of up to 800 ft and vertical communication between aquifers of up to 50 ft. Computer-based analysis of the site stratigraphy was used to analyze and characterize the subsurface. The authors used a computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) system to create two-dimensional slices of the subsurface. The slice program takes a subsurface slice at any specified depositional gradient and at any slice thickness. A slice displays the lithology type, unit thickness, depth of slice, and chemical analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lateral continuity of subsurface channels was mapped for each depth slice. By stacking these maps, the authors interpreted a pseudo-three-dimensional representation of probably pathways for VOC movement in the subsurface. An enhanced computer graphics system was also used to map the movement of VOCs in the subsurface.

  18. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  19. Computer-Aided Drug Discovery and Design Targeting Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiansen; Gao, Zhaobing; Yang, Huaiyu

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are widely expressed in living cells and play critical roles in various cellular biological functions. Dysfunctional ion channels can cause a variety of diseases, making ion channels attractive targets for drug discovery. Computational approaches, such as molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations, provide economic and efficient tools for finding modulators of ion channels and for elucidating the action mechanisms of small molecules. In this review, we focus primarily on four types of ion channels (voltage-gated, ligand-gated, acid-sensing, and virus matrix 2 ion channels). The current advancements in computer-aided drug discovery and design targeting ion channels are summarized. First, ligand-based studies for drug design are briefly outlined. Then, we focus on the structurebased studies targeting pore domains, endogenous binding sites and allosteric sites of ion channels. Moreover, we also review the contribution of computational methods to the field of ligand binding and unbinding pathways of ion channels. Finally, we propose future developments for the field. PMID:26975507

  20. Computer aids for the design of subdivisions for solar access

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Two analytical tools were developed to aid surveyors, architects, and planners in siting solar devices. The tools are in the form of computer programs that produce numerical and graphic data. One program plots the shadows in an area for a given date, time and place. If a composite shadow for an entire day is required, the user can request shadow plots for more than one time. A second program computes the solar envelope for a parcel of land. These are useful for modification of zoning and buildable volume requirements for a parcel. If a dwelling is situated entirely within the envelope, owners of neighboring parcels can be guaranteed that their solar access will be preserved. Output is in the form of elevation differences between the terrain and the envelope and a perspective view of the envelope. Stochastic analysis of the mathematical models is discussed. This includes propagation of random error in the measuring system and comparison of computer generated data with actual ground measurements. Some legal concerns of solar access and the problem of blocking sunlight are also discussed.

  1. Decision trees and integrated features for computer aided mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect

    Kegelmeyer, W.P. Jr.; Groshong, B.; Allmen, M.; Woods, K.

    1997-02-01

    Breast cancer is a serious problem, which in the United States causes 43,000 deaths a year, eventually striking 1 in 9 women. Early detection is the only effective countermeasure, and mass mammography screening is the only reliable means for early detection. Mass screening has many shortcomings which could be addressed by a computer-aided mammographic screening system. Accordingly, we have applied the pattern recognition methods developed in earlier investigations of speculated lesions in mammograms to the detection of microcalcifications and circumscribed masses, generating new, more rigorous and uniform methods for the detection of both those signs. We have also improved the pattern recognition methods themselves, through the development of a new approach to combinations of multiple classifiers.

  2. From paper drawings to computer-aided design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karima, M.; Sadhal, K. S.; McNeil, T. O.

    1985-02-01

    The benefits of a fully integrated computer-aided design and drafting system (CADDS) database are today very well accepted by industry, and major engineering companies implementing CADDS are confronted with the gigantic task of entering the existing multidisciplinary engineering information into the CADDS database. The present investigation is concerned with the findings of a feasibility study which had been conducted by a Canadian company to explore data capture on engineering drawings. A review of the state of the art in digitization is presented, and attention is given to specific problems arising in the case of the Canadian company. It is found that substantial advancements have been made toward the automatic 'reading' of existing drawings on paper media. However, no system exists currently which fully automates the data capturing process in the engineering environment and generates intelligent databases for use by CADD systems. Suitable approaches for 'data capture' under the given conditions are discussed.

  3. Effect of image variation on computer-aided detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, S. P.; Maduskar, P.; Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Hogeweg, L.; van Ginneken, B.

    2014-03-01

    As the importance of Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems application is rising in medical imaging field due to the advantages they generate; it is essential to know their weaknesses and try to find a proper solution for them. A common possible practical problem that affects CAD systems performance is: dissimilar training and testing datasets declines the efficiency of CAD systems. In this paper normalizing images is proposed, three different normalization methods are applied on chest radiographs namely (1) Simple normalization (2) Local Normalization (3) Multi Band Local Normalization. The supervised lung segmentation CAD system performance is evaluated on normalized chest radiographs with these three different normalization methods in terms of Jaccard index. As a conclusion the normalization enhances the performance of CAD system and among these three normalization methods Local Normalization and Multi band Local normalization improve performance of CAD system more significantly than the simple normalization.

  4. Quicklist: The basis for a computer aided logic design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lushbaugh, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Quicklist, a preprocessor for an existing wire list program that cuts the description of the wire list by about 67 percent over previous methods, is described. Quicklist uses two different methods to shorten the input data. The first of these is the use of parentheses to allow a compact way of describing signal names which increment (or decrement) by one, i.e., typical signal names in a bus. The other method used is the equal sign. Using this symbol in a signal list says that the rest of the signals on that chip are the same as those on the previous chip described. Quicklist is intended to be the basis of a computer aided logic design system.

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis of lumbar stenosis conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koompairojn, Soontharee; Hua, Kathleen; Hua, Kien A.; Srisomboon, Jintavaree

    2010-03-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are indispensable tools for patients' healthcare in modern medicine. Nevertheless, the only fully automatic CAD system available for lumbar stenosis today is for X-ray images. Its performance is limited due to the limitations intrinsic to X-ray images. In this paper, we present a system for magnetic resonance images. It employs a machine learning classification technique to automatically recognize lumbar spine components. Features can then be extracted from these spinal components. Finally, diagnosis is done by applying a Multilayer Perceptron. This classification framework can learn the features of different spinal conditions from the training images. The trained Perceptron can then be applied to diagnose new cases for various spinal conditions. Our experimental studies based on 62 subjects indicate that the proposed system is reliable and significantly better than our older system for X-ray images.

  6. Computer-aided resource planning and scheduling for radiological services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Yun, David Y.; Ge, Yiqun; Khan, Javed I.

    1996-05-01

    There exists tremendous opportunity in hospital-wide resource optimization based on system integration. This paper defines the resource planning and scheduling requirements integral to PACS, RIS and HIS integration. An multi-site case study is conducted to define the requirements. A well-tested planning and scheduling methodology, called Constrained Resource Planning model, has been applied to the chosen problem of radiological service optimization. This investigation focuses on resource optimization issues for minimizing the turnaround time to increase clinical efficiency and customer satisfaction, particularly in cases where the scheduling of multiple exams are required for a patient. How best to combine the information system efficiency and human intelligence in improving radiological services is described. Finally, an architecture for interfacing a computer-aided resource planning and scheduling tool with the existing PACS, HIS and RIS implementation is presented.

  7. Evolution of Geometric Sensitivity Derivatives from Computer Aided Design Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William T.; Lazzara, David; Haimes, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The generation of design parameter sensitivity derivatives is required for gradient-based optimization. Such sensitivity derivatives are elusive at best when working with geometry defined within the solid modeling context of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems. Solid modeling CAD systems are often proprietary and always complex, thereby necessitating ad hoc procedures to infer parameter sensitivity. A new perspective is presented that makes direct use of the hierarchical associativity of CAD features to trace their evolution and thereby track design parameter sensitivity. In contrast to ad hoc methods, this method provides a more concise procedure following the model design intent and determining the sensitivity of CAD geometry directly to its respective defining parameters.

  8. Computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper results of computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon based on Finite Element Method are presented. CAD model of the considered freight wagon was created and its strength was analysed in agreement with norms described the way of such kind of freight wagons testing. Then, the model of the analysed freight wagon was modernized by adding composite panels covering the inner surface of the vehicle body. Strength analysis was carried out once again and obtained results were juxtaposed. This work was carried out in order to verify the influence of composite panels on the strength of the freight car body and to estimate the possibility of reducing the steel shell thickness of the box in order to reduce weight of the freight wagon.

  9. Computer-aided boundary delineation of agricultural lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Thomas D.; Angelici, Gary L.; Slye, Robert E.; Ma, Matt

    1989-01-01

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) presently uses labor-intensive aerial photographic interpretation techniques to divide large geographical areas into manageable-sized units for estimating domestic crop and livestock production. Prototype software, the computer-aided stratification (CAS) system, was developed to automate the procedure, and currently runs on a Sun-based image processing system. With a background display of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and United States Geological Survey Digital Line Graph data, the operator uses a cursor to delineate agricultural areas, called sampling units, which are assigned to strata of land-use and land-cover types. The resultant stratified sampling units are used as input into subsequent USDA sampling procedures. As a test, three counties in Missouri were chosen for application of the CAS procedures. Subsequent analysis indicates that CAS was five times faster in creating sampling units than the manual techniques were.

  10. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  11. Computer aided microbial safety design of food processes.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, M; Martens, T; Roberts, T A; Mackey, B M; Nicolaï, B M; Van Impe, J F; De Baerdemaeker, J

    1994-12-01

    To reduce the time required for product development, to avoid expensive experimental tests, and to quantify safety risks for fresh products and the consequence of processing there is a growing interest in computer aided food process design. This paper discusses the application of hybrid object-oriented and rule-based expert system technology to represent the data and knowledge of microbial experts and food engineers. Finite element models for heat transfer calculation routines, microbial growth and inactivation models and texture kinetics are combined with food composition data, thermophysical properties, process steps and expert knowledge on type and quantity of microbial contamination. A prototype system has been developed to evaluate changes in food composition, process steps and process parameters on microbiological safety and textual quality of foods. PMID:7703003

  12. Parallelization of ARC3D with Computer-Aided Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang; Hribar, Michelle; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A series of efforts have been devoted to investigating methods of porting and parallelizing applications quickly and efficiently for new architectures, such as the SCSI Origin 2000 and Cray T3E. This report presents the parallelization of a CFD application, ARC3D, using the computer-aided tools, Cesspools. Steps of parallelizing this code and requirements of achieving better performance are discussed. The generated parallel version has achieved reasonably well performance, for example, having a speedup of 30 for 36 Cray T3E processors. However, this performance could not be obtained without modification of the original serial code. It is suggested that in many cases improving serial code and performing necessary code transformations are important parts for the automated parallelization process although user intervention in many of these parts are still necessary. Nevertheless, development and improvement of useful software tools, such as Cesspools, can help trim down many tedious parallelization details and improve the processing efficiency.

  13. Computer aided design of computer generated holograms for electron beam fabrication.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, K S; Lee, S H; Guest, C C; Feldman, M R; Farhoosh, H

    1989-08-15

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process. PMID:20555710

  14. Computer Aided Design of Computer Generated Holograms for electron beam fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquhart, Kristopher S.; Lee, Sing H.; Guest, Clark C.; Feldman, Michael R.; Farhoosh, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process.

  15. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  16. AIDS and sex education for young people in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Lu, Z Z; Shi, R; Sun, X Y; Cai, Y

    2001-01-01

    Although China has had a rich sexual culture for thousands of years, Chinese people are usually unwilling to openly discuss issues of sex. Some parents are quite ignorant of the change in their children's sexual attitude and behaviour. In China today, adolescents are becoming much more sexually liberated. Premarital sex and unplanned pregnancies among teenagers are increasing. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) including HIV/AIDS are also spreading rapidly. However, young people lack basic information on AIDS/STD and do not know how to protect themselves from these diseases or how to avoid unintended pregnancies. Several major youth peer education programmes in China are mentioned in this paper. Among them, a four-year programme entitled the Australian-Chinese AIDS/STD/Safer Sex Peer Education Programme for Youth, is discussed in some detail. The programme has so far reached over 40000 university and school students. Evaluation results show that the programme is effective in both significantly increasing students' knowledge about AIDS/STDs and changing their attitude towards AIDS patients. In addition, the programme is highly praised by the students. PMID:11999327

  17. Education in the Seventies, a Study of Problems and Issues Associated with the Effects of Computer Technology on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Joseph B.; Misch, Marion R.

    To aid policy development for the utilization of computers in education, a panel of 10 scientists and educators formed a traveling seminar that actually inspected the state of the art of computer-assisted instruction at seven research and development centers throughout the U.S. The panel agreed on four principles. First, a systematic approach to…

  18. Computers in Education: A Brief History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Andrew R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of computers in education: early computers and computer languages, computer-assisted instruction, micro worlds, microcomputers, intelligent tutors, intelligent tools, symbol systems, computer graphics, virtual reality, distance education via the Internet, distance mentoring, learning-on-demand, organizational learning via…

  19. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  20. The application of computer-aided technologies in automotive styling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ze-feng; Zhang, Ji; Zheng, Ying

    2012-04-01

    In automotive industry, outline design is its life and creative design is its soul indeed. Computer-aided technology has been widely used in the automotive industry and more and more attention has been paid. This paper chiefly introduce the application of computer-aided technologies including CAD, CAM and CAE, analyses the process of automotive structural design and describe the development tendency of computer-aided design.

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis and artificial intelligence in clinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Doi, Kunio

    2011-11-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is rapidly entering the radiology mainstream. It has already become a part of the routine clinical work for the detection of breast cancer with mammograms. The computer output is used as a "second opinion" in assisting radiologists' image interpretations. The computer algorithm generally consists of several steps that may include image processing, image feature analysis, and data classification via the use of tools such as artificial neural networks (ANN). In this article, we will explore these and other current processes that have come to be referred to as "artificial intelligence." One element of CAD, temporal subtraction, has been applied for enhancing interval changes and for suppressing unchanged structures (eg, normal structures) between 2 successive radiologic images. To reduce misregistration artifacts on the temporal subtraction images, a nonlinear image warping technique for matching the previous image to the current one has been developed. Development of the temporal subtraction method originated with chest radiographs, with the method subsequently being applied to chest computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine bone scans. The usefulness of the temporal subtraction method for bone scans was demonstrated by an observer study in which reading times and diagnostic accuracy improved significantly. An additional prospective clinical study verified that the temporal subtraction image could be used as a "second opinion" by radiologists with negligible detrimental effects. ANN was first used in 1990 for computerized differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in CAD. Since then, ANN has been widely used in CAD schemes for the detection and diagnosis of various diseases in different imaging modalities, including the differential diagnosis of lung nodules and interstitial lung diseases in chest radiography, CT, and position emission tomography/CT. It is likely that CAD will be integrated into picture archiving and

  2. AIDS education in an Islamic nation: content analysis of Farsi-language AIDS-education materials in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Hale, Lauren

    2008-09-01

    Inconsistent statistics about the number of HIV/AIDS cases in Iran and misinformation about HIV/AIDS among Iranian adolescents necessitate proper understanding and knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention. This is particularly important since many issues related to HIV/AIDS, such as sex, homosexuality, and drug use, are taboo topics in the Islamic world. We analyzed Farsi-language educational and informational small media items to ascertain the nature of HIV/AIDS-related material available in society. While all of the documents mentioned sexual contact as a means of transmitting the virus, and the majority (87%) mentioned condom use as a preventive means, mention of homosexuality (43%) and prostitution (17%) was lacking in most. Thus, mention of "safe sex" strategies was not avoided due to fear of promoting sex outside of marriage, as has been noted in other Islamic nations. Mention of intravenous drug use in 90% of the documents shows an acknowledgment of the drug problem in the nation, and an effort to curb its harmful sequelae. Therefore, while certain issues such as sex, condoms, and drug use were well represented in the documents analyzed, additional inclusion of topics such as homosexuality and prostitution, issues already discussed infrequently in society, can help to better educate the population and curb the spread of this life-threatening disease. PMID:18784049

  3. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  4. A digital patient for computer-aided prosthesis design

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio; Facoetti, Giancarlo; Rizzi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns the design of lower limb prosthesis, both below and above knee. It describes a new computer-based design framework and a digital model of the patient around which the prosthesis is designed and tested in a completely virtual environment. The virtual model of the patient is the backbone of the whole system, and it is based on a biomechanical general-purpose model customized with the patient's characteristics (e.g. anthropometric measures). The software platform adopts computer-aided and knowledge-guided approaches with the goal of replacing the current development process, mainly hand made, with a virtual one. It provides the prosthetics with a set of tools to design, configure and test the prosthesis and comprehends two main environments: the prosthesis modelling laboratory and the virtual testing laboratory. The first permits the three-dimensional model of the prosthesis to be configured and generated, while the second allows the prosthetics to virtually set up the artificial leg and simulate the patient's postures and movements, validating its functionality and configuration. General architecture and modelling/simulation tools for the platform are described as well as main aspects and results of the experimentation. PMID:24427528

  5. Computer-aided detection of colonic polyps using volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei; Qiu, Feng; Marino, Joseph; Kaufman, Arie

    2007-03-01

    This work utilizes a novel pipeline for the computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps, assisting radiologists in locating polyps when using a virtual colonoscopy system. Our CAD pipeline automatically detects polyps while reducing the number of false positives (FPs). It integrates volume rendering and conformal colon flattening with texture and shape analysis. The colon is first digitally cleansed, segmented, and extracted from the CT dataset of the abdomen. The colon surface is then mapped to a 2D rectangle using conformal mapping. Using this colon flattening method, the CAD problem is converted from 3D into 2D. The flattened image is rendered using a direct volume rendering of the 3D colon dataset with a translucent transfer function. Suspicious polyps are detected by applying a clustering method on the 2D volume rendered image. The FPs are reduced by analyzing shape and texture features of the suspicious areas detected by the clustering step. Compared with shape-based methods, ours is much faster and much more efficient as it avoids computing curvature and other shape parameters for the whole colon wall. We tested our method with 178 datasets and found it to be 100% sensitive to adenomatous polyps with a low rate of FPs. The CAD results are seamlessly integrated into a virtual colonoscopy system, providing the radiologists with visual cues and likelihood indicators of areas likely to contain polyps, and allowing them to quickly inspect the suspicious areas and further exploit the flattened colon view for easy navigation and bookmark placement.

  6. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  7. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues.

    PubMed

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research. PMID:27240360

  8. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research. PMID:27240360

  9. Control and Power in Educational Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Friedman, Batya

    Educational computing based on the primacy of human agency is explored, considering ways in which power can be apportioned and exercised in order to enhance educational computing. Ideas about power and control are situated epistemologically. A first consideration is educating for human control of computer technology. Research suggests that…

  10. Educational Computing in the Andover Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsakos, Charles L.

    A rationale for computers in education in the Andover (Massachusetts) public schools, a curricular scope and sequence, a computer acquisitions plan, and a staff development summary are presented. The report is a result of an 18-month study of computers in education; pilot programs in the schools; and input from specialists in business, education,…

  11. The Impact of Bilateral Aid on Educational Development: The Case of Australia and the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglen, Leo R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Australian financial aid for education to Fiji, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Tonga, Kiribati, Tuvalu, and Nauru, and its impact on access to education, higher education options, "nationalization" of education, and educational quality. Concludes that Australian aid serves Australian interests and does not address crucial…

  12. Evaluation of an AIDS education programme for young adults.

    PubMed Central

    Bellingham, K; Gillies, P

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the impact of an AIDS education programme designed for young adults. DESIGN--A randomised trial with a pre-post test design. SETTING--Participants were drawn from six youth training centres in the city of Nottingham, England. STUDY POPULATION--All trainees aged 16-19 years attending the six centres were included in the sample and centres were randomly allocated to experimental (n = 173) and control (n = 164) groups. The response rate to both questionnaires was high (71%). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Data on sexual behaviour, knowledge, and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were obtained by confidential questionnaire. Two thirds of the sample were sexually active. There were no differences between groups at pre-test and no differences by sex. The experimental group had a significantly higher level of knowledge than the control group post-test. Significantly more experimental than control trainees knew post-test that HIV could be transmitted via anal sex and through broken skin. In addition, twice as many experimental (53%) as control trainees (25%; p < 0.001) were aware that a cure for AIDS was unlikely in the near future. There were no observed effects on sexual behaviour, intentions, or attitudes. CONCLUSIONS--The Streetwize UK educational programme had a significant impact on young adults' knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention in the short term. If community based AIDS education is to do more than merely inform, however, resources must be made available for peer led interventions and skills training. PMID:8326271

  13. Computers, Teaching, and Learning: An Introduction to Computers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry W.; And Others

    Intended as an action guide, this book focuses on the issues, concepts, and facts relevant to the educator who wants to consider using computers to accomplish learning objectives. A short history of computers emphasizing microcomputers and their use in education is followed by a discussion of current educational uses which includes a more detailed…

  14. Haitian AIDS education campaign struggles on despite political turmoil.

    PubMed

    Aldebron, J

    1993-12-01

    Haiti's multimedia AIDS education campaign Alerte SIDA has continued despite the economic sanctions and political upheaval that thwarted its original plans. In 1992, the campaign included an aggressive volunteer effort in 140 schools in Port-au-Prince, including a conference, theatrical performances, video presentations, and group discussions. Expansion of the campaign led to creation of a telephone hot line for adolescents, radio spots, peer education sessions, and a multimedia campaign highlighted by six televised roundtable discussions in which young people discussed sex, AIDS, and the involvement of parents in sex education. The next stage of the campaign was to target parents as well as adolescents with educational and discussion sessions and information packets suggesting ways parents could broach the subjects of sex and sexually transmitted diseases with their children. This stage has been preempted by the economic embargo and political discord (which also increased the value of sexual intercourse as solace). Haitians, however, have a history of adapting to situations and making do with what they have. Thus, the work continues, even if it is reduced to impromptu educational sessions held in decrepit school yards. When the classrooms reopen, Alerte SIDA will be on hand to continue its efforts to protect the health of Haiti's children. PMID:12288830

  15. Computer-aided engineering annual report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brockelsby, H.C. Jr.

    1990-03-01

    During calendar year 1989, EG G Idaho completed the initial procurement and implementation of a major new Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) system. Seventy new workstations and associated engineering applications were installed over 100 personal computers (PCs) were integrated into the environment, and communications links to the IBM mainframes and the Cray supercomputer were established. The system achieves integration through sophisticated data communications and application interfaces that allow data sharing across the entire environment. Applications available on the system facilitate engineering relate to full three-dimensional (3-D) piping, heating/ventilating/air conditioning (HAVC), structural and steel design, solids modeling and analysis, desktop publishing, design and drafting, and include automated links to various analysis codes on the Cray supercomputer. The system also provides commonly used engineering tools such as spreadsheets, language compilers, terminal emulation, and file transfer facilities. Although difficult to quantify, recent information has shown that projected annual productivity improvement to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) will be in excess of $2,000,000. This improvement will be generated in a variety of areas including improvement in the efficiency of individual users, checkplot production, data management, file transfers, plotting. design-analysis interfaces, and the benefit of full 3-D design. Current plans call for a significant expansion of the CAE system in 1990 with continued expansion through 1993. Additional workstations, system software and utilities, networking facilities and applications software will be procured and implemented. More than one hundred people will receive training on the various application packages during 1990. Efforts to extend networking throughout the INEL will be continued. 2 refs.

  16. Computer-Aided Construction of Chemical Kinetic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Green, William H.

    2014-12-31

    The combustion chemistry of even simple fuels can be extremely complex, involving hundreds or thousands of kinetically significant species. The most reasonable way to deal with this complexity is to use a computer not only to numerically solve the kinetic model, but also to construct the kinetic model in the first place. Because these large models contain so many numerical parameters (e.g. rate coefficients, thermochemistry) one never has sufficient data to uniquely determine them all experimentally. Instead one must work in “predictive” mode, using theoretical rather than experimental values for many of the numbers in the model, and as appropriate refining the most sensitive numbers through experiments. Predictive chemical kinetics is exactly what is needed for computer-aided design of combustion systems based on proposed alternative fuels, particularly for early assessment of the value and viability of proposed new fuels before those fuels are commercially available. This project was aimed at making accurate predictive chemical kinetics practical; this is a challenging goal which requires a range of science advances. The project spanned a wide range from quantum chemical calculations on individual molecules and elementary-step reactions, through the development of improved rate/thermo calculation procedures, the creation of algorithms and software for constructing and solving kinetic simulations, the invention of methods for model-reduction while maintaining error control, and finally comparisons with experiment. Many of the parameters in the models were derived from quantum chemistry calculations, and the models were compared with experimental data measured in our lab or in collaboration with others.

  17. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  18. Computer-aided photometric analysis of dynamic digital bioluminescent images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorski, Zbigniew; Bembnista, T.; Floryszak-Wieczorek, J.; Domanski, Marek; Slawinski, Janusz

    2003-04-01

    The paper deals with photometric and morphologic analysis of bioluminescent images obtained by registration of light radiated directly from some plant objects. Registration of images obtained from ultra-weak light sources by the single photon counting (SPC) technique is the subject of this work. The radiation is registered by use of a 16-bit charge coupled device (CCD) camera "Night Owl" together with WinLight EG&G Berthold software. Additional application-specific software has been developed in order to deal with objects that are changing during the exposition time. Advantages of the elaborated set of easy configurable tools named FCT for a computer-aided photometric and morphologic analysis of numerous series of quantitatively imperfect chemiluminescent images are described. Instructions are given how to use these tools and exemplified with several algorithms for the transformation of images library. Using the proposed FCT set, automatic photometric and morphologic analysis of the information hidden within series of chemiluminescent images reflecting defensive processes in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd) leaves affected by a pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is revealed.

  19. Quantitative analysis of ultrasound images for computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie Ying; Tuomi, Adam; Beland, Michael D; Konrad, Joseph; Glidden, David; Grand, David; Merck, Derek

    2016-01-01

    We propose an adaptable framework for analyzing ultrasound (US) images quantitatively to provide computer-aided diagnosis using machine learning. Our preliminary clinical targets are hepatic steatosis, adenomyosis, and craniosynostosis. For steatosis and adenomyosis, we collected US studies from 288 and 88 patients, respectively, as well as their biopsy or magnetic resonanceconfirmed diagnosis. Radiologists identified a region of interest (ROI) on each image. We filtered the US images for various texture responses and use the pixel intensity distribution within each ROI as feature parameterizations. Our craniosynostosis dataset consisted of 22 CT-confirmed cases and 22 age-matched controls. One physician manually measured the vectors from the center of the skull to the outer cortex at every 10 deg for each image and we used the principal directions as shape features for parameterization. These parameters and the known diagnosis were used to train classifiers. Testing with cross-validation, we obtained 72.74% accuracy and 0.71 area under receiver operating characteristics curve for steatosis ([Formula: see text]), 77.27% and 0.77 for adenomyosis ([Formula: see text]), and 88.63% and 0.89 for craniosynostosis ([Formula: see text]). Our framework is able to detect a variety of diseases with high accuracy. We hope to include it as a routinely available support system in the clinic. PMID:26835502

  20. Toward a standard reference database for computer-aided mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; Gueld, Mark O.; de A. Araújo, Arnaldo; Ott, Bastian; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2008-03-01

    Because of the lack of mammography databases with a large amount of codified images and identified characteristics like pathology, type of breast tissue, and abnormality, there is a problem for the development of robust systems for computer-aided diagnosis. Integrated to the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) project, we present an available mammography database developed from the union of: The Mammographic Image Analysis Society Digital Mammogram Database (MIAS), The Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and routine images from the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen. Using the IRMA code, standardized coding of tissue type, tumor staging, and lesion description was developed according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) tissue codes and the ACR breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS). The import was done automatically using scripts for image download, file format conversion, file name, web page and information file browsing. Disregarding the resolution, this resulted in a total of 10,509 reference images, and 6,767 images are associated with an IRMA contour information feature file. In accordance to the respective license agreements, the database will be made freely available for research purposes, and may be used for image based evaluation campaigns such as the Cross Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF). We have also shown that it can be extended easily with further cases imported from a picture archiving and communication system (PACS).

  1. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  2. Molecular Similarity in Computer-Aided Molecular Design.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, Edward E.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The quantitative measurement of how similar one molecule is to another is investigated as a potential aid to molecular design. The work concentrates on the comparison of electronic properties of molecules, in particular electron density distribution, molecular electrostatic potential, molecular electric field and frontier orbital wavefunctions. A novel formula for molecular similarity has been devised and applied to these four properties. An approximate representation of valence electron density is used, based on the notion that charge distribution in a large molecule may be built from transferable contributions from its constituent functional groups. Each of these contributions consists of a series of first-order gaussian functions. The electrostatic potentials and electric fields used in the similarity calculations are computed from atom -centered partial charges. The frontier orbital wavefunction comparisons are performed using the extended Huckel method. The four measures of similarity are related to chemical and biological data and shown to have possible applications in the area of drug design.

  3. A survey on computer aided diagnosis for ocular diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD), which can automate the detection process for ocular diseases, has attracted extensive attention from clinicians and researchers alike. It not only alleviates the burden on the clinicians by providing objective opinion with valuable insights, but also offers early detection and easy access for patients. Method We review ocular CAD methodologies for various data types. For each data type, we investigate the databases and the algorithms to detect different ocular diseases. Their advantages and shortcomings are analyzed and discussed. Result We have studied three types of data (i.e., clinical, genetic and imaging) that have been commonly used in existing methods for CAD. The recent developments in methods used in CAD of ocular diseases (such as Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Age-related Macular Degeneration and Pathological Myopia) are investigated and summarized comprehensively. Conclusion While CAD for ocular diseases has shown considerable progress over the past years, the clinical importance of fully automatic CAD systems which are able to embed clinical knowledge and integrate heterogeneous data sources still show great potential for future breakthrough. PMID:25175552

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis system for lung tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Inaoka, Noriko; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a computerized system of tumor detection for lung cancer diagnosis. Through the ten years study, we developed some key algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis. The most important algorithm is a filter to detect suspicious shadows of tumor on a plain chest x-ray image. The filter is named directional contrast filter for nodule (DCF-N). The DCF-N is highly sensitive to ambiguous shadows such as malignant tumors. And we developed a rule- based system to eliminate false-positive shadows. In our study, the system was effective to eliminate shadows of blood vessels and ribs which were primary groups of false-positives. Our current research is focusing on the development of the automatic tumor detection system for lung cancer examination by using CT images. In this paper, we discuss whether the system for plain chest x-ray images can apply to spiral CT images within a malignant tumor, which are reconstructed at 2 mm or 5 mm slice thickness. About a trial case, although the DCF-N can detect the malignant tumor, some false-positives are also detected. As to the analysis of the shadows, which are detected by the DCF-N, the major false-positives are blood vessels shadows. Therefore, the rule to eliminate blood vessels shadows in the rule-base for plain x- ray images is also effective for the CT images.

  5. CART V: recent advancements in computer-aided camouflage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2011-05-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007-2010 [1], [2], [3], [4]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors as well as methods to assess the object's movement conspicuity. In this fifth part in an annual series at the SPIE conference in Orlando, this paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses the camouflage assessment of static and moving objects in multispectral image data that can show noise or image artefacts. The presented methods fathom the correlations between image processing and camouflage assessment. A novel algorithm is presented based on template matching to assess the structural inconspicuity of an object objectively and quantitatively. The results can easily be combined with an MTI (moving target indication) based movement conspicuity assessment function in order to explore the influence of object movement to a camouflage effect in different environments. As the results show, the presented methods contribute to a significant benefit in the field of camouflage assessment.

  6. Computer aiding for low-altitude helicopter flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-aiding concept for low-altitude helicopter flight was developed and evaluated in a real-time piloted simulation. The concept included an optimal control trajectory-generated algorithm based on dynamic programming, and a head-up display (HUD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor symbol. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and advanced navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that minimizes threat exposure by seeking valleys. The pilot evaluation was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Sim Lab facility in both the fixed-base Interchangeable Cab (ICAB) simulator and the moving-base Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) by pilots representing NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Air Force. The pilots manually tracked the trajectory generated by the algorithm utilizing the HUD symbology. They were able to satisfactorily perform the tracking tasks while maintaining a high degree of awareness of the outside world.

  7. Computer Aided Dosimetry and Verification of Exposure to Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Edward; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Leach, Karen E.; Lalonde, Louise

    2002-06-01

    In the timeframe following the September 11th attacks on the United States, increased emphasis has been placed on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Of prime importance is rapid field assessment of potential radiation exposure to Canadian Forces field personnel. This work set up a framework for generating an 'expert' computer system for aiding and assisting field personnel in determining the extent of radiation insult to military personnel. Data was gathered by review of the available literature, discussions with medical and health physics personnel having hands-on experience dealing with radiation accident victims, and from experience of the principal investigator. Flow charts and generic data fusion algorithms were developed. Relationships between known exposure parameters, patient interview and history, clinical symptoms, clinical work-ups, physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry, and dose reconstruction as critical data indicators were investigated. The data obtained was examined in terms of information theory. A main goal was to determine how best to generate an adaptive model (i.e. when more data becomes available, how is the prediction improved). Consideration was given to determination of predictive algorithms for health outcome. In addition. the concept of coding an expert medical treatment advisor system was developed (U)

  8. Computer aided morphometry of the neonatal fetal alcohol syndrome face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chik, Lawrence; Sokol, Robert J.; Martier, Susan S.

    1993-09-01

    Facial dysmorphology related to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) has been studied from neonatal snapshots with computer-aided imaging tools by looking at facial landmarks and silhouettes. Statistical methods were used to characterize FAS-related midfacial hypoplasia by using standardized landmark coordinates of frontal and profile snapshots. Additional analyses were performed by tracing a segment of the facial silhouettes from the profile snapshots. In spite of inherent distortions due to the coordinate standardization procedure, controlled for race, three significant facial landmark coordinates accounted for 30.6% of the explained variance of FAS. Residualized for race, eight points along the silhouettes were shown to be significant in explaining 45.8% of the outcome variance. Combining the landmark coordinates and silhouettes points, 57% of the outcome variance was explained. Finally, including birthweight with landmark coordinates and silhouettes, 63% of the outcome variance was explained, with a jackknifed sensitivity of 95% (19/20) and a specificity of 92.9% (52/56).

  9. A machine learning approach to computer-aided molecular design.

    PubMed

    Bolis, G; Di Pace, L; Fabrocini, F

    1991-12-01

    Preliminary results of a machine learning application concerning computer-aided molecular design applied to drug discovery are presented. The artificial intelligence techniques of machine learning use a sample of active and inactive compounds, which is viewed as a set of positive and negative examples, to allow the induction of a molecular model characterizing the interaction between the compounds and a target molecule. The algorithm is based on a twofold phase. In the first one--the specialization step--the program identifies a number of active/inactive pairs of compounds which appear to be the most useful in order to make the learning process as effective as possible and generates a dictionary of molecular fragments, deemed to be responsible for the activity of the compounds. In the second phase--the generalization step--the fragments thus generated are combined and generalized in order to select the most plausible hypothesis with respect to the sample of compounds. A knowledge base concerning physical and chemical properties is utilized during the inductive process. PMID:1818094

  10. Computer-Presented Organizational/Memory Aids as Instruction for Solving Pico-Fomi Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes investigation of effectiveness of computer-presented organizational/memory aids (matrix and verbal charts controlled by computer or learner) as instructional technique for solving Pico-Fomi problems, and the acquisition of deductive inference rules when such aids are present. Results indicate chart use control should be adapted to…

  11. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  12. Education, Computers and Micro-Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, R.

    1981-01-01

    Traces general educational changes over the last 20 years, summarizes past and present uses of computers in education, and identifies the impact microelectronics will have on present and future education. Discusses vocational training, availability of inexpensive educational resources, teaching methods, and teacher education. (DC)

  13. Impact of culturally sensitive AIDS video education on the AIDS risk knowledge of African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, H C; Davis, G

    1994-02-01

    AIDS video education is a major mode of providing information about the spread and prevention of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Very little has been written about the need for culturally salient messages in increasing the acquisition and retention of HIV/AIDS prevention information, even though there is considerable agreement that limited culturally sensitive information is reaching African-American youth. This investigation sought to ascertain the impact of a culturally similar AIDS video on the acquisition of AIDS knowledge and endorsement of HIV/AIDS prevention beliefs. This study randomly assigned classes of African-American teenagers to one of two treatment groups: culturally similar video (CSV) AIDS education and culturally dissimilar video (CDV) AIDS education. Results suggest that the CSV group demonstrated significant improvement in pre- to post- AIDS knowledge scores compared to the CDV group (using ANCOVA procedures). The intervention was not significant in demonstrating change in beliefs about prevention. Implications for the development of HIV/AIDS prevention programs for inner-city African-American youth are discussed. PMID:8024942

  14. The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This student guide provides financial aid information for high school seniors and college students. The first few pages of this guide are a quick reference to federal student aid programs and how to apply. Most student financial aid comes from the federal government programs, which the U.S. Department of Education's Federal Student Aid (FSA)…

  15. Computer Equity and Computer Educators (You).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipkin, John

    1984-01-01

    Addresses from two perspectives the problem of providing opportunities for all students to gain knowledge and skills required to use microcomputers: appropriate microcomputer use in the classroom and curriculum, and its role as an indicator of the nature of public education, a catalyst for educational reform, and an equalizer. (MBR)

  16. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  17. Aid Agency Influence in National Education Policy-Making: A Case from Nepal's "Education for All" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatta, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between foreign aid and Nepal's primary education in order to understand how aid agencies affect national educational development. It argues that after 1990, when global education targets provided the basic framework for all donor agency funding to primary education and the subsequent use of a sector-wide approach…

  18. Employing Subgoals in Computer Programming Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margulieux, Lauren E.; Catrambone, Richard; Guzdial, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The rapid integration of technology into our professional and personal lives has left many education systems ill-equipped to deal with the influx of people seeking computing education. To improve computing education, we are applying techniques that have been developed for other procedural fields. The present study applied such a technique, subgoal…

  19. The Learning Machine: Educational Computing at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Addresses the question of what parents can do to help their children get a better education by using computers at home. The age span covered ranges from preschool to high school. Sources of educational software catalogs and list of educational computing magazines with applicability to home use are included. (JN)

  20. Educational Computing Course. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bump, Wren, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on the educational computing course from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Using a Flexible Format To Create a Constructivist Learning Environment in the Educational Computing Course" (Wren M. Bump); "Technological Diversity: Managing Differing Technology…

  1. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE USE OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS IN PRIMARY EDUCATION. MONOGRAPHS ON EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MIALARET, G.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS INTENDED PRIMARILY FOR TEACHERS OF PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION IN TEACHER TRAINING CENTERS, RESEARCHERS, AND EDUCATORS INTERESTED IN THE EFFECTIVE USE OF AUDIOVISUAL AIDS. NEW TYPES OF PUPIL AND TEACHER BEHAVIOR IN RESPONSE TO NEW AUDIOVISUAL TECHNIQUES ARE EXAMINED. ONLY TECHNIQUES CONSTANTLY AT THE DISPOSAL OF THE CLASSROOM TEACHER…

  2. Effectiveness of computer aided detection for solitary pulmonary nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiayong; Li, Wenjie; Du, Xiangying; Lu, Huihai; Xu, Jianrong; Xu, Mantao; Rong, Dongdong

    2009-02-01

    This study is to investigate the incremental effect of using a high performance computer-aided detection (CAD) system in detection of solitary pulmonary nodules in chest radiographs. The Kodak Chest CAD system was evaluated by a panel of six radiologists at different levels of experience. The observer study consisted of two independent phases: readings without CAD and readings with assistance of CAD. The study was conducted over a set of chest radiographs comprising 150 cancer cases and 150 cancer-free cases. The actual sensitivity of the CAD system is 72% with 3.7 false positives per case. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the overall observer performance. The AUZ (area under ROC curve) showed a significantly improvement (P=0.0001) from 0.844 to 0.884 after using CAD. The ROC analysis was also applied for observer performances on nodules in different sizes and visibilities. The average AUZs are improved from 0.798 to 0.835 (P=0.0003) for 5-10mm nodules, 0.853 to 0.907 (P=0.001) for 10-15mm nodules, 0.864 to 0.897 (P=0.051) for 15-20 mm nodules and 0.859 to 0.896 (P=0.0342) for 20-30mm nodules, respectively. For different visibilities, the average AUZs are improved from 0.886 to 0.915 (P=0.0337), 0.803 to 0.840 (P=0.063), 0.830 to 0.893 (P=0.0001), and 0.813 to 0.847 (P=0.152), for nodules clearly visible, hidden by ribs, partially overlap with ribs, and overlap with other structures, respectively. These results showed that observer performance could be greatly improved when the CAD system is employed as a second reader, especially for small nodules and nodules occluded by ribs.

  3. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ziyue; Mansoor, Awais; Mollura, Daniel J.; Bagci, Ulas; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Jain, Sanjay; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases.

  4. The Rise of Computer-Aided Discovery in Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, V.; Blair, D. M.; Gowanlock, M.; Lind, F. D.; Erickson, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Next-generation Geoscience will need to handle rapidly growing data volumes and exploration of complex phenomena challenging human cognitive limits. With instruments digitizing large amounts of sensor data from many sources, the scientific discovery process becomes a large-scale search process. However, insight generation is still a key problem and is especially complex in Geoscience, particularly when exploratory studies involve fusion of large data from various instruments in a manual labor-intensive manner. We propose an approach for a computer-aided discovery infrastructure that automatically explores the connection between physics models and empirical data to accelerate the pace of new discoveries. The approach uses (1) A system engaging scientists to programmatically express hypothesized Geoscience scenarios, constraints, and model variations, so as to automatically explore and evaluate the combinatorial search space of possible explanations in parallel on a variety of data sets. This automated system employs machine learning to support algorithmic choice and workflow reconfiguration allowing systematic pruning of the search space of applied algorithms and parameters based on historical results. (2) A cloud-based environment allowing scientists to conduct powerful exploratory analyses on large data sets that reside in data centers. Various search modes are provided, including a mode where scientists can iteratively guide the search based on intermediate results. This functionality directs the system to identify more Geospace features that are analogous or related in various ways. (3) Scientist input is used to configure programmable crawlers that automate and scale the search for interesting phenomena on cloud-based infrastructures. We discuss various application scenarios to show the impact of workflow configuration on scientific feature detection. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from NSF ACI-1442997 and NASA AIST NNX15AG84G (PI: V. Pankratius).

  5. General purpose architecture for intelligent computer-aided training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen (Inventor); Wang, Lui (Inventor); Baffes, Paul T. (Inventor); Hua, Grace C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer-aided training system having a general modular architecture is provided for use in a wide variety of training tasks and environments. It is comprised of a user interface which permits the trainee to access the same information available in the task environment and serves as a means for the trainee to assert actions to the system; a domain expert which is sufficiently intelligent to use the same information available to the trainee and carry out the task assigned to the trainee; a training session manager for examining the assertions made by the domain expert and by the trainee for evaluating such trainee assertions and providing guidance to the trainee which are appropriate to his acquired skill level; a trainee model which contains a history of the trainee interactions with the system together with summary evaluative data; an intelligent training scenario generator for designing increasingly complex training exercises based on the current skill level contained in the trainee model and on any weaknesses or deficiencies that the trainee has exhibited in previous interactions; and a blackboard that provides a common fact base for communication between the other components of the system. Preferably, the domain expert contains a list of 'mal-rules' which typifies errors that are usually made by novice trainees. Also preferably, the training session manager comprises an intelligent error detection means and an intelligent error handling means. The present invention utilizes a rule-based language having a control structure whereby a specific message passing protocol is utilized with respect to tasks which are procedural or step-by-step in structure. The rules can be activated by the trainee in any order to reach the solution by any valid or correct path.

  6. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Mansoor, Awais; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Jain, Sanjay; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases. PMID:26133591

  7. Preparing Future Secondary Computer Science Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajwa, Iyad

    2007-01-01

    Although nearly every college offers a major in computer science, many computer science teachers at the secondary level have received little formal training. This paper presents details of a project that could make a significant contribution to national efforts to improve computer science education by combining teacher education and professional…

  8. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  9. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Junyi Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  10. Pilot decision making in a computer-aided flight management situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. Y.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental representation of a computer-aided multi-task flight management situation has been developed. A computer aiding program was implemented to serve as a back-up decision maker. An experiment was conducted with a balanced design of several subject runs for different workload levels. This was achieved using three levels of subsystem event arrival rates, three levels of control task involvement, and three levels of availability of computer aiding. Experimental results compared quite favorably with those from a computer simulation which employed a queueing model. It was shown that the aiding had enhanced system performance as well as subjective ratings, and that the adaptive aiding policy further reduced subsystem delay.

  11. Successful approaches. Educating through entertainment, theatre and AIDS.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The South Pacific Commission (SPC) has published a booklet about how young people in theater and drama entertain and educate the community about AIDS, help development efforts, and develop the youth's creativity and self-esteem. The most successful theater troupes in the Pacific are Wan Smolbag in Vanuatu and Youth to Youth in Health in the Marshall Islands. Such groups are an effective means of communicating messages about AIDS to youth. The involvement of youth in all aspects of the production of theater fosters self-confidence and -esteem and affords them an opportunity to learn about development issues affecting their lives and the welfare of their communities. Wan Smolbag's role has expanded from community-based theater to community and social development work. The UK has provided assistance for a three-year project for Wan Smolbag to help set up theater groups in other Pacific Island countries. SPC's AIDS program's Small Grants Project has contributed funds to foster the skills of youth working in theater to Women's Action for Change in Fiji, the Sei Group of the Solomon Islands Development Trust, and Malabo theater group in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The grant made to Malabo allowed the group to tour the provinces to spread the message about AIDS. A question and answer session led by troupe members and/or a health worker follows each performance. Theater is most likely the only way of communicating with PNG's population since there are more than 800 languages and illiteracy is common. Wan Smolbag conducted workshops for health workers and high school students at the South Pacific Arts Festival in the Cook Islands in 1992. These Wan Smolbag-led workshops resulted in a video production entitled Fading Away. This video has since been used to increase knowledge about some AIDS-related issues. Wan Smolbag/SPC video Like Any Other Lovers still wins world recognition as an effective tool for AIDS education. The next South Pacific Arts Festival is scheduled for

  12. Getting Smart with Computers: Computer-Aided Heuristics for Student Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Fred

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates several views of the relationship between computers and education, and criticizes the use of artificial intelligence and natural language processing software for evaluating student writing. Recommends utilizing programs that use heuristic methods to ask students a series of questions to help them organize and compose papers. (SKC)

  13. Hypnosis in Educational Programs: Its Implications As an Educational Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Joseph

    Although hypnosis has not been extensively used in education, a review of past research reveals five areas which might benefit from hypnotherapy: (1) motivation, (2) study habits, (3) concentration, (4) remedial reading, and (5) test anxiety. A questionnaire focusing on these areas was developed to determine the attitude of professional personnel…

  14. Computer Assisted Instruction in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, C. Jordan

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the impact of the computer upon education and describes specific applications of automation for agricultural education, including drill and practice, testing, simulation, and student records maintenance. (SK)

  15. Basic Guide to the Compleat Educational Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, C. Bruce; Wold, Allen L.

    1984-01-01

    Intended to enable educators to make intelligent decisions when purchasing hardware and software, this article presents basic information on computer hardware, effective software, and necessary peripherals needed to achieve educational objectives instructors have set. (MBR)

  16. Health education about AIDS among seropositive blood donors.

    PubMed

    Cleary, P D; Rogers, T F; Singer, E; Avorn, J; van Devanter, N; Perry, S; Pindyck, J

    1986-01-01

    The New York Blood Center is developing a health education and psychosocial support program for blood donors who are notified that they are HIV antibody positive. The goals of that program are: to provide accurate and intelligible information about the test results to notified donors; to encourage behavior that will reduce the likelihood of spreading the virus; to encourage notified donors to behave in ways that will reduce the probability that they will develop AIDS; and to provide support and facilitate functional coping responses. This article reviews the theoretical and empirical work which informs the intervention program, and it describes how the program is being implemented. PMID:3023260

  17. Computers in the Instructional Process in Distance Education--Examining Relationships between Usage, Expectations and Software Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Debbie; Arger, Geoff

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of a survey that was conducted to examine the use of computers in the instructional process of Australian distance education. Highlights include computer-managed learning; computer-marked tests; computer-aided learning; expert systems; and relationships between the type of computer usage, the instructors' expectations, and…

  18. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  19. Computer Aided Teaching in Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, and Geomatics - A Status Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, A.; Koenig, G.

    2014-04-01

    Education and training play vital role in the utilization of the technology. Shared and coordinated knowledge that geospatial technology and GIS deliver provides a deeper understanding of our present and will also help to better understand our future development. But it is not enough to explain new technological developments during congresses or workshops; it is also necessary to promote these new ideas and to distribute the knowledge by applying new learning strategies. This paper will review the status of computer aided teaching advances during the last decade, with a particular emphasis on photogrammetry, remote sensing, and geomatics. Some best practise examples will be presented featuring prominently recent Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) related to our fields. The consideration of mainly free online learning resources will include a commentary on quality and perceived effectiveness.

  20. Computers in the Small Scale Construction Trades. Industry Applications and Education. Vocational Education Special Project, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charns, Harold; Porter, Dennis

    This project introduced microcomputers to small-scale construction trades programs through selected California community colleges. The computers were used for applications and computer-aided instruction in construction management and carpentry classes within the departments of vocational education. The project aimed to (1) define the uses for…

  1. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  2. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance. PMID:27516841

  3. A Comparative Evaluation of Two Interventions for Educator Training in HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Olagoke; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two different methods to teach educators about HIV/AIDS. Sixty educators were selected from eight schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to undergo HIV/AIDS training using an interactive CD-ROM intervention. Another sixty educators from other schools were selected to undergo a two-day Life Skills…

  4. A Study on the Level of the First Aid Knowledge of Educators Working in Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, Caglayan; Atakurt, Yildir; Simsek, Isil

    This questionnaire study examined the level of knowledge of first aid of 138 educators in private and state preschools in Turkey. Questionnaires were completed by educators between May and July 1997. The findings indicated that about 17 percent of the educators thought that they had sufficient first aid knowledge, with 62 percent indicating that…

  5. Poz-itively Transformational: Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    HIV and AIDS are complex events that offer numerous opportunities for adult education. However, mainstream education on this issue has often not been relevant to a number of subpopulations, including sex workers. This chapter explores sources and content of HIV/AIDS education in the sex work industry (including art and the Internet) and suggests…

  6. Implementation of cloud computing in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asniar; Budiawan, R.

    2016-04-01

    Cloud computing research is a new trend in distributed computing, where people have developed service and SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) based application. This technology is very useful to be implemented, especially for higher education. This research is studied the need and feasibility for the suitability of cloud computing in higher education then propose the model of cloud computing service in higher education in Indonesia that can be implemented in order to support academic activities. Literature study is used as the research methodology to get a proposed model of cloud computing in higher education. Finally, SaaS and IaaS are cloud computing service that proposed to be implemented in higher education in Indonesia and cloud hybrid is the service model that can be recommended.

  7. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain. PMID:26346558

  8. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain. PMID:26346558

  9. Proceedings of the 1993 Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Patricia R.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings are organized in the same manner as the conference's contributed sessions, with the papers grouped by topic area. These areas are as follows: VE (virtual environment) training for Space Flight, Virtual Environment Hardware, Knowledge Aquisition for ICAT (Intelligent Computer-Aided Training) & VE, Multimedia in ICAT Systems, VE in Training & Education (1 & 2), Virtual Environment Software (1 & 2), Models in ICAT systems, ICAT Commercial Applications, ICAT Architectures & Authoring Systems, ICAT Education & Medical Applications, Assessing VE for Training, VE & Human Systems (1 & 2), ICAT Theory & Natural Language, ICAT Applications in the Military, VE Applications in Engineering, Knowledge Acquisition for ICAT, and ICAT Applications in Aerospace.

  10. The Assessment of CS-ICIDH for Adaptation of Computer-Assisted Communication (CAS) Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, J.

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a rehabilitative diagnostic approach to evaluate individuals having communication disorders in the context of the International Classification of Impairment, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH). It suggests the use of computer-assisted communication aids and offers guidelines for using such aids to assess…

  11. The Holistic Application of High Technology for Conversation, Writing, and Computer Access Aid Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Barry L.

    The principal thesis of this paper is that successful use of high technology for conversation, writing, and computer access aid systems requires a holistic perspective. A holistic approach is one in which all the components of the support system needed to use high technology effectively are in place. Recognizing that aid systems are tools helps…

  12. Virtual Reality versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…

  13. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER AIDED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT) TO THE STUDY OF MARINE BENTIC COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were imaged using a Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) scanner at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Procedures were developed, using the attenuation of X-rays, to differentiate between sediment and the water contained in macrobenthic...

  14. Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-02-01

    This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

  15. COMPUTER AIDED SOLVENT DESIGN FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION - PARIS II (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method was designed to facilitate the replacement of environmentally objectionable industrial solvents by using computer aided methods to design benign replacement solvents or solvent mixtures. The method generates a short list of recommended replacement solvents or mixtures...

  16. Computers in engineering 1983; Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibit, Chicago, IL, August 7-11, 1983. Volume 1 - Computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokonis, T. J.

    The papers presented in this volume provide examples of the impact of computers on present engineering practice and indicate some future trends in computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation. Topics discussed include computer-aided design of turbine cycle configuration, managing and development of engineering computer systems, computer-aided manufacturing with robots in the automotive industry, and computer-aided design/analysis techniques of composite materials in the cure phase. Papers are also presented on computer simulation of vehicular propulsion systems, the performance of a hydraulic system simulator in a CAD environment, and computer simulation of hovercraft heave dynamics and control.

  17. New Computing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Steven W.; Green, Kenneth C.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of the computer revolution, major changes are underway in the ways campuses deal with computing and computers. One change is the gathering momentum of faculty members and administrators to become computer users. Another is the vast amount of individual and institutional effort invested in plans for integrating computing into the…

  18. Computer Technology and Education: A Policy Delphi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steier, Lloyd P.

    Realizing the educational potential of computer technology largely depends on developing appropriate policies related to the technology. A Policy Delphi method was used to identify changes in education that are both probable and possible on account of the introduction of computers, and to explore potential patterns for arriving at a desired…

  19. Pacific Educational Computer Network Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. ALOHA System.

    The Pacific Educational Computer Network Feasibility Study examined technical and non-technical aspects of the formation of an international Pacific Area computer network for higher education. The technical study covered the assessment of the feasibility of a packet-switched satellite and radio ground distribution network for data transmission…

  20. The Future of Educational Computers. Concept Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Computer Technology Program.

    Asserting that advances in hardware technology have outstripped educators' anticipations and that software is the key to the successful use of computer hardware, this paper addresses developments in both hardware and software and discusses possible directions for computer use in education. The first section covers the physical attributes of…