Development of probabilistic multimedia multipathway computer codes.
Yu, C.; LePoire, D.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Arnish, J.; Kamboj, S.; Biwer, B. M.; Cheng, J.-J.; Zielen, A. J.; Chen, S. Y.; Mo, T.; Abu-Eid, R.; Thaggard, M.; Sallo, A., III.; Peterson, H., Jr.; Williams, W. A.; Environmental Assessment; NRC; EM
2002-01-01
The deterministic multimedia dose/risk assessment codes RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD have been widely used for many years for evaluation of sites contaminated with residual radioactive materials. The RESRAD code applies to the cleanup of sites (soils) and the RESRAD-BUILD code applies to the cleanup of buildings and structures. This work describes the procedure used to enhance the deterministic RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes for probabilistic dose analysis. A six-step procedure was used in developing default parameter distributions and the probabilistic analysis modules. These six steps include (1) listing and categorizing parameters; (2) ranking parameters; (3) developing parameter distributions; (4) testing parameter distributions for probabilistic analysis; (5) developing probabilistic software modules; and (6) testing probabilistic modules and integrated codes. The procedures used can be applied to the development of other multimedia probabilistic codes. The probabilistic versions of RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes provide tools for studying the uncertainty in dose assessment caused by uncertain input parameters. The parameter distribution data collected in this work can also be applied to other multimedia assessment tasks and multimedia computer codes.
New developments in the Saphire computer codes
Russell, K.D.; Wood, S.T.; Kvarfordt, K.J.
1996-03-01
The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a suite of computer programs that were developed to create and analyze a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant. Many recent enhancements to this suite of codes have been made. This presentation will provide an overview of these features and capabilities. The presentation will include a discussion of the new GEM module. This module greatly reduces and simplifies the work necessary to use the SAPHIRE code in event assessment applications. An overview of the features provided in the new Windows version will also be provided. This version is a full Windows 32-bit implementation and offers many new and exciting features. [A separate computer demonstration was held to allow interested participants to get a preview of these features.] The new capabilities that have been added since version 5.0 will be covered. Some of these major new features include the ability to store an unlimited number of basic events, gates, systems, sequences, etc.; the addition of improved reporting capabilities to allow the user to generate and {open_quotes}scroll{close_quotes} through custom reports; the addition of multi-variable importance measures; and the simplification of the user interface. Although originally designed as a PRA Level 1 suite of codes, capabilities have recently been added to SAPHIRE to allow the user to apply the code in Level 2 analyses. These features will be discussed in detail during the presentation. The modifications and capabilities added to this version of SAPHIRE significantly extend the code in many important areas. Together, these extensions represent a major step forward in PC-based risk analysis tools. This presentation provides a current up-to-date status of these important PRA analysis tools.
Development and application of computational aerothermodynamics flowfield computer codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
1994-01-01
Research was performed in the area of computational modeling and application of hypersonic, high-enthalpy, thermo-chemical nonequilibrium flow (Aerothermodynamics) problems. A number of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes were developed and applied to simulate high altitude rocket-plume, the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE), hypersonic base flow for planetary probes, the single expansion ramp model (SERN) connected with the National Aerospace Plane, hypersonic drag devices, hypersonic ramp flows, ballistic range models, shock tunnel facility nozzles, transient and steady flows in the shock tunnel facility, arc-jet flows, thermochemical nonequilibrium flows around simple and complex bodies, axisymmetric ionized flows of interest to re-entry, unsteady shock induced combustion phenomena, high enthalpy pulsed facility simulations, and unsteady shock boundary layer interactions in shock tunnels. Computational modeling involved developing appropriate numerical schemes for the flows on interest and developing, applying, and validating appropriate thermochemical processes. As part of improving the accuracy of the numerical predictions, adaptive grid algorithms were explored, and a user-friendly, self-adaptive code (SAGE) was developed. Aerothermodynamic flows of interest included energy transfer due to strong radiation, and a significant level of effort was spent in developing computational codes for calculating radiation and radiation modeling. In addition, computational tools were developed and applied to predict the radiative heat flux and spectra that reach the model surface.
Liquid rocket combustor computer code development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, P. Y.
1985-01-01
The Advanced Rocket Injector/Combustor Code (ARICC) that has been developed to model the complete chemical/fluid/thermal processes occurring inside rocket combustion chambers are highlighted. The code, derived from the CONCHAS-SPRAY code originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory incorporates powerful features such as the ability to model complex injector combustion chamber geometries, Lagrangian tracking of droplets, full chemical equilibrium and kinetic reactions for multiple species, a fractional volume of fluid (VOF) description of liquid jet injection in addition to the gaseous phase fluid dynamics, and turbulent mass, energy, and momentum transport. Atomization and droplet dynamic models from earlier generation codes are transplated into the present code. Currently, ARICC is specialized for liquid oxygen/hydrogen propellants, although other fuel/oxidizer pairs can be easily substituted.
Computer codes developed and under development at Lewis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, Christos C.
1992-01-01
The objective of this summary is to provide a brief description of: (1) codes developed or under development at LeRC; and (2) the development status of IPACS with some typical early results. The computer codes that have been developed and/or are under development at LeRC are listed in the accompanying charts. This list includes: (1) the code acronym; (2) select physics descriptors; (3) current enhancements; and (4) present (9/91) code status with respect to its availability and documentation. The computer codes list is grouped by related functions such as: (1) composite mechanics; (2) composite structures; (3) integrated and 3-D analysis; (4) structural tailoring; and (5) probabilistic structural analysis. These codes provide a broad computational simulation infrastructure (technology base-readiness) for assessing the structural integrity/durability/reliability of propulsion systems. These codes serve two other very important functions: they provide an effective means of technology transfer; and they constitute a depository of corporate memory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1985-01-01
COSMIC MINIVER, a computer code developed by NASA for analyzing aerodynamic heating and heat transfer on the Space Shuttle, has been used by Marquardt Company to analyze heat transfer on Navy/Air Force missile bodies. The code analyzes heat transfer by four different methods which can be compared for accuracy. MINIVER saved Marquardt three months in computer time and $15,000.
Development of non-linear finite element computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, E. B.; Miller, T.
1985-01-01
Recent work has shown that the use of separable symmetric functions of the principal stretches can adequately describe the response of certain propellant materials and, further, that a data reduction scheme gives a convenient way of obtaining the values of the functions from experimental data. Based on representation of the energy, a computational scheme was developed that allows finite element analysis of boundary value problems of arbitrary shape and loading. The computational procedure was implemental in a three-dimensional finite element code, TEXLESP-S, which is documented herein.
Development and application of computational aerothermodynamics flowfield computer codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
1993-01-01
Computations are presented for one-dimensional, strong shock waves that are typical of those that form in front of a reentering spacecraft. The fluid mechanics and thermochemistry are modeled using two different approaches. The first employs traditional continuum techniques in solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The second-approach employs a particle simulation technique (the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, DSMC). The thermochemical models employed in these two techniques are quite different. The present investigation presents an evaluation of thermochemical models for nitrogen under hypersonic flow conditions. Four separate cases are considered. The cases are governed, respectively, by the following: vibrational relaxation; weak dissociation; strong dissociation; and weak ionization. In near-continuum, hypersonic flow, the nonequilibrium thermochemical models employed in continuum and particle simulations produce nearly identical solutions. Further, the two approaches are evaluated successfully against available experimental data for weakly and strongly dissociating flows.
Development and application of the GIM code for the Cyber 203 computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stainaker, J. F.; Robinson, M. A.; Rawlinson, E. G.; Anderson, P. G.; Mayne, A. W.; Spradley, L. W.
1982-01-01
The GIM computer code for fluid dynamics research was developed. Enhancement of the computer code, implicit algorithm development, turbulence model implementation, chemistry model development, interactive input module coding and wing/body flowfield computation are described. The GIM quasi-parabolic code development was completed, and the code used to compute a number of example cases. Turbulence models, algebraic and differential equations, were added to the basic viscous code. An equilibrium reacting chemistry model and implicit finite difference scheme were also added. Development was completed on the interactive module for generating the input data for GIM. Solutions for inviscid hypersonic flow over a wing/body configuration are also presented.
Two-Phase Flow in Geothermal Wells: Development and Uses of a Good Computer Code
Ortiz-Ramirez, Jaime
1983-06-01
A computer code is developed for vertical two-phase flow in geothermal wellbores. The two-phase correlations used were developed by Orkiszewski (1967) and others and are widely applicable in the oil and gas industry. The computer code is compared to the flowing survey measurements from wells in the East Mesa, Cerro Prieto, and Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal fields with success. Well data from the Svartsengi field in Iceland are also used. Several applications of the computer code are considered. They range from reservoir analysis to wellbore deposition studies. It is considered that accurate and workable wellbore simulators have an important role to play in geothermal reservoir engineering.
The development of an intelligent interface to a computational fluid dynamics flow-solver code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Anthony D.
1988-01-01
Researchers at NASA Lewis are currently developing an 'intelligent' interface to aid in the development and use of large, computational fluid dynamics flow-solver codes for studying the internal fluid behavior of aerospace propulsion systems. This paper discusses the requirements, design, and implementation of an intelligent interface to Proteus, a general purpose, 3-D, Navier-Stokes flow solver. The interface is called PROTAIS to denote its introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) concepts to the Proteus code.
The development of an intelligent interface to a computational fluid dynamics flow-solver code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Anthony D.
1988-01-01
Researchers at NASA Lewis are currently developing an 'intelligent' interface to aid in the development and use of large, computational fluid dynamics flow-solver codes for studying the internal fluid behavior of aerospace propulsion systems. This paper discusses the requirements, design, and implementation of an intelligent interface to Proteus, a general purpose, three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes flow solver. The interface is called PROTAIS to denote its introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) concepts to the Proteus code.
Solution of 3-dimensional time-dependent viscous flows. Part 2: Development of the computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.
1980-01-01
There is considerable interest in developing a numerical scheme for solving the time dependent viscous compressible three dimensional flow equations to aid in the design of helicopter rotors. The development of a computer code to solve a three dimensional unsteady approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations employing a linearized block emplicit technique in conjunction with a QR operator scheme is described. Results of calculations of several Cartesian test cases are presented. The computer code can be applied to more complex flow fields such as these encountered on rotating airfoils.
Development of a model and computer code to describe solar grade silicon production processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gould, R. K.; Srivastava, R.
1979-01-01
Two computer codes were developed for describing flow reactors in which high purity, solar grade silicon is produced via reduction of gaseous silicon halides. The first is the CHEMPART code, an axisymmetric, marching code which treats two phase flows with models describing detailed gas-phase chemical kinetics, particle formation, and particle growth. It can be used to described flow reactors in which reactants, mix, react, and form a particulate phase. Detailed radial gas-phase composition, temperature, velocity, and particle size distribution profiles are computed. Also, deposition of heat, momentum, and mass (either particulate or vapor) on reactor walls is described. The second code is a modified version of the GENMIX boundary layer code which is used to compute rates of heat, momentum, and mass transfer to the reactor walls. This code lacks the detailed chemical kinetics and particle handling features of the CHEMPART code but has the virtue of running much more rapidly than CHEMPART, while treating the phenomena occurring in the boundary layer in more detail.
Development of a Model and Computer Code to Describe Solar Grade Silicon Production Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Gould, R. K.
1979-01-01
Mathematical models and computer codes based on these models, which allow prediction of the product distribution in chemical reactors for converting gaseous silicon compounds to condensed-phase silicon were developed. The following tasks were accomplished: (1) formulation of a model for silicon vapor separation/collection from the developing turbulent flow stream within reactors of the Westinghouse (2) modification of an available general parabolic code to achieve solutions to the governing partial differential equations (boundary layer type) which describe migration of the vapor to the reactor walls, (3) a parametric study using the boundary layer code to optimize the performance characteristics of the Westinghouse reactor, (4) calculations relating to the collection efficiency of the new AeroChem reactor, and (5) final testing of the modified LAPP code for use as a method of predicting Si(1) droplet sizes in these reactors.
Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.
1995-03-01
MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.
Development of a new generation solid rocket motor ignition computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.; Ciucci, Alessandro; Johnson, Shelby D.
1994-01-01
This report presents the results of experimental and numerical investigations of the flow field in the head-end star grain slots of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. This work provided the basis for the development of an improved solid rocket motor ignition transient code which is also described in this report. The correlation between the experimental and numerical results is excellent and provides a firm basis for the development of a fully three-dimensional solid rocket motor ignition transient computer code.
Computer algorithm for coding gain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dodd, E. E.
1974-01-01
Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.
Development of a numerical computer code and circuit element models for simulation of firing systems
Carpenter, K.H. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)
1990-07-02
Numerical simulation of firing systems requires both the appropriate circuit analysis framework and the special element models required by the application. We have modified the SPICE circuit analysis code (version 2G.6), developed originally at the Electronic Research Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley, to allow it to be used on MSDOS-based, personal computers and to give it two additional circuit elements needed by firing systems--fuses and saturating inductances. An interactive editor and a batch driver have been written to ease the use of the SPICE program by system designers, and the interactive graphical post processor, NUTMEG, supplied by U. C. Berkeley with SPICE version 3B1, has been interfaced to the output from the modified SPICE. Documentation and installation aids have been provided to make the total software system accessible to PC users. Sample problems show that the resulting code is in agreement with the FIRESET code on which the fuse model was based (with some modifications to the dynamics of scaling fuse parameters). In order to allow for more complex simulations of firing systems, studies have been made of additional special circuit elements--switches and ferrite cored inductances. A simple switch model has been investigated which promises to give at least a first approximation to the physical effects of a non ideal switch, and which can be added to the existing SPICE circuits without changing the SPICE code itself. The effect of fast rise time pulses on ferrites has been studied experimentally in order to provide a base for future modeling and incorporation of the dynamic effects of changes in core magnetization into the SPICE code. This report contains detailed accounts of the work on these topics performed during the period it covers, and has appendices listing all source code written documentation produced.
Development of a Model and Computer Code to Describe Solar Grade Silicon Production Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Gould, R. K.
1979-01-01
The program aims at developing mathematical models and computer codes based on these models, which allow prediction of the product distribution in chemical reactors for converting gaseous silicon compounds to condensed-phase silicon. The major interest is in collecting silicon as a liquid on the reactor walls and other collection surfaces. Two reactor systems are of major interest, a SiCl4/Na reactor in which Si(l) is collected on the flow tube reactor walls and a reactor in which Si(l) droplets formed by the SiCl4/Na reaction are collected by a jet impingement method. During this quarter the following tasks were accomplished: (1) particle deposition routines were added to the boundary layer code; and (2) Si droplet sizes in SiCl4/Na reactors at temperatures below the dew point of Si are being calculated.
Development of a model and computer code to describe solar grade silicon production processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Gould, R. K.
1979-01-01
Mathematical models, and computer codes based on these models were developed which allow prediction of the product distribution in chemical reactors in which gaseous silicon compounds are converted to condensed phase silicon. The reactors to be modeled are flow reactors in which silane or one of the halogenated silanes is thermally decomposed or reacted with an alkali metal, H2 or H atoms. Because the product of interest is particulate silicon, processes which must be modeled, in addition to mixing and reaction of gas-phase reactants, include the nucleation and growth of condensed Si via coagulation, condensation, and heterogeneous reaction.
Automated Development of Accurate Algorithms and Efficient Codes for Computational Aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, John W.; Dyson, Rodger W.
1999-01-01
The simulation of sound generation and propagation in three space dimensions with realistic aircraft components is a very large time dependent computation with fine details. Simulations in open domains with embedded objects require accurate and robust algorithms for propagation, for artificial inflow and outflow boundaries, and for the definition of geometrically complex objects. The development, implementation, and validation of methods for solving these demanding problems is being done to support the NASA pillar goals for reducing aircraft noise levels. Our goal is to provide algorithms which are sufficiently accurate and efficient to produce usable results rapidly enough to allow design engineers to study the effects on sound levels of design changes in propulsion systems, and in the integration of propulsion systems with airframes. There is a lack of design tools for these purposes at this time. Our technical approach to this problem combines the development of new, algorithms with the use of Mathematica and Unix utilities to automate the algorithm development, code implementation, and validation. We use explicit methods to ensure effective implementation by domain decomposition for SPMD parallel computing. There are several orders of magnitude difference in the computational efficiencies of the algorithms which we have considered. We currently have new artificial inflow and outflow boundary conditions that are stable, accurate, and unobtrusive, with implementations that match the accuracy and efficiency of the propagation methods. The artificial numerical boundary treatments have been proven to have solutions which converge to the full open domain problems, so that the error from the boundary treatments can be driven as low as is required. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present a method for developing highly accurate algorithms for computational aeroacoustics, the use of computer automation in this process, and a brief survey of the algorithms that
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bjork, C.
1981-01-01
The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1991-01-01
In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.
Development of a space radiation Monte Carlo computer simulation based on the FLUKA and ROOT codes.
Pinsky, L S; Wilson, T L; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Carminati, F; Brun, R
2001-01-01
This NASA funded project is proceeding to develop a Monte Carlo-based computer simulation of the radiation environment in space. With actual funding only initially in place at the end of May 2000, the study is still in the early stage of development. The general tasks have been identified and personnel have been selected. The code to be assembled will be based upon two major existing software packages. The radiation transport simulation will be accomplished by updating the FLUKA Monte Carlo program, and the user interface will employ the ROOT software being developed at CERN. The end-product will be a Monte Carlo-based code which will complement the existing analytic codes such as BRYNTRN/HZETRN presently used by NASA to evaluate the effects of radiation shielding in space. The planned code will possess the ability to evaluate the radiation environment for spacecraft and habitats in Earth orbit, in interplanetary space, on the lunar surface, or on a planetary surface such as Mars. Furthermore, it will be useful in the design and analysis of experiments such as ACCESS (Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station), which is an Office of Space Science payload currently under evaluation for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS). FLUKA will be significantly improved and tailored for use in simulating space radiation in four ways. First, the additional physics not presently within the code that is necessary to simulate the problems of interest, namely the heavy ion inelastic processes, will be incorporated. Second, the internal geometry package will be replaced with one that will substantially increase the calculation speed as well as simplify the data input task. Third, default incident flux packages that include all of the different space radiation sources of interest will be included. Finally, the user interface and internal data structure will be melded together with ROOT, the object-oriented data analysis infrastructure system. Beyond
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
A comprehensive review of all NASA airfoil research, conducted both in-house and under grant and contract, as well as a broad spectrum of airfoil research outside of NASA is presented. Emphasis is placed on the development of computational aerodynamic codes for airfoil analysis and design, the development of experimental facilities and test techniques, and all types of airfoil applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doane, George B., III; Armstrong, Wilbur C.
1991-01-01
Research into component modeling and system synthesis leading to the analysis of the major types of propulsion system instabilities and the characterization of various components characteristics are presented. Last year, several programs designed to run on a PC were developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. These codes covered the low, intermediate, and high frequency modes of oscillation of a liquid rocket propulsion system. No graphics were built into these programs and only simple piping layouts were supported. This year's effort was to add run time graphics to the low and intermediate frequency codes, allow new types of piping elements (accumulators, pumps, and split pipes) in the low frequency code, and develop a new code for the PC to generate Nyquist plots.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goerke, W. S.
1972-01-01
A manual is presented as an aid in using the STEEP32 code. The code is the EXEC 8 version of the STEEP code (STEEP is an acronym for shock two-dimensional Eulerian elastic plastic). The major steps in a STEEP32 run are illustrated in a sample problem. There is a detailed discussion of the internal organization of the code, including a description of each subroutine.
Chen, S. Y.; Yu, C.; Mo. T.; Trottier, C.
2000-10-17
In 1999, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) tasked Argonne National Laboratory to modify the existing RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes to perform probabilistic, site-specific dose analysis for use with the NRC's Standard Review Plan for demonstrating compliance with the license termination rule. The RESRAD codes have been developed by Argonne to support the US Department of Energy's (DOEs) cleanup efforts. Through more than a decade of application, the codes already have established a large user base in the nation and a rigorous QA support. The primary objectives of the NRC task are to: (1) extend the codes' capabilities to include probabilistic analysis, and (2) develop parameter distribution functions and perform probabilistic analysis with the codes. The new codes also contain user-friendly features specially designed with graphic-user interface. In October 2000, the revised RESRAD (version 6.0) and RESRAD-BUILD (version 3.0), together with the user's guide and relevant parameter information, have been developed and are made available to the general public via the Internet for use.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walitt, L.
1982-01-01
The VANS successive approximation numerical method was extended to the computation of three dimensional, viscous, transonic flows in turbomachines. A cross-sectional computer code, which conserves mass flux at each point of the cross-sectional surface of computation was developed. In the VANS numerical method, the cross-sectional computation follows a blade-to-blade calculation. Numerical calculations were made for an axial annular turbine cascade and a transonic, centrifugal impeller with splitter vanes. The subsonic turbine cascade computation was generated in blade-to-blade surface to evaluate the accuracy of the blade-to-blade mode of marching. Calculated blade pressures at the hub, mid, and tip radii of the cascade agreed with corresponding measurements. The transonic impeller computation was conducted to test the newly developed locally mass flux conservative cross-sectional computer code. Both blade-to-blade and cross sectional modes of calculation were implemented for this problem. A triplet point shock structure was computed in the inducer region of the impeller. In addition, time-averaged shroud static pressures generally agreed with measured shroud pressures. It is concluded that the blade-to-blade computation produces a useful engineering flow field in regions of subsonic relative flow; and cross-sectional computation, with a locally mass flux conservative continuity equation, is required to compute the shock waves in regions of supersonic relative flow.
Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.
1993-01-01
AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.
Kostin, Mikhail; Mokhov, Nikolai; Niita, Koji
2013-09-25
A parallel computing framework has been developed to use with general-purpose radiation transport codes. The framework was implemented as a C++ module that uses MPI for message passing. It is intended to be used with older radiation transport codes implemented in Fortran77, Fortran 90 or C. The module is significantly independent of radiation transport codes it can be used with, and is connected to the codes by means of a number of interface functions. The framework was developed and tested in conjunction with the MARS15 code. It is possible to use it with other codes such as PHITS, FLUKA and MCNP after certain adjustments. Besides the parallel computing functionality, the framework offers a checkpoint facility that allows restarting calculations with a saved checkpoint file. The checkpoint facility can be used in single process calculations as well as in the parallel regime. The framework corrects some of the known problems with the scheduling and load balancing found in the original implementations of the parallel computing functionality in MARS15 and PHITS. The framework can be used efficiently on homogeneous systems and networks of workstations, where the interference from the other users is possible.
Documentation for computer code NACL
Weres, O.; Peiper, J.C.; Pitzer, K.S.; Pabalan, R.
1987-02-01
The computer program NACL incorporates the empirical model of the thermodynamic properties of the system NaCl-H/sub 2/O recently published by Pitzer et al. NACL is derived from the research codes used by Pitzer et al. to analyze the experimental data and fix the parameters in their model. NACL calculates values for all thermodynamic properties which are identical to values tabulated in Ref. 1. NACL is written in VAX/VMS FORTRAN, and was developed on a VAX 8600 computer. Machine specific features have been avoided, and NACL should require few changes to compile and run with other compilers and computers. A sample output and full code listing of NACL are appended to this document. For one year following the publication of this document, the code will be made available to interested users on 5.25'' floppy diskette in MS-DOS 2.11 format. Please send a formatted diskette and a stamped, self-addressed mailer to Oleh Weres, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 50E, Berkeley, CA 94720. Please put your name and address on the diskette.
Computer codes for RF cavity design
Ko, K.
1992-08-01
In RF cavity design, numerical modeling is assuming an increasingly important role with the help of sophisticated computer codes and powerful yet affordable computers. A description of the cavity codes in use in the accelerator community has been given previously. The present paper will address the latest developments and discuss their applications to cavity toning and matching problems.
Coded aperture computed tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Kerkil; Brady, David J.
2009-08-01
Diverse physical measurements can be modeled by X-ray transforms. While X-ray tomography is the canonical example, reference structure tomography (RST) and coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging (CASSI) are examples of physically unrelated but mathematically equivalent sensor systems. Historically, most x-ray transform based systems sample continuous distributions and apply analytical inversion processes. On the other hand, RST and CASSI generate discrete multiplexed measurements implemented with coded apertures. This multiplexing of coded measurements allows for compression of measurements from a compressed sensing perspective. Compressed sensing (CS) is a revelation that if the object has a sparse representation in some basis, then a certain number, but typically much less than what is prescribed by Shannon's sampling rate, of random projections captures enough information for a highly accurate reconstruction of the object. This paper investigates the role of coded apertures in x-ray transform measurement systems (XTMs) in terms of data efficiency and reconstruction fidelity from a CS perspective. To conduct this, we construct a unified analysis using RST and CASSI measurement models. Also, we propose a novel compressive x-ray tomography measurement scheme which also exploits coding and multiplexing, and hence shares the analysis of the other two XTMs. Using this analysis, we perform a qualitative study on how coded apertures can be exploited to implement physical random projections by "regularizing" the measurement systems. Numerical studies and simulation results demonstrate several examples of the impact of coding.
Open source development experience with a computational gas-solids flow code
Syamlal, M; O'Brien, T. J.; Benyahia, Sofiane; Gel, Aytekin; Pannala, Sreekanth
2008-01-01
A case study on the use of open source (OS) software development in chemical engineering research and education is presented here. The multiphase computational fluid dynamics software MFIX is the object of the case study. The verification and validation steps required for constructing modern computational software and the advantages of OS development in those steps are discussed. The infrastructure used for enabling the OS development of MFIX is described. The impact of OS development on computational research and education in gas-solids flow and the dissemination of information to other areas such as geotechnical and volcanology research are demonstrated. It is shown that the advantages of OS development methodology were realized: verification by many users, which enhances software quality; the use of software as a means for accumulating and exchanging information; and the facilitation of peer review of the results of computational research.
Development of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code on CDC star-100 computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, V. N.; Goglia, G. L.
1978-01-01
A three-dimensional code in body-fitted coordinates was developed using MacCormack's algorithm. The code is structured to be compatible with any general configuration, provided that the metric coefficients for the transformation are available. The governing equations are developed in primitive variables in order to facilitate the incorporation of physical boundary conditions and turbulence-closure models. MacCormack's two-step, unsplit, time-marching algorithm is used to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations until steady-state solution is achieved. Cases discussed include (1) flat plate in supersonic free stream; (2) supersonic flow along an axial corner; (3) subsonic flow in an axial corner at M infinity = 0.95; and (4) supersonic flow in an axial corner at M infinity 1.5.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartels, Robert E.
2012-01-01
This paper presents the implementation of gust modeling capability in the CFD code FUN3D. The gust capability is verified by computing the response of an airfoil to a sharp edged gust. This result is compared with the theoretical result. The present simulations will be compared with other CFD gust simulations. This paper also serves as a users manual for FUN3D gust analyses using a variety of gust profiles. Finally, the development of an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) reduced order gust model using a gust with a Gaussian profile in the FUN3D code is presented. ARMA simulated results of a sequence of one-minus-cosine gusts is shown to compare well with the same gust profile computed with FUN3D. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is combined with the ARMA modeling technique to predict the time varying pressure coefficient increment distribution due to a novel gust profile. The aeroelastic response of a pitch/plunge airfoil to a gust environment is computed with a reduced order model, and compared with a direct simulation of the system in the FUN3D code. The two results are found to agree very well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klopfer, Goetz H.
1993-01-01
The work performed during the past year on this cooperative agreement covered two major areas and two lesser ones. The two major items included further development and validation of the Compressible Navier-Stokes Finite Volume (CNSFV) code and providing computational support for the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT). The two lesser items involve a Navier-Stokes simulation of an oscillating control surface at transonic speeds and improving the basic algorithm used in the CNSFV code for faster convergence rates and more robustness. The work done in all four areas is in support of the High Speed Research Program at NASA Ames Research Center.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Earl R., Jr.
1990-01-01
Authorized users respond to changing challenges with changing passwords. Scheme for controlling access to computers defeats eavesdroppers and "hackers". Based on password system of challenge and password or sign, challenge, and countersign correlated with random alphanumeric codes in matrices of two or more dimensions. Codes stored on floppy disk or plug-in card and changed frequently. For even higher security, matrices of four or more dimensions used, just as cubes compounded into hypercubes in concurrent processing.
Rahatgaonkar, P. S.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.
2012-07-01
Prediction of groundwater movement and contaminant transport in soil is an important problem in many branches of science and engineering. This includes groundwater hydrology, environmental engineering, soil science, agricultural engineering and also nuclear engineering. Specifically, in nuclear engineering it is applicable in the design of spent fuel storage pools and waste management sites in the nuclear power plants. Ground water modeling involves the simulation of flow and contaminant transport by groundwater flow. In the context of contaminated soil and groundwater system, numerical simulations are typically used to demonstrate compliance with regulatory standard. A one-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics code GFLOW had been developed based on the Finite Difference Method for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport through saturated and unsaturated soil. The code is validated with the analytical model and the benchmarking cases available in the literature. (authors)
Using the DEWSBR computer code
Cable, G.D.
1989-09-01
A computer code is described which is designed to determine the fraction of time during which a given ground location is observable from one or more members of a satellite constellation in earth orbit. Ground visibility parameters are determined from the orientation and strength of an appropriate ionized cylinder (used to simulate a beam experiment) at the selected location. Satellite orbits are computed in a simplified two-body approximation computation. A variety of printed and graphical outputs is provided. 9 refs., 50 figs., 2 tabs.
Development of Computational Aeroacoustics Code for Jet Noise and Flow Prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hixon, Duane R.
2002-07-01
Accurate prediction of jet fan and exhaust plume flow and noise generation and propagation is very important in developing advanced aircraft engines that will pass current and future noise regulations. In jet fan flows as well as exhaust plumes, two major sources of noise are present: large-scale, coherent instabilities and small-scale turbulent eddies. In previous work for the NASA Glenn Research Center, three strategies have been explored in an effort to computationally predict the noise radiation from supersonic jet exhaust plumes. In order from the least expensive computationally to the most expensive computationally, these are: 1) Linearized Euler equations (LEE). 2) Very Large Eddy Simulations (VLES). 3) Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The first method solves the linearized Euler equations (LEE). These equations are obtained by linearizing about a given mean flow and the neglecting viscous effects. In this way, the noise from large-scale instabilities can be found for a given mean flow. The linearized Euler equations are computationally inexpensive, and have produced good noise results for supersonic jets where the large-scale instability noise dominates, as well as for the tone noise from a jet engine blade row. However, these linear equations do not predict the absolute magnitude of the noise; instead, only the relative magnitude is predicted. Also, the predicted disturbances do not modify the mean flow, removing a physical mechanism by which the amplitude of the disturbance may be controlled. Recent research for isolated airfoils' indicates that this may not affect the solution greatly at low frequencies. The second method addresses some of the concerns raised by the LEE method. In this approach, called Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES), the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-accuracy computational aeroacoustics numerical scheme. With the addition of a two-equation turbulence model and the use of a relatively
Development of Computational Aeroacoustics Code for Jet Noise and Flow Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hixon, Duane R.
2002-01-01
Accurate prediction of jet fan and exhaust plume flow and noise generation and propagation is very important in developing advanced aircraft engines that will pass current and future noise regulations. In jet fan flows as well as exhaust plumes, two major sources of noise are present: large-scale, coherent instabilities and small-scale turbulent eddies. In previous work for the NASA Glenn Research Center, three strategies have been explored in an effort to computationally predict the noise radiation from supersonic jet exhaust plumes. In order from the least expensive computationally to the most expensive computationally, these are: 1) Linearized Euler equations (LEE). 2) Very Large Eddy Simulations (VLES). 3) Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The first method solves the linearized Euler equations (LEE). These equations are obtained by linearizing about a given mean flow and the neglecting viscous effects. In this way, the noise from large-scale instabilities can be found for a given mean flow. The linearized Euler equations are computationally inexpensive, and have produced good noise results for supersonic jets where the large-scale instability noise dominates, as well as for the tone noise from a jet engine blade row. However, these linear equations do not predict the absolute magnitude of the noise; instead, only the relative magnitude is predicted. Also, the predicted disturbances do not modify the mean flow, removing a physical mechanism by which the amplitude of the disturbance may be controlled. Recent research for isolated airfoils' indicates that this may not affect the solution greatly at low frequencies. The second method addresses some of the concerns raised by the LEE method. In this approach, called Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES), the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-accuracy computational aeroacoustics numerical scheme. With the addition of a two-equation turbulence model and the use of a relatively
Computer access security code system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.
Portable code development in C
Brown, S.A.
1990-11-06
With a new generation of high performance computers appearing around us on a time scale of months, a new challenge for developers of simulation codes is to write and maintain production codes that are both highly portable and maximally efficient. My contention is that C is the language that is both best suited to that goal and is widely available today. GLF is a new code written mainly in C which is intended to have all of the XRASER physics and run on any platform of interest. It demonstrates the power of the C paradigm for code developers and flexibility and ease of use for the users. Three fundamental problems are discussed: the C/UNIX development environment; the supporting tools and libraries which handle data and graphics portability issues; and the advantages of C in numerical simulation code development.
Lee, Y.J.; Dalpiaz, E.L.
1997-08-01
Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs.
Seals Code Development Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)
1996-01-01
Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramamoorthy, Karthikeyan
The main aim of this research is the development and validation of computational schemes for advanced lattice codes. The advanced lattice code which forms the primary part of this research is "DRAGON Version4". The code has unique features like self shielding calculation with capabilities to represent distributed and mutual resonance shielding effects, leakage models with space-dependent isotropic or anisotropic streaming effect, availability of the method of characteristics (MOC), burnup calculation with reaction-detailed energy production etc. Qualified reactor physics codes are essential for the study of all existing and envisaged designs of nuclear reactors. Any new design would require a thorough analysis of all the safety parameters and burnup dependent behaviour. Any reactor physics calculation requires the estimation of neutron fluxes in various regions of the problem domain. The calculation goes through several levels before the desired solution is obtained. Each level of the lattice calculation has its own significance and any compromise at any step will lead to poor final result. The various levels include choice of nuclear data library and energy group boundaries into which the multigroup library is cast; self shielding of nuclear data depending on the heterogeneous geometry and composition; tracking of geometry, keeping error in volume and surface to an acceptable minimum; generation of regionwise and groupwise collision probabilities or MOC-related information and their subsequent normalization thereof, solution of transport equation using the previously generated groupwise information and obtaining the fluxes and reaction rates in various regions of the lattice; depletion of fuel and of other materials based on normalization with constant power or constant flux. Of the above mentioned levels, the present research will mainly focus on two aspects, namely self shielding and depletion. The behaviour of the system is determined by composition of resonant
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaul, Upender K.
2005-01-01
A three-dimensional numerical solver based on finite-difference solution of three-dimensional elastodynamic equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates has been developed and used to generate data such as radial and tangential stresses over various gear component geometries under rotation. The geometries considered are an annulus, a thin annular disk, and a thin solid disk. The solution is based on first principles and does not involve lumped parameter or distributed parameter systems approach. The elastodynamic equations in the velocity-stress formulation that are considered here have been used in the solution of problems of geophysics where non-rotating Cartesian grids are considered. For arbitrary geometries, these equations along with the appropriate boundary conditions have been cast in generalized curvilinear coordinates in the present study.
Computer design code for conical ribbon parachutes
Waye, D.E.
1986-01-01
An interactive computer design code has been developed to aid in the design of conical ribbon parachutes. The program is written to include single conical and polyconical parachute designs. The code determines the pattern length, vent diameter, radial length, ribbon top and bottom lengths, and geometric local and average porosity for the designer with inputs of constructed diameter, ribbon widths, ribbon spacings, radial width, and number of gores. The gores are designed with one mini-radial in the center with an option for the addition of two outer mini-radials. The output provides all of the dimensions necessary for the construction of the parachute. These results could also be used as input into other computer codes used to predict parachute loads.
Efficient tree codes on SIMD computer architectures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, Kevin M.
1996-11-01
This paper describes changes made to a previous implementation of an N -body tree code developed for a fine-grained, SIMD computer architecture. These changes include (1) switching from a balanced binary tree to a balanced oct tree, (2) addition of quadrupole corrections, and (3) having the particles search the tree in groups rather than individually. An algorithm for limiting errors is also discussed. In aggregate, these changes have led to a performance increase of over a factor of 10 compared to the previous code. For problems several times larger than the processor array, the code now achieves performance levels of ~ 1 Gflop on the Maspar MP-2 or roughly 20% of the quoted peak performance of this machine. This percentage is competitive with other parallel implementations of tree codes on MIMD architectures. This is significant, considering the low relative cost of SIMD architectures.
An Object-Oriented Approach to Writing Computational Electromagnetics Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zimmerman, Martin; Mallasch, Paul G.
1996-01-01
Presently, most computer software development in the Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) community employs the structured programming paradigm, particularly using the Fortran language. Other segments of the software community began switching to an Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) paradigm in recent years to help ease design and development of highly complex codes. This paper examines design of a time-domain numerical analysis CEM code using the OOP paradigm, comparing OOP code and structured programming code in terms of software maintenance, portability, flexibility, and speed.
Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Miley, Terri B.; Nichols, William E.; Strenge, Dennis L.
2004-09-14
This document contains detailed user instructions for a suite of utility codes developed for Rev. 1 of the Systems Assessment Capability. The suite of computer codes for Rev. 1 of Systems Assessment Capability performs many functions.
Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav
2009-01-01
Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramamoorthy, Karthikeyan
The main aim of this research is the development and validation of computational schemes for advanced lattice codes. The advanced lattice code which forms the primary part of this research is "DRAGON Version4". The code has unique features like self shielding calculation with capabilities to represent distributed and mutual resonance shielding effects, leakage models with space-dependent isotropic or anisotropic streaming effect, availability of the method of characteristics (MOC), burnup calculation with reaction-detailed energy production etc. Qualified reactor physics codes are essential for the study of all existing and envisaged designs of nuclear reactors. Any new design would require a thorough analysis of all the safety parameters and burnup dependent behaviour. Any reactor physics calculation requires the estimation of neutron fluxes in various regions of the problem domain. The calculation goes through several levels before the desired solution is obtained. Each level of the lattice calculation has its own significance and any compromise at any step will lead to poor final result. The various levels include choice of nuclear data library and energy group boundaries into which the multigroup library is cast; self shielding of nuclear data depending on the heterogeneous geometry and composition; tracking of geometry, keeping error in volume and surface to an acceptable minimum; generation of regionwise and groupwise collision probabilities or MOC-related information and their subsequent normalization thereof, solution of transport equation using the previously generated groupwise information and obtaining the fluxes and reaction rates in various regions of the lattice; depletion of fuel and of other materials based on normalization with constant power or constant flux. Of the above mentioned levels, the present research will mainly focus on two aspects, namely self shielding and depletion. The behaviour of the system is determined by composition of resonant
Probabilistic structural analysis computer code (NESSUS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shiao, Michael C.
1988-01-01
Probabilistic structural analysis has been developed to analyze the effects of fluctuating loads, variable material properties, and uncertain analytical models especially for high performance structures such as SSME turbopump blades. The computer code NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structure Under Stress) was developed to serve as a primary computation tool for the characterization of the probabilistic structural response due to the stochastic environments by statistical description. The code consists of three major modules NESSUS/PRE, NESSUS/FEM, and NESSUS/FPI. NESSUS/PRE is a preprocessor which decomposes the spatially correlated random variables into a set of uncorrelated random variables using a modal analysis method. NESSUS/FEM is a finite element module which provides structural sensitivities to all the random variables considered. NESSUS/FPI is Fast Probability Integration method by which a cumulative distribution function or a probability density function is calculated.
H/sup 0/ precessor computer code
van Dyck, O.B.; Floyd, R.A.
1981-05-01
A spin precessor using H/sup -/ to H/sup 0/ stripping, followed by small precession magnets, has been developed for the LAMPF 800-MeV polarized H/sup -/ beam. The performance of the system was studied with the computer code documented in this report. The report starts from the fundamental physics of a system of spins with hyperfine coupling in a magnetic field and contains many examples of beam behavior as calculated by the program.
Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases
Pendergast, M.M.; Huang, J.C.
1980-07-01
A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability.
Clouse, C. J.; Edwards, M. J.; McCoy, M. G.; Marinak, M. M.; Verdon, C. P.
2015-07-07
Through its Advanced Scientific Computing (ASC) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) code development efforts, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides a world leading numerical simulation capability for the National HED/ICF program in support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). In addition the ASC effort provides high performance computing platform capabilities upon which these codes are run. LLNL remains committed to, and will work with, the national HED/ICF program community to help insure numerical simulation needs are met and to make those capabilities available, consistent with programmatic priorities and available resources.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, Scott
2004-01-01
The BASS computational aeroacoustic code solves the fully nonlinear Euler equations in the time domain in two-dimensions. The acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The spatial mode generation, propagation and decay characteristics are predicted by assuming the acoustic field away from the stator can be represented as a uniform flow with small harmonic perturbations superimposed. The computed field is then decomposed using a joint temporal-spatial transform to determine the wave amplitudes as a function of rotor harmonic and spatial mode order. This report details the following technical aspects of the computations and analysis. 1) the BASS computational technique; 2) the application of periodic time shifted boundary conditions; 3) the linear theory aspects unique to rotor-stator interactions; and 4) the joint spatial-temporal transform. The computational results presented herein are twofold. In each case, the acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The fan under consideration here like modern fans is cut-off at +, and propagating acoustic waves are only expected at 2BPF and 3BPF. In the first case, the computations showed excellent agreement with linear theory predictions. The frequency and spatial mode order of acoustic field was computed and found consistent with linear theory. Further, the propagation of the generated modes was also correctly predicted. The upstream going waves propagated from the domain without reflection from the in ow boundary. However, reflections from the out ow boundary were noticed. The amplitude of the reflected wave was approximately 5% of the incident wave. The second set of computations were used to determine the influence of steady loading on the generated noise. Toward this end, the acoustic response was determined with three steady loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marconi, F.; Yaeger, L.
1976-01-01
A numerical procedure was developed to compute the inviscid super/hypersonic flow field about complex vehicle geometries accurately and efficiently. A second-order accurate finite difference scheme is used to integrate the three-dimensional Euler equations in regions of continuous flow, while all shock waves are computed as discontinuities via the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. Conformal mappings are used to develop a computational grid. The effects of blunt nose entropy layers are computed in detail. Real gas effects for equilibrium air are included using curve fits of Mollier charts. Typical calculated results for shuttle orbiter, hypersonic transport, and supersonic aircraft configurations are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this tool.
Thermal Hydraulic Computer Code System.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1999-07-16
Version 00 RELAP5 was developed to describe the behavior of a light water reactor (LWR) subjected to postulated transients such as loss of coolant from large or small pipe breaks, pump failures, etc. RELAP5 calculates fluid conditions such as velocities, pressures, densities, qualities, temperatures; thermal conditions such as surface temperatures, temperature distributions, heat fluxes; pump conditions; trip conditions; reactor power and reactivity from point reactor kinetics; and control system variables. In addition to reactor applications,more » the program can be applied to transient analysis of other thermal‑hydraulic systems with water as the fluid. This package contains RELAP5/MOD1/029 for CDC computers and RELAP5/MOD1/025 for VAX or IBM mainframe computers.« less
Computing Challenges in Coded Mask Imaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skinner, Gerald
2009-01-01
This slide presaentation reviews the complications and challenges in developing computer systems for Coded Mask Imaging telescopes. The coded mask technique is used when there is no other way to create the telescope, (i.e., when there are wide fields of view, high energies for focusing or low energies for the Compton/Tracker Techniques and very good angular resolution.) The coded mask telescope is described, and the mask is reviewed. The coded Masks for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) instruments are shown, and a chart showing the types of position sensitive detectors used for the coded mask telescopes is also reviewed. Slides describe the mechanism of recovering an image from the masked pattern. The correlation with the mask pattern is described. The Matrix approach is reviewed, and other approaches to image reconstruction are described. Included in the presentation is a review of the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) / High Energy Telescope (HET), with information about the mission, the operation of the telescope, comparison of the EXIST/HET with the SWIFT/BAT and details of the design of the EXIST/HET.
Overview of CODE V development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Thomas I.
1991-01-01
This paper is part of a session that is aimed at briefly describing some of today''s optical design software packages with emphasis on the program''s philosophy and technology. CODE V is the ongoing result of a development process that began in the 1960''s it is now the result of many people''s efforts. This paper summarizes the roots of the program some of its history dominant philosophies and technologies that have contributed to its usefulness and some that drive its continued development. ROOTS OF CODE V Conceived in the early 60''s This was at a time when there was skepticism that " automatic design" could design lenses equal or better than " hand" methods. The concepts underlying CODE V and its predecessors were based on ten years of experience and exposure to the problems of a group of lens designers in a design-for-manufacture environment. The basic challenge was to show that lens design could be done better easier and faster by high quality computer-assisted design tools. The earliest development was for our own use as an engineering services organization -an in-house tool for custom design. As a tool it had to make us efficient in providing lens design and engineering services as a self-sustaining business. PHILOSOPHY OF OVTIM!ZATION IN CODE V Error function formation Based on experience as a designer we felt very strongly that there should be a clear separation of
Volume accumulator design analysis computer codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazaki, T. T.
1973-01-01
The computer codes, VANEP and VANES, were written and used to aid in the design and performance calculation of the volume accumulator units (VAU) for the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system. VANEP computes the VAU design which meets the primary coolant loop VAU volume and pressure performance requirements. VANES computes the performance of the VAU design, determined from the VANEP code, at the conditions of the secondary coolant loop. The codes can also compute the performance characteristics of the VAU's under conditions of possible modes of failure which still permit continued system operation.
MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide
England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.
1985-01-01
Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
electromagnetics, eddy current, computer codes
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2002-03-12
TORO Version 4 is designed for finite element analysis of steady, transient and time-harmonic, multi-dimensional, quasi-static problems in electromagnetics. The code allows simulation of electrostatic fields, steady current flows, magnetostatics and eddy current problems in plane or axisymmetric, two-dimensional geometries. TORO is easily coupled to heat conduction and solid mechanics codes to allow multi-physics simulations to be performed.
Development of a Space Radiation Monte-Carlo Computer Simulation Based on the FLUKE and Root Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinsky, L. S.; Wilson, T. L.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, Paola; Carminati, F.; Brun, R.
2001-01-01
The radiation environment in space is a complex problem to model. Trying to extrapolate the projections of that environment into all areas of the internal spacecraft geometry is even more daunting. With the support of our CERN colleagues, our research group in Houston is embarking on a project to develop a radiation transport tool that is tailored to the problem of taking the external radiation flux incident on any particular spacecraft and simulating the evolution of that flux through a geometrically accurate model of the spacecraft material. The output will be a prediction of the detailed nature of the resulting internal radiation environment within the spacecraft as well as its secondary albedo. Beyond doing the physics transport of the incident flux, the software tool we are developing will provide a self-contained stand-alone object-oriented analysis and visualization infrastructure. It will also include a graphical user interface and a set of input tools to facilitate the simulation of space missions in terms of nominal radiation models and mission trajectory profiles. The goal of this project is to produce a code that is considerably more accurate and user-friendly than existing Monte-Carlo-based tools for the evaluation of the space radiation environment. Furthermore, the code will be an essential complement to the currently existing analytic codes in the BRYNTRN/HZETRN family for the evaluation of radiation shielding. The code will be directly applicable to the simulation of environments in low earth orbit, on the lunar surface, on planetary surfaces (including the Earth) and in the interplanetary medium such as on a transit to Mars (and even in the interstellar medium). The software will include modules whose underlying physics base can continue to be enhanced and updated for physics content, as future data become available beyond the timeframe of the initial development now foreseen. This future maintenance will be available from the authors of FLUKA as
Network Coding for Function Computation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Appuswamy, Rathinakumar
2011-01-01
In this dissertation, the following "network computing problem" is considered. Source nodes in a directed acyclic network generate independent messages and a single receiver node computes a target function f of the messages. The objective is to maximize the average number of times f can be computed per network usage, i.e., the "computing…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fishbach, L. H.
1983-01-01
The Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code was developed by Boeing under contract to NASA Lewis. It was designed to function as an adjunct to the Navy/NASA Engine Program (NNEP). NNEP calculates the design and off-design thrust and sfc performance of User defined engine cycles. The thermodynamic parameters throughout the engine as generated by NNEP are then combined with input parameters defining the component characteristics in WATE to calculate the bare engine weight of this User defined engine. Preprocessor programs for NNEP were previously developed to simplify the task of creating input datasets. This report describes a similar preprocessor for the WATE code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mork, M. W.; Kracht, O.
2012-04-01
When investigating stability relations in aquatic solutions or rock-water interactions, the number of dissolved species and mineral phases involved can be overwhelming. To facilitate an overview about equilibrium relationships and how chemical elements are distributed between different aqueous ions, complexes, and solids, predominance diagrams are a widely used tool in aquatic chemistry. In the simplest approach, the predominance field boundaries can be calculated based on a set of mass action equations and log K values for the reactions between different species. Example given, for the popular redox diagram (pe-pH diagram), half cell reactions according to Nernst's equation can be used (Garrels & Christ 1965). In such case, boundaries between different species are "equal-activity" lines. However, for boundaries between solids and dissolved species a specific concentration needs to be stipulated, and the same applies if other components than those displayed in the diagram are involved in the possible reactions. In such case, the predominance field boundaries depend on the actual concentration values chosen. An alternative approach can be the computation of predominance diagrams using the full speciation obtained from a geochemical speciation program, which then needs to be coupled with an external wrapper code for appropriate control and data pre- and post-processing. In this way, the distribution of different species can be based on the consideration of complete chemical analysis obtained from laboratory investigations. We present the results of a student semester-project that aimed to develop and test an external wrapper program for the computation of pe-pH diagrams based on modeling outputs obtained with PHREEQC (Parkhurst & Appelo 1999). We have chosen PHREEQC for this core task as a geochemical calculation module, because of its capabilities to simulate a wide range of equilibrium reactions between water and minerals. Due to the intended final users, a free
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marconi, F.; Salas, M.; Yaeger, L.
1976-01-01
A numerical procedure has been developed to compute the inviscid super/hypersonic flow field about complex vehicle geometries accurately and efficiently. A second order accurate finite difference scheme is used to integrate the three dimensional Euler equations in regions of continuous flow, while all shock waves are computed as discontinuities via the Rankine Hugoniot jump conditions. Conformal mappings are used to develop a computational grid. The effects of blunt nose entropy layers are computed in detail. Real gas effects for equilibrium air are included using curve fits of Mollier charts. Typical calculated results for shuttle orbiter, hypersonic transport, and supersonic aircraft configurations are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this tool.
Topological Code Architectures for Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesare, Christopher Anthony
This dissertation is concerned with quantum computation using many-body quantum systems encoded in topological codes. The interest in these topological systems has increased in recent years as devices in the lab begin to reach the fidelities required for performing arbitrarily long quantum algorithms. The most well-studied system, Kitaev's toric code, provides both a physical substrate for performing universal fault-tolerant quantum computations and a useful pedagogical tool for explaining the way other topological codes work. In this dissertation, I first review the necessary formalism for quantum information and quantum stabilizer codes, and then I introduce two families of topological codes: Kitaev's toric code and Bombin's color codes. I then present three chapters of original work. First, I explore the distinctness of encoding schemes in the color codes. Second, I introduce a model of quantum computation based on the toric code that uses adiabatic interpolations between static Hamiltonians with gaps constant in the system size. Lastly, I describe novel state distillation protocols that are naturally suited for topological architectures and show that they provide resource savings in terms of the number of required ancilla states when compared to more traditional approaches to quantum gate approximation.
Talking about Code: Integrating Pedagogical Code Reviews into Early Computing Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hundhausen, Christopher D.; Agrawal, Anukrati; Agarwal, Pawan
2013-01-01
Given the increasing importance of soft skills in the computing profession, there is good reason to provide students withmore opportunities to learn and practice those skills in undergraduate computing courses. Toward that end, we have developed an active learning approach for computing education called the "Pedagogical Code Review"…
TAIR- TRANSONIC AIRFOIL ANALYSIS COMPUTER CODE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dougherty, F. C.
1994-01-01
The Transonic Airfoil analysis computer code, TAIR, was developed to employ a fast, fully implicit algorithm to solve the conservative full-potential equation for the steady transonic flow field about an arbitrary airfoil immersed in a subsonic free stream. The full-potential formulation is considered exact under the assumptions of irrotational, isentropic, and inviscid flow. These assumptions are valid for a wide range of practical transonic flows typical of modern aircraft cruise conditions. The primary features of TAIR include: a new fully implicit iteration scheme which is typically many times faster than classical successive line overrelaxation algorithms; a new, reliable artifical density spatial differencing scheme treating the conservative form of the full-potential equation; and a numerical mapping procedure capable of generating curvilinear, body-fitted finite-difference grids about arbitrary airfoil geometries. Three aspects emphasized during the development of the TAIR code were reliability, simplicity, and speed. The reliability of TAIR comes from two sources: the new algorithm employed and the implementation of effective convergence monitoring logic. TAIR achieves ease of use by employing a "default mode" that greatly simplifies code operation, especially by inexperienced users, and many useful options including: several airfoil-geometry input options, flexible user controls over program output, and a multiple solution capability. The speed of the TAIR code is attributed to the new algorithm and the manner in which it has been implemented. Input to the TAIR program consists of airfoil coordinates, aerodynamic and flow-field convergence parameters, and geometric and grid convergence parameters. The airfoil coordinates for many airfoil shapes can be generated in TAIR from just a few input parameters. Most of the other input parameters have default values which allow the user to run an analysis in the default mode by specifing only a few input parameters
ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, Pappu L. N.
1997-01-01
The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.
Development of the Code RITRACKS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.
2013-01-01
A document discusses the code RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks), which was developed to simulate heavy ion track structure at the microscopic and nanoscopic scales. It is a Monte-Carlo code that simulates the production of radiolytic species in water, event-by-event, and which may be used to simulate tracks and also to calculate dose in targets and voxels of different sizes. The dose deposited by the radiation can be calculated in nanovolumes (voxels). RITRACKS allows simulation of radiation tracks without the need of extensive knowledge of computer programming or Monte-Carlo simulations. It is installed as a regular application on Windows systems. The main input parameters entered by the user are the type and energy of the ion, the length and size of the irradiated volume, the number of ions impacting the volume, and the number of histories. The simulation can be started after the input parameters are entered in the GUI. The number of each kind of interactions for each track is shown in the result details window. The tracks can be visualized in 3D after the simulation is complete. It is also possible to see the time evolution of the tracks and zoom on specific parts of the tracks. The software RITRACKS can be very useful for radiation scientists to investigate various problems in the fields of radiation physics, radiation chemistry, and radiation biology. For example, it can be used to simulate electron ejection experiments (radiation physics).
Los Alamos radiation transport code system on desktop computing platforms
Briesmeister, J.F.; Brinkley, F.W.; Clark, B.A.; West, J.T. )
1990-01-01
The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. These codes were originally developed many years ago and have undergone continual improvement. With a large initial effort and continued vigilance, the codes are easily portable from one type of hardware to another. The performance of scientific work-stations (SWS) has evolved to the point that such platforms can be used routinely to perform sophisticated radiation transport calculations. As the personal computer (PC) performance approaches that of the SWS, the hardware options for desk-top radiation transport calculations expands considerably. The current status of the radiation transport codes within the LARTCS is described: MCNP, SABRINA, LAHET, ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWOHEX, and ONELD. Specifically, the authors discuss hardware systems on which the codes run and present code performance comparisons for various machines.
Secure Computation from Random Error Correcting Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hao; Cramer, Ronald; Goldwasser, Shafi; de Haan, Robbert; Vaikuntanathan, Vinod
Secure computation consists of protocols for secure arithmetic: secret values are added and multiplied securely by networked processors. The striking feature of secure computation is that security is maintained even in the presence of an adversary who corrupts a quorum of the processors and who exercises full, malicious control over them. One of the fundamental primitives at the heart of secure computation is secret-sharing. Typically, the required secret-sharing techniques build on Shamir's scheme, which can be viewed as a cryptographic twist on the Reed-Solomon error correcting code. In this work we further the connections between secure computation and error correcting codes. We demonstrate that threshold secure computation in the secure channels model can be based on arbitrary codes. For a network of size n, we then show a reduction in communication for secure computation amounting to a multiplicative logarithmic factor (in n) compared to classical methods for small, e.g., constant size fields, while tolerating t < ({1 over 2} - {ɛ}) {n} players to be corrupted, where ɛ> 0 can be arbitrarily small. For large networks this implies considerable savings in communication. Our results hold in the broadcast/negligible error model of Rabin and Ben-Or, and complement results from CRYPTO 2006 for the zero-error model of Ben-Or, Goldwasser and Wigderson (BGW). Our general theory can be extended so as to encompass those results from CRYPTO 2006 as well. We also present a new method for constructing high information rate ramp schemes based on arbitrary codes, and in particular we give a new construction based on algebraic geometry codes.
Thermoelectric pump performance analysis computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, J. L.
1973-01-01
A computer program is presented that was used to analyze and design dual-throat electromagnetic dc conduction pumps for the 5-kwe ZrH reactor thermoelectric system. In addition to a listing of the code and corresponding identification of symbols, the bases for this analytical model are provided.
COLD-SAT Dynamic Model Computer Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bollenbacher, G.; Adams, N. S.
1995-01-01
COLD-SAT Dynamic Model (CSDM) computer code implements six-degree-of-freedom, rigid-body mathematical model for simulation of spacecraft in orbit around Earth. Investigates flow dynamics and thermodynamics of subcritical cryogenic fluids in microgravity. Consists of three parts: translation model, rotation model, and slosh model. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Code system to compute radiation dose in human phantoms
Ryman, J.C.; Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.; Davis, J.L.; Tang, J.S.; Kerr, G.D.
1986-01-01
Monte Carlo photon transport code and a code using Monte Carlo integration of a point kernel have been revised to incorporate human phantom models for an adult female, juveniles of various ages, and a pregnant female at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy, in addition to the adult male used earlier. An analysis code has been developed for deriving recommended values of specific absorbed fractions of photon energy. The computer code system and calculational method are described, emphasizing recent improvements in methods. (LEW)
RESRAD-CHEM: A computer code for chemical risk assessment
Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Hartmann, H.M.; Jones, L.G.; Biwer, B.M.; Dovel, E.S.
1993-10-01
RESRAD-CHEM is a computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate chemically contaminated sites. The code is designed to predict human health risks from multipathway exposure to hazardous chemicals and to derive cleanup criteria for chemically contaminated soils. The method used in RESRAD-CHEM is based on the pathway analysis method in the RESRAD code and follows the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) guidance on chemical risk assessment. RESRAD-CHEM can be used to evaluate a chemically contaminated site and, in conjunction with the use of the RESRAD code, a mixed waste site.
Surface code quantum computing by lattice surgery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horsman, Clare; Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon; Van Meter, Rodney
2012-12-01
In recent years, surface codes have become a leading method for quantum error correction in theoretical large-scale computational and communications architecture designs. Their comparatively high fault-tolerant thresholds and their natural two-dimensional nearest-neighbour (2DNN) structure make them an obvious choice for large scale designs in experimentally realistic systems. While fundamentally based on the toric code of Kitaev, there are many variants, two of which are the planar- and defect-based codes. Planar codes require fewer qubits to implement (for the same strength of error correction), but are restricted to encoding a single qubit of information. Interactions between encoded qubits are achieved via transversal operations, thus destroying the inherent 2DNN nature of the code. In this paper we introduce a new technique enabling the coupling of two planar codes without transversal operations, maintaining the 2DNN of the encoded computer. Our lattice surgery technique comprises splitting and merging planar code surfaces, and enables us to perform universal quantum computation (including magic state injection) while removing the need for braided logic in a strictly 2DNN design, and hence reduces the overall qubit resources for logic operations. Those resources are further reduced by the use of a rotated lattice for the planar encoding. We show how lattice surgery allows us to distribute encoded GHZ states in a more direct (and overhead friendly) manner, and how a demonstration of an encoded CNOT between two distance-3 logical states is possible with 53 physical qubits, half of that required in any other known construction in 2D.
Concatenated codes for fault tolerant quantum computing
Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.; Zurek, W.
1995-05-01
The application of concatenated codes to fault tolerant quantum computing is discussed. We have previously shown that for quantum memories and quantum communication, a state can be transmitted with error {epsilon} provided each gate has error at most c{epsilon}. We show how this can be used with Shor`s fault tolerant operations to reduce the accuracy requirements when maintaining states not currently participating in the computation. Viewing Shor`s fault tolerant operations as a method for reducing the error of operations, we give a concatenated implementation which promises to propagate the reduction hierarchically. This has the potential of reducing the accuracy requirements in long computations.
User's manual for HDR3 computer code
Arundale, C.J.
1982-10-01
A description of the HDR3 computer code and instructions for its use are provided. HDR3 calculates space heating costs for a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal space heating system. The code also compares these costs to those of a specific oil heating system in use at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Flight Center at Wallops Island, Virginia. HDR3 allows many HDR system parameters to be varied so that the user may examine various reservoir management schemes and may optimize reservoir design to suit a particular set of geophysical and economic parameters.
Experimental methodology for computational fluid dynamics code validation
Aeschliman, D.P.; Oberkampf, W.L.
1997-09-01
Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes is an essential element of the code development process. Typically, CFD code validation is accomplished through comparison of computed results to previously published experimental data that were obtained for some other purpose, unrelated to code validation. As a result, it is a near certainty that not all of the information required by the code, particularly the boundary conditions, will be available. The common approach is therefore unsatisfactory, and a different method is required. This paper describes a methodology developed specifically for experimental validation of CFD codes. The methodology requires teamwork and cooperation between code developers and experimentalists throughout the validation process, and takes advantage of certain synergisms between CFD and experiment. The methodology employs a novel uncertainty analysis technique which helps to define the experimental plan for code validation wind tunnel experiments, and to distinguish between and quantify various types of experimental error. The methodology is demonstrated with an example of surface pressure measurements over a model of varying geometrical complexity in laminar, hypersonic, near perfect gas, 3-dimensional flow.
Recent Developments in the Community Code ASPECT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heister, T.; Bangerth, W.; Dannberg, J.; Gassmoeller, R.
2015-12-01
The Computational Geosciences have long used community codes to provide simulation capabilities to large numbers of users. We here report on the mantle convection code ASPECT (the Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth ConvecTion) that is developed to be a community tool with a focus on bringing modern numerical methods such as adaptive meshes, large parallel computations, algebraic multigrid solvers, and modern software design. We will comment in particular on two aspects: First, the more recent additions to its numerical capabilities, such as compressible models, averaging of material parameters, melt transport, free surfaces, and plasticity. We will demonstrate these capabilities using examples from computations by members of the ASPECT user community. Second, we will discuss lessons learned in writing a code specifically for community use. This includes our experience with a software design that is fundamentally based on a plugin system for practically all areas that a user may want to describe for the particular geophysical setup they want to simulate. It also includes our experience with leading and organizing a community of users and developers, for example by organizing annual "hackathons", by encouraging code submission via github over keeping modifications private, and by designing a code for which extensions can easily be written as separate plugins rather than requiring knowledge of the computational core.
Inlet Performance Analysis Code Developed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jules, Kenol; Barnhart, Paul J.
1998-01-01
The design characteristics of an inlet very much depend on whether the inlet is to be flown at subsonic, supersonic, or hypersonic speed. Whichever the case, the primary function of an inlet is to deliver free-stream air to the engine face at the highest stagnation pressure possible and with the lowest possible variation in both stagnation pressure and temperature. At high speeds, this is achieved by a system of oblique and/or normal shock waves, and possibly some isentropic compression. For both subsonic and supersonic flight, current design practice indicates that the inlet should deliver the air to the engine face at approximately Mach 0.45. As a result, even for flight in the high subsonic regime, the inlet must retard (or diffuse) the air substantially. Second, the design of an inlet is influenced largely by the compromise between high performance and low weight. This compromise involves tradeoffs between the mission requirements, flight trajectory, airframe aerodynamics, engine performance, and weight-all of which, in turn, influence each other. Therefore, to study the effects of some of these influential factors, the Propulsion System Analysis Office of the NASA Lewis Research Center developed the Inlet Performance Analysis Code (IPAC). This code uses oblique shock and Prandtl-Meyer expansion theory to predict inlet performance. It can be used to predict performance for a given inlet geometric design such as pitot, axisymmetric, and two-dimensional. IPAC also can be used to design preliminary inlet systems and to make subsequent performance analyses. It computes the total pressure, the recovery, the airflow, and the drag coefficients. The pressure recovery includes losses associated with normal and oblique shocks, internal and external friction, the sharp lip, and diffuser components. Flow rate includes captured, engine, spillage, bleed, and bypass flows. The aerodynamic drag calculation includes drags associated with spillage, cowl lip suction, wave, bleed
HUDU: The Hanford Unified Dose Utility computer code
Scherpelz, R.I.
1991-02-01
The Hanford Unified Dose Utility (HUDU) computer program was developed to provide rapid initial assessment of radiological emergency situations. The HUDU code uses a straight-line Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model to estimate the transport of radionuclides released from an accident site. For dose points on the plume centerline, it calculates internal doses due to inhalation and external doses due to exposure to the plume. The program incorporates a number of features unique to the Hanford Site (operated by the US Department of Energy), including a library of source terms derived from various facilities' safety analysis reports. The HUDU code was designed to run on an IBM-PC or compatible personal computer. The user interface was designed for fast and easy operation with minimal user training. The theoretical basis and mathematical models used in the HUDU computer code are described, as are the computer code itself and the data libraries used. Detailed instructions for operating the code are also included. Appendices to the report contain descriptions of the program modules, listings of HUDU's data library, and descriptions of the verification tests that were run as part of the code development. 14 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.
An integrated radiation physics computer code system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steyn, J. J.; Harris, D. W.
1972-01-01
An integrated computer code system for the semi-automatic and rapid analysis of experimental and analytic problems in gamma photon and fast neutron radiation physics is presented. Such problems as the design of optimum radiation shields and radioisotope power source configurations may be studied. The system codes allow for the unfolding of complex neutron and gamma photon experimental spectra. Monte Carlo and analytic techniques are used for the theoretical prediction of radiation transport. The system includes a multichannel pulse-height analyzer scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer coupled to an on-line digital computer with appropriate peripheral equipment. The system is geometry generalized as well as self-contained with respect to material nuclear cross sections and the determination of the spectrometer response functions. Input data may be either analytic or experimental.
Connecting Neural Coding to Number Cognition: A Computational Account
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prather, Richard W.
2012-01-01
The current study presents a series of computational simulations that demonstrate how the neural coding of numerical magnitude may influence number cognition and development. This includes behavioral phenomena cataloged in cognitive literature such as the development of numerical estimation and operational momentum. Though neural research has…
TAIR: A transonic airfoil analysis computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dougherty, F. C.; Holst, T. L.; Grundy, K. L.; Thomas, S. D.
1981-01-01
The operation of the TAIR (Transonic AIRfoil) computer code, which uses a fast, fully implicit algorithm to solve the conservative full-potential equation for transonic flow fields about arbitrary airfoils, is described on two levels of sophistication: simplified operation and detailed operation. The program organization and theory are elaborated to simplify modification of TAIR for new applications. Examples with input and output are given for a wide range of cases, including incompressible, subcritical compressible, and transonic calculations.
Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 1, The GEN computer code
Buck, J.W.; Andrews, G.L.
1987-07-01
The Hanford Meteorological Station, operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, issues general weather forecasts twice a day. The GEN computer code is used to archive the 24-hour forecasts and apply quality assurance checks to the forecast data. This code accesses an input file, which contains the date and hour of the previous forecast, and an output file, which contains 24-hour forecasts for the current month. As part of the program, a data entry form consisting of 14 fields that describe various weather conditions must be filled in. The information on the form is appended to the current 24-hour monthly forecast file, which provides an archive for the 24-hour general weather forecasts. This report consists of several volumes documenting the various computer codes used at the Hanford Meteorological Station. This volume describes the implementation and operation of the GEN computer code at the station.
Hanford meteorological station computer codes: Volume 9, The quality assurance computer codes
Burk, K.W.; Andrews, G.L.
1989-02-01
The Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) was established in 1944 on the Hanford Site to collect and archive meteorological data and provide weather forecasts and related services for Hanford Site approximately 1/2 mile east of the 200 West Area and is operated by PNL for the US Department of Energy. Meteorological data are collected from various sensors and equipment located on and off the Hanford Site. These data are stored in data bases on the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX 11/750 at the HMS (hereafter referred to as the HMS computer). Files from those data bases are routinely transferred to the Emergency Management System (EMS) computer at the Unified Dose Assessment Center (UDAC). To ensure the quality and integrity of the HMS data, a set of Quality Assurance (QA) computer codes has been written. The codes will be routinely used by the HMS system manager or the data base custodian. The QA codes provide detailed output files that will be used in correcting erroneous data. The following sections in this volume describe the implementation and operation of QA computer codes. The appendices contain detailed descriptions, flow charts, and source code listings of each computer code. 2 refs.
Automated uncertainty analysis methods in the FRAP computer codes. [PWR
Peck, S O
1980-01-01
A user oriented, automated uncertainty analysis capability has been incorporated in the Fuel Rod Analysis Program (FRAP) computer codes. The FRAP codes have been developed for the analysis of Light Water Reactor fuel rod behavior during steady state (FRAPCON) and transient (FRAP-T) conditions as part of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Water Reactor Safety Research Program. The objective of uncertainty analysis of these codes is to obtain estimates of the uncertainty in computed outputs of the codes is to obtain estimates of the uncertainty in computed outputs of the codes as a function of known uncertainties in input variables. This paper presents the methods used to generate an uncertainty analysis of a large computer code, discusses the assumptions that are made, and shows techniques for testing them. An uncertainty analysis of FRAP-T calculated fuel rod behavior during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant transient is presented as an example and carried through the discussion to illustrate the various concepts.
Seals Flow Code Development 1993
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, Anita D. (Compiler); Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler)
1994-01-01
Seals Workshop of 1993 code releases include SPIRALI for spiral grooved cylindrical and face seal configurations; IFACE for face seals with pockets, steps, tapers, turbulence, and cavitation; GFACE for gas face seals with 'lift pad' configurations; and SCISEAL, a CFD code for research and design of seals of cylindrical configuration. GUI (graphical user interface) and code usage was discussed with hands on usage of the codes, discussions, comparisons, and industry feedback. Other highlights for the Seals Workshop-93 include environmental and customer driven seal requirements; 'what's coming'; and brush seal developments including flow visualization, numerical analysis, bench testing, T-700 engine testing, tribological pairing and ceramic configurations, and cryogenic and hot gas facility brush seal results. Also discussed are seals for hypersonic engines and dynamic results for spiral groove and smooth annular seals.
Survey of computer codes applicable to waste facility performance evaluations
Alsharif, M.; Pung, D.L.; Rivera, A.L.; Dole, L.R.
1988-01-01
This study is an effort to review existing information that is useful to develop an integrated model for predicting the performance of a radioactive waste facility. A summary description of 162 computer codes is given. The identified computer programs address the performance of waste packages, waste transport and equilibrium geochemistry, hydrological processes in unsaturated and saturated zones, and general waste facility performance assessment. Some programs also deal with thermal analysis, structural analysis, and special purposes. A number of these computer programs are being used by the US Department of Energy, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and their contractors to analyze various aspects of waste package performance. Fifty-five of these codes were identified as being potentially useful on the analysis of low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. The code summaries include authors, identification data, model types, and pertinent references. 14 refs., 5 tabs.
General review of the MOSTAS computer code for wind turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dungundji, J.; Wendell, J. H.
1981-01-01
The MOSTAS computer code for wind turbine analysis is reviewed, and techniques and methods used in its analyses are described. Impressions of its strengths and weakness, and recommendations for its application, modification, and further development are made. Basic techniques used in wind turbine stability and response analyses for systems with constant and periodic coefficients are reviewed.
Computer code for double beta decay QRPA based calculations
Barbero, C. A.; Mariano, A.; Krmpotić, F.; Samana, A. R.; Ferreira, V. dos Santos; Bertulani, C. A.
2014-11-11
The computer code developed by our group some years ago for the evaluation of nuclear matrix elements, within the QRPA and PQRPA nuclear structure models, involved in neutrino-nucleus reactions, muon capture and β{sup ±} processes, is extended to include also the nuclear double beta decay.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Molthan, Andrew; Case, Jonathan; Venner, Jason; Moreno-Madrinan, Max J.; Delgado, Francisco
2012-01-01
Two projects at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have collaborated to develop a high resolution weather forecast model for Mesoamerica: The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, which integrates unique NASA satellite and weather forecast modeling capabilities into the operational weather forecasting community. NASA's SERVIR Program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data, and forecast models to improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas.
Analog system for computing sparse codes
Rozell, Christopher John; Johnson, Don Herrick; Baraniuk, Richard Gordon; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Ortman, Robert Lowell
2010-08-24
A parallel dynamical system for computing sparse representations of data, i.e., where the data can be fully represented in terms of a small number of non-zero code elements, and for reconstructing compressively sensed images. The system is based on the principles of thresholding and local competition that solves a family of sparse approximation problems corresponding to various sparsity metrics. The system utilizes Locally Competitive Algorithms (LCAs), nodes in a population continually compete with neighboring units using (usually one-way) lateral inhibition to calculate coefficients representing an input in an over complete dictionary.
Spiking network simulation code for petascale computers.
Kunkel, Susanne; Schmidt, Maximilian; Eppler, Jochen M; Plesser, Hans E; Masumoto, Gen; Igarashi, Jun; Ishii, Shin; Fukai, Tomoki; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus; Helias, Moritz
2014-01-01
Brain-scale networks exhibit a breathtaking heterogeneity in the dynamical properties and parameters of their constituents. At cellular resolution, the entities of theory are neurons and synapses and over the past decade researchers have learned to manage the heterogeneity of neurons and synapses with efficient data structures. Already early parallel simulation codes stored synapses in a distributed fashion such that a synapse solely consumes memory on the compute node harboring the target neuron. As petaflop computers with some 100,000 nodes become increasingly available for neuroscience, new challenges arise for neuronal network simulation software: Each neuron contacts on the order of 10,000 other neurons and thus has targets only on a fraction of all compute nodes; furthermore, for any given source neuron, at most a single synapse is typically created on any compute node. From the viewpoint of an individual compute node, the heterogeneity in the synaptic target lists thus collapses along two dimensions: the dimension of the types of synapses and the dimension of the number of synapses of a given type. Here we present a data structure taking advantage of this double collapse using metaprogramming techniques. After introducing the relevant scaling scenario for brain-scale simulations, we quantitatively discuss the performance on two supercomputers. We show that the novel architecture scales to the largest petascale supercomputers available today. PMID:25346682
Spiking network simulation code for petascale computers
Kunkel, Susanne; Schmidt, Maximilian; Eppler, Jochen M.; Plesser, Hans E.; Masumoto, Gen; Igarashi, Jun; Ishii, Shin; Fukai, Tomoki; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus; Helias, Moritz
2014-01-01
Brain-scale networks exhibit a breathtaking heterogeneity in the dynamical properties and parameters of their constituents. At cellular resolution, the entities of theory are neurons and synapses and over the past decade researchers have learned to manage the heterogeneity of neurons and synapses with efficient data structures. Already early parallel simulation codes stored synapses in a distributed fashion such that a synapse solely consumes memory on the compute node harboring the target neuron. As petaflop computers with some 100,000 nodes become increasingly available for neuroscience, new challenges arise for neuronal network simulation software: Each neuron contacts on the order of 10,000 other neurons and thus has targets only on a fraction of all compute nodes; furthermore, for any given source neuron, at most a single synapse is typically created on any compute node. From the viewpoint of an individual compute node, the heterogeneity in the synaptic target lists thus collapses along two dimensions: the dimension of the types of synapses and the dimension of the number of synapses of a given type. Here we present a data structure taking advantage of this double collapse using metaprogramming techniques. After introducing the relevant scaling scenario for brain-scale simulations, we quantitatively discuss the performance on two supercomputers. We show that the novel architecture scales to the largest petascale supercomputers available today. PMID:25346682
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kontos, Karen B.; Kraft, Robert E.; Gliebe, Philip R.
1996-01-01
The Aircraft Noise Predication Program (ANOPP) is an industry-wide tool used to predict turbofan engine flyover noise in system noise optimization studies. Its goal is to provide the best currently available methods for source noise prediction. As part of a program to improve the Heidmann fan noise model, models for fan inlet and fan exhaust noise suppression estimation that are based on simple engine and acoustic geometry inputs have been developed. The models can be used to predict sound power level suppression and sound pressure level suppression at a position specified relative to the engine inlet.
Fluid Film Bearing Code Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
The next generation of rocket engine turbopumps is being developed by industry through Government-directed contracts. These turbopumps will use fluid film bearings because they eliminate the life and shaft-speed limitations of rolling-element bearings, increase turbopump design flexibility, and reduce the need for turbopump overhauls and maintenance. The design of the fluid film bearings for these turbopumps, however, requires sophisticated analysis tools to model the complex physical behavior characteristic of fluid film bearings operating at high speeds with low viscosity fluids. State-of-the-art analysis and design tools are being developed at the Texas A&M University under a grant guided by the NASA Lewis Research Center. The latest version of the code, HYDROFLEXT, is a thermohydrodynamic bulk flow analysis with fluid compressibility, full inertia, and fully developed turbulence models. It can predict the static and dynamic force response of rigid and flexible pad hydrodynamic bearings and of rigid and tilting pad hydrostatic bearings. The Texas A&M code is a comprehensive analysis tool, incorporating key fluid phenomenon pertinent to bearings that operate at high speeds with low-viscosity fluids typical of those used in rocket engine turbopumps. Specifically, the energy equation was implemented into the code to enable fluid properties to vary with temperature and pressure. This is particularly important for cryogenic fluids because their properties are sensitive to temperature as well as pressure. As shown in the figure, predicted bearing mass flow rates vary significantly depending on the fluid model used. Because cryogens are semicompressible fluids and the bearing dynamic characteristics are highly sensitive to fluid compressibility, fluid compressibility effects are also modeled. The code contains fluid properties for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, and liquid nitrogen as well as for water and air. Other fluids can be handled by the code provided that the
RADTRAN 5: A computer code for transportation risk analysis
Neuhauser, K. S.; Kanipe, F. L.
1991-01-01
RADTRAN 5 is a computer code developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM, to estimate radiological and nonradiological risks of radioactive materials transportation. RADTRAN 5 is written in ANSI Standard FORTRAN 77 and contains significant advances in the methodology for route-specific analysis first developed by SNL for RADTRAN 4 (Neuhauser and Kanipe, 1992). Like the previous RADTRAN codes, RADTRAN 5 contains two major modules for incident-free and accident risk amlysis, respectively. All commercially important transportation modes may be analyzed with RADTRAN 5: highway by combination truck; highway by light-duty vehicle; rail; barge; ocean-going ship; cargo air; and passenger air.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harp, J. L., Jr.; Oatway, T. P.
1975-01-01
A research effort was conducted with the goal of reducing computer time of a Navier Stokes Computer Code for prediction of viscous flow fields about lifting bodies. A two-dimensional, time-dependent, laminar, transonic computer code (STOKES) was modified to incorporate a non-uniform timestep procedure. The non-uniform time-step requires updating of a zone only as often as required by its own stability criteria or that of its immediate neighbors. In the uniform timestep scheme each zone is updated as often as required by the least stable zone of the finite difference mesh. Because of less frequent update of program variables it was expected that the nonuniform timestep would result in a reduction of execution time by a factor of five to ten. Available funding was exhausted prior to successful demonstration of the benefits to be derived from the non-uniform time-step method.
Comparison of computer codes for calculating dynamic loads in wind turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spera, D. A.
1978-01-01
The development of computer codes for calculating dynamic loads in horizontal axis wind turbines was examined, and a brief overview of each code was given. The performance of individual codes was compared against two sets of test data measured on a 100 KW Mod-0 wind turbine. All codes are aeroelastic and include loads which are gravitational, inertial and aerodynamic in origin.
User's manual for the GABAS spectrum computer code. Final report
Thayer, D.D.; Lurie, N.A.
1982-01-01
The Gamma and Beta Spectrum computer code (GABAS) was developed at IRT Corporation for calculating time-dependent beta and/or gamma spectra from decaying fission products. GABAS calculates composite fission product spectra based on the technique used by England, et al., in conjunction with the CINDER family of fission product codes. Multigroup beta and gamma spectra for individual nuclides are folded with their corresponding time-dependent activities (usually generated by a fission product inventory code) to produce a composite time-dependent fission product spectrum. This manual contains the methodology employed by GABAS, input requirements for proper execution, a sample problem and a FORTRAN listing compatible with a UNIVAC machine. The code is available in a UNIVAC 1100/81 version and a VAX 11/780 version. The former may be obtained from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC); the latter may be obtained directly from IRT Corporation.
Upgrades of Two Computer Codes for Analysis of Turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, Rodrick V.; Liou, Meng-Sing
2005-01-01
Major upgrades have been made in two of the programs reported in "ive Computer Codes for Analysis of Turbomachinery". The affected programs are: Swift -- a code for three-dimensional (3D) multiblock analysis; and TCGRID, which generates a 3D grid used with Swift. Originally utilizing only a central-differencing scheme for numerical solution, Swift was augmented by addition of two upwind schemes that give greater accuracy but take more computing time. Other improvements in Swift include addition of a shear-stress-transport turbulence model for better prediction of adverse pressure gradients, addition of an H-grid capability for flexibility in modeling flows in pumps and ducts, and modification to enable simultaneous modeling of hub and tip clearances. Improvements in TCGRID include modifications to enable generation of grids for more complicated flow paths and addition of an option to generate grids compatible with the ADPAC code used at NASA and in industry. For both codes, new test cases were developed and documentation was updated. Both codes were converted to Fortran 90, with dynamic memory allocation. Both codes were also modified for ease of use in both UNIX and Windows operating systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alipchenkov, V. M.; Anfimov, A. M.; Afremov, D. A.; Gorbunov, V. S.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Osipov, S. L.; Mosunova, N. A.; Strizhov, V. F.; Usov, E. V.
2016-02-01
The conceptual fundamentals of the development of the new-generation system thermal-hydraulic computational HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code are presented. The code is intended to simulate the thermalhydraulic processes that take place in the loops and the heat-exchange equipment of liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems under normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and during accidents. The paper provides a brief overview of Russian and foreign system thermal-hydraulic codes for modeling liquid-metal coolants and gives grounds for the necessity of development of a new-generation HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code. Considering the specific engineering features of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) equipped with the BN-1200 and the BREST-OD-300 reactors, the processes and the phenomena are singled out that require a detailed analysis and development of the models to be correctly described by the system thermal-hydraulic code in question. Information on the functionality of the computational code is provided, viz., the thermalhydraulic two-phase model, the properties of the sodium and the lead coolants, the closing equations for simulation of the heat-mass exchange processes, the models to describe the processes that take place during the steam-generator tube rupture, etc. The article gives a brief overview of the usability of the computational code, including a description of the support documentation and the supply package, as well as possibilities of taking advantages of the modern computer technologies, such as parallel computations. The paper shows the current state of verification and validation of the computational code; it also presents information on the principles of constructing of and populating the verification matrices for the BREST-OD-300 and the BN-1200 reactor systems. The prospects are outlined for further development of the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code, introduction of new models into it, and enhancement of its usability. It is shown that the program of development and
A surface code quantum computer in silicon.
Hill, Charles D; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J; House, Matthew G; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L
2015-10-01
The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel-posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited. PMID:26601310
A surface code quantum computer in silicon
Hill, Charles D.; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J.; House, Matthew G.; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.
2015-01-01
The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel—posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited. PMID:26601310
Computer code for determination of thermally perfect gas properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witte, David W.; Tatum, Kenneth E.
1994-01-01
A set of one-dimensional compressible flow relations for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas is derived for the specific heat c(sub p), expressed as a polynomial function of temperature, and developed into the thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The code produces tables of compressible flow properties similar to those of NACA Rep. 1135. Unlike the tables of NACA Rep. 1135 which are valid only in the calorically perfect temperature regime, the TPG code results are also valid in the thermally perfect calorically imperfect temperature regime which considerably extends the range of temperature application. Accuracy of the TPG code in the calorically perfect temperature regime is verified by comparisons with the tables of NACA Rep. 1135. In the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regime, the TPG code is validated by comparisons with results obtained from the method of NACA Rep. 1135 for calculating the thermally perfect calorically imperfect compressible flow properties. The temperature limits for application of the TPG code are also examined. The advantage of the TPG code is its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, or polyatomic) or any specified mixture thereof, whereas the method of NACA Rep. 1135 is restricted to only diatomic gases.
LMFBR models for the ORIGEN2 computer code
Croff, A.G.; McAdoo, J.W.; Bjerke, M.A.
1981-10-01
Reactor physics calculations have led to the development of nine liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) models for the ORIGEN2 computer code. Four of the models are based on the U-Pu fuel cycle, two are based on the Th-U-Pu fuel cycle, and three are based on the Th-/sup 238/U fuel cycle. The reactor models are based on cross sections taken directly from the reactor physics codes. Descriptions of the reactor models as well as values for the ORIGEN2 flux parameters THERM, RES, and FAST are given.
LMFBR models for the ORIGEN2 computer code
Croff, A.G.; McAdoo, J.W.; Bjerke, M.A.
1983-06-01
Reactor physics calculations have led to the development of nine liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) models for the ORIGEN2 computer code. Four of the models are based on the U-Pu fuel cycle, two are based on the Th-U-Pu fuel cycle, and three are based on the Th-/sup 233/U fuel cycle. The reactor models are based on cross sections taken directly from the reactor physics codes. Descriptions of the reactor models as well as values for the ORIGEN2 flux parameters THERM, RES, and FAST are given.
Computer code for intraply hybrid composite design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.
1981-01-01
A computer program has been developed and is described herein for intraply hybrid composite design (INHYD). The program includes several composite micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories and a hygrothermomechanical theory. These theories provide INHYD with considerable flexibility and capability which the user can exercise through several available options. Key features and capabilities of INHYD are illustrated through selected samples.
Additional extensions to the NASCAP computer code, volume 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mandell, M. J.; Cooke, D. L.
1981-01-01
The ION computer code is designed to calculate charge exchange ion densities, electric potentials, plasma temperatures, and current densities external to a neutralized ion engine in R-Z geometry. The present version assumes the beam ion current and density to be known and specified, and the neutralizing electrons to originate from a hot-wire ring surrounding the beam orifice. The plasma is treated as being resistive, with an electron relaxation time comparable to the plasma frequency. Together with the thermal and electrical boundary conditions described below and other straightforward engine parameters, these assumptions suffice to determine the required quantities. The ION code, written in ASCII FORTRAN for UNIVAC 1100 series computers, is designed to be run interactively, although it can also be run in batch mode. The input is free-format, and the output is mainly graphical, using the machine-independent graphics developed for the NASCAP code. The executive routine calls the code's major subroutines in user-specified order, and the code allows great latitude for restart and parameter change.
New Parallel computing framework for radiation transport codes
Kostin, M.A.; Mokhov, N.V.; Niita, K.; /JAERI, Tokai
2010-09-01
A new parallel computing framework has been developed to use with general-purpose radiation transport codes. The framework was implemented as a C++ module that uses MPI for message passing. The module is significantly independent of radiation transport codes it can be used with, and is connected to the codes by means of a number of interface functions. The framework was integrated with the MARS15 code, and an effort is under way to deploy it in PHITS. Besides the parallel computing functionality, the framework offers a checkpoint facility that allows restarting calculations with a saved checkpoint file. The checkpoint facility can be used in single process calculations as well as in the parallel regime. Several checkpoint files can be merged into one thus combining results of several calculations. The framework also corrects some of the known problems with the scheduling and load balancing found in the original implementations of the parallel computing functionality in MARS15 and PHITS. The framework can be used efficiently on homogeneous systems and networks of workstations, where the interference from the other users is possible.
Wind tunnel requirements for computational fluid dynamics code verification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, Joseph G.
1987-01-01
The role of experiment in the development of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for aerodynamic flow field prediction is discussed. Requirements for code verification from two sources that pace the development of CFD are described for: (1) development of adequate flow modeling, and (2) establishment of confidence in the use of CFD to predict complex flows. The types of data needed and their accuracy differs in detail and scope and leads to definite wind tunnel requirements. Examples of testing to assess and develop turbulence models, and to verify code development, are used to establish future wind tunnel testing requirements. Versatility, appropriate scale and speed range, accessibility for nonintrusive instrumentation, computerized data systems, and dedicated use for verification were among the more important requirements identified.
Implementation of a 3D mixing layer code on parallel computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roe, K.; Thakur, R.; Dang, T.; Bogucz, E.
1995-01-01
This paper summarizes our progress and experience in the development of a Computational-Fluid-Dynamics code on parallel computers to simulate three-dimensional spatially-developing mixing layers. In this initial study, the three-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations are solved using a finite-volume explicit time-marching algorithm. The code was first programmed in Fortran 77 for sequential computers. The code was then converted for use on parallel computers using the conventional message-passing technique, while we have not been able to compile the code with the present version of HPF compilers.
Simulation Code Development and Its Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zenghai
2015-10-01
Under the support of the U.S. DOE SciDAC program, SLAC has been developing a suite of 3D parallel finite-element codes aimed at high-accuracy, high-fidelity electromagnetic and beam physics simulations for the design and optimization of next-generation particle accelerators. Running on the latest supercomputers, these codes have made great strides in advancing the state of the art in applied math and computer science at the petascale that enable the integrated modeling of electromagnetics, self-consistent Particle-In-Cell (PIC) particle dynamics as well as thermal, mechanical, and multi-physics effects. This paper will present the latest development and application of ACE3P to a wide range of accelerator projects.
NASA Multidimensional Stirling Convertor Code Developed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tew, Roy C.; Thieme, Lanny G.
2004-01-01
A high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for use on potential NASA Space Science missions is being developed by the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and the NASA Glenn Research Center. These missions may include providing spacecraft onboard electric power for deep space missions or power for unmanned Mars rovers. Glenn is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors, aimed at substantially improving the specific power and efficiency of the convertor and the overall power system. Performance and mass improvement goals have been established for second- and third-generation Stirling radioisotope power systems. Multiple efforts are underway to achieve these goals, both in house at Glenn and under various grants and contracts. These efforts include the development of a multidimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code, high-temperature materials, advanced controllers, an end-to-end system dynamics model, low-vibration techniques, advanced regenerators, and a lightweight convertor. Under a NASA grant, Cleveland State University (CSU) and its subcontractors, the University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates, have developed a twodimensional computer simulation of a CSUmod Stirling convertor. The CFD-ACE commercial software developed by CFD Research Corp. of Huntsville, Alabama, is being used. The CSUmod is a scaled version of the Stirling Technology Demonstrator Convertor (TDC), which was designed and fabricated by the Stirling Technology Company and is being tested by NASA. The schematic illustrates the structure of this model. Modeled are the fluid-flow and heat-transfer phenomena that occur in the expansion space, the heater, the regenerator, the cooler, the compression space, the surrounding walls, and the moving piston and displacer. In addition, the overall heat transfer, the indicated power, and the efficiency can be calculated. The CSUmod model is being converted to a two
Additional extensions to the NASCAP computer code, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mandell, M. J.; Katz, I.; Stannard, P. R.
1981-01-01
Extensions and revisions to a computer code that comprehensively analyzes problems of spacecraft charging (NASCAP) are documented. Using a fully three dimensional approach, it can accurately predict spacecraft potentials under a variety of conditions. Among the extensions are a multiple electron/ion gun test tank capability, and the ability to model anisotropic and time dependent space environments. Also documented are a greatly extended MATCHG program and the preliminary version of NASCAP/LEO. The interactive MATCHG code was developed into an extremely powerful tool for the study of material-environment interactions. The NASCAP/LEO, a three dimensional code to study current collection under conditions of high voltages and short Debye lengths, was distributed for preliminary testing.
Computer Code For Turbocompounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Assanis, D. N.; Heywood, J. B.
1988-01-01
Computer simulation developed to study advantages of increased exhaust enthalpy in adiabatic turbocompounded diesel engine. Subsytems of conceptual engine include compressor, reciprocator, turbocharger turbine, compounded turbine, ducting, and heat exchangers. Focus of simulation of total system is to define transfers of mass and energy, including release and transfer of heat and transfer of work in each subsystem, and relationship among subsystems. Written in FORTRAN IV.
Computer code for the prediction of nozzle admittance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Thong V.
1988-01-01
A procedure which can accurately characterize injector designs for large thrust (0.5 to 1.5 million pounds), high pressure (500 to 3000 psia) LOX/hydrocarbon engines is currently under development. In this procedure, a rectangular cross-sectional combustion chamber is to be used to simulate the lower traverse frequency modes of the large scale chamber. The chamber will be sized so that the first width mode of the rectangular chamber corresponds to the first tangential mode of the full-scale chamber. Test data to be obtained from the rectangular chamber will be used to assess the full scale engine stability. This requires the development of combustion stability models for rectangular chambers. As part of the combustion stability model development, a computer code, NOAD based on existing theory was developed to calculate the nozzle admittances for both rectangular and axisymmetric nozzles. This code is detailed.
Computer programs for the characterization of protein coding genes.
Pierno, G; Barni, N; Candurro, M; Cipollaro, M; Franzè, A; Juliano, L; Macchiato, M F; Mastrocinque, G; Moscatelli, C; Scarlato, V
1984-01-11
Computer programs, implemented on an Univac II00/80 computer system, for the identification and characterization of protein coding genes and for the analysis of nucleic acid sequences, are described. PMID:6546420
Computer programs for the characterization of protein coding genes.
Pierno, G; Barni, N; Candurro, M; Cipollaro, M; Franzè, A; Juliano, L; Macchiato, M F; Mastrocinque, G; Moscatelli, C; Scarlato, V
1984-01-01
Computer programs, implemented on an Univac II00/80 computer system, for the identification and characterization of protein coding genes and for the analysis of nucleic acid sequences, are described. PMID:6546420
Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 3, The TANK computer code
Buck, J.W.; Andrews, G.L.
1987-09-01
At the end of each graveyard shift the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS), operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, issues a forecast of eight hourly average wind speeds and wind gusts for the 50-ft level. The Hanford Waste Management crew uses this forecast, called the tank farm forecast, to schedule daily work loads. The forecast covers an 8-hour period (0800 to 1600 during Pacific Standard Time (PST) or 0700 to 1500 during Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)) and the day-shift forecaster may modify the tank farm forecast to reflect changing wind conditions. The TANK computer code is used to archive these forecasts and apply quality assurance checks to the forecast data. The code accesses an input file, which contains the date of the previous forecast, and an output file, which contains tank farm forecasts for the current month. The program includes a data entry form consisting of 12 fields that must be filled in by the user. The information entered on the form is appended to the monthly forecast file, which provides an archive for the tank farm forecasts. This volume describes the implementation and operation of the TANK computer code at the HMS.
Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 4, The SUM computer code
Andrews, G.L.; Buck, J.W.
1987-09-01
At the end of each swing shift, the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS), operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, archives a set of daily weather observations. These weather observations are a summary of the maximum and minimum temperature, total precipitation, maximum and minimum relative humidity, total snowfall, total snow depth at 1200 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), and maximum wind speed plus the direction from which the wind occurred and the time it occurred. This summary also indicates the occurrence of rain, snow, and other weather phenomena. The SUM computer code is used to archive the summary and apply quality assurance checks to the data. This code accesses an input file that contains the date of the previous archive and an output file that contains a daily weather summary for the current month. As part of the program, a data entry form consisting of 21 fields must be filled in by the user. The information on the form is appended to the monthly file, which provides an archive for the daily weather summary. This volume describes the implementation and operation of the SUM computer code at the HMS.
Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 6, The SFC computer code
Andrews, G.L.; Buck, J.W.
1987-11-01
Each hour the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS), operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, records and archives weather observations. Hourly surface weather observations consist of weather phenomena such as cloud type and coverage; dry bulb, wet bulb, and dew point temperatures; relative humidity; atmospheric pressure; and wind speed and direction. The SFC computer code is used to archive those weather observations and apply quality assurance checks to the data. This code accesses an input file, which contains the previous archive's date and hour and an output file, which contains surface observations for the current day. As part of the program, a data entry form consisting of 24 fields must be filled in. The information on the form is appended to the daily file, which provides an archive for the hourly surface observations.
Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.
1992-01-01
Presented here is the first part of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the Proteus computer code. A review is given of previous studies on the implementation of multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. Also presented is a detailed stability analysis of upwind and central-difference based numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Results are given of a convergence study of the Proteus code on computational grids of different sizes. The results presented here form the foundation for the implementation of multigrid methods in the Proteus code.
Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC) Developed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers in performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions, it must be based on a micromechanics approach that uses physically based deformation and life constitutive models, and it must allow one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Only then can such a model be used by a material scientist to investigate the effect of different deformation mechanisms on the overall response of the composite and, thereby, identify the appropriate constituents for a given application. However, if a micromechanical model is to be used in a large-scale structural analysis it must be (1) computationally efficient, (2) able to generate accurate displacement and stress fields at both the macro and micro level, and (3) compatible with the finite element method. In addition, new advancements in processing and fabrication techniques now make it possible to engineer the architectures of these advanced composite systems. Full utilization of these emerging manufacturing capabilities require the development of a computationally efficient micromechanics analysis tool that can accurately predict the effect of microstructural details on the internal and macroscopic behavior of composites. Computational efficiency is required because (1) a large number of parameters must be varied in the course of engineering (or designing) composite materials and (2) the optimization of a material's microstructure requires that the micromechanics model be integrated with
Proceduracy: Computer Code Writing in the Continuum of Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vee, Annette
2010-01-01
This dissertation looks at computer programming through the lens of literacy studies, building from the concept of code as a written text with expressive and rhetorical power. I focus on the intersecting technological and social factors of computer code writing as a literacy--a practice I call "proceduracy". Like literacy, proceduracy is a human…
40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Models and computer codes....
40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Models and computer codes....
40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Models and computer codes....
40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Models and computer codes....
40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Models and computer codes....
Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 7, The RIVER computer code
Andrews, G.L.; Buck, J.W.
1988-03-01
The RIVER computer code is used to archive Columbia River data measured at the 100N reactor. The data are recorded every other hour starting at 0100 Pacific Standard Time (12 observations in a day), and consists of river elevation, temperature, and flow rate. The program prompts the user for river data by using a data entry form. After the data have been enetered and verified, the program appends each hour of river data to the end of each corresponding surface observation record for the current day. The appended data are then stored in the current month's surface observation file.
Panel-Method Computer Code For Potential Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashby, Dale L.; Dudley, Michael R.; Iguchi, Steven K.
1992-01-01
Low-order panel method used to reduce computation time. Panel code PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center) numerically simulates flow field around or through complex three-dimensional bodies such as complete aircraft models or wind tunnel. Based on potential-flow theory. Facilitates addition of new features to code and tailoring of code to specific problems and computer-hardware constraints. Written in standard FORTRAN 77.
3-D field computation: The near-triumph of commerical codes
Turner, L.R.
1995-07-01
In recent years, more and more of those who design and analyze magnets and other devices are using commercial codes rather than developing their own. This paper considers the commercial codes and the features available with them. Other recent trends with 3-D field computation include parallel computation and visualization methods such as virtual reality systems.
Python interface generator for Fortran based codes (a code development aid)
Grote, D. P.
2012-02-22
Forthon generates links between Fortran and Python. Python is a high level, object oriented, interactive and scripting language that allows a flexible and versatile interface to computational tools. The Forthon package generates the necessary wrapping code which allows access to the Fortran database and to the Fortran subroutines and functions. This provides a development package where the computationally intensive parts of a code can be written in efficient Fortran, and the high level controlling code can be written in the much more versatile Python language.
Improved Flow Modeling in Transient Reactor Safety Analysis Computer Codes
Holowach, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Cheung, F.B.
2002-07-01
A method of accounting for fluid-to-fluid shear in between calculational cells over a wide range of flow conditions envisioned in reactor safety studies has been developed such that it may be easily implemented into a computer code such as COBRA-TF for more detailed subchannel analysis. At a given nodal height in the calculational model, equivalent hydraulic diameters are determined for each specific calculational cell using either laminar or turbulent velocity profiles. The velocity profile may be determined from a separate CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis, experimental data, or existing semi-empirical relationships. The equivalent hydraulic diameter is then applied to the wall drag force calculation so as to determine the appropriate equivalent fluid-to-fluid shear caused by the wall for each cell based on the input velocity profile. This means of assigning the shear to a specific cell is independent of the actual wetted perimeter and flow area for the calculational cell. The use of this equivalent hydraulic diameter for each cell within a calculational subchannel results in a representative velocity profile which can further increase the accuracy and detail of heat transfer and fluid flow modeling within the subchannel when utilizing a thermal hydraulics systems analysis computer code such as COBRA-TF. Utilizing COBRA-TF with the flow modeling enhancement results in increased accuracy for a coarse-mesh model without the significantly greater computational and time requirements of a full-scale 3D (three-dimensional) transient CFD calculation. (authors)
Development of a CFD code for casting simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murph, Jesse E.
1992-01-01
The task of developing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to accurately model the mold filling phase of a casting operation was accomplished in a systematic manner. First the state-of-the-art was determined through a literature search, a code search, and participation with casting industry personnel involved in consortium startups. From this material and inputs from industry personnel, an evaluation of the currently available codes was made. It was determined that a few of the codes already contained sophisticated CFD algorithms and further validation of one of these codes could preclude the development of a new CFD code for this purpose. With industry concurrence, ProCAST was chosen for further evaluation. Two benchmark cases were used to evaluate the code's performance using a Silicon Graphics Personal Iris system. The results of these limited evaluations (because of machine and time constraints) are presented along with discussions of possible improvements and recommendations for further evaluation.
Space Radiation Transport Code Development: 3DHZETRN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.
2015-01-01
The space radiation transport code, HZETRN, has been used extensively for research, vehicle design optimization, risk analysis, and related applications. One of the simplifying features of the HZETRN transport formalism is the straight-ahead approximation, wherein all particles are assumed to travel along a common axis. This reduces the governing equation to one spatial dimension allowing enormous simplification and highly efficient computational procedures to be implemented. Despite the physical simplifications, the HZETRN code is widely used for space applications and has been found to agree well with fully 3D Monte Carlo simulations in many circumstances. Recent work has focused on the development of 3D transport corrections for neutrons and light ions (Z < 2) for which the straight-ahead approximation is known to be less accurate. Within the development of 3D corrections, well-defined convergence criteria have been considered, allowing approximation errors at each stage in model development to be quantified. The present level of development assumes the neutron cross sections have an isotropic component treated within N explicit angular directions and a forward component represented by the straight-ahead approximation. The N = 1 solution refers to the straight-ahead treatment, while N = 2 represents the bi-directional model in current use for engineering design. The figure below shows neutrons, protons, and alphas for various values of N at locations in an aluminum sphere exposed to a solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. The neutron fluence converges quickly in simple geometry with N > 14 directions. The improved code, 3DHZETRN, transports neutrons, light ions, and heavy ions under space-like boundary conditions through general geometry while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. A brief overview of the 3D transport formalism for neutrons and light ions is given, and extensive benchmarking results with the Monte Carlo codes Geant4, FLUKA, and
The Basis Code Development System
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1994-03-15
BASIS9.4 is a system for developing interactive computer programs in Fortran, with some support for C and C++ as well. Using BASIS9.4 you can create a program that has a sophisticated programming language as its user interface so that the user can set, calculate with, and plot, all the major variables in the program. The program author writes only the scientific part of the program; BASIS9.4 supplies an environment in which to exercise that scientificmore » programming which includes an interactive language, an interpreter, graphics, terminal logs, error recovery, macros, saving and retrieving variables, formatted I/O, and online documentation.« less
Improvements to the fastex flutter analysis computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Ronald F.
1987-01-01
Modifications to the FASTEX flutter analysis computer code (UDFASTEX) are described. The objectives were to increase the problem size capacity of FASTEX, reduce run times by modification of the modal interpolation procedure, and to add new user features. All modifications to the program are operable on the VAX 11/700 series computers under the VAX operating system. Interfaces were provided to aid in the inclusion of alternate aerodynamic and flutter eigenvalue calculations. Plots can be made of the flutter velocity, display and frequency data. A preliminary capability was also developed to plot contours of unsteady pressure amplitude and phase. The relevant equations of motion, modal interpolation procedures, and control system considerations are described and software developments are summarized. Additional information documenting input instructions, procedures, and details of the plate spline algorithm is found in the appendices.
Compressing industrial computed tomography images by means of contour coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Haina; Zeng, Li
2013-10-01
An improved method for compressing industrial computed tomography (CT) images is presented. To have higher resolution and precision, the amount of industrial CT data has become larger and larger. Considering that industrial CT images are approximately piece-wise constant, we develop a compression method based on contour coding. The traditional contour-based method for compressing gray images usually needs two steps. The first is contour extraction and then compression, which is negative for compression efficiency. So we merge the Freeman encoding idea into an improved method for two-dimensional contours extraction (2-D-IMCE) to improve the compression efficiency. By exploiting the continuity and logical linking, preliminary contour codes are directly obtained simultaneously with the contour extraction. By that, the two steps of the traditional contour-based compression method are simplified into only one. Finally, Huffman coding is employed to further losslessly compress preliminary contour codes. Experimental results show that this method can obtain a good compression ratio as well as keeping satisfactory quality of compressed images.
A computer code for performance of spur gears
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, K. L.; Cheng, H. S.
1983-01-01
In spur gears both performance and failure predictions are known to be strongly dependent on the variation of load, lubricant film thickness, and total flash or contact temperature of the contacting point as it moves along the contact path. The need of an accurate tool for predicting these variables has prompted the development of a computer code based on recent findings in EHL and on finite element methods. The analyses and some typical results which to illustrate effects of gear geometry, velocity, load, lubricant viscosity, and surface convective heat transfer coefficient on the performance of spur gears are analyzed.
TRACKING CODE DEVELOPMENT FOR BEAM DYNAMICS OPTIMIZATION
Yang, L.
2011-03-28
Dynamic aperture (DA) optimization with direct particle tracking is a straight forward approach when the computing power is permitted. It can have various realistic errors included and is more close than theoretical estimations. In this approach, a fast and parallel tracking code could be very helpful. In this presentation, we describe an implementation of storage ring particle tracking code TESLA for beam dynamics optimization. It supports MPI based parallel computing and is robust as DA calculation engine. This code has been used in the NSLS-II dynamics optimizations and obtained promising performance.
Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 8, The REVIEW computer code
Andrews, G.L.; Burk, K.W.
1988-08-01
The Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) routinely collects meteorological data from sources on and off the Hanford Site. The data are averaged over both 15 minutes and 1 hour and are maintained in separate databases on the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX 11/750 at the HMS. The databases are transferred to the Emergency Management System (EMS) DEC VAX 11/750 computer. The EMS is part of the Unified Dose Assessment Center, which is located on on the ground-level floor of the Federal building in Richland and operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program REVIEW is used to display meteorological data in graphical and alphanumeric form from either the 15-minute or hourly database. The code is available on the HMS and EMS computer. The REVIEW program helps maintain a high level of quality assurance on the instruments that collect the data and provides a convenient mechanism for analyzing meteorological data on a routine basis and during emergency response situations.
SWAAM-LT: The long-term, sodium/water reaction analysis method computer code
Shin, Y.W.; Chung, H.H.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Tanabe, H.
1993-01-01
The SWAAM-LT Code, developed for analysis of long-term effects of sodium/water reactions, is discussed. The theoretical formulation of the code is described, including the introduction of system matrices for ease of computer programming as a general system code. Also, some typical results of the code predictions for available large scale tests are presented. Test data for the steam generator design with the cover-gas feature and without the cover-gas feature are available and analyzed. The capabilities and limitations of the code are then discussed in light of the comparison between the code prediction and the test data.
Codes of Ethics for Computing at Russian Institutions and Universities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pourciau, Lester J.; Spain, Victoria, Ed.
1997-01-01
To determine the degree to which Russian institutions and universities have formulated and promulgated codes of ethics or policies for acceptable computer use, the author examined Russian institution and university home pages. Lists home pages examined, 10 commandments for computer ethics from the Computer Ethics Institute, and a policy statement…
Optimization of KINETICS Chemical Computation Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donastorg, Cristina
2012-01-01
NASA JPL has been creating a code in FORTRAN called KINETICS to model the chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Recently there has been an effort to introduce Message Passing Interface (MPI) into the code so as to cut down the run time of the program. There has been some implementation of MPI into KINETICS; however, the code could still be more efficient than it currently is. One way to increase efficiency is to send only certain variables to all the processes when an MPI subroutine is called and to gather only certain variables when the subroutine is finished. Therefore, all the variables that are used in three of the main subroutines needed to be investigated. Because of the sheer amount of code that there is to comb through this task was given as a ten-week project. I have been able to create flowcharts outlining the subroutines, common blocks, and functions used within the three main subroutines. From these flowcharts I created tables outlining the variables used in each block and important information about each. All this information will be used to determine how to run MPI in KINETICS in the most efficient way possible.
GAM-HEAT -- a computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures. Revision 1
Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.; Kielpinski, A.L.; Steimke, J.L.
1991-02-01
The GAM-HEAT code was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guillotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re- radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium. The GAM-HEAT code has been exercised extensively for computing transient temperatures in SRS reactors with specific charges and control components. Results from these computations have been used to establish the need for and to evaluate hardware modifications designed to mitigate results of postulated accident scenarios, and to assist in the specification of safe reactor operating power limits. The code utilizes temperature dependence on material properties. The efficiency of the code has been enhanced by the use of an iterative equation solver. Verification of the code to date consists of comparisons with parallel efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory and with similar efforts at Westinghouse Science and Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA, and benchmarked using problems with known analytical or iterated solutions. All comparisons and tests yield results that indicate the GAM-HEAT code performs as intended.
A computer analysis program for interfacing thermal and structural codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, R. L.; Maffeo, R. J.
1985-01-01
A software package has been developed to transfer three-dimensional transient thermal information accurately, efficiently, and automatically from a heat transfer analysis code to a structural analysis code. The code is called three-dimensional TRansfer ANalysis Code to Interface Thermal and Structural codes, or 3D TRANCITS. TRANCITS has the capability to couple finite difference and finite element heat transfer analysis codes to linear and nonlinear finite element structural analysis codes. TRANCITS currently supports the output of SINDA and MARC heat transfer codes directly. It will also format the thermal data output directly so that it is compatible with the input requirements of the NASTRAN and MARC structural analysis codes. Other thermal and structural codes can be interfaced using the transfer module with the neutral heat transfer input file and the neutral temperature output file. The transfer module can handle different elemental mesh densities for the heat transfer analysis and the structural analysis.
Advances in Parallel Electromagnetic Codes for Accelerator Science and Development
Ko, Kwok; Candel, Arno; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Rich; Li, Zenghai; Ng, Cho; Rawat, Vineet; Schussman, Greg; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC
2011-02-07
Over a decade of concerted effort in code development for accelerator applications has resulted in a new set of electromagnetic codes which are based on higher-order finite elements for superior geometry fidelity and better solution accuracy. SLAC's ACE3P code suite is designed to harness the power of massively parallel computers to tackle large complex problems with the increased memory and solve them at greater speed. The US DOE supports the computational science R&D under the SciDAC project to improve the scalability of ACE3P, and provides the high performance computing resources needed for the applications. This paper summarizes the advances in the ACE3P set of codes, explains the capabilities of the modules, and presents results from selected applications covering a range of problems in accelerator science and development important to the Office of Science.
Code Verification of the HIGRAD Computational Fluid Dynamics Solver
Van Buren, Kendra L.; Canfield, Jesse M.; Hemez, Francois M.; Sauer, Jeremy A.
2012-05-04
The purpose of this report is to outline code and solution verification activities applied to HIGRAD, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and used to simulate various phenomena such as the propagation of wildfires and atmospheric hydrodynamics. Code verification efforts, as described in this report, are an important first step to establish the credibility of numerical simulations. They provide evidence that the mathematical formulation is properly implemented without significant mistakes that would adversely impact the application of interest. Highly accurate analytical solutions are derived for four code verification test problems that exercise different aspects of the code. These test problems are referred to as: (i) the quiet start, (ii) the passive advection, (iii) the passive diffusion, and (iv) the piston-like problem. These problems are simulated using HIGRAD with different levels of mesh discretization and the numerical solutions are compared to their analytical counterparts. In addition, the rates of convergence are estimated to verify the numerical performance of the solver. The first three test problems produce numerical approximations as expected. The fourth test problem (piston-like) indicates the extent to which the code is able to simulate a 'mild' discontinuity, which is a condition that would typically be better handled by a Lagrangian formulation. The current investigation concludes that the numerical implementation of the solver performs as expected. The quality of solutions is sufficient to provide credible simulations of fluid flows around wind turbines. The main caveat associated to these findings is the low coverage provided by these four problems, and somewhat limited verification activities. A more comprehensive evaluation of HIGRAD may be beneficial for future studies.
Computer code for charge-exchange plasma propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, R. S.; Kaufman, H. R.
1981-01-01
The propagation of the charge-exchange plasma from an electrostatic ion thruster is crucial in determining the interaction of that plasma with the associated spacecraft. A model that describes this plasma and its propagation is described, together with a computer code based on this model. The structure and calling sequence of the code, named PLASIM, is described. An explanation of the program's input and output is included, together with samples of both. The code is written in ASNI Standard FORTRAN.
PLASIM: A computer code for simulating charge exchange plasma propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, R. S.; Deininger, W. D.; Winder, D. R.; Kaufman, H. R.
1982-01-01
The propagation of the charge exchange plasma for an electrostatic ion thruster is crucial in determining the interaction of that plasma with the associated spacecraft. A model that describes this plasma and its propagation is described, together with a computer code based on this model. The structure and calling sequence of the code, named PLASIM, is described. An explanation of the program's input and output is included, together with samples of both. The code is written in ANSI Standard FORTRAN.
A generalized one-dimensional computer code for turbomachinery cooling passage flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Ganesh N.; Roelke, Richard J.; Meitner, Peter L.
1989-01-01
A generalized one-dimensional computer code for analyzing the flow and heat transfer in the turbomachinery cooling passages was developed. This code is capable of handling rotating cooling passages with turbulators, 180 degree turns, pin fins, finned passages, by-pass flows, tip cap impingement flows, and flow branching. The code is an extension of a one-dimensional code developed by P. Meitner. In the subject code, correlations for both heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss computations were developed to model each of the above mentioned type of coolant passages. The code has the capability of independently computing the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient on each side of a rectangular passage. Either the mass flow at the inlet to the channel or the exit plane pressure can be specified. For a specified inlet total temperature, inlet total pressure, and exit static pressure, the code computers the flow rates through the main branch and the subbranches, flow through tip cap for impingement cooling, in addition to computing the coolant pressure, temperature, and heat transfer coefficient distribution in each coolant flow branch. Predictions from the subject code for both nonrotating and rotating passages agree well with experimental data. The code was used to analyze the cooling passage of a research cooled radial rotor.
A generalized one dimensional computer code for turbomachinery cooling passage flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Ganesh N.; Roelke, Richard J.; Meitner, Peter L.
1989-01-01
A generalized one-dimensional computer code for analyzing the flow and heat transfer in the turbomachinery cooling passages was developed. This code is capable of handling rotating cooling passages with turbulators, 180 degree turns, pin fins, finned passages, by-pass flows, tip cap impingement flows, and flow branching. The code is an extension of a one-dimensional code developed by P. Meitner. In the subject code, correlations for both heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss computations were developed to model each of the above mentioned type of coolant passages. The code has the capability of independently computing the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient on each side of a rectangular passage. Either the mass flow at the inlet to the channel or the exit plane pressure can be specified. For a specified inlet total temperature, inlet total pressure, and exit static pressure, the code computers the flow rates through the main branch and the subbranches, flow through tip cap for impingement cooling, in addition to computing the coolant pressure, temperature, and heat transfer coefficient distribution in each coolant flow branch. Predictions from the subject code for both nonrotating and rotating passages agree well with experimental data. The code was used to analyze the cooling passage of a research cooled radial rotor.
Proceedings: Sixth international RETRAN conference. [RETRAN Computer Code
Agee, L.J.
1990-08-01
The RETRAN computer code, developed by EPRI through its Contractors, EI International, Inc. (EI) and Computer Simulation and Analysis, Inc. (CSA), is now widely used by the international nuclear community for various types of safety analyses. In order to exchange information concerning the current use of the code by the various organizations, EPRI sponsored the Sixth International RETRAN meeting in Washington, DC on September 17--20, 1989. The opening session featured a panel discussion on Licensing Issues of the Nineties'' by representatives from NUMARC, Wolf Creek, and Entergy Services, Inc. as well as a review of RETRAN activities during 1988 and 1989. During the three-day meeting, 28 technical papers were presented by the various participants. The papers can be generally classified as: RETRAN-03 development, verification and validation; RETRAN-02 analysis of PWRs; and RETRAN-02 analysis of BWRs. The entire text of all of the papers is included in this special EPRI report. In addition, these proceedings contain the text of seven technical reports presented at a poster session. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.
Computer Code Systems for Use with Meteorological Data.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1983-09-14
Version 00 The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the computer codes in this collection to examine, assess, and utilize the hourly values of meteorological data which are received on magnetic tapes in a specified format.
Code 672 observational science branch computer networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.
1988-01-01
In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.
Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 10, The ARCHIVE computer code
Andrews, G.L.; Burk, K.W.
1989-08-01
The purpose of the ARCHIVE computer program is twofold: (1) convert selected hourly binary data into formatted ASCII data, and (2) organize the converted data into monthly files. Formatted ASCII files are easier to access on a routine basis. The program is executed once a day and is initiated from a command file that submits itself to the SYS$BATCH queue on a daily basis. The monthly files are stored on the HMS computer's fixed hard disk and are merged into yearly files (located on removable disk packs) at the end of each year. This report describes the data bases maintained at the HMS, gives an overview of the ARCHIVE program, describes input and output files accessed by the ARCHIVE program, provides a description of program initiation, and discusses the limitations of the ARCHIVE program. A section on trouble-shooting is included. In addition, the appendixes contain flow charts, detailed descriptions, and source code listings for the ARCHIVE program and related subroutines. A description of the ARCHIVE command file and the data input and output files completes the report. 3 refs., 1 fig.
APC: A New Code for Atmospheric Polarization Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korkin, Sergey V.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Rozanov, Vladimir V.
2014-01-01
A new polarized radiative transfer code Atmospheric Polarization Computations (APC) is described. The code is based on separation of the diffuse light field into anisotropic and smooth (regular) parts. The anisotropic part is computed analytically. The smooth regular part is computed numerically using the discrete ordinates method. Vertical stratification of the atmosphere, common types of bidirectional surface reflection and scattering by spherical particles or spheroids are included. A particular consideration is given to computation of the bidirectional polarization distribution function (BPDF) of the waved ocean surface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartenstein, Richard G., Jr.
1985-01-01
Computer codes have been developed to analyze antennas on aircraft and in the presence of scatterers. The purpose of this study is to use these codes to develop accurate computer models of various aircraft and antenna systems. The antenna systems analyzed are a P-3B L-Band antenna, an A-7E UHF relay pod antenna, and traffic advisory antenna system installed on a Bell Long Ranger helicopter. Computer results are compared to measured ones with good agreement. These codes can be used in the design stage of an antenna system to determine the optimum antenna location and save valuable time and costly flight hours.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartenstein, Richard G., Jr.
1985-08-01
Computer codes have been developed to analyze antennas on aircraft and in the presence of scatterers. The purpose of this study is to use these codes to develop accurate computer models of various aircraft and antenna systems. The antenna systems analyzed are a P-3B L-Band antenna, an A-7E UHF relay pod antenna, and traffic advisory antenna system installed on a Bell Long Ranger helicopter. Computer results are compared to measured ones with good agreement. These codes can be used in the design stage of an antenna system to determine the optimum antenna location and save valuable time and costly flight hours.
Enhancements to the STAGS computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rankin, C. C.; Stehlin, P.; Brogan, F. A.
1986-01-01
The power of the STAGS family of programs was greatly enhanced. Members of the family include STAGS-C1 and RRSYS. As a result of improvements implemented, it is now possible to address the full collapse of a structural system, up to and beyond critical points where its resistance to the applied loads vanishes or suddenly changes. This also includes the important class of problems where a multiplicity of solutions exists at a given point (bifurcation), and where until now no solution could be obtained along any alternate (secondary) load path with any standard production finite element code.
NASA Lewis Stirling engine computer code evaluation
Sullivan, T.J.
1989-01-01
In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Stirling engine performance code was evaluated by comparing code predictions without engine-specific calibration factors to GPU-3, P-40, and RE-1000 Stirling engine test data. The error in predicting power output was /minus/11 percent for the P-40 and 12 percent for the RE-1000 at design conditions and 16 percent for the GPU-3 at near-design conditions (2000 rpm engine speed versus 3000 rpm at design). The efficiency and heat input predictions showed better agreement with engine test data than did the power predictions. Concerning all data points, the error in predicting the GPU-3 brake power was significantly larger than for the other engines and was mainly a result of inaccuracy in predicting the pressure phase angle. Analysis into this pressure phase angle prediction error suggested that improvement to the cylinder hysteresis loss model could have a significant effect on overall Stirling engine performance predictions. 13 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.
NASA Lewis Stirling engine computer code evaluation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sullivan, Timothy J.
1989-01-01
In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Stirling engine performance code was evaluated by comparing code predictions without engine-specific calibration factors to GPU-3, P-40, and RE-1000 Stirling engine test data. The error in predicting power output was -11 percent for the P-40 and 12 percent for the Re-1000 at design conditions and 16 percent for the GPU-3 at near-design conditions (2000 rpm engine speed versus 3000 rpm at design). The efficiency and heat input predictions showed better agreement with engine test data than did the power predictions. Concerning all data points, the error in predicting the GPU-3 brake power was significantly larger than for the other engines and was mainly a result of inaccuracy in predicting the pressure phase angle. Analysis into this pressure phase angle prediction error suggested that improvements to the cylinder hysteresis loss model could have a significant effect on overall Stirling engine performance predictions.
Conversion of radionuclide transport codes from mainframes to personal computers
Pon, W.D.; Marschke, S.F. )
1987-01-01
Converting a mainframe computer code to run on a personal computer (PC) calls for more than just a simple translation -- the converted program and associated data files must be modified to fit the PC's environment. This has been done for three well-known mainframe codes that are used to estimate the impacts of normal operational radiological releases from nuclear power plants: GALE, GASPAR, and LADTAP. The programs were converted to run on an IBM PC and combined into a single integrated package. This article describes the steps in the conversion process and shows how the mainframe codes were modified and enhanced to take advantage of the PC's ease of use.
Computer code for intraply hybrid composite design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.
1981-01-01
A computer program is described for intraply hybrid composite design (INHYD). The program includes several composite micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and a hygrothermomechanical theory. These theories provide INHYD with considerable flexibility and capability which the user can exercise through several available options. Key features and capabilities of INHYD are illustrated through selected samples.
Guidelines for developing vectorizable computer programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miner, E. W.
1982-01-01
Some fundamental principles for developing computer programs which are compatible with array-oriented computers are presented. The emphasis is on basic techniques for structuring computer codes which are applicable in FORTRAN and do not require a special programming language or exact a significant penalty on a scalar computer. Researchers who are using numerical techniques to solve problems in engineering can apply these basic principles and thus develop transportable computer programs (in FORTRAN) which contain much vectorizable code. The vector architecture of the ASC is discussed so that the requirements of array processing can be better appreciated. The "vectorization" of a finite-difference viscous shock-layer code is used as an example to illustrate the benefits and some of the difficulties involved. Increases in computing speed with vectorization are illustrated with results from the viscous shock-layer code and from a finite-element shock tube code. The applicability of these principles was substantiated through running programs on other computers with array-associated computing characteristics, such as the Hewlett-Packard (H-P) 1000-F.
Codes & standards research, development & demonstration Roadmap
None, None
2008-07-22
This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for SDOs to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.
An algorithm for computing the distance spectrum of trellis codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rouanne, Marc; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.
1989-01-01
A class of quasiregular codes is defined for which the distance spectrum can be calculated from the codeword corresponding to the all-zero information sequence. Convolutional codes and regular codes are both quasiregular, as well as most of the best known trellis codes. An algorithm to compute the distance spectrum of linear, regular, and quasiregular trellis codes is presented. In particular, it can calculate the weight spectrum of convolutional (linear trellis) codes and the distance spectrum of most of the best known trellis codes. The codes do not have to be linear or regular, and the signals do not have to be used with equal probabilities. The algorithm is derived from a bidirectional stack algorithm, although it could also be based on the Viterbi algorithm. The algorithm is used to calculate the beginning of the distance spectrum of some of the best known trellis codes and to compute tight estimates on the first-event-error probability and on the bit-error probability.
Computer codes for dispersion of dense gas
Weber, A.H.; Watts, J.R.
1982-02-01
Two models for describing the behavior of dense gases have been adapted for specific applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and have been programmed on the IBM computer. One of the models has been used to predict the effect of a ruptured H/sub 2/S storage tank at the 400 Area. The other model has been used to simulate the effect of an unignited release of H/sub 2/S from the 400-Area flare tower.
Python interface generator for Fortran based codes (a code development aid)
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2012-02-22
Forthon generates links between Fortran and Python. Python is a high level, object oriented, interactive and scripting language that allows a flexible and versatile interface to computational tools. The Forthon package generates the necessary wrapping code which allows access to the Fortran database and to the Fortran subroutines and functions. This provides a development package where the computationally intensive parts of a code can be written in efficient Fortran, and the high level controlling codemore » can be written in the much more versatile Python language.« less
Computer vision cracks the leaf code.
Wilf, Peter; Zhang, Shengping; Chikkerur, Sharat; Little, Stefan A; Wing, Scott L; Serre, Thomas
2016-03-22
Understanding the extremely variable, complex shape and venation characters of angiosperm leaves is one of the most challenging problems in botany. Machine learning offers opportunities to analyze large numbers of specimens, to discover novel leaf features of angiosperm clades that may have phylogenetic significance, and to use those characters to classify unknowns. Previous computer vision approaches have primarily focused on leaf identification at the species level. It remains an open question whether learning and classification are possible among major evolutionary groups such as families and orders, which usually contain hundreds to thousands of species each and exhibit many times the foliar variation of individual species. Here, we tested whether a computer vision algorithm could use a database of 7,597 leaf images from 2,001 genera to learn features of botanical families and orders, then classify novel images. The images are of cleared leaves, specimens that are chemically bleached, then stained to reveal venation. Machine learning was used to learn a codebook of visual elements representing leaf shape and venation patterns. The resulting automated system learned to classify images into families and orders with a success rate many times greater than chance. Of direct botanical interest, the responses of diagnostic features can be visualized on leaf images as heat maps, which are likely to prompt recognition and evolutionary interpretation of a wealth of novel morphological characters. With assistance from computer vision, leaves are poised to make numerous new contributions to systematic and paleobotanical studies. PMID:26951664
Development of computer graphics
Nuttall, H.E.
1989-07-01
The purpose of this project was to screen and evaluate three graphics packages as to their suitability for displaying concentration contour graphs. The information to be displayed is from computer code simulations describing air-born contaminant transport. The three evaluation programs were MONGO (John Tonry, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139), Mathematica (Wolfram Research Inc.), and NCSA Image (National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). After a preliminary investigation of each package, NCSA Image appeared to be significantly superior for generating the desired concentration contour graphs. Hence subsequent work and this report describes the implementation and testing of NCSA Image on both an Apple MacII and Sun 4 computers. NCSA Image includes several utilities (Layout, DataScope, HDF, and PalEdit) which were used in this study and installed on Dr. Ted Yamada`s Mac II computer. Dr. Yamada provided two sets of air pollution plume data which were displayed using NCSA Image. Both sets were animated into a sequential expanding plume series.
Application of computational fluid dynamics methods to improve thermal hydraulic code analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sentell, Dennis Shannon, Jr.
A computational fluid dynamics code is used to model the primary natural circulation loop of a proposed small modular reactor for comparison to experimental data and best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code results. Recent advances in computational fluid dynamics code modeling capabilities make them attractive alternatives to the current conservative approach of coupled best-estimate thermal hydraulic codes and uncertainty evaluations. The results from a computational fluid dynamics analysis are benchmarked against the experimental test results of a 1:3 length, 1:254 volume, full pressure and full temperature scale small modular reactor during steady-state power operations and during a depressurization transient. A comparative evaluation of the experimental data, the thermal hydraulic code results and the computational fluid dynamics code results provides an opportunity to validate the best-estimate thermal hydraulic code's treatment of a natural circulation loop and provide insights into expanded use of the computational fluid dynamics code in future designs and operations. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine those physical phenomena most impactful on operations of the proposed reactor's natural circulation loop. The combination of the comparative evaluation and sensitivity analysis provides the resources for increased confidence in model developments for natural circulation loops and provides for reliability improvements of the thermal hydraulic code.
Calculations of reactor-accident consequences, Version 2. CRAC2: computer code user's guide
Ritchie, L.T.; Johnson, J.D.; Blond, R.M.
1983-02-01
The CRAC2 computer code is a revision of the Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences computer code, CRAC, developed for the Reactor Safety Study. The CRAC2 computer code incorporates significant modeling improvements in the areas of weather sequence sampling and emergency response, and refinements to the plume rise, atmospheric dispersion, and wet deposition models. New output capabilities have also been added. This guide is to facilitate the informed and intelligent use of CRAC2. It includes descriptions of the input data, the output results, the file structures, control information, and five sample problems.
Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natsir, Khairina; Yazid, Putranto Ilham; Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi
2014-09-01
Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.
Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis
Natsir, Khairina Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi; Yazid, Putranto Ilham
2014-09-30
Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.
SCDAP/RELAP5 code development and assessment
Allison, C.M.; Hohorst, J.K.
1996-03-01
The SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code is designed to describe the overall reactor coolant system thermal-hydraulic response, core damage progression, and fission product release during severe accidents. The code is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the primary sponsorship of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The current version of the code is SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1e. Although MOD3.1e contains a number of significant improvements since the initial version of MOD3.1 was released, new models to treat the behavior of the fuel and cladding during reflood have had the most dramatic impact on the code`s calculations. This paper provides a brief description of the new reflood models, presents highlights of the assessment of the current version of MOD3.1, and discusses future SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 model development activities.
Analyzing Pulse-Code Modulation On A Small Computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Massey, David E.
1988-01-01
System for analysis pulse-code modulation (PCM) comprises personal computer, computer program, and peripheral interface adapter on circuit board that plugs into expansion bus of computer. Functions essentially as "snapshot" PCM decommutator, which accepts and stores thousands of frames of PCM data, sifts through them repeatedly to process according to routines specified by operator. Enables faster testing and involves less equipment than older testing systems.
Space radiator simulation manual for computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Black, W. Z.; Wulff, W.
1972-01-01
A computer program that simulates the performance of a space radiator is presented. The program basically consists of a rigorous analysis which analyzes a symmetrical fin panel and an approximate analysis that predicts system characteristics for cases of non-symmetrical operation. The rigorous analysis accounts for both transient and steady state performance including aerodynamic and radiant heating of the radiator system. The approximate analysis considers only steady state operation with no aerodynamic heating. A description of the radiator system and instructions to the user for program operation is included. The input required for the execution of all program options is described. Several examples of program output are contained in this section. Sample output includes the radiator performance during ascent, reentry and orbit.
Preliminary blade design using integrated computer codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryan, Arve
1988-12-01
Loads on the root of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) rotor blade were analyzed. A design solution for the root area is presented. The loads on the blades are given by different load cases that are specified. To get a clear picture of the influence of different parameters, the whole blade is designed from scratch. This is only a preliminary design study and the blade should not be looked upon as a construction reference. The use of computer programs for the design and optimization is extensive. After the external geometry is set and the aerodynamic loads calculated, parameters like design stresses and laminate thicknesses are run through the available programs, and a blade design optimized on basis of facts and estimates used is shown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, A.; Graves, R. A., Jr.; Weilmuenster, K. J.
1980-01-01
A vectorized code, EQUIL, was developed for calculating the equilibrium chemistry of a reacting gas mixture on the Control Data STAR-100 computer. The code provides species mole fractions, mass fractions, and thermodynamic and transport properties of the mixture for given temperature, pressure, and elemental mass fractions. The code is set up for the electrons H, He, C, O, N system of elements. In all, 24 chemical species are included.
Benchmark Solutions for Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Code Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, James R.
2004-01-01
NASA has conducted a series of Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshops on Benchmark Problems to develop a set of realistic CAA problems that can be used for code validation. In the Third (1999) and Fourth (2003) Workshops, the single airfoil gust response problem, with real geometry effects, was included as one of the benchmark problems. Respondents were asked to calculate the airfoil RMS pressure and far-field acoustic intensity for different airfoil geometries and a wide range of gust frequencies. This paper presents the validated that have been obtained to the benchmark problem, and in addition, compares them with classical flat plate results. It is seen that airfoil geometry has a strong effect on the airfoil unsteady pressure, and a significant effect on the far-field acoustic intensity. Those parts of the benchmark problem that have not yet been adequately solved are identified and presented as a challenge to the CAA research community.
Recent applications of the transonic wing analysis computer code, TWING
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subramanian, N. R.; Holst, T. L.; Thomas, S. D.
1982-01-01
An evaluation of the transonic-wing-analysis computer code TWING is given. TWING utilizes a fully implicit approximate factorization iteration scheme to solve the full potential equation in conservative form. A numerical elliptic-solver grid-generation scheme is used to generate the required finite-difference mesh. Several wing configurations were analyzed, and the limits of applicability of this code was evaluated. Comparisons of computed results were made with available experimental data. Results indicate that the code is robust, accurate (when significant viscous effects are not present), and efficient. TWING generally produces solutions an order of magnitude faster than other conservative full potential codes using successive-line overrelaxation. The present method is applicable to a wide range of isolated wing configurations including high-aspect-ratio transport wings and low-aspect-ratio, high-sweep, fighter configurations.
A three-dimensional magnetostatics computer code for insertion devices.
Chubar, O; Elleaume, P; Chavanne, J
1998-05-01
RADIA is a three-dimensional magnetostatics computer code optimized for the design of undulators and wigglers. It solves boundary magnetostatics problems with magnetized and current-carrying volumes using the boundary integral approach. The magnetized volumes can be arbitrary polyhedrons with non-linear (iron) or linear anisotropic (permanent magnet) characteristics. The current-carrying elements can be straight or curved blocks with rectangular cross sections. Boundary conditions are simulated by the technique of mirroring. Analytical formulae used for the computation of the field produced by a magnetized volume of a polyhedron shape are detailed. The RADIA code is written in object-oriented C++ and interfaced to Mathematica [Mathematica is a registered trademark of Wolfram Research, Inc.]. The code outperforms currently available finite-element packages with respect to the CPU time of the solver and accuracy of the field integral estimations. An application of the code to the case of a wedge-pole undulator is presented. PMID:15263552
Challenges in the Twentieth Century and Beyond: Computer codes and data
Kirk, B.L.
1995-12-01
The second half of the twentieth century has seen major changes in computer architecture. In the early fifties to the early seventies, the word ``computes`` demanded reverence, respect and even fear. Computers, then, were almost ``untouchable``. Today, computers have become the mainstreams of communication on the rapidly expanding communication highways. They have become necessities of life. With the computers came the establishment of information centers -- tasked with the dissemination of newly developed computer codes and generated data. The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) was founded in 1962 as a valuable resource for programs and cross section data concerned with the effects of radiation. Through the years, RSIC has collected computer codes developed for the early machines (IBM 360, DEC PDP-10, CDC 660, UNIVAC 1100), to the more modern and powerful desktops (Pentium based Personal Computers, UNIX workstations like the IBM RISC 6000, DEC Alpha, SUN) and supercomputers (Cray XMP, Cray YMP, Cray C90, IBM SP2).
Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag
2006-10-01
A comprehensive, high fidelity model for pebble flow has been developed and embodied in the PEBBLES computer code. In this paper, a description of the physical artifacts included in the model is presented and some results from using the computer code for predicting the features of pebble flow and packing in a realistic pebble bed reactor design are shown. The sensitivity of models to various physical parameters is also discussed.
A FORTRAN computer code for calculating flows in multiple-blade-element cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfarland, E. R.
1985-01-01
A solution technique has been developed for solving the multiple-blade-element, surface-of-revolution, blade-to-blade flow problem in turbomachinery. The calculation solves approximate flow equations which include the effects of compressibility, radius change, blade-row rotation, and variable stream sheet thickness. An integral equation solution (i.e., panel method) is used to solve the equations. A description of the computer code and computer code input is given in this report.
Computer search for binary cyclic UEP codes of odd length up to 65
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Mao-Chao; Lin, Chi-Chang; Lin, Shu
1990-01-01
Using an exhaustive computation, the unequal error protection capabilities of all binary cyclic codes of odd length up to 65 that have minimum distances at least 3 are found. For those codes that can only have upper bounds on their unequal error protection capabilities computed, an analytic method developed by Dynkin and Togonidze (1976) is used to show that the upper bounds meet the exact unequal error protection capabilities.
A Computer Code for TRIGA Type Reactors.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-04-09
Version 00 TRIGAP was developed for reactor physics calculations of the 250 kW TRIGA reactor. The program can be used for criticality predictions, power peaking predictions, fuel element burn-up calculations and data logging, and in-core fuel management and fuel utilization improvement.
Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.
1993-03-01
This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code.
Selection of a computer code for Hanford low-level waste engineered-system performance assessment
McGrail, B.P.; Mahoney, L.A.
1995-10-01
Planned performance assessments for the proposed disposal of low-level waste (LLW) glass produced from remediation of wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington will require calculations of radionuclide release rates from the subsurface disposal facility. These calculations will be done with the aid of computer codes. Currently available computer codes were ranked in terms of the feature sets implemented in the code that match a set of physical, chemical, numerical, and functional capabilities needed to assess release rates from the engineered system. The needed capabilities were identified from an analysis of the important physical and chemical process expected to affect LLW glass corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. The highest ranked computer code was found to be the ARES-CT code developed at PNL for the US Department of Energy for evaluation of and land disposal sites.
Application of the RESRAD computer code to VAMP scenario S
Gnanapragasam, E.K.; Yu, C.
1997-03-01
The RESRAD computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory was among 11 models from 11 countries participating in the international Scenario S validation of radiological assessment models with Chernobyl fallout data from southern Finland. The validation test was conducted by the Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group of the Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP) program coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. RESRAD was enhanced to provide an output of contaminant concentrations in environmental media and in food products to compare with measured data from southern Finland. Probability distributions for inputs that were judged to be most uncertain were obtained from the literature and from information provided in the scenario description prepared by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The deterministic version of RESRAD was run repeatedly to generate probability distributions for the required predictions. These predictions were used later to verify the probabilistic RESRAD code. The RESRAD predictions of radionuclide concentrations are compared with measured concentrations in selected food products. The radiological doses predicted by RESRAD are also compared with those estimated by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety.
Fire aerosol experiment and comparisons with computer code predictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregory, W. S.; Nichols, B. D.; White, B. W.; Smith, P. R.; Leslie, I. H.; Corkran, J. R.
1988-08-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory, in cooperation with New Mexico State University, has carried on a series of tests to provide experimental data on fire-generated aerosol transport. These data will be used to verify the aerosol transport capabilities of the FIRAC computer code. FIRAC was developed by Los Alamos for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It is intended to be used by safety analysts to evaluate the effects of hypothetical fires on nuclear plants. One of the most significant aspects of this analysis deals with smoke and radioactive material movement throughout the plant. The tests have been carried out using an industrial furnace that can generate gas temperatures to 300 C. To date, we have used quartz aerosol with a median diameter of about 10 microns as the fire aerosol simulant. We also plan to use fire-generated aerosols of polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The test variables include two nominal gas flow rates (150 and 300 cu ft/min) and three nominal gas temperatures (ambient, 150 C, and 300 C). The test results are presented in the form of plots of aerosol deposition vs length of duct. In addition, the mass of aerosol caught in a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter during the tests is reported. The tests are simulated with the FIRAC code, and the results are compared with the experimental data.
Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.
Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon
2010-02-01
This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.
Development Status of the Phantom Code for Turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorney, D. J.; Sondak, D. L.
2003-01-01
Contents include the following: Motivation. Code details. Test cases: aardvark (2D), phantom (3D). Algorithm basics. New feature I, II, and III. UTRC LSRR 1 - 1/2 stage turbine. Supersonic turbine. UTRC LSRR single-stage turbine. LOX elbow duct. Computational grid. High-pressure fuel pump inducer. Development plan. Summary. Appendix - Background.
Parallelization of Finite Element Analysis Codes Using Heterogeneous Distributed Computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ozguner, Fusun
1996-01-01
Performance gains in computer design are quickly consumed as users seek to analyze larger problems to a higher degree of accuracy. Innovative computational methods, such as parallel and distributed computing, seek to multiply the power of existing hardware technology to satisfy the computational demands of large applications. In the early stages of this project, experiments were performed using two large, coarse-grained applications, CSTEM and METCAN. These applications were parallelized on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube. It was found that the overall speedup was very low, due to large, inherently sequential code segments present in the applications. The overall execution time T(sub par), of the application is dependent on these sequential segments. If these segments make up a significant fraction of the overall code, the application will have a poor speedup measure.
Proceedings of the conference on computer codes and the linear accelerator community
Cooper, R.K.
1990-07-01
The conference whose proceedings you are reading was envisioned as the second in a series, the first having been held in San Diego in January 1988. The intended participants were those people who are actively involved in writing and applying computer codes for the solution of problems related to the design and construction of linear accelerators. The first conference reviewed many of the codes both extant and under development. This second conference provided an opportunity to update the status of those codes, and to provide a forum in which emerging new 3D codes could be described and discussed. The afternoon poster session on the second day of the conference provided an opportunity for extended discussion. All in all, this conference was felt to be quite a useful interchange of ideas and developments in the field of 3D calculations, parallel computation, higher-order optics calculations, and code documentation and maintenance for the linear accelerator community. A third conference is planned.
Assessment of the computer code COBRA/CFTL
Baxi, C. B.; Burhop, C. J.
1981-07-01
The COBRA/CFTL code has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for thermal-hydraulic analysis of simulated gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) core assemblies to be tested in the core flow test loop (CFTL). The COBRA/CFTL code was obtained by modifying the General Atomic code COBRA*GCFR. This report discusses these modifications, compares the two code results for three cases which represent conditions from fully rough turbulent flow to laminar flow. Case 1 represented fully rough turbulent flow in the bundle. Cases 2 and 3 represented laminar and transition flow regimes. The required input for the COBRA/CFTL code, a sample problem input/output and the code listing are included in the Appendices.
RESRAD: A computer code for evaluating radioactively contaminated sites
Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J.
1993-12-31
This document briefly describes the uses of the RESRAD computer code in calculating site-specific residual radioactive material guidelines and radiation dose-risk to an on-site individual (worker or resident) at a radioactively contaminated site. The adoption by the DOE in order 5400.5, pathway analysis methods, computer requirements, data display, the inclusion of chemical contaminants, benchmarking efforts, and supplemental information sources are all described. (GHH)
Software requirements specification document for the AREST code development
Engel, D.W.; McGrail, B.P.; Whitney, P.D.; Gray, W.J.; Williford, R.E.; White, M.D.; Eslinger, P.W.; Altenhofen, M.K.
1993-11-01
The Analysis of the Repository Source Term (AREST) computer code was selected in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The AREST code will be used to analyze the performance of an underground high level nuclear waste repository. The AREST code is being modified by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in order to evaluate the engineered barrier and waste package designs, model regulatory compliance, analyze sensitivities, and support total systems performance assessment modeling. The current version of the AREST code was developed to be a very useful tool for analyzing model uncertainties and sensitivities to input parameters. The code has also been used successfully in supplying source-terms that were used in a total systems performance assessment. The current version, however, has been found to be inadequate for the comparison and selection of a design for the waste package. This is due to the assumptions and simplifications made in the selection of the process and system models. Thus, the new version of the AREST code will be designed to focus on the details of the individual processes and implementation of more realistic models. This document describes the requirements of the new models that will be implemented. Included in this document is a section describing the near-field environmental conditions for this waste package modeling, description of the new process models that will be implemented, and a description of the computer requirements for the new version of the AREST code.
SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 code development
Allison, C.M.; Siefken, J.L.; Coryell, E.W.
1992-01-01
The SCOAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code is designed to describe the overall reactor coolant system (RCS) thermal-hydraulic response, core damage progression, and fission product release and transport during severe accidents. The code is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) under the primary sponsorship of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Code development activities are currently focused on three main areas - (a) code usability, (b) early phase melt progression model improvements, and (c) advanced reactor thermal-hydraulic model extensions. This paper describes the first two activities. A companion paper describes the advanced reactor model improvements being performed under RELAP5/MOD3 funding.
SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 code development
Allison, C.M.; Siefken, J.L.; Coryell, E.W.
1992-12-31
The SCOAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code is designed to describe the overall reactor coolant system (RCS) thermal-hydraulic response, core damage progression, and fission product release and transport during severe accidents. The code is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) under the primary sponsorship of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Code development activities are currently focused on three main areas - (a) code usability, (b) early phase melt progression model improvements, and (c) advanced reactor thermal-hydraulic model extensions. This paper describes the first two activities. A companion paper describes the advanced reactor model improvements being performed under RELAP5/MOD3 funding.
Plagiarism Detection Algorithm for Source Code in Computer Science Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Xin; Xu, Chan; Ouyang, Boyu
2015-01-01
Nowadays, computer programming is getting more necessary in the course of program design in college education. However, the trick of plagiarizing plus a little modification exists among some students' home works. It's not easy for teachers to judge if there's plagiarizing in source code or not. Traditional detection algorithms cannot fit this…
User's manual for the ORIGEN2 computer code
Croff, A.G.
1980-07-01
This report describes how to use a revised version of the ORIGEN computer code, designated ORIGEN2. Included are a description of the input data, input deck organization, and sample input and output. ORIGEN2 can be obtained from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at ORNL.
Validation of Numerical Codes to Compute Tsunami Runup And Inundation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velioğlu, Deniz; Cevdet Yalçıner, Ahmet; Kian, Rozita; Zaytsev, Andrey
2015-04-01
FLOW 3D and NAMI DANCE are two numerical codes which can be applied to analysis of flow and motion of long waves. Flow 3D simulates linear and nonlinear propagating surface waves as well as irregular waves including long waves. NAMI DANCE uses finite difference computational method to solve nonlinear shallow water equations (NSWE) in long wave problems, specifically tsunamis. Both codes can be applied to tsunami simulations and visualization of long waves. Both codes are capable of solving flooding problems. However, FLOW 3D is designed mainly to solve flooding problem from land and NAMI DANCE is designed to solve flooding problem from the sea. These numerical codes are applied to some benchmark problems for validation and verification. One useful benchmark problem is the runup of solitary waves which is investigated analytically and experimentally by Synolakis (1987). Since 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and numerical studies. In this respect, a benchmark problem on runup of solitary waves is a relevant choice to assess the capability and validity of the numerical codes on amplification of tsunamis. In this study both codes have been tested, compared and validated by applying to the analytical benchmark problem of solitary wave runup on a sloping beach. Comparison of the results showed that both codes are in good agreement with the analytical and experimental results and thus can be proposed to be used in inundation of long waves and tsunami hazard analysis.
Health Code Number (HCN) Development Procedure
Petrocchi, Rocky; Craig, Douglas K.; Bond, Jayne-Anne; Trott, Donna M.; Yu, Xiao-Ying
2013-09-01
This report provides the detailed description of health code numbers (HCNs) and the procedure of how each HCN is assigned. It contains many guidelines and rationales of HCNs. HCNs are used in the chemical mixture methodology (CMM), a method recommended by the department of energy (DOE) for assessing health effects as a result of exposures to airborne aerosols in an emergency. The procedure is a useful tool for proficient HCN code developers. Intense training and quality assurance with qualified HCN developers are required before an individual comprehends the procedure to develop HCNs for DOE.
Computer code for the calculation of the temperature distribution of cooled turbine blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tietz, Thomas A.; Koschel, Wolfgang W.
A generalized computer code for the calculation of the temperature distribution in a cooled turbine blade is presented. Using an iterative procedure, this program especially allows the coupling of the aerothermodynamic values of the internal flow with the corresponding temperature distribution of the blade material. The temperature distribution of the turbine blade is calculated using a fully three-dimensional finite element computer code, so that the radial heat flux is taken into account. This code was extended to 4-node tetrahedral elements enabling an adaptive grid generation. To facilitate the mesh generation of the usually complex blade geometries, a computer program was developed, which performs the grid generation of blades having basically arbitrary shape on the basis of two-dimensional cuts. The performance of the code is demonstrated with reference to a typical cooling configuration of a modern turbine blade.
Development of a CFD code for casting simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murph, Jesse E.
1993-01-01
Because of high rejection rates for large structural castings (e.g., the Space Shuttle Main Engine Alternate Turbopump Design Program), a reliable casting simulation computer code is very desirable. This code would reduce both the development time and life cycle costs by allowing accurate modeling of the entire casting process. While this code could be used for other types of castings, the most significant reductions of time and cost would probably be realized in complex investment castings, where any reduction in the number of development castings would be of significant benefit. The casting process is conveniently divided into three distinct phases: (1) mold filling, where the melt is poured or forced into the mold cavity; (2) solidification, where the melt undergoes a phase change to the solid state; and (3) cool down, where the solidified part continues to cool to ambient conditions. While these phases may appear to be separate and distinct, temporal overlaps do exist between phases (e.g., local solidification occurring during mold filling), and some phenomenological events are affected by others (e.g., residual stresses depend on solidification and cooling rates). Therefore, a reliable code must accurately model all three phases and the interactions between each. While many codes have been developed (to various stages of complexity) to model the solidification and cool down phases, only a few codes have been developed to model mold filling.
Computer code simulations of explosions in flow networks and comparison with experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregory, W. S.; Nichols, B. D.; Moore, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Steinke, R. G.; Idzorek, R. D.
1987-10-01
A program of experimental testing and computer code development for predicting the effects of explosions in air-cleaning systems is being carried out for the Department of Energy. This work is a combined effort by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and New Mexico State University (NMSU). Los Alamos has the lead responsibility in the project and develops the computer codes; NMSU performs the experimental testing. The emphasis in the program is on obtaining experimental data to verify the analytical work. The primary benefit of this work will be the development of a verified computer code that safety analysts can use to analyze the effects of hypothetical explosions in nuclear plant air cleaning systems. The experimental data show the combined effects of explosions in air-cleaning systems that contain all of the important air-cleaning elements (blowers, dampers, filters, ductwork, and cells). A small experimental set-up consisting of multiple rooms, ductwork, a damper, a filter, and a blower was constructed. Explosions were simulated with a shock tube, hydrogen/air-filled gas balloons, and blasting caps. Analytical predictions were made using the EVENT84 and NF85 computer codes. The EVENT84 code predictions were in good agreement with the effects of the hydrogen/air explosions, but they did not model the blasting cap explosions adequately. NF85 predicted shock entrance to and within the experimental set-up very well. The NF85 code was not used to model the hydrogen/air or blasting cap explosions.
Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC)
Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Mike Patterson
2010-10-01
Idaho National Laboratory developed the Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) for tritium permeation in the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR). All the component models in the VHTR were developed and were embedded into the MATHLAB SIMULINK package with a Graphic User Interface. The governing equations of the nuclear ternary reaction and thermal neutron capture reactions from impurities in helium and graphite core, reflector, and control rods were implemented. The TPAC code was verified using analytical solutions for the tritium birth rate from the ternary fission, the birth rate from 3He, and the birth rate from 10B. This paper also provides comparisons of the TPAC with the existing other codes. A VHTR reference design was selected for tritium permeation study from the reference design to the nuclear-assisted hydrogen production plant and some sensitivity study results are presented based on the HTGR outlet temperature of 750 degrees C.
War of Ontology Worlds: Mathematics, Computer Code, or Esperanto?
Rzhetsky, Andrey; Evans, James A.
2011-01-01
The use of structured knowledge representations—ontologies and terminologies—has become standard in biomedicine. Definitions of ontologies vary widely, as do the values and philosophies that underlie them. In seeking to make these views explicit, we conducted and summarized interviews with a dozen leading ontologists. Their views clustered into three broad perspectives that we summarize as mathematics, computer code, and Esperanto. Ontology as mathematics puts the ultimate premium on rigor and logic, symmetry and consistency of representation across scientific subfields, and the inclusion of only established, non-contradictory knowledge. Ontology as computer code focuses on utility and cultivates diversity, fitting ontologies to their purpose. Like computer languages C++, Prolog, and HTML, the code perspective holds that diverse applications warrant custom designed ontologies. Ontology as Esperanto focuses on facilitating cross-disciplinary communication, knowledge cross-referencing, and computation across datasets from diverse communities. We show how these views align with classical divides in science and suggest how a synthesis of their concerns could strengthen the next generation of biomedical ontologies. PMID:21980276
Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.
1995-01-01
This report presents the results of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Proteus computer code. The first section presents a review of the relevant literature on the implementation of the multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. The next two sections present detailed stability analysis of numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, based on conventional von Neumann analysis and the bi-grid analysis, respectively. The next section presents details of the computational method used in the Proteus computer code. Finally, the multigrid implementation and applications to several two-dimensional and three-dimensional test problems are presented. The results of the present study show that the multigrid method always leads to a reduction in the number of iterations (or time steps) required for convergence. However, there is an overhead associated with the use of multigrid acceleration. The overhead is higher in 2-D problems than in 3-D problems, thus overall multigrid savings in CPU time are in general better in the latter. Savings of about 40-50 percent are typical in 3-D problems, but they are about 20-30 percent in large 2-D problems. The present multigrid method is applicable to steady-state problems and is therefore ineffective in problems with inherently unstable solutions.
Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)
Stage, S.A.
1996-06-01
This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.
Developing an Online "Code of Conduct"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Summerville, Jennifer
2005-01-01
There are an increasing number of classes being offered via the World Wide Web. Although much of the information that we review regarding online learning seems positive, difficulties can arise. In particular, the anonymity that a web course can provide can be a blessing and a curse. In this article, the author suggests developing an online code of…
The 1992 Seals Flow Code Development Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, Anita D.; Hendricks, Robert C.
1993-01-01
A two-day meeting was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center on August 5 and 6, 1992, to inform the technical community of the progress of NASA Contract NAS3-26544. This contract was established in 1990 to develop industrial and CFD codes for the design and analysis of seals. Codes were demonstrated and disseminated to the user community for evaluation. The peer review panel which was formed in 1991 provided recommendations on this effort. The technical community presented results of their activities in the area of seals, with particular emphasis on brush seal systems.
GALPROP: New Developments in CR Propagation Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moskalenko, I. V.; Jones, F. C.; Mashnik, S. G.; Strong, A. W.; Ptuskin, V. S.
2003-01-01
The numerical Galactic CR propagation code GALPROP has been shown to reproduce simultaneously observational data of many kinds related to CR origin and propagation. It has been validated on direct measurements of nuclei, antiprotons, electrons, positrons as well as on astronomical measurements of gamma rays and synchrotron radiation. Such data provide many independent constraints on model parameters while revealing some contradictions in the conventional view of Galactic CR propagation. Using a new version of GALPROP we study new effects such as processes of wave-particle interactions in the interstellar medium. We also report about other developments in the CR propagation code.
Geothermal reservoir engineering computer code comparison and validation
Faust, C.R.; Mercer, J.W.; Miller, W.J.
1980-11-12
The results of computer simulations for a set of six problems typical of geothermal reservoir engineering applications are presented. These results are compared to those obtained by others using similar geothermal reservoir simulators on the same problem set. The purpose of this code comparison is to check the performance of participating codes on a set of typical reservoir problems. The results provide a measure of the validity and appropriateness of the simulators in terms of major assumptions, governing equations, numerical accuracy, and computational procedures. A description is given of the general reservoir simulator - its major assumptions, mathematical formulation, and numerical techniques. Following the description of the model is the presentation of the results for the six problems. Included with the results for each problem is a discussion of the results; problem descriptions and result tabulations are included in appendixes. Each of the six problems specified in the contract was successfully simulated. (MHR)
SILHOUETTE - HIDDEN LINE COMPUTER CODE WITH GENERALIZED SILHOUETTE SOLUTION
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hedgley, D. R.
1994-01-01
Flexibility in choosing how to display computer-generated three-dimensional drawings has become increasingly important in recent years. A major consideration is the enhancement of the realism and aesthetics of the presentation. A polygonal representation of objects, even with hidden lines removed, is not always desirable. A more pleasing pictorial representation often can be achieved by removing some of the remaining visible lines, thus creating silhouettes (or outlines) of selected surfaces of the object. Additionally, it should be noted that this silhouette feature allows warped polygons. This means that any polygon can be decomposed into constituent triangles. Considering these triangles as members of the same family will present a polygon with no interior lines, and thus removes the restriction of flat polygons. SILHOUETTE is a program for calligraphic drawings that can render any subset of polygons as a silhouette with respect to itself. The program is flexible enough to be applicable to every class of object. SILHOUETTE offers all possible combinations of silhouette and nonsilhouette specifications for an arbitrary solid. Thus, it is possible to enhance the clarity of any three-dimensional scene presented in two dimensions. Input to the program can be line segments or polygons. Polygons designated with the same number will be drawn as a silhouette of those polygons. SILHOUETTE is written in FORTRAN 77 and requires a graphics package such as DI-3000. The program has been implemented on a DEC VAX series computer running VMS and used 65K of virtual memory without a graphics package linked in. The source code is intended to be machine independent. This program is available on a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette (standard distribution) and is also available on a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII CARD IMAGE magnetic tape. SILHOUETTE was developed in 1986 and was last updated in 1992.
User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine performance computer code darter
Klimas, P. C.; French, R. E.
1980-05-01
The computer code DARTER (DARrieus, Turbine, Elemental Reynolds number) is an aerodynamic performance/loads prediction scheme based upon the conservation of momentum principle. It is the latest evolution in a sequence which began with a model developed by Templin of NRC, Canada and progressed through the Sandia National Laboratories-developed SIMOSS (SSImple MOmentum, Single Streamtube) and DART (SARrieus Turbine) to DARTER.
Validation and testing of the VAM2D computer code
Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. )
1991-10-01
This document describes two modeling studies conducted by HydroGeoLogic, Inc. for the US NRC under contract no. NRC-04089-090, entitled, Validation and Testing of the VAM2D Computer Code.'' VAM2D is a two-dimensional, variably saturated flow and transport code, with applications for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. The computer code itself is documented in a separate NUREG document (NUREG/CR-5352, 1989). The studies presented in this report involve application of the VAM2D code to two diverse subsurface modeling problems. The first one involves modeling of infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes in an initially dry, heterogeneous field soil. This application involves detailed modeling over a relatively short, 9-month time period. The second problem pertains to the application of VAM2D to the modeling of a waste disposal facility in a fractured clay, over much larger space and time scales and with particular emphasis on the applicability and reliability of using equivalent porous medium approach for simulating flow and transport in fractured geologic media. Reflecting the separate and distinct nature of the two problems studied, this report is organized in two separate parts. 61 refs., 31 figs., 9 tabs.
Computational radiology and imaging with the MCNP Monte Carlo code
Estes, G.P.; Taylor, W.M.
1995-05-01
MCNP, a 3D coupled neutron/photon/electron Monte Carlo radiation transport code, is currently used in medical applications such as cancer radiation treatment planning, interpretation of diagnostic radiation images, and treatment beam optimization. This paper will discuss MCNP`s current uses and capabilities, as well as envisioned improvements that would further enhance MCNP role in computational medicine. It will be demonstrated that the methodology exists to simulate medical images (e.g. SPECT). Techniques will be discussed that would enable the construction of 3D computational geometry models of individual patients for use in patient-specific studies that would improve the quality of care for patients.
Bragg optics computer codes for neutron scattering instrument design
Popovici, M.; Yelon, W.B.; Berliner, R.R.; Stoica, A.D.
1997-09-01
Computer codes for neutron crystal spectrometer design, optimization and experiment planning are described. Phase space distributions, linewidths and absolute intensities are calculated by matrix methods in an extension of the Cooper-Nathans resolution function formalism. For modeling the Bragg reflection on bent crystals the lamellar approximation is used. Optimization is done by satisfying conditions of focusing in scattering and in real space, and by numerically maximizing figures of merit. Examples for three-axis and two-axis spectrometers are given.
Computer Code For Calculation Of The Mutual Coherence Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bugnolo, Dimitri S.
1986-05-01
We present a computer code in FORTRAN 77 for the calculation of the mutual coherence function (MCF) of a plane wave normally incident on a stochastic half-space. This is an exact result. The user need only input the path length, the wavelength, the outer scale size, and the structure constant. This program may be used to calculate the MCF of a well-collimated laser beam in the atmosphere.
SAMDIST: A Computer Code for Calculating Statistical Distributions for R-Matrix Resonance Parameters
Leal, L.C.
1995-01-01
The: SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.
SAMDIST: A computer code for calculating statistical distributions for R-matrix resonance parameters
Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.
1995-09-01
The SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.
ASHMET: A computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elkin, R. F.; Toelle, R. G.
1980-01-01
A computer code, ASHMET, was developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors were included. Climatological data for 248 U. S. locations are built into the code. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.
CONRAD Evaluation Code: Development Status and Perspectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Litaize, O.; Noguère, G.; Berge, L.; Privas, E.; Tamagno, P.
2014-04-01
CONRAD is an object-oriented code developed at CEA Cadarache since 2005 to treat issues occurring during the data assimilation process. The last new features of the code in terms of experimental, theoretical and interface aspects are presented in this paper. The experimental descriptions capabilities have been enhanced thanks to the implementation of both analytical (Chi-Square, Gaussian) and Monte-Carlo resolution functions which are required for neutron resonance shape analysis. On the theoretical aspects, efforts have been focused on the fast energy region with the wrapping of the ECIS and TALYS codes and the management of optical model and statistical parameters. These new features make it possible for CONRAD to currently perform evaluations from 0 to 20 MeV. Concerning the interfacing developments, a multigroup cross-sections generating tool and an ENDF parser have been recently improved to produce multigroup cross-section covariance matrices in the frame of the JEFF project. Several examples and comparisons with other codes (SAMMY, REFIT) are provided to validate each development.
User's manual for PELE3D: a computer code for three-dimensional incompressible fluid dynamics
McMaster, W H
1982-05-07
The PELE3D code is a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics computer program for the solution of incompressible fluid flow coupled to a structure. The fluid and coupling algorithms have been adapted from the previously developed two-dimensional code PELE-IC. The PELE3D code is written in both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is general enough to handle a variety of structural shapes. The free surface algorithm is able to accommodate a top surface and several independent bubbles. The code is in a developmental status since all the intended options have not been fully implemented and tested. Development of this code ended in 1980 upon termination of the contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Methodology for computational fluid dynamics code verification/validation
Oberkampf, W.L.; Blottner, F.G.; Aeschliman, D.P.
1995-07-01
The issues of verification, calibration, and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes has been receiving increasing levels of attention in the research literature and in engineering technology. Both CFD researchers and users of CFD codes are asking more critical and detailed questions concerning the accuracy, range of applicability, reliability and robustness of CFD codes and their predictions. This is a welcomed trend because it demonstrates that CFD is maturing from a research tool to the world of impacting engineering hardware and system design. In this environment, the broad issue of code quality assurance becomes paramount. However, the philosophy and methodology of building confidence in CFD code predictions has proven to be more difficult than many expected. A wide variety of physical modeling errors and discretization errors are discussed. Here, discretization errors refer to all errors caused by conversion of the original partial differential equations to algebraic equations, and their solution. Boundary conditions for both the partial differential equations and the discretized equations will be discussed. Contrasts are drawn between the assumptions and actual use of numerical method consistency and stability. Comments are also made concerning the existence and uniqueness of solutions for both the partial differential equations and the discrete equations. Various techniques are suggested for the detection and estimation of errors caused by physical modeling and discretization of the partial differential equations.
Utilization of recently developed codes for high power Brayton and Rankine cycle power systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doherty, Michael P.
1993-01-01
Two recently developed FORTRAN computer codes for high power Brayton and Rankine thermodynamic cycle analysis for space power applications are presented. The codes were written in support of an effort to develop a series of subsystem models for multimegawatt Nuclear Electric Propulsion, but their use is not limited just to nuclear heat sources or to electric propulsion. Code development background, a description of the codes, some sample input/output from one of the codes, and state future plans/implications for the use of these codes by NASA's Lewis Research Center are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pucha, Ragadeepika; Hiremath, K. M.; Gurumath, Shashanka R.
2016-03-01
Sunspots are the most conspicuous aspects of the Sun. They have a lower temperature, as compared to the surrounding photosphere; hence, sunspots appear as dark regions on a brighter background. Sunspots cyclically appear and disappear with a 11-year periodicity and are associated with a strong magnetic field ( ˜103 G) structure. Sunspots consist of a dark umbra, surrounded by a lighter penumbra. Study of umbra-penumbra area ratio can be used to give a rough idea as to how the convective energy of the Sun is transported from the interior, as the sunspot's thermal structure is related to this convective medium. An algorithm to extract sunspots from the white-light solar images obtained from the Kodaikanal Observatory is proposed. This algorithm computes the radius and center of the solar disk uniquely and removes the limb darkening from the image. It also separates the umbra and computes the position as well as the area of the sunspots. The estimated results are compared with the Debrecen photoheliographic results. It is shown that both area and position measurements are in quite good agreement.
Code for Multiblock CFD and Heat-Transfer Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fabian, John C.; Heidmann, James D.; Lucci, Barbara L.; Ameri, Ali A.; Rigby, David L.; Steinthorsson, Erlendur
2006-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center General Multi-Block Navier-Stokes Convective Heat Transfer Code, Glenn-HT, has been used extensively to predict heat transfer and fluid flow for a variety of steady gas turbine engine problems. Recently, the Glenn-HT code has been completely rewritten in Fortran 90/95, a more object-oriented language that allows programmers to create code that is more modular and makes more efficient use of data structures. The new implementation takes full advantage of the capabilities of the Fortran 90/95 programming language. As a result, the Glenn-HT code now provides dynamic memory allocation, modular design, and unsteady flow capability. This allows for the heat-transfer analysis of a full turbine stage. The code has been demonstrated for an unsteady inflow condition, and gridding efforts have been initiated for a full turbine stage unsteady calculation. This analysis will be the first to simultaneously include the effects of rotation, blade interaction, film cooling, and tip clearance with recessed tip on turbine heat transfer and cooling performance. Future plans call for the application of the new Glenn-HT code to a range of gas turbine engine problems of current interest to the heat-transfer community. The new unsteady flow capability will allow researchers to predict the effect of unsteady flow phenomena upon the convective heat transfer of turbine blades and vanes. Work will also continue on the development of conjugate heat-transfer capability in the code, where simultaneous solution of convective and conductive heat-transfer domains is accomplished. Finally, advanced turbulence and fluid flow models and automatic gridding techniques are being developed that will be applied to the Glenn-HT code and solution process.
Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis
Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E.; Tills, J.
1997-12-01
The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions.
ASHMET: a computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces
Elkin, R.F.; Toelle, R.G.
1980-05-01
A computer code, ASHMET, has been developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors have been included. Climatological data for 248 US locations are built into the code. This report describes the methodology of the code, and its input and output. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.
Carbajo, Juan; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Ludewig, Hans; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Serre, Frederic
2011-06-01
This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the
Recent developments of the CEM2K and LAQGSM codes.
Mashnik, S. G.; Gudima, K. K.; Sierk, A. J.
2002-01-01
Recent developments of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) of nuclear reactions are briefly described. The improved cascade-exciton model as implemented in the code CEM97 [l] differs from the CEM95 version [4] by incorporating new approximations for the elementary cross sections used in the cascade, using more precise {approx} values for nuclear masses and pairing energies, using corrected systematics for the I level-density parameters, and several other refinements. Algorithms used in many i subroutines have been improved, decreasing the computing time by up to a factor of 6 for heavy targets. A number of further recent improvements and changes to CEM97, motivated by new data on isotope production measured at GSI will be presented. This leads us to CEM2k [2], a new version of the CEM code. CEM2k has a longer cascade stage, less preequilibrium emission, and evaporation from more highly excited compound nuclei compared to earlier versions. CEM2k also has other improvements and allows us to better model neutron, radionuclide, and gas production in Accelerator Transmutation of nuclear Wastes (ATW) spallation targets. The improved CEM97 code was recently used both to study fundamental nuclear physics problems like the role of nuclear medium effects in transport of 7r mesons in nuclei [5] and fission processes at intermediate energies [6], and was incorporated in the well known transport code MCNPX (LANL) to solve applied problems. The CEM95 version [4] of the CEM was incorporated in the MARS (FNAL) and CALOR95 (ORNL) transport codes, and its preequilibrium part was incorporated in many other transport codes like GEANT4 (CERN, see, e.g., [7]), HETC-3STEP (JAERI), HADRON (IHEP, Protvino), CASCADE (JINR, Dubna), SONET (RPCPI, Minsk), etc. The latest version of the CEM code, CEM2k, is still under development. The increased accuracy and predictive power of the code CEM2k will be shown by several examples. Further necessary work will be outlined.
A Compact Code for Simulations of Quantum Error Correction in Classical Computers
Nyman, Peter
2009-03-10
This study considers implementations of error correction in a simulation language on a classical computer. Error correction will be necessarily in quantum computing and quantum information. We will give some examples of the implementations of some error correction codes. These implementations will be made in a more general quantum simulation language on a classical computer in the language Mathematica. The intention of this research is to develop a programming language that is able to make simulations of all quantum algorithms and error corrections in the same framework. The program code implemented on a classical computer will provide a connection between the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics and computational methods. This gives us a clear uncomplicated language for the implementations of algorithms.
SOPHAEROS code development and its application to falcon tests
Lajtha, G.; Missirlian, M.; Kissane, M.
1996-12-31
One of the key issues in source-term evaluation in nuclear reactor severe accidents is determination of the transport behavior of fission products released from the degrading core. The SOPHAEROS computer code is being developed to predict fission product transport in a mechanistic way in light water reactor circuits. These applications of the SOPHAEROS code to the Falcon experiments, among others not presented here, indicate that the numerical scheme of the code is robust, and no convergence problems are encountered. The calculation is also very fast being three times longer on a Sun SPARC 5 workstation than real time and typically {approx} 10 times faster than an identical calculation with the VICTORIA code. The study demonstrates that the SOPHAEROS 1.3 code is a suitable tool for prediction of the vapor chemistry and fission product transport with a reasonable level of accuracy. Furthermore, the fexibility of the code material data bank allows improvement of understanding of fission product transport and deposition in the circuit. Performing sensitivity studies with different chemical species or with different properties (saturation pressure, chemical equilibrium constants) is very straightforward.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aeschliman, D. P.; Oberkampf, W. L.; Blottner, F. G.
Verification, calibration, and validation (VCV) of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes is an essential element of the code development process. The exact manner in which code VCV activities are planned and conducted, however, is critically important. It is suggested that the way in which code validation, in particular, is often conducted--by comparison to published experimental data obtained for other purposes--is in general difficult and unsatisfactory, and that a different approach is required. This paper describes a proposed methodology for CFD code VCV that meets the technical requirements and is philosophically consistent with code development needs. The proposed methodology stresses teamwork and cooperation between code developers and experimentalists throughout the VCV process, and takes advantage of certain synergisms between CFD and experiment. A novel approach to uncertainty analysis is described which can both distinguish between and quantify various types of experimental error, and whose attributes are used to help define an appropriate experimental design for code VCV experiments. The methodology is demonstrated with an example of laminar, hypersonic, near perfect gas, 3-dimensional flow over a sliced sphere/cone of varying geometrical complexity.
Aeschliman, D.P.; Oberkampf, W.L.; Blottner, F.G.
1995-07-01
Verification, calibration, and validation (VCV) of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes is an essential element of the code development process. The exact manner in which code VCV activities are planned and conducted, however, is critically important. It is suggested that the way in which code validation, in particular, is often conducted--by comparison to published experimental data obtained for other purposes--is in general difficult and unsatisfactory, and that a different approach is required. This paper describes a proposed methodology for CFD code VCV that meets the technical requirements and is philosophically consistent with code development needs. The proposed methodology stresses teamwork and cooperation between code developers and experimentalists throughout the VCV process, and takes advantage of certain synergisms between CFD and experiment. A novel approach to uncertainty analysis is described which can both distinguish between and quantify various types of experimental error, and whose attributes are used to help define an appropriate experimental design for code VCV experiments. The methodology is demonstrated with an example of laminar, hypersonic, near perfect gas, 3-dimensional flow over a sliced sphere/cone of varying geometrical complexity.
Application of software to development of reactor-safety codes
Wilburn, N.P.; Niccoli, L.G.
1980-09-01
Over the past two-and-a-half decades, the application of new techniques has reduced hardware cost for digital computer systems and increased computational speed by several orders of magnitude. A corresponding cost reduction in business and scientific software development has not occurred. The same situation is seen for software developed to model the thermohydraulic behavior of nuclear systems under hypothetical accident situations. For all cases this is particularly noted when costs over the total software life cycle are considered. A solution to this dilemma for reactor safety code systems has been demonstrated by applying the software engineering techniques which have been developed over the course of the last few years in the aerospace and business communities. These techniques have been applied recently with a great deal of success in four major projects at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL): 1) a rewrite of a major safety code (MELT); 2) development of a new code system (CONACS) for description of the response of LMFBR containment to hypothetical accidents, and 3) development of two new modules for reactor safety analysis.
Computationally efficient sub-band coding of ECG signals.
Husøy, J H; Gjerde, T
1996-03-01
A data compression technique is presented for the compression of discrete time electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The compression system is based on sub-band coding, a technique traditionally used for compressing speech and images. The sub-band coder employs quadrature mirror filter banks (QMF) with up to 32 critically sampled sub-bands. Both finite impulse response (FIR) and the more computationally efficient infinite impulse response (IIR) filter banks are considered as candidates in a complete ECG coding system. The sub-bands are threshold, quantized using uniform quantizers and run-length coded. The output of the run-length coder is further compressed by a Huffman coder. Extensive simulations indicate that 16 sub-bands are a suitable choice for this application. Furthermore, IIR filter banks are preferable due to their superiority in terms of computational efficiency. We conclude that the present scheme, which is suitable for real time implementation on a PC, can provide compression ratios between 5 and 15 without loss of clinical information. PMID:8673319
Recommended documentation plan for the FLAG and CHEMFLUB computer codes
1983-09-02
Reviews have been conducted on both FLAG and CHEMFLUB's documentation and computer codes. The documentation of both models is: (1) incomplete, (2) confusing, (3) not helpful to the reader, (4) filled with extraneous information and (5) lack claimed versatility in analyzing coal gasifier systems. The documentation is such that the computer coding itself must be used as a reference to complete the documentation. Once the codes are set up they are relatively easy to run. We have exercised both of them. Most of our efforts thus far have been concentrated on FLAG because of its importance and complexity. FLAG in its present form can not be expected to yield meaningful data applicable to coal gasifier systems. The reasons for this are twofold. First, the model is incorrect in describing some aspects of fluid particle behavior in coal gasifier systems. Second, the numerical formulation/solution methodology is incorrectly implemented and introduces spurious numerical effects, thereby obscuring the physics of the model. In brief, this means that resulting calculations are not correctly related to the physics. CHEMFLUB, while less extensively exercised, shows that it should be no surprise that CHEMFLUB is best utilized as a tool for generating first approximations. We have concluded from these reviews that we cannot perform meaningful comparisons as required under tasks 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5 without first reconstructing and correcting when necessary the physical/numerical models. A plan is presented for accomplishing this reconstruction/modification.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ameri, Ali; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David; Poinsatte, Phillip; Thurman, Douglas; Steinthorsson, Erlendur
2014-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation for turbomachinery-related flows has enabled improved engine component designs. RANS methodology has limitations that are related to its inability to accurately describe the spectrum of flow phenomena encountered in engines. Examples of flows that are difficult to compute accurately with RANS include phenomena such as laminar/turbulent transition, turbulent mixing due to mixing of streams, and separated flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) can improve accuracy but at a considerably higher cost. In recent years, hybrid schemes that take advantage of both unsteady RANS and LES have been proposed. This study investigated an alternative scheme, the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) method applied to compressible flows. The method developed by Shih and Liu was implemented in the Glenn-Heat-Transfer (Glenn-HT) code and applied to film-cooling flows. In this report the method and its implementation is briefly described. The film effectiveness results obtained for film cooling from a row of 30deg holes with a pitch of 3.0 diameters emitting air at a nominal density ratio of unity and two blowing ratios of 0.5 and 1.0 are shown. Flow features under those conditions are also described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ameri, Ali A.; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David; Poinsatte, Phillip; Thurman, Douglas; Steinthorsson, Erlendur
2014-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation for turbomachinery-related flows has enabled improved engine component designs. RANS methodology has limitations that are related to its inability to accurately describe the spectrum of flow phenomena encountered in engines. Examples of flows that are difficult to compute accurately with RANS include phenomena such as laminar/turbulent transition, turbulent mixing due to mixing of streams, and separated flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) can improve accuracy but at a considerably higher cost. In recent years, hybrid schemes that take advantage of both unsteady RANS and LES have been proposed. This study investigated an alternative scheme, the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) method applied to compressible flows. The method developed by Shih and Liu was implemented in the Glenn-Heat-Transfer (Glenn-HT) code and applied to film-cooling flows. In this report the method and its implementation is briefly described. The film effectiveness results obtained for film cooling from a row of 30deg holes with a pitch of 3.0 diameters emitting air at a nominal density ratio of unity and two blowing ratios of 0.5 and 1.0 are shown. Flow features under those conditions are also described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ameri, Ali; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David; Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Steinthorsson, Erlendur
2014-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation for turbomachinery-related flows has enabled improved engine component designs. RANS methodology has limitations which are related to its inability to accurately describe the spectrum of flow phenomena encountered in engines. Examples of flows that are difficult to compute accurately with RANS include phenomena such as laminarturbulent transition, turbulent mixing due to mixing of streams, and separated flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) can improve accuracy but at a considerably higher cost. In recent years, hybrid schemes which take advantage of both unsteady RANS and LES have been proposed. This study investigated an alternative scheme, the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) method applied to compressible flows. The method developed by Shih and Liu was implemented in the Glenn-HT code and applied to film cooling flows. In this report the method and its implementation is briefly described. The film effectiveness results obtained for film cooling from a row of 30 holes with a pitch of 3.0 diameters emitting air at a nominal density ratio of unity and four blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 are shown. Flow features under those conditions are also described.
Majorana Fermion Surface Code for Universal Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijay, Sagar; Hsieh, Tim; Fu, Liang
We introduce an exactly solvable model of interacting Majorana fermions realizing Z2 topological order with a Z2 fermion parity grading and lattice symmetries permuting the three fundamental anyon types. We propose a concrete physical realization by utilizing quantum phase slips in an array of Josephson-coupled mesoscopic topological superconductors, which can be implemented in a wide range of solid state systems, including topological insulators, nanowires or two-dimensional electron gases, proximitized by s-wave superconductors. Our model finds a natural application as a Majorana fermion surface code for universal quantum computation, with a single-step stabilizer measurement requiring no physical ancilla qubits, increased error tolerance, and simpler logical gates than a surface code with bosonic physical qubits. We thoroughly discuss protocols for stabilizer measurements, encoding and manipulating logical qubits, and gate implementations.
Majorana Fermion Surface Code for Universal Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijay, Sagar; Hsieh, Timothy H.; Fu, Liang
2015-10-01
We introduce an exactly solvable model of interacting Majorana fermions realizing Z2 topological order with a Z2 fermion parity grading and lattice symmetries permuting the three fundamental anyon types. We propose a concrete physical realization by utilizing quantum phase slips in an array of Josephson-coupled mesoscopic topological superconductors, which can be implemented in a wide range of solid-state systems, including topological insulators, nanowires, or two-dimensional electron gases, proximitized by s -wave superconductors. Our model finds a natural application as a Majorana fermion surface code for universal quantum computation, with a single-step stabilizer measurement requiring no physical ancilla qubits, increased error tolerance, and simpler logical gates than a surface code with bosonic physical qubits. We thoroughly discuss protocols for stabilizer measurements, encoding and manipulating logical qubits, and gate implementations.
Heat pipe design handbook, part 2. [digital computer code specifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skrabek, E. A.
1972-01-01
The utilization of a digital computer code for heat pipe analysis and design (HPAD) is described which calculates the steady state hydrodynamic heat transport capability of a heat pipe with a particular wick configuration, the working fluid being a function of wick cross-sectional area. Heat load, orientation, operating temperature, and heat pipe geometry are specified. Both one 'g' and zero 'g' environments are considered, and, at the user's option, the code will also perform a weight analysis and will calculate heat pipe temperature drops. The central porous slab, circumferential porous wick, arterial wick, annular wick, and axial rectangular grooves are the wick configurations which HPAD has the capability of analyzing. For Vol. 1, see N74-22569.
Fault-tolerant Holonomic Quantum Computation in Surface Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Yicong; Brun, Todd; USC QIP Team Team
2015-03-01
We show that universal holonomic quantum computation (HQC) can be achieved by adiabatically deforming the gapped stabilizer Hamiltonian of the surface code, where quantum information is encoded in the degenerate ground space of the system Hamiltonian. We explicitly propose procedures to perform each logical operation, including logical state initialization, logical state measurement, logical CNOT, state injection and distillation,etc. In particular, adiabatic braiding of different types of holes on the surface leads to a topologically protected, non-Abelian geometric logical CNOT. Throughout the computation, quantum information is protected from both small perturbations and low weight thermal excitations by a constant energy gap, and is independent of the system size. Also the Hamiltonian terms have weight at most four during the whole process. The effect of thermal error propagation is considered during the adiabatic code deformation. With the help of active error correction, this scheme is fault-tolerant, in the sense that the computation time can be arbitrarily long for large enough lattice size. It is shown that the frequency of error correction and the physical resources needed can be greatly reduced by the constant energy gap.
Development of a massively parallel parachute performance prediction code
Peterson, C.W.; Strickland, J.H.; Wolfe, W.P.; Sundberg, W.D.; McBride, D.D.
1997-04-01
The Department of Energy has given Sandia full responsibility for the complete life cycle (cradle to grave) of all nuclear weapon parachutes. Sandia National Laboratories is initiating development of a complete numerical simulation of parachute performance, beginning with parachute deployment and continuing through inflation and steady state descent. The purpose of the parachute performance code is to predict the performance of stockpile weapon parachutes as these parachutes continue to age well beyond their intended service life. A new massively parallel computer will provide unprecedented speed and memory for solving this complex problem, and new software will be written to treat the coupled fluid, structure and trajectory calculations as part of a single code. Verification and validation experiments have been proposed to provide the necessary confidence in the computations.
Multicode comparison of selected source-term computer codes
Hermann, O.W.; Parks, C.V.; Renier, J.P.; Roddy, J.W.; Ashline, R.C.; Wilson, W.B.; LaBauve, R.J.
1989-04-01
This report summarizes the results of a study to assess the predictive capabilities of three radionuclide inventory/depletion computer codes, ORIGEN2, ORIGEN-S, and CINDER-2. The task was accomplished through a series of comparisons of their output for several light-water reactor (LWR) models (i.e., verification). Of the five cases chosen, two modeled typical boiling-water reactors (BWR) at burnups of 27.5 and 40 GWd/MTU and two represented typical pressurized-water reactors (PWR) at burnups of 33 and 50 GWd/MTU. In the fifth case, identical input data were used for each of the codes to examine the results of decay only and to show differences in nuclear decay constants and decay heat rates. Comparisons were made for several different characteristics (mass, radioactivity, and decay heat rate) for 52 radionuclides and for nine decay periods ranging from 30 d to 10,000 years. Only fission products and actinides were considered. The results are presented in comparative-ratio tables for each of the characteristics, decay periods, and cases. A brief summary description of each of the codes has been included. Of the more than 21,000 individual comparisons made for the three codes (taken two at a time), nearly half (45%) agreed to within 1%, and an additional 17% fell within the range of 1 to 5%. Approximately 8% of the comparison results disagreed by more than 30%. However, relatively good agreement was obtained for most of the radionuclides that are expected to contribute the greatest impact to waste disposal. Even though some defects have been noted, each of the codes in the comparison appears to produce respectable results. 12 figs., 12 tabs.
FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces
Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.
1992-08-01
A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S[sub 4]), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0[sub 2], H[sub 2]0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.
FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces
Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.
1992-08-01
A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S{sub 4}), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0{sub 2}, H{sub 2}0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.
SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation
1997-03-01
This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This manual covers an array of modules written for the SCALE package, consisting of drivers, system libraries, cross section and materials properties libraries, input/output routines, storage modules, and help files.
Using Coding Apps to Support Literacy Instruction and Develop Coding Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hutchison, Amy; Nadolny, Larysa; Estapa, Anne
2016-01-01
In this article the authors present the concept of Coding Literacy and describe the ways in which coding apps can support the development of Coding Literacy and disciplinary and digital literacy skills. Through detailed examples, we describe how coding apps can be integrated into literacy instruction to support learning of the Common Core English…
Methodology, status and plans for development and assessment of Cathare code
Bestion, D.; Barre, F.; Faydide, B.
1997-07-01
This paper presents the methodology, status and plans for the development, assessment and uncertainty evaluation of the Cathare code. Cathare is a thermalhydraulic code developed by CEA (DRN), IPSN, EDF and FRAMATOME for PWR safety analysis. First, the status of the code development and assessment is presented. The general strategy used for the development and the assessment of the code is presented. Analytical experiments with separate effect tests, and component tests are used for the development and the validation of closure laws. Successive Revisions of constitutive laws are implemented in successive Versions of the code and assessed. System tests or integral tests are used to validate the general consistency of the Revision. Each delivery of a code Version + Revision is fully assessed and documented. A methodology is being developed to determine the uncertainty on all constitutive laws of the code using calculations of many analytical tests and applying the Discrete Adjoint Sensitivity Method (DASM). At last, the plans for the future developments of the code are presented. They concern the optimization of the code performance through parallel computing - the code will be used for real time full scope plant simulators - the coupling with many other codes (neutronic codes, severe accident codes), the application of the code for containment thermalhydraulics. Also, physical improvements are required in the field of low pressure transients and in the modeling for the 3-D model.
GEOS Code Development Road Map - May, 2013
Johnson, Scott; Settgast, Randolph; Fu, Pengcheng; Antoun, Tarabay; Ryerson, F. J.
2013-05-03
GEOS is a massively parallel computational framework designed to enable HPC-based simulations of subsurface reservoir stimulation activities with the goal of optimizing current operations and evaluating innovative stimulation methods. GEOS will enable coupling of different solvers associated with the various physical processes occurring during reservoir stimulation in unique and sophisticated ways, adapted to various geologic settings, materials and stimulation methods. The overall architecture of the framework includes consistent data structures and will allow incorporation of additional physical and materials models as demanded by future applications. Along with predicting the initiation, propagation and reactivation of fractures, GEOS will also generate a seismic source term that can be linked with seismic wave propagation codes to generate synthetic microseismicity at surface and downhole arrays. Similarly, the output from GEOS can be linked with existing fluid/thermal transport codes. GEOS can also be linked with existing, non-intrusive uncertainty quantification schemes to constrain uncertainty in its predictions and sensitivity to the various parameters describing the reservoir and stimulation operations. We anticipate that an implicit-explicit 3D version of GEOS, including a preliminary seismic source model, will be available for parametric testing and validation against experimental and field data by Oct. 1, 2013.
Verification of the VARSKIN beta skin dose calculation computer code.
Sherbini, Sami; DeCicco, Joseph; Gray, Anita Turner; Struckmeyer, Richard
2008-06-01
The computer code VARSKIN is used extensively to calculate dose to the skin resulting from contaminants on the skin or on protective clothing covering the skin. The code uses six pre-programmed source geometries, four of which are volume sources, and a wide range of user-selectable radionuclides. Some verification of this code had been carried out before the current version of the code, version 3.0, was released, but this was limited in extent and did not include all the source geometries that the code is capable of modeling. This work extends this verification to include all the source geometries that are programmed in the code over a wide range of beta radiation energies and skin depths. Verification was carried out by comparing the doses calculated using VARSKIN with the doses for similar geometries calculated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP5. Beta end-point energies used in the calculations ranged from 0.3 MeV up to 2.3 MeV. The results showed excellent agreement between the MCNP and VARSKIN calculations, with the agreement being within a few percent for point and disc sources and within 20% for other sources with the exception of a few cases, mainly at the low end of the beta end-point energies. The accuracy of the VARSKIN results, based on the work in this paper, indicates that it is sufficiently accurate for calculation of skin doses resulting from skin contaminations, and that the uncertainties arising from the use of VARSKIN are likely to be small compared with other uncertainties that typically arise in this type of dose assessment, such as those resulting from a lack of exact information on the size, shape, and density of the contaminant, the depth of the sensitive layer of the skin at the location of the contamination, the duration of the exposure, and the possibility of the source moving over various areas of the skin during the exposure period if the contaminant is on protective clothing. PMID:18469586
Development of Tripropellant CFD Design Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farmer, Richard C.; Cheng, Gary C.; Anderson, Peter G.
1998-01-01
A tripropellant, such as GO2/H2/RP-1, CFD design code has been developed to predict the local mixing of multiple propellant streams as they are injected into a rocket motor. The code utilizes real fluid properties to account for the mixing and finite-rate combustion processes which occur near an injector faceplate, thus the analysis serves as a multi-phase homogeneous spray combustion model. Proper accounting of the combustion allows accurate gas-side temperature predictions which are essential for accurate wall heating analyses. The complex secondary flows which are predicted to occur near a faceplate cannot be quantitatively predicted by less accurate methodology. Test cases have been simulated to describe an axisymmetric tripropellant coaxial injector and a 3-dimensional RP-1/LO2 impinger injector system. The analysis has been shown to realistically describe such injector combustion flowfields. The code is also valuable to design meaningful future experiments by determining the critical location and type of measurements needed.
Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.
1996-03-01
The RISKIND computer program was developed for the analysis of radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or other radioactive materials. The code is intended to provide scenario-specific analyses when evaluating alternatives for environmental assessment activities, including those for major federal actions involving radioactive material transport as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). As such, rigorous procedures have been implemented to enhance the code`s credibility and strenuous efforts have been made to enhance ease of use of the code. To increase the code`s reliability and credibility, a new version of RISKIND was produced under a quality assurance plan that covered code development and testing, and a peer review process was conducted. During development of the new version, the flexibility and ease of use of RISKIND were enhanced through several major changes: (1) a Windows{sup {trademark}} point-and-click interface replaced the old DOS menu system, (2) the remaining model input parameters were added to the interface, (3) databases were updated, (4) the program output was revised, and (5) on-line help has been added. RISKIND has been well received by users and has been established as a key component in radiological transportation risk assessments through its acceptance by the U.S. Department of Energy community in recent environmental impact statements (EISs) and its continued use in the current preparation of several EISs.
Large-Eddy Simulation Code Developed for Propulsion Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeBonis, James R.
2003-01-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES) code was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide more accurate and detailed computational analyses of propulsion flow fields. The accuracy of current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods is limited primarily by their inability to properly account for the turbulent motion present in virtually all propulsion flows. Because the efficiency and performance of a propulsion system are highly dependent on the details of this turbulent motion, it is critical for CFD to accurately model it. The LES code promises to give new CFD simulations an advantage over older methods by directly computing the large turbulent eddies, to correctly predict their effect on a propulsion system. Turbulent motion is a random, unsteady process whose behavior is difficult to predict through computer simulations. Current methods are based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier- Stokes (RANS) analyses that rely on models to represent the effect of turbulence within a flow field. The quality of the results depends on the quality of the model and its applicability to the type of flow field being studied. LES promises to be more accurate because it drastically reduces the amount of modeling necessary. It is the logical step toward improving turbulent flow predictions. In LES, the large-scale dominant turbulent motion is computed directly, leaving only the less significant small turbulent scales to be modeled. As part of the prediction, the LES method generates detailed information on the turbulence itself, providing important information for other applications, such as aeroacoustics. The LES code developed at Glenn for propulsion flow fields is being used to both analyze propulsion system components and test improved LES algorithms (subgrid-scale models, filters, and numerical schemes). The code solves the compressible Favre-filtered Navier- Stokes equations using an explicit fourth-order accurate numerical scheme, it incorporates a compressible form of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lilley, D. G.; Rhode, D. L.
1982-01-01
A primitive pressure-velocity variable finite difference computer code was developed to predict swirling recirculating inert turbulent flows in axisymmetric combustors in general, and for application to a specific idealized combustion chamber with sudden or gradual expansion. The technique involves a staggered grid system for axial and radial velocities, a line relaxation procedure for efficient solution of the equations, a two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model, a stairstep boundary representation of the expansion flow, and realistic accommodation of swirl effects. A user's manual, dealing with the computational problem, showing how the mathematical basis and computational scheme may be translated into a computer program is presented. A flow chart, FORTRAN IV listing, notes about various subroutines and a user's guide are supplied as an aid to prospective users of the code.
High frame rate photoacoustic computed tomography using coded excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azuma, Masataka; Zhang, Haichong K.; Kondo, Kengo; Namita, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi
2015-03-01
Photoacoustic Computed Tomography (PACT) records signals from a wide range of angles to achieve uniform, highresolution images. A high-power laser is generally used for PACT, but the long acquisition time with a single probe is a problem due to the low pulse-repetition frequency (PRF). For PACT, this degrades image resolution and contrast because it is hard to scan with a small step interval. Moreover, in vivo measurement requires a fast image acquisition system to avoid motion artifacts. The problem can be resolved by using a high PRF laser, which provides only weak energy. Averaging measured signals many times can mitigate the low signal-to-noise issue, but the PRF is restricted by the acoustic time of flight, so this is a new source of measurement time increase. Here, we present the coded-excitation approach, which we previously proposed for linear scanning, to increase the PACT frame rate. Coded excitation irradiates temporally encoded pulses and enhances the signal amplitude through decoding. The PRF is thus not restricted to acoustic time of flight. Consequently, acquisition time can be shortened by increasing PRF, and the SNR increases for the same measurement time. To validate the proposed idea, we conducted experiments using a high PRF laser with a revolving motor and compared the performance of coded excitation to that of averaging. Results demonstrated that the contamination of a signal acquired from different angles was negligible, and that the scanning pitch was remarkably improved because the start point of decoding can be set in any code in the periodic sequence.
An Object-Oriented Computer Code for Aircraft Engine Weight Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tong, Michael T.; Naylor, Bret A.
2009-01-01
Reliable engine-weight estimation at the conceptual design stage is critical to the development of new aircraft engines. It helps to identify the best engine concept amongst several candidates. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code, originally developed by Boeing Aircraft, has been used to estimate the engine weight of various conceptual engine designs. The code, written in FORTRAN, was originally developed for NASA in 1979. Since then, substantial improvements have been made to the code to improve the weight calculations for most of the engine components. Most recently, to improve the maintainability and extensibility of WATE, the FORTRAN code has been converted into an object-oriented version. The conversion was done within the NASA's NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) framework. This enables WATE to interact seamlessly with the thermodynamic cycle model which provides component flow data such as airflows, temperatures, and pressures, etc., that are required for sizing the components and weight calculations. The tighter integration between the NPSS and WATE would greatly enhance system-level analysis and optimization capabilities. It also would facilitate the enhancement of the WATE code for next-generation aircraft and space propulsion systems. In this paper, the architecture of the object-oriented WATE code (or WATE++) is described. Both the FORTRAN and object-oriented versions of the code are employed to compute the dimensions and weight of a 300-passenger aircraft engine (GE90 class). Both versions of the code produce essentially identical results as should be the case.
An Object-oriented Computer Code for Aircraft Engine Weight Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tong, Michael T.; Naylor, Bret A.
2008-01-01
Reliable engine-weight estimation at the conceptual design stage is critical to the development of new aircraft engines. It helps to identify the best engine concept amongst several candidates. At NASA Glenn (GRC), the Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code, originally developed by Boeing Aircraft, has been used to estimate the engine weight of various conceptual engine designs. The code, written in FORTRAN, was originally developed for NASA in 1979. Since then, substantial improvements have been made to the code to improve the weight calculations for most of the engine components. Most recently, to improve the maintainability and extensibility of WATE, the FORTRAN code has been converted into an object-oriented version. The conversion was done within the NASA s NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) framework. This enables WATE to interact seamlessly with the thermodynamic cycle model which provides component flow data such as airflows, temperatures, and pressures, etc. that are required for sizing the components and weight calculations. The tighter integration between the NPSS and WATE would greatly enhance system-level analysis and optimization capabilities. It also would facilitate the enhancement of the WATE code for next-generation aircraft and space propulsion systems. In this paper, the architecture of the object-oriented WATE code (or WATE++) is described. Both the FORTRAN and object-oriented versions of the code are employed to compute the dimensions and weight of a 300- passenger aircraft engine (GE90 class). Both versions of the code produce essentially identical results as should be the case. Keywords: NASA, aircraft engine, weight, object-oriented
A 3D-PNS computer code for the calculation of supersonic combusting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chitsomboon, Tawit; Northam, G. Burton
1988-01-01
A computer code has been developed based on the three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations which govern the supersonic combusting flow of the hydrogen-air system. The finite difference algorithm employed was a hybrid of the Schiff-Steger algorithm and the Vigneron, et al., algorithm which is fully implicit and fully coupled. The combustion of hydrogen and air was modeled by the finite-rate two-step combustion model of Rogers-Chinitz. A new dependent variable vector was introduced to simplify the numerical algorithm. Robustness of the algorithm was considerably enhanced by introducing an adjustable parameter. The computer code was used to solve a premixed shock-induced combustion problem and the results were compared with those of a full Navier-Stokes code. Reasonably good agreement was obtained at a fraction of the cost of the full Navier-Stokes procedure.
XSECT: A computer code for generating fuselage cross sections - user's manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ames, K. R.
1982-01-01
A computer code, XSECT, has been developed to generate fuselage cross sections from a given area distribution and wing definition. The cross sections are generated to match the wing definition while conforming to the area requirement. An iterative procedure is used to generate each cross section. Fuselage area balancing may be included in this procedure if desired. The code is intended as an aid for engineers who must first design a wing under certain aerodynamic constraints and then design a fuselage for the wing such that the contraints remain satisfied. This report contains the information necessary for accessing and executing the code, which is written in FORTRAN to execute on the Cyber 170 series computers (NOS operating system) and produces graphical output for a Tektronix 4014 CRT. The LRC graphics software is used in combination with the interface between this software and the PLOT 10 software.
Inlet-Compressor Analysis Performed Using Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Gary L.; Suresh, Ambady; Townsend, Scott
1999-01-01
A thorough understanding of dynamic interactions between inlets and compressors is extremely important to the design and development of propulsion control systems, particularly for supersonic aircraft such as the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are routinely used to analyze individual propulsion components. By coupling the appropriate CFD component codes, it is possible to investigate inlet-compressor interactions. The objectives of this work were to gain a better understanding of inlet-compressor interaction physics, formulate a more realistic compressor-face boundary condition for time-accurate CFD simulations of inlets, and to take a first step toward the CFD simulation of an entire engine by coupling multidimensional component codes. This work was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center by a team of civil servants and support service contractors as part of the High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP).
MMA, A Computer Code for Multi-Model Analysis
Poeter, Eileen P.; Hill, Mary C.
2007-01-01
This report documents the Multi-Model Analysis (MMA) computer code. MMA can be used to evaluate results from alternative models of a single system using the same set of observations for all models. As long as the observations, the observation weighting, and system being represented are the same, the models can differ in nearly any way imaginable. For example, they may include different processes, different simulation software, different temporal definitions (for example, steady-state and transient models could be considered), and so on. The multiple models need to be calibrated by nonlinear regression. Calibration of the individual models needs to be completed before application of MMA. MMA can be used to rank models and calculate posterior model probabilities. These can be used to (1) determine the relative importance of the characteristics embodied in the alternative models, (2) calculate model-averaged parameter estimates and predictions, and (3) quantify the uncertainty of parameter estimates and predictions in a way that integrates the variations represented by the alternative models. There is a lack of consensus on what model analysis methods are best, so MMA provides four default methods. Two are based on Kullback-Leibler information, and use the AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) or AICc (second-order-bias-corrected AIC) model discrimination criteria. The other two default methods are the BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion) and the KIC (Kashyap Information Criterion) model discrimination criteria. Use of the KIC criterion is equivalent to using the maximum-likelihood Bayesian model averaging (MLBMA) method. AIC, AICc, and BIC can be derived from Frequentist or Bayesian arguments. The default methods based on Kullback-Leibler information have a number of theoretical advantages, including that they tend to favor more complicated models as more data become available than do the other methods, which makes sense in many situations. Many applications of MMA will
TEMP: a computer code to calculate fuel pin temperatures during a transient. [LMFBR
Bard, F E; Christensen, B Y; Gneiting, B C
1980-04-01
The computer code TEMP calculates fuel pin temperatures during a transient. It was developed to accommodate temperature calculations in any system of axi-symmetric concentric cylinders. When used to calculate fuel pin temperatures, the code will handle a fuel pin as simple as a solid cylinder or as complex as a central void surrounded by fuel that is broken into three regions by two circumferential cracks. Any fuel situation between these two extremes can be analyzed along with additional cladding, heat sink, coolant or capsule regions surrounding the fuel. The one-region version of the code accurately calculates the solution to two problems having closed-form solutions. The code uses an implicit method, an explicit method and a Crank-Nicolson (implicit-explicit) method.
Users manual for CAFE-3D : a computational fluid dynamics fire code.
Khalil, Imane; Lopez, Carlos; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma
2005-03-01
The Container Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) computer code has been developed to model all relevant fire physics for predicting the thermal response of massive objects engulfed in large fires. It provides realistic fire thermal boundary conditions for use in design of radioactive material packages and in risk-based transportation studies. The CAFE code can be coupled to commercial finite-element codes such as MSC PATRAN/THERMAL and ANSYS. This coupled system of codes can be used to determine the internal thermal response of finite element models of packages to a range of fire environments. This document is a user manual describing how to use the three-dimensional version of CAFE, as well as a description of CAFE input and output parameters. Since this is a user manual, only a brief theoretical description of the equations and physical models is included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin C.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam J.
2016-01-01
With the recent development of multi-dimensional thermal protection system (TPS) material response codes including the capabilities to account for radiative heating is a requirement. This paper presents the recent efforts to implement such capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This work also describes the different numerical methods implemented in the code to compute view factors for radiation problems involving multiple surfaces. Furthermore, verification and validation of the code's radiation capabilities are demonstrated by comparing solutions to analytical results, to other codes, and to radiant test data.
Computer Developments and Educational Psychology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riding, R. J.; Buckle, C. F.
1987-01-01
Examines some of the research and development implications of classroom computer use for educational psychology. Considers the implications of further developments in tutorial uses, reading instruction, and facilitation of thinking. (RKM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chambers, James P.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Bass, David T.; Raspet, Richard; Blackstock, David T.; Hamilton, Mark F.
1996-01-01
A numerical exercise to compare computer codes for the propagation of sonic booms through the atmosphere is reported. For the initial portion of the comparison, artificial, yet realistic, waveforms were numerically propagated through identical atmospheres. In addition to this comparison, one of these codes has been used to make preliminary predictions of the boom generated from a recent SR-71 flight. For the initial comparison, ground waveforms are calculated using four different codes or algorithms: (1) weak shock theory, an analytical prediction, (2) SHOCKN, a mixed time and frequency domain code developed at the University of Mississippi, (3) ZEPHYRUS, another mixed time and frequency code developed at the University of Texas, and (4) THOR, a pure time domain code recently developed at the University of Texas. The codes are described and their differences noted.
Guide to AERO2S and WINGDES Computer Codes for Prediction and Minimization of Drag Due to Lift
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Harry W.; Chu, Julio; Ozoroski, Lori P.; McCullers, L. Arnold
1997-01-01
The computer codes, AER02S and WINGDES, are now widely used for the analysis and design of airplane lifting surfaces under conditions that tend to induce flow separation. These codes have undergone continued development to provide additional capabilities since the introduction of the original versions over a decade ago. This code development has been reported in a variety of publications (NASA technical papers, NASA contractor reports, and society journals). Some modifications have not been publicized at all. Users of these codes have suggested the desirability of combining in a single document the descriptions of the code development, an outline of the features of each code, and suggestions for effective code usage. This report is intended to supply that need.
Reasoning with Computer Code: a new Mathematical Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pissanetzky, Sergio
2013-01-01
A logic is a mathematical model of knowledge used to study how we reason, how we describe the world, and how we infer the conclusions that determine our behavior. The logic presented here is natural. It has been experimentally observed, not designed. It represents knowledge as a causal set, includes a new type of inference based on the minimization of an action functional, and generates its own semantics, making it unnecessary to prescribe one. This logic is suitable for high-level reasoning with computer code, including tasks such as self-programming, objectoriented analysis, refactoring, systems integration, code reuse, and automated programming from sensor-acquired data. A strong theoretical foundation exists for the new logic. The inference derives laws of conservation from the permutation symmetry of the causal set, and calculates the corresponding conserved quantities. The association between symmetries and conservation laws is a fundamental and well-known law of nature and a general principle in modern theoretical Physics. The conserved quantities take the form of a nested hierarchy of invariant partitions of the given set. The logic associates elements of the set and binds them together to form the levels of the hierarchy. It is conjectured that the hierarchy corresponds to the invariant representations that the brain is known to generate. The hierarchies also represent fully object-oriented, self-generated code, that can be directly compiled and executed (when a compiler becomes available), or translated to a suitable programming language. The approach is constructivist because all entities are constructed bottom-up, with the fundamental principles of nature being at the bottom, and their existence is proved by construction. The new logic is mathematically introduced and later discussed in the context of transformations of algorithms and computer programs. We discuss what a full self-programming capability would really mean. We argue that self
PIC codes for plasma accelerators on emerging computer architectures (GPUS, Multicore/Manycore CPUS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincenti, Henri
2016-03-01
The advent of exascale computers will enable 3D simulations of a new laser-plasma interaction regimes that were previously out of reach of current Petasale computers. However, the paradigm used to write current PIC codes will have to change in order to fully exploit the potentialities of these new computing architectures. Indeed, achieving Exascale computing facilities in the next decade will be a great challenge in terms of energy consumption and will imply hardware developments directly impacting our way of implementing PIC codes. As data movement (from die to network) is by far the most energy consuming part of an algorithm future computers will tend to increase memory locality at the hardware level and reduce energy consumption related to data movement by using more and more cores on each compute nodes (''fat nodes'') that will have a reduced clock speed to allow for efficient cooling. To compensate for frequency decrease, CPU machine vendors are making use of long SIMD instruction registers that are able to process multiple data with one arithmetic operator in one clock cycle. SIMD register length is expected to double every four years. GPU's also have a reduced clock speed per core and can process Multiple Instructions on Multiple Datas (MIMD). At the software level Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes will thus have to achieve both good memory locality and vectorization (for Multicore/Manycore CPU) to fully take advantage of these upcoming architectures. In this talk, we present the portable solutions we implemented in our high performance skeleton PIC code PICSAR to both achieve good memory locality and cache reuse as well as good vectorization on SIMD architectures. We also present the portable solutions used to parallelize the Pseudo-sepctral quasi-cylindrical code FBPIC on GPUs using the Numba python compiler.
A user`s manual for the computer code HORSMIC
Russo, A.J.
1994-01-01
The code HORSMIC was written to solve the problem of calculating the shape of hydrocarbon (gas or liquid) storage caverns formed by solution mining in bedded salt formations. In the past many storage cavems have been formed by vertically drilling into salt dome formations and solution mining large-aspect-ratio, vertically-axisymmetric caverns. This approach is generally not satisfactory for shallow salt beds because it would result in geomechanically-unstable, pancake-shaped caverns. In order to produce a high aspect ratio cavern in the horizontal direction a more complicated strategy must be employed. This report describes one such strategy, and documents the use of the computer model HORSMIC which can be used to estimate the shape of the cavern produced by a prescribed leaching schedule. Multiple trials can then be used to investigate the effects of various pipe hole configurations in order to optimize over the cavern shape.
Sparse-Coding-Based Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction
Yoon, Gang-Joon
2013-01-01
Computed tomography (CT) is a popular type of medical imaging that generates images of the internal structure of an object based on projection scans of the object from several angles. There are numerous methods to reconstruct the original shape of the target object from scans, but they are still dependent on the number of angles and iterations. To overcome the drawbacks of iterative reconstruction approaches like the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), while the recovery is slightly impacted from a random noise (small amount of ℓ2 norm error) and projection scans (small amount of ℓ1 norm error) as well, we propose a medical image reconstruction methodology using the properties of sparse coding. It is a very powerful matrix factorization method which each pixel point is represented as a linear combination of a small number of basis vectors. PMID:23576898
Computer Tensor Codes to Design the War Drive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccone, C.
To address problems in Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) and design the Warp Drive one needs sheer computing capabilities. This is because General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Field Theory (QFT) are so mathematically sophisticated that the amount of analytical calculations is prohibitive and one can hardly do all of them by hand. In this paper we make a comparative review of the main tensor calculus capabilities of the three most advanced and commercially available “symbolic manipulator” codes. We also point out that currently one faces such a variety of different conventions in tensor calculus that it is difficult or impossible to compare results obtained by different scholars in GR and QFT. Mathematical physicists, experimental physicists and engineers have each their own way of customizing tensors, especially by using different metric signatures, different metric determinant signs, different definitions of the basic Riemann and Ricci tensors, and by adopting different systems of physical units. This chaos greatly hampers progress toward the design of the Warp Drive. It is thus suggested that NASA would be a suitable organization to establish standards in symbolic tensor calculus and anyone working in BPP should adopt these standards. Alternatively other institutions, like CERN in Europe, might consider the challenge of starting the preliminary implementation of a Universal Tensor Code to design the Warp Drive.
A proposed framework for computational fluid dynamics code calibration/validation
Oberkampf, W.L.
1993-12-31
The paper reviews the terminology and methodology that have been introduced during the last several years for building confidence n the predictions from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CID) codes. Code validation terminology developed for nuclear reactor analyses and aerospace applications is reviewed and evaluated. Currently used terminology such as ``calibrated code,`` ``validated code,`` and a ``validation experiment`` is discussed along with the shortcomings and criticisms of these terms. A new framework is proposed for building confidence in CFD code predictions that overcomes some of the difficulties of past procedures and delineates the causes of uncertainty in CFD predictions. Building on previous work, new definitions of code verification and calibration are proposed. These definitions provide more specific requirements for the knowledge level of the flow physics involved and the solution accuracy of the given partial differential equations. As part of the proposed framework, categories are also proposed for flow physics research, flow modeling research, and the application of numerical predictions. The contributions of physical experiments, analytical solutions, and other numerical solutions are discussed, showing that each should be designed to achieve a distinctively separate purpose in building confidence in accuracy of CFD predictions. A number of examples are given for each approach to suggest methods for obtaining the highest value for CFD code quality assurance.
TP Clement
1999-06-24
RT3DV1 (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is computer code that solves the coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in three-dimensional saturated groundwater systems. RT3D is a generalized multi-species version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transport code, MT3D (Zheng, 1990). The current version of RT3D uses the advection and dispersion solvers from the DOD-1.5 (1997) version of MT3D. As with MT3D, RT3D also requires the groundwater flow code MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. The RT3D code was originally developed to support the contaminant transport modeling efforts at natural attenuation demonstration sites. As a research tool, RT3D has also been used to model several laboratory and pilot-scale active bioremediation experiments. The performance of RT3D has been validated by comparing the code results against various numerical and analytical solutions. The code is currently being used to model field-scale natural attenuation at multiple sites. The RT3D code is unique in that it includes an implicit reaction solver that makes the code sufficiently flexible for simulating various types of chemical and microbial reaction kinetics. RT3D V1.0 supports seven pre-programmed reaction modules that can be used to simulate different types of reactive contaminants including benzene-toluene-xylene mixtures (BTEX), and chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). In addition, RT3D has a user-defined reaction option that can be used to simulate any other types of user-specified reactive transport systems. This report describes the mathematical details of the RT3D computer code and its input/output data structure. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basics of groundwater flow and contaminant transport mechanics. In addition, RT3D users are expected to have some experience in
The PARTRAC code: Status and recent developments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedland, Werner; Kundrat, Pavel
Biophysical modeling is of particular value for predictions of radiation effects due to manned space missions. PARTRAC is an established tool for Monte Carlo-based simulations of radiation track structures, damage induction in cellular DNA and its repair [1]. Dedicated modules describe interactions of ionizing particles with the traversed medium, the production and reactions of reactive species, and score DNA damage determined by overlapping track structures with multi-scale chromatin models. The DNA repair module describes the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) via the non-homologous end-joining pathway; the code explicitly simulates the spatial mobility of individual DNA ends in parallel with their processing by major repair enzymes [2]. To simulate the yields and kinetics of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations, the repair module has been extended by tracking the information on the chromosome origin of ligated fragments as well as the presence of centromeres [3]. PARTRAC calculations have been benchmarked against experimental data on various biological endpoints induced by photon and ion irradiation. The calculated DNA fragment distributions after photon and ion irradiation reproduce corresponding experimental data and their dose- and LET-dependence. However, in particular for high-LET radiation many short DNA fragments are predicted below the detection limits of the measurements, so that the experiments significantly underestimate DSB yields by high-LET radiation [4]. The DNA repair module correctly describes the LET-dependent repair kinetics after (60) Co gamma-rays and different N-ion radiation qualities [2]. First calculations on the induction of chromosome aberrations have overestimated the absolute yields of dicentrics, but correctly reproduced their relative dose-dependence and the difference between gamma- and alpha particle irradiation [3]. Recent developments of the PARTRAC code include a model of hetero- vs euchromatin structures to enable
Recent developments in DYNSUB: New models, code optimization and parallelization
Daeubler, M.; Trost, N.; Jimenez, J.; Sanchez, V.
2013-07-01
DYNSUB is a high-fidelity coupled code system consisting of the reactor simulator DYN3D and the sub-channel code SUBCHANFLOW. It describes nuclear reactor core behavior with pin-by-pin resolution for both steady-state and transient scenarios. In the course of the coupled code system's active development, super-homogenization (SPH) and generalized equivalence theory (GET) discontinuity factors may be computed with and employed in DYNSUB to compensate pin level homogenization errors. Because of the largely increased numerical problem size for pin-by-pin simulations, DYNSUB has bene fitted from HPC techniques to improve its numerical performance. DYNSUB's coupling scheme has been structurally revised. Computational bottlenecks have been identified and parallelized for shared memory systems using OpenMP. Comparing the elapsed time for simulating a PWR core with one-eighth symmetry under hot zero power conditions applying the original and the optimized DYNSUB using 8 cores, overall speed up factors greater than 10 have been observed. The corresponding reduction in execution time enables a routine application of DYNSUB to study pin level safety parameters for engineering sized cases in a scientific environment. (authors)
Development of parallel DEM for the open source code MFIX
Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Tafti, Danesh
2013-02-01
The paper presents the development of a parallel Discrete Element Method (DEM) solver for the open source code, Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) based on the domain decomposition method. The performance of the code was evaluated by simulating a bubbling fluidized bed with 2.5 million particles. The DEM solver shows strong scalability up to 256 processors with an efficiency of 81%. Further, to analyze weak scaling, the static height of the fluidized bed was increased to hold 5 and 10 million particles. The results show that global communication cost increases with problem size while the computational cost remains constant. Further, the effects of static bed height on the bubble hydrodynamics and mixing characteristics are analyzed.
PORST: a computer code to analyze the performance of retrofitted steam turbines
Lee, C.; Hwang, I.T.
1980-09-01
The computer code PORST was developed to analyze the performance of a retrofitted steam turbine that is converted from a single generating to a cogenerating unit for purposes of district heating. Two retrofit schemes are considered: one converts a condensing turbine to a backpressure unit; the other allows the crossover extraction of steam between turbine cylinders. The code can analyze the performance of a turbine operating at: (1) valve-wide-open condition before retrofit, (2) partial load before retrofit, (3) valve-wide-open after retrofit, and (4) partial load after retrofit.
Once-through CANDU reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code
Croff, A.G.; Bjerke, M.A.
1980-11-01
Reactor physics calculations have led to the development of two CANDU reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code. The model CANDUs are based on (1) the existing once-through fuel cycle with feed comprised of natural uranium and (2) a projected slightly enriched (1.2 wt % /sup 235/U) fuel cycle. The reactor models are based on cross sections taken directly from the reactor physics codes. Descriptions of the reactor models, as well as values for the ORIGEN2 flux parameters THERM, RES, and FAST, are given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahara, S. S.; Klenke, D.; Trudinger, B. C.; Spreiter, J. R.
1980-01-01
Computational procedures are developed and applied to the prediction of solar wind interaction with nonmagnetic terrestrial planet atmospheres, with particular emphasis to Venus. The theoretical method is based on a single fluid, steady, dissipationless, magnetohydrodynamic continuum model, and is appropriate for the calculation of axisymmetric, supersonic, super-Alfvenic solar wind flow past terrestrial planets. The procedures, which consist of finite difference codes to determine the gasdynamic properties and a variety of special purpose codes to determine the frozen magnetic field, streamlines, contours, plots, etc. of the flow, are organized into one computational program. Theoretical results based upon these procedures are reported for a wide variety of solar wind conditions and ionopause obstacle shapes. Plasma and magnetic field comparisons in the ionosheath are also provided with actual spacecraft data obtained by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter.
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR FIRE SUPPRESSANT FLUID FLOW.
The objective of the project is to develop a computer code capable of predicting single and two phase hydrodynamic behavior of fire suppressant fluids during transport through piping systems. This new code will be able to predict pressure losses and flow rates for a wide variety ...
Student Codes of Conduct: A Guide to Policy Review and Code Development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of General Academic Education.
Designed to assist New Jersey school districts in developing and implementing student codes of conduct, this document begins by examining the need for policy and clearly established rules, the rationale for codes of conduct, and the areas that such codes should address. Following a discussion of substantive and procedural rights and sources of…
Computer code for the atomistic simulation of lattice defects and dynamics. [COMENT code
Schiffgens, J.O.; Graves, N.J.; Oster, C.A.
1980-04-01
This document has been prepared to satisfy the need for a detailed, up-to-date description of a computer code that can be used to simulate phenomena on an atomistic level. COMENT was written in FORTRAN IV and COMPASS (CDC assembly language) to solve the classical equations of motion for a large number of atoms interacting according to a given force law, and to perform the desired ancillary analysis of the resulting data. COMENT is a dual-purpose intended to describe static defect configurations as well as the detailed motion of atoms in a crystal lattice. It can be used to simulate the effect of temperature, impurities, and pre-existing defects on radiation-induced defect production mechanisms, defect migration, and defect stability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuster, David M.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Edwards, John W.; Bennett, Robert M.
2000-01-01
As computational fluid dynamics methods mature, code development is rapidly transitioning from prediction of steady flowfields to unsteady flows. This change in emphasis offers a number of new challenges to the research community, not the least of which is obtaining detailed, accurate unsteady experimental data with which to evaluate new methods. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been actively measuring unsteady pressure distributions for nearly 40 years. Over the last 20 years, these measurements have focused on developing high-quality datasets for use in code evaluation. This paper provides a sample of unsteady pressure measurements obtained by LaRC and available for government, university, and industry researchers to evaluate new and existing unsteady aerodynamic analysis methods. A number of cases are highlighted and discussed with attention focused on the unique character of the individual datasets and their perceived usefulness for code evaluation. Ongoing LaRC research in this area is also presented.
LASER STRIPPING COMPUTING WITH THE PYTHON ORBIT CODE
Gorlov, Timofey V; Shishlo, Andrei P
2009-01-01
The laser assisted hydrogen stripping becomes a widely discussed alternative for the existing stripping foil approach. The simulation tool for this new approach is presented. The created application is implemented in form of extension module to the Python ORBIT parallel code that is under development at the SNS. The physical model of the application deals with quantum theory and allows calculating evolution and ionization of hydrogen atoms and ions affected by superposition of electromagnetic and laser fields. The algorithm, structure, benchmark cases, and results of simulations for several future and existing accelerators are discussed.
Development of the Tensoral Computer Language
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferziger, Joel; Dresselhaus, Eliot
1996-01-01
The research scientist or engineer wishing to perform large scale simulations or to extract useful information from existing databases is required to have expertise in the details of the particular database, the numerical methods and the computer architecture to be used. This poses a significant practical barrier to the use of simulation data. The goal of this research was to develop a high-level computer language called Tensoral, designed to remove this barrier. The Tensoral language provides a framework in which efficient generic data manipulations can be easily coded and implemented. First of all, Tensoral is general. The fundamental objects in Tensoral represent tensor fields and the operators that act on them. The numerical implementation of these tensors and operators is completely and flexibly programmable. New mathematical constructs and operators can be easily added to the Tensoral system. Tensoral is compatible with existing languages. Tensoral tensor operations co-exist in a natural way with a host language, which may be any sufficiently powerful computer language such as Fortran, C, or Vectoral. Tensoral is very-high-level. Tensor operations in Tensoral typically act on entire databases (i.e., arrays) at one time and may, therefore, correspond to many lines of code in a conventional language. Tensoral is efficient. Tensoral is a compiled language. Database manipulations are simplified optimized and scheduled by the compiler eventually resulting in efficient machine code to implement them.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Padula, S. L.
1986-01-01
The development of a high speed propeller noise prediction code at Langley Research Center is described. The code utilizes two recent acoustic formulations in the time domain for subsonic and supersonic sources. The structure and capabilities of the code are discussed. Grid size study for accuracy and speed of execution on a computer is also presented. The code is tested against an earlier Langley code. Considerable increase in accuracy and speed of execution are observed. Some examples of noise prediction of a high speed propeller for which acoustic test data are available are given. A brisk derivation of formulations used is given in an appendix.
Methodology, status and plans for development and assessment of TUF and CATHENA codes
Luxat, J.C.; Liu, W.S.; Leung, R.K.
1997-07-01
An overview is presented of the Canadian two-fluid computer codes TUF and CATHENA with specific focus on the constraints imposed during development of these codes and the areas of application for which they are intended. Additionally a process for systematic assessment of these codes is described which is part of a broader, industry based initiative for validation of computer codes used in all major disciplines of safety analysis. This is intended to provide both the licensee and the regulator in Canada with an objective basis for assessing the adequacy of codes for use in specific applications. Although focused specifically on CANDU reactors, Canadian experience in developing advanced two-fluid codes to meet wide-ranging application needs while maintaining past investment in plant modelling provides a useful contribution to international efforts in this area.
GASPS: A time-dependent, one-dimensional, planar gas dynamics computer code
Pierce, R.E.; Sutton, S.B.; Comfort, W.J. III
1986-12-05
GASP is a transient, one-dimensional planar gas dynamic computer code that can be used to calculate the propagation of a shock wave. GASP, developed at LLNL, solves the one-dimensional planar equations governing momentum, mass and energy conservation. The equations are cast in an Eulerian formulation where the mesh is fixed in space, and material flows through it. Thus it is necessary to account for convection of material from one cell to its neighbor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutishauser, David K.
2006-01-01
The motivation for this work comes from an observation that amidst the push for Massively Parallel (MP) solutions to high-end computing problems such as numerical physical simulations, large amounts of legacy code exist that are highly optimized for vector supercomputers. Because re-hosting legacy code often requires a complete re-write of the original code, which can be a very long and expensive effort, this work examines the potential to exploit reconfigurable computing machines in place of a vector supercomputer to implement an essentially unmodified legacy source code. Custom and reconfigurable computing resources could be used to emulate an original application's target platform to the extent required to achieve high performance. To arrive at an architecture that delivers the desired performance subject to limited resources involves solving a multi-variable optimization problem with constraints. Prior research in the area of reconfigurable computing has demonstrated that designing an optimum hardware implementation of a given application under hardware resource constraints is an NP-complete problem. The premise of the approach is that the general issue of applying reconfigurable computing resources to the implementation of an application, maximizing the performance of the computation subject to physical resource constraints, can be made a tractable problem by assuming a computational paradigm, such as vector processing. This research contributes a formulation of the problem and a methodology to design a reconfigurable vector processing implementation of a given application that satisfies a performance metric. A generic, parametric, architectural framework for vector processing implemented in reconfigurable logic is developed as a target for a scheduling/mapping algorithm that maps an input computation to a given instance of the architecture. This algorithm is integrated with an optimization framework to arrive at a specification of the architecture parameters
Visualization of elastic wavefields computed with a finite difference code
Larsen, S.; Harris, D.
1994-11-15
The authors have developed a finite difference elastic propagation model to simulate seismic wave propagation through geophysically complex regions. To facilitate debugging and to assist seismologists in interpreting the seismograms generated by the code, they have developed an X Windows interface that permits viewing of successive temporal snapshots of the (2D) wavefield as they are calculated. The authors present a brief video displaying the generation of seismic waves by an explosive source on a continent, which propagate to the edge of the continent then convert to two types of acoustic waves. This sample calculation was part of an effort to study the potential of offshore hydroacoustic systems to monitor seismic events occurring onshore.
Developing Fortran Code for Kriging on the Stampede Supercomputer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hodgess, Erin
2016-04-01
Kriging is easily accessible in the open source statistical language R (R Core Team, 2015) in the gstat (Pebesma, 2004) package. It works very well, but can be slow on large data sets, particular if the prediction space is large as well. We are working on the Stampede supercomputer at the Texas Advanced Computing Center to develop code using a combination of R and the Message Passage Interface (MPI) bindings to Fortran. We have a function similar to the autofitVariogram found in the automap (Hiemstra {et al}, 2008) package and it is very effective. We are comparing R with MPI/Fortran, MPI/Fortran alone, and R with the Rmpi package, which uses bindings to C. We will present results from simulation studies and real-world examples. References: Hiemstra, P.H., Pebesma, E.J., Twenhofel, C.J.W. and G.B.M. Heuvelink, 2008. Real-time automatic interpolation of ambient gamma dose rates from the Dutch Radioactivity Monitoring Network. Computers and Geosciences, accepted for publication. Pebesma, E.J., 2004. Multivariable geostatistics in S: the gstat package. Computers and Geosciences, 30: 683-691. R Core Team, 2015. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.
Computer code simulations of the formation of Meteor Crater, Arizona - Calculations MC-1 and MC-2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roddy, D. J.; Schuster, S. H.; Kreyenhagen, K. N.; Orphal, D. L.
1980-01-01
It has been widely accepted that hypervelocity impact processes play a major role in the evolution of the terrestrial planets and satellites. In connection with the development of quantitative methods for the description of impact cratering, it was found that the results provided by two-dimensional finite difference, computer codes is greatly improved when initial impact conditions can be defined and when the numerical results can be tested against field and laboratory data. In order to address this problem, a numerical code study of the formation of Meteor (Barringer) Crater, Arizona, has been undertaken. A description is presented of the major results from the first two code calculations, MC-1 and MC-2, that have been completed for Meteor Crater. Both calculations used an iron meteorite with a kinetic energy of 3.8 Megatons. Calculation MC-1 had an impact velocity of 25 km/sec and MC-2 had an impact velocity of 15 km/sec.
Laser bar code applied in computer aided design of power fittings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Fan
2010-10-01
A computer aided process planning system is developed based on laser bar code technology to automatize and standardize processing-paper making. The system sorts fittings by analyzing their types, structures, dimensions, materials, and technics characteristics, groups and encodes the fittings with similar technology characteristics base on the theory of Group Technology (GT). The system produces standard technology procedures using integrative-parts method and stores them into technics databases. To work out the technology procedure of fittings, the only thing for users need to do is to scan the bar code of fittings with a laser code reader. The system can produce process-paper using decision trees method and then print the process-cards automatically. The software has already been applied in some power stations and is praised by the users.
Performance of a parallel code for the Euler equations on hypercube computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barszcz, Eric; Chan, Tony F.; Jesperson, Dennis C.; Tuminaro, Raymond S.
1990-01-01
The performance of hypercubes were evaluated on a computational fluid dynamics problem and the parallel environment issues were considered that must be addressed, such as algorithm changes, implementation choices, programming effort, and programming environment. The evaluation focuses on a widely used fluid dynamics code, FLO52, which solves the two dimensional steady Euler equations describing flow around the airfoil. The code development experience is described, including interacting with the operating system, utilizing the message-passing communication system, and code modifications necessary to increase parallel efficiency. Results from two hypercube parallel computers (a 16-node iPSC/2, and a 512-node NCUBE/ten) are discussed and compared. In addition, a mathematical model of the execution time was developed as a function of several machine and algorithm parameters. This model accurately predicts the actual run times obtained and is used to explore the performance of the code in interesting but yet physically realizable regions of the parameter space. Based on this model, predictions about future hypercubes are made.
HIBRA: A computer code for heavy ion binary reaction analysis employing ion track detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamil, Khalid; Ahmad, Siraj-ul-Islam; Manzoor, Shahid
2016-01-01
Collisions of heavy ions many times result in production of only two reaction products. Study of heavy ions using ion track detectors allows experimentalists to observe the track length in the plane of the detector, depth of the tracks in the volume of the detector and angles between the tracks on the detector surface, all known as track parameters. How to convert these into useful physics parameters such as masses, energies, momenta of the reaction products and the Q-values of the reaction? This paper describes the (a) model used to analyze binary reactions in terms of measured etched track parameters of the reaction products recorded in ion track detectors, and (b) the code developed for computing useful physics parameters for fast and accurate analysis of a large number of binary events. A computer code, HIBRA (Heavy Ion Binary Reaction Analysis) has been developed both in C++ and FORTRAN programming languages. It has been tested on the binary reactions from 12.5 MeV/u 84Kr ions incident upon U (natural) target deposited on mica ion track detector. The HIBRA code can be employed with any ion track detector for which range-velocity relation is available including the widely used CR-39 ion track detectors. This paper provides the source code of HIBRA in C++ language along with input and output data to test the program.
Leonard, P.R.; Seitz, R.R.
1992-04-01
The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recently announced a revision to Chapter 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 (10 CFR 20) ``Standards for Protection Against Radiation,`` which incorporates recommendations contained in Publications 26 and 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), issued in 1977 and 1979, respectively. The revision to 10 CFR 20 was also developed in parallel with Presidential Guidance on occupational radiation protection published in the Federal Register. Thus, this study concludes that the issuance of the revised 10 CFR 20 will not affect calculations using the computer codes considered in this report. In general, the computer codes and EPA and DOE guidance on which computer codes are based were developed in a manner consistent with the guidance provided in ICRP 26/30, well before the revision of 10 CFR 20.
CncRNAs: RNAs with both coding and non-coding roles in development.
Sampath, Karuna; Ephrussi, Anne
2016-04-15
RNAs are known to regulate diverse biological processes, either as protein-encoding molecules or as non-coding RNAs. However, a third class that comprises RNAs endowed with both protein coding and non-coding functions has recently emerged. Such bi-functional 'coding and non-coding RNAs' (cncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in distinct developmental processes in plants and animals. Here, we discuss key examples of cncRNAs and review their roles, regulation and mechanisms of action during development. PMID:27095489
Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC
2005-12-01
The problem of electromagnetic interaction of a beam and accelerator elements is very important for linear colliders, electron-positron factories, and free electron lasers. Precise calculation of wake fields is required for beam dynamics study in these machines. We describe a method which allows computation of wake fields of the very short bunches. Computer code NOVO was developed based on this method. This method is free of unphysical solutions like ''self-acceleration'' of a bunch head, which is common to well known wake field codes. Code NOVO was used for the wake fields study for many accelerator projects all over the world.
Computation of Thermodynamic Equilibria Pertinent to Nuclear Materials in Multi-Physics Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piro, Markus Hans Alexander
Nuclear energy plays a vital role in supporting electrical needs and fulfilling commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Research is a continuing necessity to improve the predictive capabilities of fuel behaviour in order to reduce costs and to meet increasingly stringent safety requirements by the regulator. Moreover, a renewed interest in nuclear energy has given rise to a "nuclear renaissance" and the necessity to design the next generation of reactors. In support of this goal, significant research efforts have been dedicated to the advancement of numerical modelling and computational tools in simulating various physical and chemical phenomena associated with nuclear fuel behaviour. This undertaking in effect is collecting the experience and observations of a past generation of nuclear engineers and scientists in a meaningful way for future design purposes. There is an increasing desire to integrate thermodynamic computations directly into multi-physics nuclear fuel performance and safety codes. A new equilibrium thermodynamic solver is being developed with this matter as a primary objective. This solver is intended to provide thermodynamic material properties and boundary conditions for continuum transport calculations. There are several concerns with the use of existing commercial thermodynamic codes: computational performance; limited capabilities in handling large multi-component systems of interest to the nuclear industry; convenient incorporation into other codes with quality assurance considerations; and, licensing entanglements associated with code distribution. The development of this software in this research is aimed at addressing all of these concerns. The approach taken in this work exploits fundamental principles of equilibrium thermodynamics to simplify the numerical optimization equations. In brief, the chemical potentials of all species and phases in the system are constrained by estimates of the chemical potentials of the system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgaw, Michael A.; Saltsman, James F.
1993-01-01
A recently developed high-temperature fatigue life prediction computer code is presented and an example of its usage given. The code discussed is based on the Total Strain version of Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP). Included in this code are procedures for characterizing the creep-fatigue durability behavior of an alloy according to TS-SRP guidelines and predicting cyclic life for complex cycle types for both isothermal and thermomechanical conditions. A reasonably extensive materials properties database is included with the code.
Methodology, status, and plans for development and assessment of the RELAP5 code
Johnson, G.W.; Riemke, R.A.
1997-07-01
RELAP/MOD3 is a computer code used for the simulation of transients and accidents in light-water nuclear power plants. The objective of the program to develop and maintain RELAP5 was and is to provide the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission with an independent tool for assessing reactor safety. This paper describes code requirements, models, solution scheme, language and structure, user interface validation, and documentation. The paper also describes the current and near term development program and provides an assessment of the code`s strengths and limitations.
Computer code for predicting coolant flow and heat transfer in turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meitner, Peter L.
1990-01-01
A computer code was developed to analyze any turbomachinery coolant flow path geometry that consist of a single flow passage with a unique inlet and exit. Flow can be bled off for tip-cap impingement cooling, and a flow bypass can be specified in which coolant flow is taken off at one point in the flow channel and reintroduced at a point farther downstream in the same channel. The user may either choose the coolant flow rate or let the program determine the flow rate from specified inlet and exit conditions. The computer code integrates the 1-D momentum and energy equations along a defined flow path and calculates the coolant's flow rate, temperature, pressure, and velocity and the heat transfer coefficients along the passage. The equations account for area change, mass addition or subtraction, pumping, friction, and heat transfer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Y. S.
1986-01-01
In this report, a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of three-dimensional incompressible flows in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate (BFC) systems has been developed. The equations of motion are transformed to a generalized curvilinear coordinate system from which the transformed equations are discretized using finite difference approximations in the transformed domain. The hybrid scheme is used to approximate the convection terms in the governing equations. Solutions of the finite difference equations are obtained iteratively by using a pressure-velocity correction algorithm (SIMPLE-C). Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent flow problems are employed to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the present computer code. The user's guide and computer program listing of the present code are also included.
Computational Methods Development at Ames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
This viewgraph presentation outlines the development at Ames Research Center of advanced computational methods to provide appropriate fidelity computational analysis/design capabilities. Current thrusts of the Ames research include: 1) methods to enhance/accelerate viscous flow simulation procedures, and the development of hybrid/polyhedral-grid procedures for viscous flow; 2) the development of real time transonic flow simulation procedures for a production wind tunnel, and intelligent data management technology; and 3) the validation of methods and the flow physics study gives historical precedents to above research, and speculates on its future course.
The TESS (Tandem Experiment Simulation Studies) computer code user's manual
Procassini, R.J. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Cohen, B.I. )
1990-06-01
TESS (Tandem Experiment Simulation Studies) is a one-dimensional, bounded particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code designed to investigate the confinement and transport of plasma in a magnetic mirror device, including tandem mirror configurations. Mirror plasmas may be modeled in a system which includes an applied magnetic field and/or a self-consistent or applied electrostatic potential. The PIC code TESS is similar to the PIC code DIPSI (Direct Implicit Plasma Surface Interactions) which is designed to study plasma transport to and interaction with a solid surface. The codes TESS and DIPSI are direct descendants of the PIC code ES1 that was created by A. B. Langdon. This document provides the user with a brief description of the methods used in the code and a tutorial on the use of the code. 10 refs., 2 tabs.
Probabilistic load simulation: Code development status
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newell, J. F.; Ho, H.
1991-01-01
The objective of the Composite Load Spectra (CLS) project is to develop generic load models to simulate the composite load spectra that are included in space propulsion system components. The probabilistic loads thus generated are part of the probabilistic design analysis (PDA) of a space propulsion system that also includes probabilistic structural analyses, reliability, and risk evaluations. Probabilistic load simulation for space propulsion systems demands sophisticated probabilistic methodology and requires large amounts of load information and engineering data. The CLS approach is to implement a knowledge based system coupled with a probabilistic load simulation module. The knowledge base manages and furnishes load information and expertise and sets up the simulation runs. The load simulation module performs the numerical computation to generate the probabilistic loads with load information supplied from the CLS knowledge base.
Spent fuel management fee methodology and computer code user's manual.
Engel, R.L.; White, M.K.
1982-01-01
The methodology and computer model described here were developed to analyze the cash flows for the federal government taking title to and managing spent nuclear fuel. The methodology has been used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the spent fuel disposal fee that will provide full cost recovery. Although the methodology was designed to analyze interim storage followed by spent fuel disposal, it could be used to calculate a fee for reprocessing spent fuel and disposing of the waste. The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase estimates government expenditures for spent fuel management. The second phase determines the fees that will result in revenues such that the government attains full cost recovery assuming various revenue collection philosophies. These two phases are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Each of the two phases constitute a computer module, called SPADE (SPent fuel Analysis and Disposal Economics) and FEAN (FEe ANalysis), respectively.
Software tools for developing parallel applications. Part 1: Code development and debugging
Brown, J.; Geist, A.; Pancake, C.; Rover, D.
1997-04-01
Developing an application for parallel computers can be a lengthy and frustrating process making it a perfect candidate for software tool support. Yet application programmers are often the last to hear about new tools emerging from R and D efforts. This paper provides an overview of two focuses of tool support: code development and debugging. Each is discussed in terms of the programmer needs addressed, the extent to which representative current tools meet those needs, and what new levels of tool support are important if parallel computing is to become more widespread.
Developing Computational Physics in Nigeria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akpojotor, Godfrey; Enukpere, Emmanuel; Akpojotor, Famous; Ojobor, Sunny
2009-03-01
Computer based instruction is permeating the educational curricula of many countries oweing to the realization that computational physics which involves computer modeling, enhances the teaching/learning process when combined with theory and experiment. For the students, it gives them more insight and understanding in the learning process and thereby equips them with scientific and computing skills to excel in the industrial and commercial environments as well as at the Masters and doctoral levels. And for the teachers, among others benefits, the availability of open access sites on both instructional and evaluation materials can improve their performances. With a growing population of students and new challenges to meet developmental goals, this paper examine the challenges and prospects of current drive to develop Computational physics as a university undergraduate programme or as a choice of specialized modules or laboratories within the mainstream physics programme in Nigeria institutions. In particular, the current effort of the Nigerian Computational Physics Working Group to design computational physics programmes to meet the developmental goals of the country is discussed.
Parallelized tree-code for clusters of personal computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viturro, H. R.; Carpintero, D. D.
2000-02-01
We present a tree-code for integrating the equations of the motion of collisionless systems, which has been fully parallelized and adapted to run in several PC-based processors simultaneously, using the well-known PVM message passing library software. SPH algorithms, not yet included, may be easily incorporated to the code. The code is written in ANSI C; it can be freely downloaded from a public ftp site. Simulations of collisions of galaxies are presented, with which the performance of the code is tested.
Status of Continuum Edge Gyrokinetic Code Physics Development
Xu, X Q; Xiong, Z; Dorr, M R; Hittinger, J A; Kerbel, G D; Nevins, W M; Cohen, B I; Cohen, R H
2005-05-31
We are developing an edge gyro-kinetic continuum simulation code to study the boundary plasma over a region extending from inside the H-mode pedestal across the separatrix to the divertor plates. A 4-D ({psi}, {theta}, {epsilon}, {mu}) version of this code is presently being implemented, en route to a full 5-D version. A set of gyrokinetic equations[1] are discretized on computational grid which incorporates X-point divertor geometry. The present implementation is a Method of Lines approach where the phase-space derivatives are discretized with finite differences and implicit backwards differencing formulas are used to advance the system in time. A fourth order upwinding algorithm is used for particle cross-field drifts, parallel streaming, and acceleration. Boundary conditions at conducting material surfaces are implemented on the plasma side of the sheath. The Poisson-like equation is solved using GMRES with multi-grid preconditioner from HYPRE. A nonlinear Fokker-Planck collision operator from STELLA[2] in ({nu}{sub {parallel}},{nu}{sub {perpendicular}}) has been streamlined and integrated into the gyro-kinetic package using the same implicit Newton-Krylov solver and interpolating F and dF/dt|{sub coll} to/from ({epsilon}, {mu}) space. With our 4D code we compute the ion thermal flux, ion parallel velocity, self-consistent electric field, and geo-acoustic oscillations, which we compare with standard neoclassical theory for core plasma parameters; and we study the transition from collisional to collisionless end-loss. In the real X-point geometry, we find that the particles are trapped near outside midplane and in the X-point regions due to the magnetic configurations. The sizes of banana orbits are comparable to the pedestal width and/or the SOL width for energetic trapped particles. The effect of the real X-point geometry and edge plasma conditions on standard neoclassical theory will be evaluated, including a comparison of our 4D code with other kinetic
High pressure humidification columns: Design equations, algorithm, and computer code
Enick, R.M.; Klara, S.M.; Marano, J.J.
1994-07-01
This report describes the detailed development of a computer model to simulate the humidification of an air stream in contact with a water stream in a countercurrent, packed tower, humidification column. The computer model has been developed as a user model for the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulator. This was done to utilize the powerful ASPEN flash algorithms as well as to provide ease of use when using ASPEN to model systems containing humidification columns. The model can easily be modified for stand-alone use by incorporating any standard algorithm for performing flash calculations. The model was primarily developed to analyze Humid Air Turbine (HAT) power cycles; however, it can be used for any application that involves a humidifier or saturator. The solution is based on a multiple stage model of a packed column which incorporates mass and energy, balances, mass transfer and heat transfer rate expressions, the Lewis relation and a thermodynamic equilibrium model for the air-water system. The inlet air properties, inlet water properties and a measure of the mass transfer and heat transfer which occur in the column are the only required input parameters to the model. Several example problems are provided to illustrate the algorithm`s ability to generate the temperature of the water, flow rate of the water, temperature of the air, flow rate of the air and humidity of the air as a function of height in the column. The algorithm can be used to model any high-pressure air humidification column operating at pressures up to 50 atm. This discussion includes descriptions of various humidification processes, detailed derivations of the relevant expressions, and methods of incorporating these equations into a computer model for a humidification column.
Waste Evaporator Accident Simulation Using RELAP5 Computer Code
POLIZZI, L.M.
2004-04-28
An evaporator is used on liquid waste from processing facilities to reduce the volume of the waste through heating the waste and allowing some of the water to be separated from the waste through boiling. This separation process allows for more efficient processing and storage of liquid waste. Commonly, the liquid waste consists of an aqueous solution of chemicals that over time could induce corrosion, and in turn weaken the tubes in the steam tube bundle of the waste evaporator that are used to heat the waste. This chemically induced corrosion could escalate into a possible tube leakage and/or the severance of a tube(s) in the tube bundle. In this paper, analyses of a waste evaporator system for the processing of liquid waste containing corrosive chemicals are presented to assess the system response to this accident scenario. This accident scenario is evaluated since its consequences can propagate to a release of hazardous material to the outside environment. It is therefore important to ensure that the evaporator system component structural integrity is not compromised, i.e. the design pressure and temperature of the system is not exceeded during the accident transient. The computer code used for the accident simulation is RELAP5-MOD31. The accident scenario analyzed includes a double-ended guillotine break of a tube in the tube bundle of the evaporator. A mitigated scenario is presented to evaluate the excursion of the peak pressure and temperature in the various components of the evaporator system to assess whether the protective actions and controls available are adequate to ensure that the structural integrity of the evaporator system is maintained and that no atmospheric release occurs.
Sensitivity and uncertainty studies of the CRAC2 computer code.
Kocher, D C; Ward, R C; Killough, G G; Dunning, D E; Hicks, B B; Hosker, R P; Ku, J Y; Rao, K S
1987-12-01
We have studied the sensitivity of health impacts from nuclear reactor accidents, as predicted by the CRAC2 computer code, to the following sources of uncertainty: (1) the model for plume rise, (2) the model for wet deposition, (3) the meteorological bin-sampling procedure for selecting weather sequences with rain, (4) the dose conversion factors for inhalation as affected by uncertainties in the particle size of the carrier aerosol and the clearance rates of radionuclides from the respiratory tract, (5) the weathering half-time for external ground-surface exposure, and (6) the transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchain pathways. Predicted health impacts usually showed little sensitivity to use of an alternative plume-rise model or a modified rain-bin structure in bin-sampling. Health impacts often were quite sensitive to use of an alternative wet-deposition model in single-trial runs with rain during plume passage, but were less sensitive to the model in bin-sampling runs. Uncertainties in the inhalation dose conversion factors had important effects on early injuries in single-trial runs. Latent cancer fatalities were moderately sensitive to uncertainties in the weathering half-time for ground-surface exposure, but showed little sensitivity to the transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchain pathways. Sensitivities of CRAC2 predictions to uncertainties in the models and parameters also depended on the magnitude of the source term, and some of the effects on early health effects were comparable to those that were due only to selection of different sets of weather sequences in bin-sampling. PMID:3444936
MMA, A Computer Code for Multi-Model Analysis
Eileen P. Poeter and Mary C. Hill
2007-08-20
This report documents the Multi-Model Analysis (MMA) computer code. MMA can be used to evaluate results from alternative models of a single system using the same set of observations for all models. As long as the observations, the observation weighting, and system being represented are the same, the models can differ in nearly any way imaginable. For example, they may include different processes, different simulation software, different temporal definitions (for example, steady-state and transient models could be considered), and so on. The multiple models need to be calibrated by nonlinear regression. Calibration of the individual models needs to be completed before application of MMA. MMA can be used to rank models and calculate posterior model probabilities. These can be used to (1) determine the relative importance of the characteristics embodied in the alternative models, (2) calculate model-averaged parameter estimates and predictions, and (3) quantify the uncertainty of parameter estimates and predictions in a way that integrates the variations represented by the alternative models. There is a lack of consensus on what model analysis methods are best, so MMA provides four default methods. Two are based on Kullback-Leibler information, and use the AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) or AICc (second-order-bias-corrected AIC) model discrimination criteria. The other two default methods are the BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion) and the KIC (Kashyap Information Criterion) model discrimination criteria. Use of the KIC criterion is equivalent to using the maximum-likelihood Bayesian model averaging (MLBMA) method. AIC, AICc, and BIC can be derived from Frequentist or Bayesian arguments. The default methods based on Kullback-Leibler information have a number of theoretical advantages, including that they tend to favor more complicated models as more data become available than do the other methods, which makes sense in many situations.
Assessment of uncertainties of the models used in thermal-hydraulic computer codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gricay, A. S.; Migrov, Yu. A.
2015-09-01
The article deals with matters concerned with the problem of determining the statistical characteristics of variable parameters (the variation range and distribution law) in analyzing the uncertainty and sensitivity of calculation results to uncertainty in input data. A comparative analysis of modern approaches to uncertainty in input data is presented. The need to develop an alternative method for estimating the uncertainty of model parameters used in thermal-hydraulic computer codes, in particular, in the closing correlations of the loop thermal hydraulics block, is shown. Such a method shall feature the minimal degree of subjectivism and must be based on objective quantitative assessment criteria. The method includes three sequential stages: selecting experimental data satisfying the specified criteria, identifying the key closing correlation using a sensitivity analysis, and carrying out case calculations followed by statistical processing of the results. By using the method, one can estimate the uncertainty range of a variable parameter and establish its distribution law in the above-mentioned range provided that the experimental information is sufficiently representative. Practical application of the method is demonstrated taking as an example the problem of estimating the uncertainty of a parameter appearing in the model describing transition to post-burnout heat transfer that is used in the thermal-hydraulic computer code KORSAR. The performed study revealed the need to narrow the previously established uncertainty range of this parameter and to replace the uniform distribution law in the above-mentioned range by the Gaussian distribution law. The proposed method can be applied to different thermal-hydraulic computer codes. In some cases, application of the method can make it possible to achieve a smaller degree of conservatism in the expert estimates of uncertainties pertinent to the model parameters used in computer codes.
T-Matrix: Codes for Computing Electromagnetic Scattering by Nonspherical and Aggregated Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waterman, Peter; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Mackowski, Daniel W.
2015-11-01
The T-Matrix package includes codes to compute electromagnetic scattering by homogeneous, rotationally symmetric nonspherical particles in fixed and random orientations, randomly oriented two-sphere clusters with touching or separated components, and multi-sphere clusters in fixed and random orientations. All codes are written in Fortran-77. LAPACK-based, extended-precision, Gauss-elimination- and NAG-based, and superposition codes are available, as are double-precision superposition, parallelized double-precision, double-precision Lorenz-Mie codes, and codes for the computation of the coefficients for the generalized Chebyshev shape.
1997-03-01
This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume consists of the section of the manual dealing with three of the functional modules in the code. Those are the Morse-SGC for the SCALE system, Heating 7.2, and KENO V.a. The manual describes the latest released versions of the codes.
Development and application of computational aerothermodynamics flowfield computer codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
1992-01-01
Presented is a collection of papers on research activities carried out during the funding period of October 1991 to March 1992. Topics covered include: blunt body flows in thermochemical equilibrium; thermochemical relaxation in high enthalpy nozzle flow; single expansion ramp nozzle simulations; lunar return aerobraking; line boundary problem for three dimensional grids; and unsteady shock induced combustion.
Multiphase integral reacting flow computer code (ICOMFLO): User`s guide
Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.
1997-11-01
A copyrighted computational fluid dynamics computer code, ICOMFLO, has been developed for the simulation of multiphase reacting flows. The code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and droplets (or solid particles) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by elliptic type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation. Associated phenomenological submodels of the code include integral combustion, two parameter turbulence, particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly developed integral combustion submodel replacing an Arrhenius type differential reaction submodel has been implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. A two parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. An evaporation submodel treats not only droplet evaporation but size dispersion. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer. The ICOMFLO code solves the governing equations in three steps. First, a staggered grid system is constructed in the flow domain. The staggered grid system defines gas velocity components on the surfaces of a control volume, while the other flow properties are defined at the volume center. A blocked cell technique is used to handle complex geometry. Then, the partial differential equations are integrated over each control volume and transformed into discrete difference equations. Finally, the difference equations are solved iteratively by using a modified SIMPLER algorithm. The results of the solution include gas flow properties (pressure, temperature, density, species concentration, velocity, and turbulence parameters) and particle flow properties (number density, temperature, velocity, and void fraction). The code has been used in many engineering applications, such as coal-fired combustors, air
Operations analysis (study 2.1). Program listing for the LOVES computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wray, S. T., Jr.
1974-01-01
A listing of the LOVES computer program is presented. The program is coded partially in SIMSCRIPT and FORTRAN. This version of LOVES is compatible with both the CDC 7600 and the UNIVAC 1108 computers. The code has been compiled, loaded, and executed successfully on the EXEC 8 system for the UNIVAC 1108.
Development of a 3-D upwind PNS code for chemically reacting hypersonic flowfields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tannehill, J. C.; Wadawadigi, G.
1992-01-01
Two new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) codes were developed to compute the three-dimensional, viscous, chemically reacting flow of air around hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The first code (TONIC) solves the gas dynamic and species conservation equations in a fully coupled manner using an implicit, approximately-factored, central-difference algorithm. This code was upgraded to include shock fitting and the capability of computing the flow around complex body shapes. The revised TONIC code was validated by computing the chemically-reacting (M(sub infinity) = 25.3) flow around a 10 deg half-angle cone at various angles of attack and the Ames All-Body model at 0 deg angle of attack. The results of these calculations were in good agreement with the results from the UPS code. One of the major drawbacks of the TONIC code is that the central-differencing of fluxes across interior flowfield discontinuities tends to introduce errors into the solution in the form of local flow property oscillations. The second code (UPS), originally developed for a perfect gas, has been extended to permit either perfect gas, equilibrium air, or nonequilibrium air computations. The code solves the PNS equations using a finite-volume, upwind TVD method based on Roe's approximate Riemann solver that was modified to account for real gas effects. The dissipation term associated with this algorithm is sufficiently adaptive to flow conditions that, even when attempting to capture very strong shock waves, no additional smoothing is required. For nonequilibrium calculations, the code solves the fluid dynamic and species continuity equations in a loosely-coupled manner. This code was used to calculate the hypersonic, laminar flow of chemically reacting air over cones at various angles of attack. In addition, the flow around the McDonnel Douglas generic option blended-wing-body was computed and comparisons were made between the perfect gas, equilibrium air, and the
Comparison of two computer codes for crack growth analysis: NASCRAC Versus NASA/FLAGRO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stallworth, R.; Meyers, C. A.; Stinson, H. C.
1989-01-01
Results are presented from the comparison study of two computer codes for crack growth analysis - NASCRAC and NASA/FLAGRO. The two computer codes gave compatible conservative results when the part through crack analysis solutions were analyzed versus experimental test data. Results showed good correlation between the codes for the through crack at a lug solution. For the through crack at a lug solution, NASA/FLAGRO gave the most conservative results.
Recent developments in the Los Alamos radiation transport code system
Forster, R.A.; Parsons, K.
1997-06-01
A brief progress report on updates to the Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) for solving criticality and fixed-source problems is provided. LARTCS integrates the Diffusion Accelerated Neutral Transport (DANT) discrete ordinates codes with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The LARCTS code is being developed with a graphical user interface for problem setup and analysis. Progress in the DANT system for criticality applications include a two-dimensional module which can be linked to a mesh-generation code and a faster iteration scheme. Updates to MCNP Version 4A allow statistical checks of calculated Monte Carlo results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin C.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam J.
2016-01-01
With the recent development of multi-dimensional thermal protection system (TPS) material response codes, the capability to account for surface-to-surface radiation exchange in complex geometries is critical. This paper presents recent efforts to implement such capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This work also describes the different numerical methods implemented in the code to compute geometric view factors for radiation problems involving multiple surfaces. Verification of the code's radiation capabilities and results of a code-to-code comparison are presented. Finally, a demonstration case of a two-dimensional ablating cavity with enclosure radiation accounting for a changing geometry is shown.
Developing a computational model of human hand kinetics using AVS
Abramowitz, Mark S.
1996-05-01
As part of an ongoing effort to develop a finite element model of the human hand at the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR), this project extended existing computational tools for analyzing and visualizing hand kinetics. These tools employ a commercial, scientific visualization package called AVS. FORTRAN and C code, originally written by David Giurintano of the Gillis W. Long Hansen`s Disease Center, was ported to a different computing platform, debugged, and documented. Usability features were added and the code was made more modular and readable. When the code is used to visualize bone movement and tendon paths for the thumb, graphical output is consistent with expected results. However, numerical values for forces and moments at the thumb joints do not yet appear to be accurate enough to be included in ISCR`s finite element model. Future work includes debugging the parts of the code that calculate forces and moments and verifying the correctness of these values.
Development of an object oriented lattice QCD code "Bridge++"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueda, S.; Aoki, S.; Aoyama, T.; Kanaya, K.; Matsufuru, H.; Motoki, S.; Namekawa, Y.; Nemura, H.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ukita, N.
2014-06-01
We are developing a new lattice QCD code set "Bridge++" aiming at extensible, readable, and portable workbench for QCD simulations, while keeping a high performance at the same time. Bridge++ covers conventional lattice actions and numerical algorithms. The code set is constructed in C++ with an object oriented programming. In this paper we describe fundamental ingredients of the code and the current status of development.
Finite element code development for modeling detonation of HMX composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duran, Adam; Sundararaghavan, Veera
2015-06-01
In this talk, we present a hydrodynamics code for modeling shock and detonation waves in HMX. A stable efficient solution strategy based on a Taylor-Galerkin finite element (FE) discretization was developed to solve the reactive Euler equations. In our code, well calibrated equations of state for the solid unreacted material and gaseous reaction products have been implemented, along with a chemical reaction scheme and a mixing rule to define the properties of partially reacted states. A linear Gruneisen equation of state was employed for the unreacted HMX calibrated from experiments. The JWL form was used to model the EOS of gaseous reaction products. It is assumed that the unreacted explosive and reaction products are in both pressure and temperature equilibrium. The overall specific volume and internal energy was computed using the rule of mixtures. Arrhenius kinetics scheme was integrated to model the chemical reactions. A locally controlled dissipation was introduced that induces a non-oscillatory stabilized scheme for the shock front. The FE model was validated using analytical solutions for sod shock and ZND strong detonation models and then used to perform 2D and 3D shock simulations. We will present benchmark problems for geometries in which a single HMX crystal is subjected to a shock condition. Our current progress towards developing microstructural models of HMX/binder composite will also be discussed.
Integral transport computation of gamma detector response with the CPM2 code
Jones, D.B. , Inc., Campbell, CA )
1989-12-01
CPM-2 Version 3 is an enhanced version of the CPM-2 lattice physics computer code which supports the capabilities to (1) perform a two-dimensional gamma flux calculation and (2) perform Restart/Data file maintenance operations. The Gamma Calculation Module implemented in CPM-2 was first developed for EPRI in the CASMO-1 computer code by Studsvik Energiteknik under EPRI Agreement RP2352-01. The gamma transport calculation uses the CPM-HET code module to calculate the transport of gamma rays in two dimensions in a mixed cylindrical-rectangular geometry, where the basic fuel assembly and component regions are maintained in a rectangular geometry, but the fuel pins are represented as cylinders within a square pin cell mesh. Such a capability is needed to represent gamma transport in an essentially transparent medium containing spatially distributed black'' cylindrical pins. Under a subcontract to RP2352-01, RPI developed the gamma production and gamma interaction library used for gamma calculation. The CPM-2 gamma calculation was verified against reference results generated by Studsvik using the CASMO-1 program. The CPM-2 Restart/Data file maintenance capabilities provide the user with options to copy files between Restart/Data tapes and to purge files from the Restart/Data tapes.
Additional development of the XTRAN3S computer program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borland, C. J.
1989-01-01
Additional developments and enhancements to the XTRAN3S computer program, a code for calculation of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, and associated aeroelastic solutions, for 3-D wings in the transonic flow regime are described. Algorithm improvements for the XTRAN3S program were provided including an implicit finite difference scheme to enhance the allowable time step and vectorization for improved computational efficiency. The code was modified to treat configurations with a fuselage, multiple stores/nacelles/pylons, and winglets. Computer program changes (updates) for error corrections and updates for version control are provided.
The Proteus Navier-Stokes code. [two and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.
1992-01-01
An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two and three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. Proteus solves the Reynolds-averaged, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. Turbulence is modeled using a Baldwin-Lomax based algebraic eddy viscosity model. In addition, options are available to solve thin layer or Euler equations, and to eliminate the energy equation by assuming constant stagnation enthalpy. An extensive series of validation cases have been run, primarily using the two dimensional planar/axisymmetric version of the code. Several flows were computed that have exact solution such as: fully developed channel and pipe flow; Couette flow with and without pressure gradients; unsteady Couette flow formation; flow near a suddenly accelerated flat plate; flow between concentric rotating cylinders; and flow near a rotating disk. The two dimensional version of the Proteus code has been released, and the three dimensional code is scheduled for release in late 1991.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Class, G.
1987-07-01
A program to simulate gas motion and shine through of thermal radiation in fusion reactor vacuum flow channels was developed. The inner surface of the flow channel is described by plane areas (triangles, parallelograms) and by surfaces of revolution. By introducing control planes in the flow path, a variance reduction and shortening of the computation, respectively, are achieved through particle splitting and Russian roulette. The code is written in PL/I and verified using published data. Computer aided input of model data is performed interactively either under IBM-TSO or at a microprocessor (IBM PC-AT). The data files are exchangeable between the IBM-mainframe and IBM-PC computers. Both computers can produce plots of the elaborated channel model. For testing, the simulating computation can likewise be run interactively, whereas the production computation can be issued batchwise. The results of code verification are explained, and examples of channel models and of the interactive mode are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cummings, Mary L.
1994-09-01
A FORTRAN computer code (SKINTEMP) has been developed to calculate transient missile/aircraft aerodynamic heating parameters utilizing basic flight parameters such as altitude, Mach number, and angle of attack. The insulated skin temperature of a vehicle surface on either the fuselage (axisymmetric body) or wing (two-dimensional body) is computed from a basic heat balance relationship throughout the entire spectrum (subsonic, transonic, supersonic, hypersonic) of flight. This calculation method employs a simple finite difference procedure which considers radiation, forced convection, and non-reactive chemistry. Surface pressure estimates are based on a modified Newtonian flow model. Eckert's reference temperature method is used as the forced convection heat transfer model. SKINTEMP predictions are compared with a limited number of test cases. SKINTEMP was developed as a tool to enhance the conceptual design process of high speed missiles and aircraft. Recommendations are made for possible future development of SKINTEMP to further support the design process.
Agarwal, Sapan; Quach, Tu -Thach; Parekh, Ojas; DeBenedictis, Erik P.; James, Conrad D.; Marinella, Matthew J.; Aimone, James B.
2016-01-06
In this study, the exponential increase in data over the last decade presents a significant challenge to analytics efforts that seek to process and interpret such data for various applications. Neural-inspired computing approaches are being developed in order to leverage the computational properties of the analog, low-power data processing observed in biological systems. Analog resistive memory crossbars can perform a parallel read or a vector-matrix multiplication as well as a parallel write or a rank-1 update with high computational efficiency. For an N × N crossbar, these two kernels can be O(N) more energy efficient than a conventional digital memory-basedmore » architecture. If the read operation is noise limited, the energy to read a column can be independent of the crossbar size (O(1)). These two kernels form the basis of many neuromorphic algorithms such as image, text, and speech recognition. For instance, these kernels can be applied to a neural sparse coding algorithm to give an O(N) reduction in energy for the entire algorithm when run with finite precision. Sparse coding is a rich problem with a host of applications including computer vision, object tracking, and more generally unsupervised learning.« less
Agarwal, Sapan; Quach, Tu-Thach; Parekh, Ojas; Hsia, Alexander H; DeBenedictis, Erik P; James, Conrad D; Marinella, Matthew J; Aimone, James B
2015-01-01
The exponential increase in data over the last decade presents a significant challenge to analytics efforts that seek to process and interpret such data for various applications. Neural-inspired computing approaches are being developed in order to leverage the computational properties of the analog, low-power data processing observed in biological systems. Analog resistive memory crossbars can perform a parallel read or a vector-matrix multiplication as well as a parallel write or a rank-1 update with high computational efficiency. For an N × N crossbar, these two kernels can be O(N) more energy efficient than a conventional digital memory-based architecture. If the read operation is noise limited, the energy to read a column can be independent of the crossbar size (O(1)). These two kernels form the basis of many neuromorphic algorithms such as image, text, and speech recognition. For instance, these kernels can be applied to a neural sparse coding algorithm to give an O(N) reduction in energy for the entire algorithm when run with finite precision. Sparse coding is a rich problem with a host of applications including computer vision, object tracking, and more generally unsupervised learning. PMID:26778946
Agarwal, Sapan; Quach, Tu-Thach; Parekh, Ojas; Hsia, Alexander H.; DeBenedictis, Erik P.; James, Conrad D.; Marinella, Matthew J.; Aimone, James B.
2016-01-01
The exponential increase in data over the last decade presents a significant challenge to analytics efforts that seek to process and interpret such data for various applications. Neural-inspired computing approaches are being developed in order to leverage the computational properties of the analog, low-power data processing observed in biological systems. Analog resistive memory crossbars can perform a parallel read or a vector-matrix multiplication as well as a parallel write or a rank-1 update with high computational efficiency. For an N × N crossbar, these two kernels can be O(N) more energy efficient than a conventional digital memory-based architecture. If the read operation is noise limited, the energy to read a column can be independent of the crossbar size (O(1)). These two kernels form the basis of many neuromorphic algorithms such as image, text, and speech recognition. For instance, these kernels can be applied to a neural sparse coding algorithm to give an O(N) reduction in energy for the entire algorithm when run with finite precision. Sparse coding is a rich problem with a host of applications including computer vision, object tracking, and more generally unsupervised learning. PMID:26778946
BRYNTRN: A baryon transport computer code, computation procedures and data base
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Chun, Sang Y.; Buck, Warren W.; Khan, Ferdous; Cucinotta, Frank
1988-01-01
The development is described of an interaction data base and a numerical solution to the transport of baryons through the arbitrary shield material based on a straight ahead approximation of the Boltzmann equation. The code is most accurate for continuous energy boundary values but gives reasonable results for discrete spectra at the boundary with even a relatively coarse energy grid (30 points) and large spatial increments (1 cm in H2O).
The role of the PIRT process in identifying code improvements and executing code development
Wilson, G.E.; Boyack, B.E.
1997-07-01
In September 1988, the USNRC issued a revised ECCS rule for light water reactors that allows, as an option, the use of best estimate (BE) plus uncertainty methods in safety analysis. The key feature of this licensing option relates to quantification of the uncertainty in the determination that an NPP has a {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} probability of violating the safety criteria specified in 10 CFR 50. To support the 1988 licensing revision, the USNRC and its contractors developed the CSAU evaluation methodology to demonstrate the feasibility of the BE plus uncertainty approach. The PIRT process, Step 3 in the CSAU methodology, was originally formulated to support the BE plus uncertainty licensing option as executed in the CSAU approach to safety analysis. Subsequent work has shown the PIRT process to be a much more powerful tool than conceived in its original form. Through further development and application, the PIRT process has shown itself to be a robust means to establish safety analysis computer code phenomenological requirements in their order of importance to such analyses. Used early in research directed toward these objectives, PIRT results also provide the technical basis and cost effective organization for new experimental programs needed to improve the safety analysis codes for new applications. The primary purpose of this paper is to describe the generic PIRT process, including typical and common illustrations from prior applications. The secondary objective is to provide guidance to future applications of the process to help them focus, in a graded approach, on systems, components, processes and phenomena that have been common in several prior applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharkhordin, I. L.
2013-12-01
Correct calculations of multistep radioactive decay is important for radionuclide transport forecast at contaminated sites and designing radionuclide storage facilities as well as for a number applications of natural radioactive tracers for understanding of groundwater flow in complex hydrogeological systems. Radioactive chains can involves a number of branches with certain probabilities of decay and up to fourteen steps. General description of radioactive decay in complex system could be presented as a system of linear differential equations. Numerical solution of this system encounters a difficulties connected with wide rage of radioactive decay constants variations. In present work the database with 1253 records of radioactive isotope decay parameters for 97 elements was created. An algorithm of analytical solution construction and solving was elaborated for arbitrary radioactive isotope system taking into account the possible chain branching and connection. The algorithm is based on radionuclide decay graphs. The main steps of algorithm is as follows: a) searching of all possible isotopes in database, creation full isotope list; b) looking for main parent isotopes; c) construction of all possible radioactive chains; d) looking for branching and connections in decay chains, marking of links as primary (left chain in graph for main parent isotope), secondary (after connection), and recurring (before branching); e) construction and calculation the coefficients for analytical solutions. The developed computer code was tested on a few simple systems like follows: Cs-135 - one step decay, Sr-90 (Y-90) - two steps decay, U-238+U-235 mixture - complex decay with branching. Calculation of radiogenic He-4 is also possible witch could be important application for groundwater flow and transport model calibration using natural tracers. The computer code for multistep radioactive calculation was elaborated for incorporation into NIMFA code. NIMFA is a parallel computer code
Application of the TEMPEST computer code to canister-filling heat transfer problems
Farnsworth, R.K.; Faletti, D.W.; Budden, M.J.
1988-03-01
Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) researchers used the TEMPEST computer code to simulate thermal cooldown behavior of nuclear waste glass after it was poured into steel canisters for long-term storage. The objective of this work was to determine the accuracy and applicability of the TEMPEST code when used to compute canister thermal histories. First, experimental data were obtained to provide the basis for comparing TEMPEST-generated predictions. Five canisters were instrumented with appropriately located radial and axial thermocouples. The canister were filled using the pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) at PNL. Each canister was filled in either a continous or a batch filling mode. One of the canisters was also filled within a turntable simulant (a group of cylindrical shells with heat transfer resistances similar to those in an actual melter turntable). This was necessary to provide a basis for assessing the ability of the TEMPEST code to also model the transient cooling of canisters in a melter turntable. The continous-fill model, Version M, was found to predict temperatures with more accuracy. The turntable simulant experiment demonstrated that TEMPEST can adequately model the asymmetric temperature field caused by the turntable geometry. Further, TEMPEST can acceptably predict the canister cooling history within a turntable, despite code limitations in computing simultaneous radiation and convection heat transfer between shells, along with uncertainty in stainless-steel surface emissivities. Based on the successful performance of TEMPEST Version M, development was initiated to incorporate 1) full viscous glass convection, 2) a dynamically adaptive grid that automatically follows the glass/air interface throughout the transient, and 3) a full enclosure radiation model to allow radiation heat transfer to non-nearest neighbor cells. 5 refs., 47 figs., 17 tabs.
On the Development of a Gridless Inflation Code for Parachute Simulations
STRICKLAND,JAMES H.; HOMICZ,GREGORY F.; GOSSLER,ALBERT A.; WOLFE,WALTER P.; PORTER,VICKI L.
2000-08-29
In this paper the authors present the current status of an unsteady 3D parachute simulation code which is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The Vortex Inflation PARachute code (VIPAR) which embodies this effort will eventually be able to perform complete numerical simulations of ribbon parachute deployment, inflation, and steady descent. At the present time they have a working serial version of the uncoupled fluids code which can simulate unsteady 3D incompressible flows around bluff bodies made up of triangular membrane elements. A parallel version of the code has just been completed which will allow one to compute flows over complex geometries utilizing several thousand processors on one of the new DOE teraFLOP computers.
Benchmark Problems Used to Assess Computational Aeroacoustics Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahl, Milo D.; Envia, Edmane
2005-01-01
The field of computational aeroacoustics (CAA) encompasses numerical techniques for calculating all aspects of sound generation and propagation in air directly from fundamental governing equations. Aeroacoustic problems typically involve flow-generated noise, with and without the presence of a solid surface, and the propagation of the sound to a receiver far away from the noise source. It is a challenge to obtain accurate numerical solutions to these problems. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been at the forefront in developing and promoting the development of CAA techniques and methodologies for computing the noise generated by aircraft propulsion systems. To assess the technological advancement of CAA, Glenn, in cooperation with the Ohio Aerospace Institute and the AeroAcoustics Research Consortium, organized and hosted the Fourth CAA Workshop on Benchmark Problems. Participants from industry and academia from both the United States and abroad joined to present and discuss solutions to benchmark problems. These demonstrated technical progress ranging from the basic challenges to accurate CAA calculations to the solution of CAA problems of increasing complexity and difficulty. The results are documented in the proceedings of the workshop. Problems were solved in five categories. In three of the five categories, exact solutions were available for comparison with CAA results. A fourth category of problems representing sound generation from either a single airfoil or a blade row interacting with a gust (i.e., problems relevant to fan noise) had approximate analytical or completely numerical solutions. The fifth category of problems involved sound generation in a viscous flow. In this case, the CAA results were compared with experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell
1999-01-01
AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined
REMAP: A computer code that transfers node information between dissimilar grids
Shapiro, A.B.
1990-04-01
REMAP is a computer code that transfers the axisymmetric, two dimensional planar, or three dimensional temperature field from one finite element mesh to another. The meshes may be arbitrary as far as the number of elements and their geometry. REMAP interpolates or extrapolates the node temperatures from the old mesh to the new mesh using linear, bilinear, or trilinear isoparametric finite element shape functions. REMAP is used to transfer the temperature field from a thermal analysis mesh to a more finely discretized structural analysis mesh when performing a thermal stress analysis. REMAP was designed to be used with the finite element heat transfer codes TOPAZ2D and TOPAZ3D, and the solid mechanics codes NIKE2D and NIKE3D. The I/O formats in REMAP can be easily modified to accept input from other codes (e.g., finite difference) and generate output files for other structural codes. REMAP can be used to transfer any scalar field variable between dissimilar finite element meshes. The idea of a coarse filter by a fine filter to determine which element from the old mesh contains a node point from the new mesh was used. The coarse filter determines a subset of elements from the old mesh that may contain the new node point. The fine filter determines the element that contains the new node point. REMAP uses the ray-surface intersection algorithm developed for the FACET code for the fine filter. This algorithm has the added capability to determine which element the node is closest to if the node point lies outside the perimeter of the old mesh. Once an element from the old mesh has been identified as containing or closest to the new node point, the natural coordinates for the node point are calculated. The isoparametric finite element shape functions are calculated next. These shape functions are then used to interpolate or extrapolate the temperatures from the nodes comprising the old element to the new node point.
Computation of Supersonic Jet Mixing Noise Using PARC Code With a kappa-epsilon Turbulence Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khavaran, A.; Kim, C. M.
1999-01-01
A number of modifications have been proposed in order to improve the jet noise prediction capabilities of the MGB code. This code which was developed at General Electric, employees the concept of acoustic analogy for the prediction of turbulent mixing noise. The source convection and also refraction of sound due to the shrouding effect of the mean flow are accounted for by incorporating the high frequency solution to Lilley's equation for cylindrical jets (Balsa and Mani). The broadband shock-associated noise is estimated using Harper-Bourne and Fisher's shock noise theory. The proposed modifications are aimed at improving the aerodynamic predictions (source/spectrum computations) and allowing for the non- axisymmetric effects in the jet plume and nozzle geometry (sound/flow interaction). In addition, recent advances in shock noise prediction as proposed by Tam can be employed to predict the shock-associated noise as an addition to the jet mixing noise when the flow is not perfectly expanded. Here we concentrate on the aerodynamic predictions using the PARC code with a k-E turbulence model and the ensuing turbulent mixing noise. The geometry under consideration is an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle at its design operating conditions. Aerodynamic and acoustic computations are compared with data as well as predictions due to the original MGB model using Reichardt's aerodynamic theory.
Large eddy simulation of fine water sprays: comparative analysis of two models and computer codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsoy, A. S.; Snegirev, A. Yu.
2015-09-01
The model and the computer code FDS, albeit widely used in engineering practice to predict fire development, is not sufficiently validated for fire suppression by fine water sprays. In this work, the effect of numerical resolution of the large scale turbulent pulsations on the accuracy of predicted time-averaged spray parameters is evaluated. Comparison of the simulation results obtained with the two versions of the model and code, as well as that of the predicted and measured radial distributions of the liquid flow rate revealed the need to apply monotonic and yet sufficiently accurate discrete approximations of the convective terms. Failure to do so delays jet break-up, otherwise induced by large turbulent eddies, thereby excessively focuses the predicted flow around its axis. The effect of the pressure drop in the spray nozzle is also examined, and its increase has shown to cause only weak increase of the evaporated fraction and vapor concentration despite the significant increase of flow velocity.
1997-03-01
This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume is part of the manual related to the control modules for the newest updated version of this computational package.
Landsat, computers, and development projects.
Adrien, P M; Baumgardner, M F
1977-11-01
Data provided by earth-orbiting satellites and analyzed through specific computer techniques are rapidly providing policy-makers around the world with new information on the location and extent of their countries' renewable and nonrenewable resources. Development projects utilizing remote sensing technology are being supported, for example, by the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other international funding agencies. The Inter-American Development Bank is financing a natural resources inventory of five countries in Central America, and this will require the application of remote sensing in the analysis of 33 Landsat images covering the area. Although the Landsat program remains experimental in nature, studies pertaining to its follow-on aspects will ensure continuation of the program so that developed and developing countries will be able to maintain better control of the management of their natural resources. PMID:17842110
Thermodynamic analysis of five compressed-air energy-storage cycles. [Using CAESCAP computer code
Fort, J. A.
1983-03-01
One important aspect of the Compressed-Air Energy-Storage (CAES) Program is the evaluation of alternative CAES plant designs. The thermodynamic performance of the various configurations is particularly critical to the successful demonstration of CAES as an economically feasible energy-storage option. A computer code, the Compressed-Air Energy-Storage Cycle-Analysis Program (CAESCAP), was developed in 1982 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This code was designed specifically to calculate overall thermodynamic performance of proposed CAES-system configurations. The results of applying this code to the analysis of five CAES plant designs are presented in this report. The designs analyzed were: conventional CAES; adiabatic CAES; hybrid CAES; pressurized fluidized-bed CAES; and direct coupled steam-CAES. Inputs to the code were based on published reports describing each plant cycle. For each cycle analyzed, CAESCAP calculated the thermodynamic station conditions and individual-component efficiencies, as well as overall cycle-performance-parameter values. These data were then used to diagram the availability and energy flow for each of the five cycles. The resulting diagrams graphically illustrate the overall thermodynamic performance inherent in each plant configuration, and enable a more accurate and complete understanding of each design.
Development of covariance capabilities in EMPIRE code
Herman,M.; Pigni, M.T.; Oblozinsky, P.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Mattoon, C.M.; Capote, R.; Cho, Young-Sik; Trkov, A.
2008-06-24
The nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended to provide evaluation capabilities for neutron cross section covariances in the thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The Atlas of Neutron Resonances by Mughabghab is used as a primary source of information on uncertainties at low energies. Care is taken to ensure consistency among the resonance parameter uncertainties and those for thermal cross sections. The resulting resonance parameter covariances are formatted in the ENDF-6 File 32. In the fast neutron range our methodology is based on model calculations with the code EMPIRE combined with experimental data through several available approaches. The model-based covariances can be obtained using deterministic (Kalman) or stochastic (Monte Carlo) propagation of model parameter uncertainties. We show that these two procedures yield comparable results. The Kalman filter and/or the generalized least square fitting procedures are employed to incorporate experimental information. We compare the two approaches analyzing results for the major reaction channels on {sup 89}Y. We also discuss a long-standing issue of unreasonably low uncertainties and link it to the rigidity of the model.
Development of Covariance Capabilities in EMPIRE Code
Herman, M. Pigni, M.T.; Oblozinsky, P.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Mattoon, C.M.; Capote, R.; Cho, Young-Sik; Trkov, A.
2008-12-15
The nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended to provide evaluation capabilities for neutron cross section covariances in the thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The Atlas of Neutron Resonances by Mughabghab is used as a primary source of information on uncertainties at low energies. Care is taken to ensure consistency among the resonance parameter uncertainties and those for thermal cross sections. The resulting resonance parameter covariances are formatted in the ENDF-6 File 32. In the fast neutron range our methodology is based on model calculations with the code EMPIRE combined with experimental data through several available approaches. The model-based covariances can be obtained using deterministic (Kalman) or stochastic (Monte Carlo) propagation of model parameter uncertainties. We show that these two procedures yield comparable results. The Kalman filter and/or the generalized least square fitting procedures are employed to incorporate experimental information. We compare the two approaches analyzing results for the major reaction channels on {sup 89}Y. We also discuss a long-standing issue of unreasonably low uncertainties and link it to the rigidity of the model.
Input to the PRAST computer code used in the SRS probabilistic risk assessment
Kearnaghan, D.P.
1992-10-15
The PRAST (Production Reactor Algorithm for Source Terms) computer code was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Science Application International Corporation for the quantification of source terms for the SRS Savannah River Site (SRS) Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment. PRAST requires as input a set of release fractions, decontamination factors, transfer fractions and source term characteristics that accurately reflect the conditions that are evaluated by PRAST. This document links the analyses which form the basis for the PRAST input parameters. In addition, it gives the distribution of the input parameters that are uncertain and considered to be important to the evaluation of the source terms to the environment.
TEMPEST: A computer code for three-dimensional analysis of transient fluid dynamics
Fort, J.A.
1995-06-01
TEMPEST (Transient Energy Momentum and Pressure Equations Solutions in Three dimensions) is a powerful tool for solving engineering problems in nuclear energy, waste processing, chemical processing, and environmental restoration because it analyzes and illustrates 3-D time-dependent computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer analysis. It is a family of codes with two primary versions, a N- Version (available to public) and a T-Version (not currently available to public). This handout discusses its capabilities, applications, numerical algorithms, development status, and availability and assistance.
Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 1; Program Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Dean; Bond, Thomas; Sheldon, David; Wright, William; Langhals, Tammy; Al-Khalil, Kamel; Broughton, Howard
1996-01-01
The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. LEWICE/Thermal (electrothermal deicing & anti-icing), and ANTICE (hot-gas & electrothermal anti-icing). The Thermal Code Validation effort was designated as a priority during a 1994 'peer review' of the NASA Lewis Icing program, and was implemented as a cooperative effort with industry. During April 1996, the first of a series of experimental validation tests was conducted in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel(IRT). The purpose of the April 96 test was to validate the electrothermal predictive capabilities of both LEWICE/Thermal, and ANTICE. A heavily instrumented test article was designed and fabricated for this test, with the capability of simulating electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Thermal measurements were then obtained over a range of test conditions, for comparison with analytical predictions. This paper will present an overview of the test, including a detailed description of: (1) the validation process; (2) test article design; (3) test matrix development; and (4) test procedures. Selected experimental results will be presented for de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Finally, the status of the validation effort at this point will be summarized. Detailed comparisons between analytical predictions and experimental results are contained in the following two papers: 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 2- The Validation of LEWICE/Thermal' and 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 3-The Validation of ANTICE'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang
2010-12-01
The accurate computations of hydrogenic continuum wave functions are very important in many branches of physics such as electron-atom collisions, cold atom physics, and atomic ionization in strong laser fields, etc. Although there already exist various algorithms and codes, most of them are only reliable in a certain ranges of parameters. In some practical applications, accurate continuum wave functions need to be calculated at extremely low energies, large radial distances and/or large angular momentum number. Here we provide such a code, which can generate accurate hydrogenic continuum wave functions and corresponding Coulomb phase shifts at a wide range of parameters. Without any essential restrict to angular momentum number, the present code is able to give reliable results at the electron energy range [10,10] eV for radial distances of [10,10] a.u. We also find the present code is very efficient, which should find numerous applications in many fields such as strong field physics. Program summaryProgram title: HContinuumGautchi Catalogue identifier: AEHD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1233 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7405 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 in fixed format Computer: AMD Processors Operating system: Linux RAM: 20 MBytes Classification: 2.7, 4.5 Nature of problem: The accurate computation of atomic continuum wave functions is very important in many research fields such as strong field physics and cold atom physics. Although there have already existed various algorithms and codes, most of them can only be applicable and reliable in a certain range of parameters. We present here an accurate FORTRAN program for
Horak, W.C.; Lu, Ming-Shih
1991-12-01
This paper reviews the accuracy and precision of methods used by United States electric utilities to determine the actinide isotopic and element content of irradiated fuel. After an extensive literature search, three key code suites were selected for review. Two suites of computer codes, CASMO and ARMP, are used for reactor physics calculations; the ORIGEN code is used for spent fuel calculations. They are also the most widely used codes in the nuclear industry throughout the world. Although none of these codes calculate actinide isotopics as their primary variables intended for safeguards applications, accurate calculation of actinide isotopic content is necessary to fulfill their function.
White, M.D.
1980-05-01
This report documents a modular data interpretation computer code. The MASFLO code is a Fortran code used in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Blowdown Heat Transfer Program to convert measured quantities of density, volumetric flow, and momentum flux into a calculated quantity: mass flow rate. The code performs both homogeneous and two-velocity calculations. The homogeneous models incorporate various combinations of the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility instrumented spool piece turbine flow meter, gamma densitometer, and drag disk readings. The two-velocity calculations also incorporate these instruments, but in models developed by Aya, Rouhani, and Popper. Each subroutine is described briefly, and input instructions are provided in the appendix along with a sample of the code output.
Chan, M.K.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Owczarski, P.C.
1989-02-01
This manual describes the technical bases and use of the computer code FIRIN. This code was developed to estimate the source term release of smoke and radioactive particles from potential fires in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRIN is a product of a broader study, Fuel Cycle Accident Analysis, which Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The technical bases of FIRIN consist of a nonradioactive fire source term model, compartment effects modeling, and radioactive source term models. These three elements interact with each other in the code affecting the course of the fire. This report also serves as a complete FIRIN user's manual. Included are the FIRIN code description with methods/algorithms of calculation and subroutines, code operating instructions with input requirements, and output descriptions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.
GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures
Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.
1992-12-01
This report discusses the GAM[underscore]HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guilliotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.
GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures. Revision 2
Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.
1992-12-01
This report discusses the GAM{underscore}HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guilliotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.
GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, R. E.; Taylor, J. R.
1992-12-01
This report discusses the GAM-HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guillotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.
A fast technique for computing syndromes of BCH and RS codes. [deep space network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Miller, R. L.
1979-01-01
A combination of the Chinese Remainder Theorem and Winograd's algorithm is used to compute transforms of odd length over GF(2 to the m power). Such transforms are used to compute the syndromes needed for decoding CBH and RS codes. The present scheme requires substantially fewer multiplications and additions than the conventional method of computing the syndromes directly.
RTE: A computer code for Rocket Thermal Evaluation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naraghi, Mohammad H. N.
1995-01-01
The numerical model for a rocket thermal analysis code (RTE) is discussed. RTE is a comprehensive thermal analysis code for thermal analysis of regeneratively cooled rocket engines. The input to the code consists of the composition of fuel/oxidant mixture and flow rates, chamber pressure, coolant temperature and pressure. dimensions of the engine, materials and the number of nodes in different parts of the engine. The code allows for temperature variation in axial, radial and circumferential directions. By implementing an iterative scheme, it provides nodal temperature distribution, rates of heat transfer, hot gas and coolant thermal and transport properties. The fuel/oxidant mixture ratio can be varied along the thrust chamber. This feature allows the user to incorporate a non-equilibrium model or an energy release model for the hot-gas-side. The user has the option of bypassing the hot-gas-side calculations and directly inputting the gas-side fluxes. This feature is used to link RTE to a boundary layer module for the hot-gas-side heat flux calculations.
Second Generation Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) Computer Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Ginty, Carol A.; Sanfeliz, Jose G.
1993-01-01
This manual updates the original 1986 NASA TP-2515, Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) Users and Programmers Manual. The various enhancements and newly added features are described to enable the user to prepare the appropriate input data to run this updated version of the ICAN code. For reference, the micromechanics equations are provided in an appendix and should be compared to those in the original manual for modifications. A complete output for a sample case is also provided in a separate appendix. The input to the code includes constituent material properties, factors reflecting the fabrication process, and laminate configuration. The code performs micromechanics, macromechanics, and laminate analyses, including the hygrothermal response of polymer-matrix-based fiber composites. The output includes the various ply and composite properties, the composite structural response, and the composite stress analysis results with details on failure. The code is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be used efficiently as a self-contained package (or as a module) in complex structural analysis programs. The input-output format has changed considerably from the original version of ICAN and is described extensively through the use of a sample problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brogan, John
Understanding the dosimetry for high-energy, heavy ions (HZE), especially within living systems, is complex and requires the use of both experimental and computational methods. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) have been used experimentally to measure energy deposition in volumes similar in dimension to a mammalian cell. As these experiments begin to include a wider range of ions and energies, considerations to cost, time, and radiation protection are necessary and may limit the extent of these studies. Multiple Monte Carlo computational codes have been created to remediate this problem and serve as a mode of verification for pervious experimental methods. One such code, Relativistic-Ion Tracks (RITRACKS), is currently being developed at the NASA Johnson Space center. RITRACKS was designed to describe patterns of ionizations responsible for DNA damage on the molecular scale (nanometers). This study extends RITRACKS version 3.07 into the microdosimetric scale (microns), and compares computational results to previous experimental TEPC data. Energy deposition measurements for 1000 MeV nucleon-1 Fe ions in a 1 micron spherical target were compared. Different settings within RITRACKS were tested to verify their effects on dose to a target and the resulting energy deposition frequency distribution. The results were then compared to the TEPC data.
Ritter, E R
1991-08-01
A computer package has been developed called THERM, an acronym for THermodynamic property Estimation for Radicals and Molecules. THERM is a versatile computer code designed to automate the estimation of ideal gas phase thermodynamic properties for radicals and molecules important to combustion and reaction-modeling studies. Thermodynamic properties calculated include heat of formation and entropies at 298 K and heat capacities from 300 to 1500 K. Heat capacity estimates are then extrapolated to above 5000 K, and NASA format polynomial thermodynamic property representations valid from 298 to 5000 K are generated. This code is written in Microsoft Fortran version 5.0 for use on machines running under MSDOS. THERM uses group additivity principles of Benson and current best values for bond strengths, changes in entropy, and loss of vibrational degrees of freedom to estimate properties for radical species from parent molecules. This ensemble of computer programs can be used to input literature data, estimate data when not available, and review, update, and revise entries to reflect improvements and modifications to the group contribution and bond dissociation databases. All input and output files are ASCII so that they can be easily edited, updated, or expanded. In addition, heats of reaction, entropy changes, Gibbs free-energy changes, and equilibrium constants can be calculated as functions of temperature from a NASA format polynomial database. PMID:1939398
Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement
Conover, D.R.
1994-08-01
This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.
Development of the 3DHZETRN code for space radiation protection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, John; Badavi, Francis; Slaba, Tony; Reddell, Brandon; Bahadori, Amir; Singleterry, Robert
Space radiation protection requires computationally efficient shield assessment methods that have been verified and validated. The HZETRN code is the engineering design code used for low Earth orbit dosimetric analysis and astronaut record keeping with end-to-end validation to twenty percent in Space Shuttle and International Space Station operations. HZETRN treated diffusive leakage only at the distal surface limiting its application to systems with a large radius of curvature. A revision of HZETRN that included forward and backward diffusion allowed neutron leakage to be evaluated at both the near and distal surfaces. That revision provided a deterministic code of high computational efficiency that was in substantial agreement with Monte Carlo (MC) codes in flat plates (at least to the degree that MC codes agree among themselves). In the present paper, the 3DHZETRN formalism capable of evaluation in general geometry is described. Benchmarking will help quantify uncertainty with MC codes (Geant4, FLUKA, MCNP6, and PHITS) in simple shapes such as spheres within spherical shells and boxes. Connection of the 3DHZETRN to general geometry will be discussed.
Computational Participation: Understanding Coding as an Extension of Literacy Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Quinn; O'Byrne, W. Ian; Kafai, Yasmin B.
2016-01-01
Understanding the computational concepts on which countless digital applications run offers learners the opportunity to no longer simply read such media but also become more discerning end users and potentially innovative "writers" of new media themselves. To think computationally--to solve problems, to design systems, and to process and…
Scalable Computational Chemistry: New Developments and Applications
Yuri Alexeev
2002-12-31
The computational part of the thesis is the investigation of titanium chloride (II) as a potential catalyst for the bis-silylation reaction of ethylene with hexaclorodisilane at different levels of theory. Bis-silylation is an important reaction for producing bis(silyl) compounds and new C-Si bonds, which can serve as monomers for silicon containing polymers and silicon carbides. Ab initio calculations on the steps involved in a proposed mechanism are presented. This choice of reactants allows them to study this reaction at reliable levels of theory without compromising accuracy. The calculations indicate that this is a highly exothermic barrierless reaction. The TiCl{sub 2} catalyst removes a 50 kcal/mol activation energy barrier required for the reaction without the catalyst. The first step is interaction of TiCl{sub 2} with ethylene to form an intermediate that is 60 kcal/mol below the energy of the reactants. This is the driving force for the entire reaction. Dynamic correlation plays a significant role because RHF calculations indicate that the net barrier for the catalyzed reaction is 50 kcal/mol. They conclude that divalent Ti has the potential to become an important industrial catalyst for silylation reactions. In the programming part of the thesis, parallelization of different quantum chemistry methods is presented. The parallelization of code is becoming important aspects of quantum chemistry code development. Two trends contribute to it: the overall desire to study large chemical systems and the desire to employ highly correlated methods which are usually computationally and memory expensive. In the presented distributed data algorithms computation is parallelized and the largest arrays are evenly distributed among CPUs. First, the parallelization of the Hartree-Fock self-consistent field (SCF) method is considered. SCF method is the most common starting point for more accurate calculations. The Fock build (sub step of SCF) from AO integrals is also
A new 3-D integral code for computation of accelerator magnets
Turner, L.R.; Kettunen, L.
1991-01-01
For computing accelerator magnets, integral codes have several advantages over finite element codes; far-field boundaries are treated automatically, and computed field in the bore region satisfy Maxwell's equations exactly. A new integral code employing edge elements rather than nodal elements has overcome the difficulties associated with earlier integral codes. By the use of field integrals (potential differences) as solution variables, the number of unknowns is reduced to one less than the number of nodes. Two examples, a hollow iron sphere and the dipole magnet of Advanced Photon Source injector synchrotron, show the capability of the code. The CPU time requirements are comparable to those of three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element codes. Experiments show that in practice it can realize much of the potential CPU time saving that parallel processing makes possible. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Richard A.; Lee, Kam-Pui; Gupta, Roop N.
1991-01-01
The computer codes developed here provide self-consistent thermodynamic and transport properties for equilibrium air for temperatures from 500 to 30000 K over a temperature range of 10 (exp -4) to 10 (exp -2) atm. These properties are computed through the use of temperature dependent curve fits for discrete values of pressure. Interpolation is employed for intermediate values of pressure. The curve fits are based on mixture values calculated from an 11-species air model. Individual species properties used in the mixture relations are obtained from a recent study by the present authors. A review and discussion of the sources and accuracy of the curve fitted data used herein are given in NASA RP 1260.
Digital Poetry: A Narrow Relation between Poetics and the Codes of the Computational Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurentiz, Silvia
The project "Percorrendo Escrituras" (Walking Through Writings Project) has been developed at ECA-USP Fine Arts Department. Summarizing, it intends to study different structures of digital information that share the same universe and are generators of a new aesthetics condition. The aim is to search which are the expressive possibilities of the computer among the algorithm functions and other of its specific properties. It is a practical, theoretical and interdisciplinary project where the study of programming evolutionary language, logic and mathematics take us to poetic experimentations. The focus of this research is the digital poetry, and it comes from poetics of permutation combinations and culminates with dynamic and complex systems, autonomous, multi-user and interactive, through agents generation derivations, filtration and emergent standards. This lecture will present artworks that use some mechanisms introduced by cybernetics and the notion of system in digital poetry that demonstrate the narrow relationship between poetics and the codes of computational logic.
Balancing Particle and Mesh Computation in a Particle-In-Cell Code
Worley, Patrick H; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Hager, Robert; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Yoon, Eisung; Chang, C. S.
2016-01-01
The XGC1 plasma microturbulence particle-in-cell simulation code has both particle-based and mesh-based computational kernels that dominate performance. Both of these are subject to load imbalances that can degrade performance and that evolve during a simulation. Each separately can be addressed adequately, but optimizing just for one can introduce significant load imbalances in the other, degrading overall performance. A technique has been developed based on Golden Section Search that minimizes wallclock time given prior information on wallclock time, and on current particle distribution and mesh cost per cell, and also adapts to evolution in load imbalance in both particle and mesh work. In problems of interest this doubled the performance on full system runs on the XK7 at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility compared to load balancing only one of the kernels.
Development of tokamak reactor system analysis code NEW-TORSAC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasai, Masao; Ida, Toshio; Nishikawa, Masana; Kameari, Akihisa; Nishio, Satoshi; Tone, Tatsuzo
1987-07-01
A systems analysis code named NEW-TORSAC (TOkamak Reactor Systems Analysis Code) has been developed by modifying the TORSAC which had been already developed by us. The NEW-TORSAC is available for tokamak reactor designs and evaluations from experimental machines to commercial reactor plants. It has functions to design tokamaks automatically from plasma parameter setting to determining configurations of reactor equipments and calculating main characteristics parameters of auxiliary systems and the capital costs. In the case of analyzing tokamak reactor plants, the code can calculate busbar energy costs. In addition to numerical output, some output of this code such as a reactor configuration, plasma equilibrium, electro-magnetic forces, etc., are graphically displayed. The code has been successfully applied to the scoping studies of the next generation machines and commercial reactor plants.
Advanced technology development for image gathering, coding, and processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huck, Friedrich O.
1990-01-01
Three overlapping areas of research activities are presented: (1) Information theory and optimal filtering are extended to visual information acquisition and processing. The goal is to provide a comprehensive methodology for quantitatively assessing the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing. (2) Focal-plane processing techniques and technology are developed to combine effectively image gathering with coding. The emphasis is on low-level vision processing akin to the retinal processing in human vision. (3) A breadboard adaptive image-coding system is being assembled. This system will be used to develop and evaluate a number of advanced image-coding technologies and techniques as well as research the concept of adaptive image coding.
SAFE: A computer code for the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of LMR fuel elements
Hayes, S.L.
1993-12-01
SAFE is a computer code developed for both the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of single LMR fuel elements. The code employs a two-dimensional control-volume based finite difference methodology with fully implicit time marching to calculate the temperatures throughout a fuel element and its associated coolant channel for both the steady-state and transient events. The code makes no structural calculations or predictions whatsoever. It does, however, accept as input structural parameters within the fuel such as the distributions of porosity and fuel composition, as well as heat generation, to allow a thermal analysis to be performed on a user-specified fuel structure. The code was developed with ease of use in mind. An interactive input file generator and material property correlations internal to the code are available to expedite analyses using SAFE. This report serves as a complete design description of the code as well as a user`s manual. A sample calculation made with SAFE is included to highlight some of the code`s features. Complete input and output files for the sample problem are provided.
Computer Code System to Assess Skin Dose from Skin Contamination
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2011-07-10
Version 00 VARSKIN 4 code is designed to operate in both Windows? and MacIntosh? environments and is expected to be significantly easier to learn and use than its predecessors. PC and MAC users will unzip different executable files, but the functionality is identical. Five different predefined source configurations are available in VARSKIN 4 to allow simulations of point, disk, cylinder, sphere, and slab sources.
Practical methods to improve the development of computational software
Osborne, A. G.; Harding, D. W.; Deinert, M. R.
2013-07-01
The use of computation has become ubiquitous in science and engineering. As the complexity of computer codes has increased, so has the need for robust methods to minimize errors. Past work has show that the number of functional errors is related the number of commands that a code executes. Since the late 1960's, major participants in the field of computation have encouraged the development of best practices for programming to help reduce coder induced error, and this has lead to the emergence of 'software engineering' as a field of study. Best practices for coding and software production have now evolved and become common in the development of commercial software. These same techniques, however, are largely absent from the development of computational codes by research groups. Many of the best practice techniques from the professional software community would be easy for research groups in nuclear science and engineering to adopt. This paper outlines the history of software engineering, as well as issues in modern scientific computation, and recommends practices that should be adopted by individual scientific programmers and university research groups. (authors)
Nichols, B. D.; Mueller, C.; Necker, G. A.; Travis, J. R.; Spore, J. W.; Lam, K. L.; Royl, P.; Wilson, T. L.
1998-10-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best-estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume III
Müller, C.; Hughes, E. D.; Niederauer, G. F.; Wilkening, H.; Travis, J. R.; Spore, J. W.; Royl, P.; Baumann, W.
1998-10-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best- estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume
Validation of the NCC Code for Staged Transverse Injection and Computations for a RBCC Combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ajmani, Kumud; Liu, Nan-Suey
2005-01-01
The NCC code was validated for a case involving staged transverse injection into Mach 2 flow behind a rearward facing step. Comparisons with experimental data and with solutions from the FPVortex code was then used to perform computations to study fuel-air mixing for the combustor of a candidate rocket based combined cycle engine geometry. Comparisons with a one-dimensional analysis and a three-dimensional code (VULCAN) were performed to assess the qualitative and quantitative performance of the NCC solver.
McGrail, B.P.; Bacon, D.H.
1998-02-01
Planned performance assessments for the proposed disposal of low-activity waste (LAW) glass produced from remediation of wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington will require calculations of radionuclide release rates from the subsurface disposal facility. These calculations will be done with the aid of computer codes. The available computer codes with suitable capabilities at the time Revision 0 of this document was prepared were ranked in terms of the feature sets implemented in the code that match a set of physical, chemical, numerical, and functional capabilities needed to assess release rates from the engineered system. The needed capabilities were identified from an analysis of the important physical and chemical processes expected to affect LAW glass corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. This analysis was repeated in this report but updated to include additional processes that have been found to be important since Revision 0 was issued and to include additional codes that have been released. The highest ranked computer code was found to be the STORM code developed at PNNL for the US Department of Energy for evaluation of arid land disposal sites.
GATO Code Modification to Compute Plasma Response to External Perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turnbull, A. D.; Chu, M. S.; Ng, E.; Li, X. S.; James, A.
2006-10-01
It has become increasingly clear that the plasma response to an external nonaxiymmetric magnetic perturbation cannot be neglected in many situations of interest. This response can be described as a linear combination of the eigenmodes of the ideal MHD operator. The eigenmodes of the system can be obtained numerically with the GATO ideal MHD stability code, which has been modified for this purpose. A key requirement is the removal of inadmissible continuum modes. For Finite Hybrid Element codes such as GATO, a prerequisite for this is their numerical restabilization by addition of small numerical terms to δ,to cancel the analytic numerical destabilization. In addition, robustness of the code was improved and the solution method speeded up by use of the SuperLU package to facilitate calculation of the full set of eigenmodes in a reasonable time. To treat resonant plasma responses, the finite element basis has been extended to include eigenfunctions with finite jumps at rational surfaces. Some preliminary numerical results for DIII-D equilibria will be given.
Kirk, B.L.; Sartori, E.
1997-06-01
Subsequent to the introduction of High Performance Computing in the developed countries, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) created the Task Force on Adapting Computer Codes in Nuclear Applications to Parallel Architectures (under the guidance of the Nuclear Science Committee`s Working Party on Advanced Computing) to study the growth area in supercomputing and its applicability to the nuclear community`s computer codes. The result has been four years of investigation for the Task Force in different subject fields - deterministic and Monte Carlo radiation transport, computational mechanics and fluid dynamics, nuclear safety, atmospheric models and waste management.
Proposed standards for peer-reviewed publication of computer code
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Computer simulation models are mathematical abstractions of physical systems. In the area of natural resources and agriculture, these physical systems encompass selected interacting processes in plants, soils, animals, or watersheds. These models are scientific products and have become important i...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela
2015-01-01
Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holbrook, M. Cay; MacCuspie, P. Ann
2010-01-01
Braille-reading mathematicians, scientists, and computer scientists were asked to examine the usability of the Unified English Braille Code (UEB) for technical materials. They had little knowledge of the code prior to the study. The research included two reading tasks, a short tutorial about UEB, and a focus group. The results indicated that the…
Thermal-hydraulic/heat transfer code development for sphere-pac-fueled LMFBRs. [COBRA-3SP code
Morris, D.G.
1980-06-01
Sphere-pac fuel has received much attention recently in light of the development of proliferation-resistant fuel cycles for the Fast Breeder Reactor Program in the United States. However, for sphere-pac fuel to be a viable alternative to conventional pellet fuel, a means to analyze the thermal behavior of sphere-pac-fueled pin bundles is needed. To meet this need, a thermal-hydraulic/heat transfer computer code has been developed for sphere-pac-fueled fast breeder reactors. The code, COBRA-3SP, is a modified version of COBRA-3M incorporating a three-region sphere-pac fuel pin model which permits fuel restructuring. With COBRA-3SP, steady-state and transient analysis of sphere-pac-fueled pin bundles is possible. The validity of the sphere-pac fuel pin model has been verified using experimental results of irradiated sphere-pac fuel.
Benchmark testing and independent verification of the VS2DT computer code
McCord, J.T.; Goodrich, M.T.
1994-11-01
The finite difference flow and transport simulator VS2DT was benchmark tested against several other codes which solve the same equations (Richards equation for flow and the Advection-Dispersion equation for transport). The benchmark problems investigated transient two-dimensional flow in a heterogeneous soil profile with a localized water source at the ground surface. The VS2DT code performed as well as or better than all other codes when considering mass balance characteristics and computational speed. It was also rated highly relative to the other codes with regard to ease-of-use. Following the benchmark study, the code was verified against two analytical solutions, one for two-dimensional flow and one for two-dimensional transport. These independent verifications show reasonable agreement with the analytical solutions, and complement the one-dimensional verification problems published in the code`s original documentation.
Nichols, B.D.; Mueller, C.; Necker, G.A.; Travis, J.R.; Spore, J.W.; Lam, K.L.; Royl, P.; Redlinger, R.; Wilson, T.L.
1998-10-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best-estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containments and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior (1) in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and (2) during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included
Verification and Validation: High Charge and Energy (HZE) Transport Codes and Future Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, John W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tweed, John; Heinbockel, John H.; Walker, Steven A.; Nealy, John E.
2005-01-01
In the present paper, we give the formalism for further developing a fully three-dimensional HZETRN code using marching procedures but also development of a new Green's function code is discussed. The final Green's function code is capable of not only validation in the space environment but also in ground based laboratories with directed beams of ions of specific energy and characterized with detailed diagnostic particle spectrometer devices. Special emphasis is given to verification of the computational procedures and validation of the resultant computational model using laboratory and spaceflight measurements. Due to historical requirements, two parallel development paths for computational model implementation using marching procedures and Green s function techniques are followed. A new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating HZE ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is under development. Validation of computational models at this time is particularly important for President Bush s Initiative to develop infrastructure for human exploration with first target demonstration of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) in low Earth orbit in 2008.
NASTRAN as a resource in code development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stanton, E. L.; Crain, L. M.; Neu, T. F.
1975-01-01
A case history is presented in which the NASTRAN system provided both guidelines and working software for use in the development of a discrete element program, PATCHES-111. To avoid duplication and to take advantage of the wide spread user familiarity with NASTRAN, the PATCHES-111 system uses NASTRAN bulk data syntax, NASTRAN matrix utilities, and the NASTRAN linkage editor. Problems in developing the program are discussed along with details on the architecture of the PATCHES-111 parametric cubic modeling system. The system includes model construction procedures, checkpoint/restart strategies, and other features.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatchell, D. G.
1979-01-01
A code, CATHY3/M, was prepared and demonstrated by application to a sample case. The preparation is reviewed, a summary of the capabilities and main features of the code is given, and the sample case results are discussed. Recommendations for future use and development of the code are provided.
A Computer Oriented Scheme for Coding Chemicals in the Field of Biomedicine.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bobka, Marilyn E.; Subramaniam, J.B.
The chemical coding scheme of the Medical Coding Scheme (MCS), developed for use in the Comparative Systems Laboratory (CSL), is outlined and evaluated in this report. The chemical coding scheme provides a classification scheme and encoding method for drugs and chemical terms. Using the scheme complicated chemical structures may be expressed…
Computation of a Canadian SCWR unit cell with deterministic and Monte Carlo codes
Harrisson, G.; Marleau, G.
2012-07-01
The Canadian SCWR has the potential to achieve the goals that the generation IV nuclear reactors must meet. As part of the optimization process for this design concept, lattice cell calculations are routinely performed using deterministic codes. In this study, the first step (self-shielding treatment) of the computation scheme developed with the deterministic code DRAGON for the Canadian SCWR has been validated. Some options available in the module responsible for the resonance self-shielding calculation in DRAGON 3.06 and different microscopic cross section libraries based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data file have been tested and compared to a reference calculation performed with the Monte Carlo code SERPENT under the same conditions. Compared to SERPENT, DRAGON underestimates the infinite multiplication factor in all cases. In general, the original Stammler model with the Livolant-Jeanpierre approximations are the most appropriate self-shielding options to use in this case of study. In addition, the 89 groups WIMS-AECL library for slight enriched uranium and the 172 groups WLUP library for a mixture of plutonium and thorium give the most consistent results with those of SERPENT. (authors)
VISA-II: a computer code for predicting the probability of reactor pressure vessel failure
Simonen, F.A.; Johnson, K.I.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Engel, D.W.; Simonen, E.P.
1986-03-01
The VISA-II (Vessel Integrity Simulation Analysis code was originally developed as part of the NRC staff evaluation of pressurized thermal shock. VISA-II uses Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the failure probability of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessel subjected to a pressure and thermal transient specified by the user. Linear elastic fracture mechanics methods are used to model crack initiation and propagation. Parameters for initial crack size and location, copper content, initial reference temperature of the nil-ductility transition, fluence, crack-initiation fracture toughness, and arrest fracture toughness are treated as random variables. This report documents an upgraded version of the original VISA code as described in NUREG/CR-3384. Improvements include a treatment of cladding effects, a more general simulation of flaw size, shape and location, a simulation of inservice inspection, an updated simulation of the reference temperature of the nil-ductility transition, and treatment of vessels with multiple welds and initial flaws. The code has been extensively tested and verified and is written in FORTRAN for ease of installation on different computers. 38 refs., 25 figs.
Watson, S.B.; Ford, M.R.
1980-02-01
A computer code has been developed that implements the recommendations of ICRP Committee 2 for computing limits for occupational exposure of radionuclides. The purpose of this report is to describe the various modules of the computer code and to present a description of the methods and criteria used to compute the tables published in the Committee 2 report. The computer code contains three modules of which: (1) one computes specific effective energy; (2) one calculates cumulated activity; and (3) one computes dose and the series of ICRP tables. The description of the first two modules emphasizes the new ICRP Committee 2 recommendations in computing specific effective energy and cumulated activity. For the third module, the complex criteria are discussed for calculating the tables of committed dose equivalent, weighted committed dose equivalents, annual limit of intake, and derived air concentration.
Hyperbolic/parabolic development for the GIM-STAR code. [flow fields in supersonic inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spradley, L. W.; Stalnaker, J. F.; Ratliff, A. W.
1980-01-01
Flow fields in supersonic inlet configurations were computed using the eliptic GIM code on the STAR computer. Spillage flow under the lower cowl was calculated to be 33% of the incoming stream. The shock/boundary layer interaction on the upper propulsive surface was computed including separation. All shocks produced by the flow system were captured. Linearized block implicit (LBI) schemes were examined to determine their application to the GIM code. Pure explicit methods have stability limitations and fully implicit schemes are inherently inefficient; however, LBI schemes show promise as an effective compromise. A quasiparabolic version of the GIM code was developed using elastical parabolized Navier-Stokes methods combined with quasitime relaxation. This scheme is referred to as quasiparabolic although it applies equally well to hyperbolic supersonic inviscid flows. Second order windward differences are used in the marching coordinate and either explicit or linear block implicit time relaxation can be incorporated.
Additional extensions to the NASCAP computer code, volume 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.
1982-01-01
Particular attention is given to comparison of the actural response of the SCATHA (Spacecraft Charging AT High Altitudes) P78-2 satellite with theoretical (NASCAP) predictions. Extensive comparisons for a variety of environmental conditions confirm the validity of the NASCAP model. A summary of the capabilities and range of validity of NASCAP is presented, with extensive reference to previously published applications. It is shown that NASCAP is capable of providing quantitatively accurate results when the object and environment are adequately represented and fall within the range of conditions for which NASCAP was intended. Three dimensional electric field affects play an important role in determining the potential of dielectric surfaces and electrically isolated conducting surfaces, particularly in the presence of artificially imposed high voltages. A theory for such phenomena is presented and applied to the active control experiments carried out in SCATHA, as well as other space and laboratory experiments. Finally, some preliminary work toward modeling large spacecraft in polar Earth orbit is presented. An initial physical model is presented including charge emission. A simple code based upon the model is described along with code test results.
Development of the KIVA-2 CFD code for rocket propulsion applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shannon, Robert V., Jr.; Murray, Alvin L.
1992-01-01
The KIVA-2 code, originally developed to solve computational fluid dynamics problems in internal combustion engines, has been developed to solve rocket propulsion type flows. The objective of the work was to develop a code such that both liquid and solid particle motion could be simulated for arbitrary geometry and high speed as well as low speed reacting flows. Modification to the original code include: incorporating independently specific supersonic and subsonic inflows and outflows; symmetric as well as periodic boundary conditions; and the capability to use generalized single or multi-specie thermodynamic data and transport coefficients allowing the user to specify arbitrary wall temperature/heat flux distributions. This code has been shown to successfully solve rocket propulsion flows as well as flows with entrained particles for several different rocket nozzles.
Development of the KIVA-2 CFD code for rocket propulsion applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shannon, Robert V., Jr.; Murray, Alvin L.
1992-07-01
The KIVA-2 code, originally developed to solve computational fluid dynamics problems in internal combustion engines, has been developed to solve rocket propulsion type flows. The objective of the work was to develop a code such that both liquid and solid particle motion could be simulated for arbitrary geometry and high speed as well as low speed reacting flows. Modification to the original code include: incorporating independently specific supersonic and subsonic inflows and outflows; symmetric as well as periodic boundary conditions; and the capability to use generalized single or multi-specie thermodynamic data and transport coefficients allowing the user to specify arbitrary wall temperature/heat flux distributions. This code has been shown to successfully solve rocket propulsion flows as well as flows with entrained particles for several different rocket nozzles.
TPASS: a gamma-ray spectrum analysis and isotope identification computer code
Dickens, J.K.
1981-03-01
The gamma-ray spectral data-reduction and analysis computer code TPASS is described. This computer code is used to analyze complex Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra to obtain peak areas corrected for detector efficiencies, from which are determined gamma-ray yields. These yields are compared with an isotope gamma-ray data file to determine the contributions to the observed spectrum from decay of specific radionuclides. A complete FORTRAN listing of the code and a complex test case are given.
A comparison between several computer codes for calculations on microwave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogel, M. H.
1993-03-01
Microwave propagation in the troposphere is largely dependent on the variation of the air's refractive index with altitude. For a radar system, this strongly affects the probability of detection of a given target. Six computer codes for calculations on microwave propagation are compared. The advantages and disadvantages of each code when used in a maritime environment are discussed. The analyzed codes are: PCPEM (Personal Computer Parabolic Equation Method), EMPE (Electromagnetic Parabolic Equation), RPO (Radio Physical Optics), IREPS (Integrated-Refractive Effects Prediction System), EREPS (Engineers' Refraction Effects Prediction System), and MPPM (Microwave Propagation Prediction Model).
A Line Source Shielding Code for Personal Computers.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1990-12-22
Version 00 LINEDOSE computes the gamma-ray dose from a pipe source modeled as a line. The pipe is assumed to be iron and has a concrete shield of arbitrary thickness. The calculation is made for eight source energies between 0.1 and 3.5 MeV.
abcpmc: Approximate Bayesian Computation for Population Monte-Carlo code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akeret, Joel
2015-04-01
abcpmc is a Python Approximate Bayesian Computing (ABC) Population Monte Carlo (PMC) implementation based on Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) with Particle Filtering techniques. It is extendable with k-nearest neighbour (KNN) or optimal local covariance matrix (OLCM) pertubation kernels and has built-in support for massively parallelized sampling on a cluster using MPI.
TVENT1: a computer code for analyzing tornado-induced flow in ventilation systems
Andrae, R.W.; Tang, P.K.; Gregory, W.S.
1983-07-01
TVENT1 is a new version of the TVENT computer code, which was designed to predict the flows and pressures in a ventilation system subjected to a tornado. TVENT1 is essentially the same code but has added features for turning blowers off and on, changing blower speeds, and changing the resistance of dampers and filters. These features make it possible to depict a sequence of events during a single run. Other features also have been added to make the code more versatile. Example problems are included to demonstrate the code's applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Gary L.; Richard, Jacques C.
1991-01-01
An approach to simulating the internal flows of supersonic propulsion systems is presented. The approach is based on a fairly simple modification of the Large Perturbation Inlet (LAPIN) computer code. LAPIN uses a quasi-one dimensional, inviscid, unsteady formulation of the continuity, momentum, and energy equations. The equations are solved using a shock capturing, finite difference algorithm. The original code, developed for simulating supersonic inlets, includes engineering models of unstart/restart, bleed, bypass, and variable duct geometry, by means of source terms in the equations. The source terms also provide a mechanism for incorporating, with the inlet, propulsion system components such as compressor stages, combustors, and turbine stages. This requires each component to be distributed axially over a number of grid points. Because of the distributed nature of such components, this representation should be more accurate than a lumped parameter model. Components can be modeled by performance map(s), which in turn are used to compute the source terms. The general approach is described. Then, simulation of a compressor/fan stage is discussed to show the approach in detail.
Computer code to predict the heat of explosion of high energy materials.
Muthurajan, H; Sivabalan, R; Pon Saravanan, N; Talawar, M B
2009-01-30
The computational approach to the thermochemical changes involved in the process of explosion of a high energy materials (HEMs) vis-à-vis its molecular structure aids a HEMs chemist/engineers to predict the important thermodynamic parameters such as heat of explosion of the HEMs. Such a computer-aided design will be useful in predicting the performance of a given HEM as well as in conceiving futuristic high energy molecules that have significant potential in the field of explosives and propellants. The software code viz., LOTUSES developed by authors predicts various characteristics of HEMs such as explosion products including balanced explosion reactions, density of HEMs, velocity of detonation, CJ pressure, etc. The new computational approach described in this paper allows the prediction of heat of explosion (DeltaH(e)) without any experimental data for different HEMs, which are comparable with experimental results reported in literature. The new algorithm which does not require any complex input parameter is incorporated in LOTUSES (version 1.5) and the results are presented in this paper. The linear regression analysis of all data point yields the correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9721 with a linear equation y=0.9262x+101.45. The correlation coefficient value 0.9721 reveals that the computed values are in good agreement with experimental values and useful for rapid hazard assessment of energetic materials. PMID:18513863
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Oania, Marcus; Cooper, Stephen
2013-01-01
We report the development and initial evaluation of a serious game that, in conjunction with appropriately designed matching laboratory exercises, can be used to teach secure coding and Information Assurance (IA) concepts across a range of introductory computing courses. The IA Game is a role-playing serious game (RPG) in which the student travels…
1997-03-01
This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume consists of the section of the manual dealing with eight of the functional modules in the code. Those are: BONAMI - resonance self-shielding by the Bondarenko method; NITAWL-II - SCALE system module for performing resonance shielding and working library production; XSDRNPM - a one-dimensional discrete-ordinates code for transport analysis; XSDOSE - a module for calculating fluxes and dose rates at points outside a shield; KENO IV/S - an improved monte carlo criticality program; COUPLE; ORIGEN-S - SCALE system module to calculate fuel depletion, actinide transmutation, fission product buildup and decay, and associated radiation source terms; ICE.
Evaluation of the use of six diagnostic X-ray spectra computer codes.
Meyer, P; Buffard, E; Mertz, L; Kennel, C; Constantinesco, A; Siffert, P
2004-03-01
A knowledge of photon energy spectra emitted from X-ray tubes in radiology is crucial for many research domains in the medical field. Since spectrometry is difficult because of high photon fluence rates, a convenient solution is to use computational models. This paper describes the use of six computer codes based on semiempirical or empirical models. The use of the codes was assessed, notably by comparing theoretical half value layers and air kerma with measurements on five different X-ray tubes used in a research hospital. It was found that three out of the six computer codes give relative spectra very close to those produced by X-ray units equipped with constant potential generators: the mean difference between measured and modelled half value layer was less than 3% with a standard deviation of 3.6% whatever the tube and the applied voltage. Absolute output is less accurate: for four computer codes, the mean difference between the measured and modelled air kerma was between 18% and 36%, with a standard deviation of 9% whatever the tube (except for the single phase generator) and the applied voltage. One of the codes gives a good output and beam quality for X-ray units equipped with 100% ripple voltage generators. The use of computational codes as described in this paper provides a means of modelling relative diagnostic X-ray spectra, the usefulness of the tube output data depending on the accuracy required by the end user. PMID:15020364
Hofmann, R.
1981-11-01
This volume contains a description of a programming and documentation structure for the STEALTH finite difference computer programs based on general principles applicable to most large scientific computer programs. Program modularization (as well as documentation format) is based entirely on the theoretical elements of analysis of a physical system that were presented in Volume 1. FORTRAN programming and naming conventions are also described. Among the programming formats presented is a FORTRAN manual (Appendix FTN) which can be used as the basis for developing portable codes. STEALTH was developed on a CDC 7600. However, it has been designed so that it can be installed on most large scientific computers. Installation documentation exists for some facilities and can be generated easily for others.
Structural reliability methods: Code development status
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Millwater, Harry R.; Thacker, Ben H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Cruse, T. A.
1991-01-01
The Probabilistic Structures Analysis Method (PSAM) program integrates state of the art probabilistic algorithms with structural analysis methods in order to quantify the behavior of Space Shuttle Main Engine structures subject to uncertain loadings, boundary conditions, material parameters, and geometric conditions. An advanced, efficient probabilistic structural analysis software program, NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) was developed as a deliverable. NESSUS contains a number of integrated software components to perform probabilistic analysis of complex structures. A nonlinear finite element module NESSUS/FEM is used to model the structure and obtain structural sensitivities. Some of the capabilities of NESSUS/FEM are shown. A Fast Probability Integration module NESSUS/FPI estimates the probability given the structural sensitivities. A driver module, PFEM, couples the FEM and FPI. NESSUS, version 5.0, addresses component reliability, resistance, and risk.
Codes and standards research, development and demonstration roadmap
None, None
2008-07-22
C&S RD&D Roadmap - 2008: This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.
Development of a coupling code for PWR reactor cavity radiation streaming calculation
Zheng, Z.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, H.; Wang, M.
2012-07-01
PWR reactor cavity radiation streaming is important for the safe of the personnel and equipment, thus calculation has to be performed to evaluate the neutron flux distribution around the reactor. For this calculation, the deterministic codes have difficulties in fine geometrical modeling and need huge computer resource; and the Monte Carlo codes require very long sampling time to obtain results with acceptable precision. Therefore, a coupling method has been developed to eliminate the two problems mentioned above in each code. In this study, we develop a coupling code named DORT2MCNP to link the Sn code DORT and Monte Carlo code MCNP. DORT2MCNP is used to produce a combined surface source containing top, bottom and side surface simultaneously. Because SDEF card is unsuitable for the combined surface source, we modify the SOURCE subroutine of MCNP and compile MCNP for this application. Numerical results demonstrate the correctness of the coupling code DORT2MCNP and show reasonable agreement between the coupling method and the other two codes (DORT and MCNP). (authors)
Shapiro, A.B.
1983-08-01
The computer code FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors for input to finite-element heat-transfer analysis codes. The first section of this report is a brief review of previous radiation-view-factor computer codes. The second section presents the defining integral equation for the geometric view factor between two surfaces and the assumptions made in its derivation. Also in this section are the numerical algorithms used to integrate this equation for the various geometries. The third section presents the algorithms used to detect self-shadowing and third-surface shadowing between the two surfaces for which a view factor is being calculated. The fourth section provides a user's input guide followed by several example problems.
Recent Algorithmic and Computational Efficiency Improvements in the NIMROD Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plimpton, S. J.; Sovinec, C. R.; Gianakon, T. A.; Parker, S. E.
1999-11-01
Extreme anisotropy and temporal stiffness impose severe challenges to simulating low frequency, nonlinear behavior in magnetized fusion plasmas. To address these challenges in computations of realistic experiment configurations, NIMROD(Glasser, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41) (1999) A747. uses a time-split, semi-implicit advance of the two-fluid equations for magnetized plasmas with a finite element/Fourier series spatial representation. The stiffness and anisotropy lead to ill-conditioned linear systems of equations, and they emphasize any truncation errors that may couple different modes of the continuous system. Recent work significantly improves NIMROD's performance in these areas. Implementing a parallel global preconditioning scheme in structured-grid regions permits scaling to large problems and large time steps, which are critical for achieving realistic S-values. In addition, coupling to the AZTEC parallel linear solver package now permits efficient computation with regions of unstructured grid. Changes in the time-splitting scheme improve numerical behavior in simulations with strong flow, and quadratic basis elements are being explored for accuracy. Different numerical forms of anisotropic thermal conduction, critical for slow island evolution, are compared. Algorithms for including gyrokinetic ions in the finite element computations are discussed.
High-Performance Java Codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley, Christopher; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The computational science community is reluctant to write large-scale computationally -intensive applications in Java due to concerns over Java's poor performance, despite the claimed software engineering advantages of its object-oriented features. Naive Java implementations of numerical algorithms can perform poorly compared to corresponding Fortran or C implementations. To achieve high performance, Java applications must be designed with good performance as a primary goal. This paper presents the object-oriented design and implementation of two real-world applications from the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): a finite-volume fluid flow solver (LAURA, from NASA Langley Research Center), and an unstructured mesh adaptation algorithm (2D_TAG, from NASA Ames Research Center). This work builds on our previous experience with the design of high-performance numerical libraries in Java. We examine the performance of the applications using the currently available Java infrastructure and show that the Java version of the flow solver LAURA performs almost within a factor of 2 of the original procedural version. Our Java version of the mesh adaptation algorithm 2D_TAG performs within a factor of 1.5 of its original procedural version on certain platforms. Our results demonstrate that object-oriented software design principles are not necessarily inimical to high performance.
SACRD: a data base for fast reactor safety computer codes, operational procedures
Forsberg, V.M.; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Raiford, G.B.
1980-09-01
SACRD (Safety Analysis Computerized Reactor Data) is a data base of nondesign-related information used in computer codes for fast reactor safety analyses. This document reports the procedures used in SACRD to help assure a reasonable level of integrity of the material contained in the data base. It also serves to document much of the computer software used with the data base.
Software Development Environment with Integrated Code Rocket Capabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parkes, Steve; Paterson, David; Spark, Alan; Yu, Bruce Guoxia
2013-08-01
The development of software for embedded systems such as spacecraft instruments, data processing or other on-board applications, faces a number of challenges not always fully met by many of the currently available software development environments. In this paper we describe a new suite of software tools, the STAR Software Development Environment (SSDE), which is intended to address many of these challenges, and which should simplify the development of software for spacecraft applications, and for other embedded environments. The SSDE includes Code Rocket, a code visualisation and documentation tool, which provides both pseudocode and flowchart editing facilities. These are fully integrated with the code editing and debugging features of the underlying integrated development environment (IDE).
Burke, G.J.
1988-04-08
Computer modeling of antennas, since its start in the late 1960's, has become a powerful and widely used tool for antenna design. Computer codes have been developed based on the Method-of-Moments, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, or integration of Maxwell's equations. Of such tools, the Numerical Electromagnetics Code-Method of Moments (NEC) has become one of the most widely used codes for modeling resonant sized antennas. There are several reasons for this including the systematic updating and extension of its capabilities, extensive user-oriented documentation and accessibility of its developers for user assistance. The result is that there are estimated to be several hundred users of various versions of NEC world wide. 23 refs., 10 figs.
The modification and application of RAMS computer code. Final report
McKee, T.B.
1995-01-17
The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) has been utilized in its most updated form, version 3a, to simulate a case night from the Atmospheric Studies in COmplex Terrain (ASCOT) experimental program. ASCOT held a wintertime observational campaign during February, 1991 to observe the often strong drainage flows which form on the Great Plains and in the canyons embedded within the slope from the Continental Divide to the Great Plains. A high resolution (500 m grid spacing) simulation of the 4-5 February 1991 case night using the more advanced turbulence closure now available in RAMS 3a allowed greater analysis of the physical processes governing the drainage flows. It is found that shear interaction above and within the drainage flow are important, and are overpredicted with the new scheme at small grid spacing (< {approximately}1000 m). The implication is that contaminants trapped in nighttime stable flows such as these, will be mixed too strongly in the vertical reducing predicted ground concentrations. The HYPACT code has been added to the capability at LANL, although due to the reduced scope of work, no simulations with HYPACT were performed.
Stodden, Victoria; Guo, Peixuan; Ma, Zhaokun
2013-01-01
Journal policy on research data and code availability is an important part of the ongoing shift toward publishing reproducible computational science. This article extends the literature by studying journal data sharing policies by year (for both 2011 and 2012) for a referent set of 170 journals. We make a further contribution by evaluating code sharing policies, supplemental materials policies, and open access status for these 170 journals for each of 2011 and 2012. We build a predictive model of open data and code policy adoption as a function of impact factor and publisher and find higher impact journals more likely to have open data and code policies and scientific societies more likely to have open data and code policies than commercial publishers. We also find open data policies tend to lead open code policies, and we find no relationship between open data and code policies and either supplemental material policies or open access journal status. Of the journals in this study, 38% had a data policy, 22% had a code policy, and 66% had a supplemental materials policy as of June 2012. This reflects a striking one year increase of 16% in the number of data policies, a 30% increase in code policies, and a 7% increase in the number of supplemental materials policies. We introduce a new dataset to the community that categorizes data and code sharing, supplemental materials, and open access policies in 2011 and 2012 for these 170 journals. PMID:23805293
Computer Needs and Computer Problems in Developing Countries.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huskey, Harry D.
A survey of the computer environment in a developing country is provided. Levels of development are considered and the educational requirements of countries at various levels are discussed. Computer activities in India, Burma, Pakistan, Brazil and a United Nations sponsored educational center in Hungary are all described. (SK/Author)
Issues in computational fluid dynamics code verification and validation
Oberkampf, W.L.; Blottner, F.G.
1997-09-01
A broad range of mathematical modeling errors of fluid flow physics and numerical approximation errors are addressed in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is strongly believed that if CFD is to have a major impact on the design of engineering hardware and flight systems, the level of confidence in complex simulations must substantially improve. To better understand the present limitations of CFD simulations, a wide variety of physical modeling, discretization, and solution errors are identified and discussed. Here, discretization and solution errors refer to all errors caused by conversion of the original partial differential, or integral, conservation equations representing the physical process, to algebraic equations and their solution on a computer. The impact of boundary conditions on the solution of the partial differential equations and their discrete representation will also be discussed. Throughout the article, clear distinctions are made between the analytical mathematical models of fluid dynamics and the numerical models. Lax`s Equivalence Theorem and its frailties in practical CFD solutions are pointed out. Distinctions are also made between the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the partial differential equations as opposed to the discrete equations. Two techniques are briefly discussed for the detection and quantification of certain types of discretization and grid resolution errors.
The development and performance of a message-passing version of the PAGOSA shock-wave physics code
Gardner, D.R.; Vaughan, C.T.
1997-10-01
A message-passing version of the PAGOSA shock-wave physics code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for multiple-instruction, multiple-data stream (MIMD) computers. PAGOSA is an explicit, Eulerian code for modeling the three-dimensional, high-speed hydrodynamic flow of fluids and the dynamic deformation of solids under high rates of strain. It was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) Connection Machine parallel computers. The performance of Sandia`s message-passing version of PAGOSA has been measured on two MIMD machines, the nCUBE 2 and the Intel Paragon XP/S. No special efforts were made to optimize the code for either machine. The measured scaled speedup (computational time for a single computational node divided by the computational time per node for fixed computational load) and grind time (computational time per cell per time step) show that the MIMD PAGOSA code scales linearly with the number of computational nodes used on a variety of problems, including the simulation of shaped-charge jets perforating an oil well casing. Scaled parallel efficiencies for MIMD PAGOSA are greater than 0.70 when the available memory per node is filled (or nearly filled) on hundreds to a thousand or more computational nodes on these two machines, indicating that the code scales very well. Thus good parallel performance can be achieved for complex and realistic applications when they are first implemented on MIMD parallel computers.
Fault-tolerant quantum computation in multiqubit block codes: performance and overhead
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brun, Todd
Fault-tolerant quantum computation requires that quantum information remain encoded in a quantum error-correcting code at all times; that a universal set of logical unitary gates and measurements is available; and that the probability of an uncorrectable error is low for the duration of the computation. Quantum computation can in principle be scaled up to unlimited size if the rate of decoherence is below a threshold. The main constructions that have been studied involve encoding each logical qubit in a separate block (either a concatenated code or a block of the surface code), which typically requires thousands of physical qubits per logical qubit, if not more. To reduce this overhead, we consider using multiqubit codes to achieve much higher storage rates. We estimate performance and overhead for certain families of codes, and ask: how large a quantum computation can be done as a function of the decoherence rate for a fixed size code block? Finally, we consider remaining open questions and limitations to this approach. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. CCF-1421078.
Analysis of BIOMOVS II Uranium Mill Tailings scenario 1.07 with the RESRAD computer code
Gnanapragasam, E.K.; Yu, C.
1997-08-01
The residual radioactive material guidelines (RESRAD) computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory was selected for participation in the model intercomparison test scenario, version 1.07, conducted by the Uranium Mill Tailings Working Group in the second phase of the international Biospheric Model Validation Study. The RESRAD code was enhanced to provide an output attributing radiological dose to the nuclide at the point of exposure, in addition to the existing output attributing radiological dose to the nuclide in the contaminated zone. A conceptual model to account for off-site accumulation following atmospheric deposition was developed and showed the importance of considering this process for this off-site scenario. The RESRAD predictions for the atmospheric release compared well with most of the other models. The peak and steady-state doses and concentrations predicted by RESRAD for the groundwater release also agreed well with most of the other models participating in the study; however, the RESRAD plots shows a later breakthrough time and sharp changes compared with the plots of the predictions of other models. These differences were due to differences in the formulation for the retardation factor and to not considering the effects of longitudinal dispersion.
Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony
2015-11-01
A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.
Open-Source Development of the Petascale Reactive Flow and Transport Code PFLOTRAN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammond, G. E.; Andre, B.; Bisht, G.; Johnson, T.; Karra, S.; Lichtner, P. C.; Mills, R. T.
2013-12-01
Open-source software development has become increasingly popular in recent years. Open-source encourages collaborative and transparent software development and promotes unlimited free redistribution of source code to the public. Open-source development is good for science as it reveals implementation details that are critical to scientific reproducibility, but generally excluded from journal publications. In addition, research funds that would have been spent on licensing fees can be redirected to code development that benefits more scientists. In 2006, the developers of PFLOTRAN open-sourced their code under the U.S. Department of Energy SciDAC-II program. Since that time, the code has gained popularity among code developers and users from around the world seeking to employ PFLOTRAN to simulate thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and biogeochemical processes in the Earth's surface/subsurface environment. PFLOTRAN is a massively-parallel subsurface reactive multiphase flow and transport simulator designed from the ground up to run efficiently on computing platforms ranging from the laptop to leadership-class supercomputers, all from a single code base. The code employs domain decomposition for parallelism and is founded upon the well-established and open-source parallel PETSc and HDF5 frameworks. PFLOTRAN leverages modern Fortran (i.e. Fortran 2003-2008) in its extensible object-oriented design. The use of this progressive, yet domain-friendly programming language has greatly facilitated collaboration in the code's software development. Over the past year, PFLOTRAN's top-level data structures were refactored as Fortran classes (i.e. extendible derived types) to improve the flexibility of the code, ease the addition of new process models, and enable coupling to external simulators. For instance, PFLOTRAN has been coupled to the parallel electrical resistivity tomography code E4D to enable hydrogeophysical inversion while the same code base can be used as a third
Universal holonomic quantum computing with cat-codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, Victor V.; Shu, Chi; Krastanov, Stefan; Shen, Chao; Liu, Ren-Bao; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, Michel H.; Jiang, Liang
2016-05-01
Universal computation of a quantum system consisting of superpositions of well-separated coherent states of multiple harmonic oscillators can be achieved by three families of adiabatic holonomic gates. The first gate consists of moving a coherent state around a closed path in phase space, resulting in a relative Berry phase between that state and the other states. The second gate consists of ``colliding'' two coherent states of the same oscillator, resulting in coherent population transfer between them. The third gate is an effective controlled-phase gate on coherent states of two different oscillators. Such gates should be realizable via reservoir engineering of systems which support tunable nonlinearities, such as trapped ions and circuit QED.
Multiplexing Genetic and Nucleosome Positioning Codes: A Computational Approach
Eslami-Mossallam, Behrouz; Schram, Raoul D.; Tompitak, Marco; van Noort, John; Schiessel, Helmut
2016-01-01
Eukaryotic DNA is strongly bent inside fundamental packaging units: the nucleosomes. It is known that their positions are strongly influenced by the mechanical properties of the underlying DNA sequence. Here we discuss the possibility that these mechanical properties and the concomitant nucleosome positions are not just a side product of the given DNA sequence, e.g. that of the genes, but that a mechanical evolution of DNA molecules might have taken place. We first demonstrate the possibility of multiplexing classical and mechanical genetic information using a computational nucleosome model. In a second step we give evidence for genome-wide multiplexing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosacharomyces pombe. This suggests that the exact positions of nucleosomes play crucial roles in chromatin function. PMID:27272176
Multiplexing Genetic and Nucleosome Positioning Codes: A Computational Approach.
Eslami-Mossallam, Behrouz; Schram, Raoul D; Tompitak, Marco; van Noort, John; Schiessel, Helmut
2016-01-01
Eukaryotic DNA is strongly bent inside fundamental packaging units: the nucleosomes. It is known that their positions are strongly influenced by the mechanical properties of the underlying DNA sequence. Here we discuss the possibility that these mechanical properties and the concomitant nucleosome positions are not just a side product of the given DNA sequence, e.g. that of the genes, but that a mechanical evolution of DNA molecules might have taken place. We first demonstrate the possibility of multiplexing classical and mechanical genetic information using a computational nucleosome model. In a second step we give evidence for genome-wide multiplexing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosacharomyces pombe. This suggests that the exact positions of nucleosomes play crucial roles in chromatin function. PMID:27272176
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skála, J.; Baruffa, F.; Büchner, J.; Rampp, M.
2015-08-01
Context. The numerical simulation of turbulence and flows in almost ideal astrophysical plasmas with large Reynolds numbers motivates the implementation of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) computer codes with low resistivity. They need to be computationally efficient and scale well with large numbers of CPU cores, allow obtaining a high grid resolution over large simulation domains, and be easily and modularly extensible, for instance, to new initial and boundary conditions. Aims: Our aims are the implementation, optimization, and verification of a computationally efficient, highly scalable, and easily extensible low-dissipative MHD simulation code for the numerical investigation of the dynamics of astrophysical plasmas with large Reynolds numbers in three dimensions (3D). Methods: The new GOEMHD3 code discretizes the ideal part of the MHD equations using a fast and efficient leap-frog scheme that is second-order accurate in space and time and whose initial and boundary conditions can easily be modified. For the investigation of diffusive and dissipative processes the corresponding terms are discretized by a DuFort-Frankel scheme. To always fulfill the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability criterion, the time step of the code is adapted dynamically. Numerically induced local oscillations are suppressed by explicit, externally controlled diffusion terms. Non-equidistant grids are implemented, which enhance the spatial resolution, where needed. GOEMHD3 is parallelized based on the hybrid MPI-OpenMP programing paradigm, adopting a standard two-dimensional domain-decomposition approach. Results: The ideal part of the equation solver is verified by performing numerical tests of the evolution of the well-understood Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and of Orszag-Tang vortices. The accuracy of solving the (resistive) induction equation is tested by simulating the decay of a cylindrical current column. Furthermore, we show that the computational performance of the code scales very
Overview of NASA Multi-dimensional Stirling Convertor Code Development and Validation Effort
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tew, Roy C.; Cairelli, James E.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Simon, Terrence W.; Gedeon, David
2002-01-01
A NASA grant has been awarded to Cleveland State University (CSU) to develop a multi-dimensional (multi-D) Stirling computer code with the goals of improving loss predictions and identifying component areas for improvements. The University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates are teamed with CSU. Development of test rigs at UMN and CSU and validation of the code against test data are part of the effort. The one-dimensional (1-D) Stirling codes used for design and performance prediction do not rigorously model regions of the working space where abrupt changes in flow area occur (such as manifolds and other transitions between components). Certain hardware experiences have demonstrated large performance gains by varying manifolds and heat exchanger designs to improve flow distributions in the heat exchangers. 1-D codes were not able to predict these performance gains. An accurate multi-D code should improve understanding of the effects of area changes along the main flow axis, sensitivity of performance to slight changes in internal geometry, and, in general, the understanding of various internal thermodynamic losses. The commercial CFD-ACE code has been chosen for development of the multi-D code. This 2-D/3-D code has highly developed pre- and post-processors, and moving boundary capability. Preliminary attempts at validation of CFD-ACE models of MIT gas spring and "two space" test rigs were encouraging. Also, CSU's simulations of the UMN oscillating-flow fig compare well with flow visualization results from UMN. A complementary Department of Energy (DOE) Regenerator Research effort is aiding in development of regenerator matrix models that will be used in the multi-D Stirling code. This paper reports on the progress and challenges of this
Computer Developments in Air Conditioning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pancoast, Ferendino, Grafton and Skeels, Architects, Miami, FL.
Proceedings of a conference on the present and future uses of computer techniques in the air conditioning field. The recommendation of this report is, for the most part, negative insofar as it applies to the use of computers for design by the small office. However, there should be an awareness of their usefulness in controlling the environmental…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alcenius, Timothy; Schneider, Steven P.
1994-01-01
Nozzle design codes developed earlier under NAG1-1133 were modified and used in order to design a supersonic wind tunnel nozzle with square cross sections. As part of the design process, a computer code was written to implement the Hopkins and Hill perturbation solution for the flow in the transonic region of axisymmetric nozzles. This technique is used to design the bleed slot of quiet-flow nozzles. This new design code is documented in this report.
Mao, S.; Liu, J.; Nelson, W.R.
1992-01-01
The EGS computer code, developed for the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of electrons and photons, has been used since 1970 in the design of accelerators and detectors for high-energy physics. In this paper we present three examples demonstrating how the current version, EGS4, is used to determine energy-loss patterns and source terms along beam pipes, (i.e., including flanges, collimators, etc.). This information is useful for further shielding and dosimetry studies. The calculated results from the analysis are in close agreement with the measured values. To facilitate this review, a new add-on package called SHOWGRAF, is used in order to display shower trajectories for the three examples.
The DIPSI (Direct Implicit Plasma Surface Interactions) computer code user's manual
Procassini, R.J. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Cohen, B.I. )
1990-06-01
DIPSI (Direct Implicit Plasma Surface Interactions) is a one-dimensional, bounded particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code designed to investigate the interaction of plasma with a solid surface, such as a limiter or divertor plate in a tokamak fusion device. Plasma confinement and transport may be studied in a system which includes an applied magnetic field (oriented normal to the solid surface) and/or a self-consistent electrostatic potential. The PIC code DIPSI is an offshoot of the PIC code TESS (Tandem Experiment Simulation Studies) which was developed to study plasma confinement in mirror devices. The codes DIPSI and TESS are direct descendants of the PIC code ES1 that was created by A. B. Langdon. This document provides the user with a brief description of the methods used in the code and a tutorial on the use of the code. 11 refs., 2 tabs.
Compendium of computer codes for the researcher in magnetic fusion energy
Porter, G.D.
1989-03-10
This is a compendium of computer codes, which are available to the fusion researcher. It is intended to be a document that permits a quick evaluation of the tools available to the experimenter who wants to both analyze his data, and compare the results of his analysis with the predictions of available theories. This document will be updated frequently to maintain its usefulness. I would appreciate receiving further information about codes not included here from anyone who has used them. The information required includes a brief description of the code (including any special features), a bibliography of the documentation available for the code and/or the underlying physics, a list of people to contact for help in running the code, instructions on how to access the code, and a description of the output from the code. Wherever possible, the code contacts should include people from each of the fusion facilities so that the novice can talk to someone ''down the hall'' when he first tries to use a code. I would also appreciate any comments about possible additions and improvements in the index. I encourage any additional criticism of this document. 137 refs.
POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs
Hardie, R.W.
1982-02-01
POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case.
Computer code for controller partitioning with IFPC application: A user's manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidt, Phillip H.; Yarkhan, Asim
1994-01-01
A user's manual for the computer code for partitioning a centralized controller into decentralized subcontrollers with applicability to Integrated Flight/Propulsion Control (IFPC) is presented. Partitioning of a centralized controller into two subcontrollers is described and the algorithm on which the code is based is discussed. The algorithm uses parameter optimization of a cost function which is described. The major data structures and functions are described. Specific instructions are given. The user is led through an example of an IFCP application.
The FLUKA code for space applications: recent developments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andersen, V.; Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lee, K.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L. S.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Wilson, T. L.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)
2004-01-01
The FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code is widely used for fundamental research, radioprotection and dosimetry, hybrid nuclear energy system and cosmic ray calculations. The validity of its physical models has been benchmarked against a variety of experimental data over a wide range of energies, ranging from accelerator data to cosmic ray showers in the earth atmosphere. The code is presently undergoing several developments in order to better fit the needs of space applications. The generation of particle spectra according to up-to-date cosmic ray data as well as the effect of the solar and geomagnetic modulation have been implemented and already successfully applied to a variety of problems. The implementation of suitable models for heavy ion nuclear interactions has reached an operational stage. At medium/high energy FLUKA is using the DPMJET model. The major task of incorporating heavy ion interactions from a few GeV/n down to the threshold for inelastic collisions is also progressing and promising results have been obtained using a modified version of the RQMD-2.4 code. This interim solution is now fully operational, while waiting for the development of new models based on the FLUKA hadron-nucleus interaction code, a newly developed QMD code, and the implementation of the Boltzmann master equation theory for low energy ion interactions. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The FLUKA code for space applications: recent developments.
Andersen, V; Ballarini, F; Battistoni, G; Campanella, M; Carboni, M; Cerutti, F; Empl, A; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Gadioli, E; Garzelli, M V; Lee, K; Ottolenghi, A; Pelliccioni, M; Pinsky, L S; Ranft, J; Roesler, S; Sala, P R; Wilson, T L
2004-01-01
The FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code is widely used for fundamental research, radioprotection and dosimetry, hybrid nuclear energy system and cosmic ray calculations. The validity of its physical models has been benchmarked against a variety of experimental data over a wide range of energies, ranging from accelerator data to cosmic ray showers in the earth atmosphere. The code is presently undergoing several developments in order to better fit the needs of space applications. The generation of particle spectra according to up-to-date cosmic ray data as well as the effect of the solar and geomagnetic modulation have been implemented and already successfully applied to a variety of problems. The implementation of suitable models for heavy ion nuclear interactions has reached an operational stage. At medium/high energy FLUKA is using the DPMJET model. The major task of incorporating heavy ion interactions from a few GeV/n down to the threshold for inelastic collisions is also progressing and promising results have been obtained using a modified version of the RQMD-2.4 code. This interim solution is now fully operational, while waiting for the development of new models based on the FLUKA hadron-nucleus interaction code, a newly developed QMD code, and the implementation of the Boltzmann master equation theory for low energy ion interactions. PMID:15881773
Payne, J.L.; Walker, M.A.
1995-01-01
This paper describes a process of combining two state-of-the-art CFD tools, SPRINT and INCA, in a manner which extends the utility of both codes beyond what is possible from either code alone. The speed and efficiency of the PNS code, SPRING, has been combined with the capability of a Navier-Stokes code to model fully elliptic, viscous separated regions on high performance, high speed flight systems. The coupled SPRINT/INCA capability is applicable for design and evaluation of high speed flight vehicles in the supersonic to hypersonic speed regimes. This paper describes the codes involved, the interface process and a few selected test cases which illustrate the SPRINT/INCA coupling process. Results have shown that the combination of SPRINT and INCA produces correct results and can lead to improved computational analyses for complex, three-dimensional problems.
Verification of a Viscous Computational Aeroacoustics Code Using External Verification Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ingraham, Daniel; Hixon, Ray
2015-01-01
The External Verification Analysis approach to code verification is extended to solve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with constant properties, and is used to verify a high-order computational aeroacoustics (CAA) code. After a brief review of the relevant literature, the details of the EVA approach are presented and compared to the similar Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS). Pseudocode representations of EVA's algorithms are included, along with the recurrence relations needed to construct the EVA solution. The code verification results show that EVA was able to convincingly verify a high-order, viscous CAA code without the addition of MMS-style source terms, or any other modifications to the code.
A Multiple Sphere T-Matrix Fortran Code for Use on Parallel Computer Clusters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackowski, D. W.; Mishchenko, M. I.
2011-01-01
A general-purpose Fortran-90 code for calculation of the electromagnetic scattering and absorption properties of multiple sphere clusters is described. The code can calculate the efficiency factors and scattering matrix elements of the cluster for either fixed or random orientation with respect to the incident beam and for plane wave or localized- approximation Gaussian incident fields. In addition, the code can calculate maps of the electric field both interior and exterior to the spheres.The code is written with message passing interface instructions to enable the use on distributed memory compute clusters, and for such platforms the code can make feasible the calculation of absorption, scattering, and general EM characteristics of systems containing several thousand spheres.
Verification of a Viscous Computational Aeroacoustics Code using External Verification Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ingraham, Daniel; Hixon, Ray
2015-01-01
The External Verification Analysis approach to code verification is extended to solve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with constant properties, and is used to verify a high-order computational aeroacoustics (CAA) code. After a brief review of the relevant literature, the details of the EVA approach are presented and compared to the similar Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS). Pseudocode representations of EVA's algorithms are included, along with the recurrence relations needed to construct the EVA solution. The code verification results show that EVA was able to convincingly verify a high-order, viscous CAA code without the addition of MMS-style source terms, or any other modifications to the code.
Computer model of crossed-field devices using moving wavelength codes
McDowell, H.L.
1996-12-31
DECFA and DEMAG are moving wavelength, particle in cell codes for modeling crossed-field amplifiers (CFAs) and magnetrons. The codes model the interaction between a single traveling wave on a smooth anode surface and the space charge in crossed electric and magnetic fields. The detailed anode vane tip geometry is not included in the model. Periodic boundary conditions are imposed on the sides of the moving interaction wavelength thereby imposing the wave periodicity on the solution. In spite of the assumptions involved, the codes successfully model the performance of many existing CFAs and magnetrons. Correlation of computer model and experimental results will be presented for typical devices. The only failures of the codes to correlate with device performance have occurred for small gap anode vane tip geometries which degrade the efficiency of electron collection. To avoid such possibilities, the simulation codes need to be supplemented with trajectory tracing studies of electrons between anode vanes. Results of such studies will be presented.
Computer Graphics for Multimedia and Hypermedia Development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mohler, James L.
1998-01-01
Discusses several theoretical and technical aspects of computer-graphics development that are useful for creating hypermedia and multimedia materials. Topics addressed include primary bitmap attributes in computer graphics, the jigsaw principle, and raster layering. (MSE)
Items Supporting the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program Implementation of the IMBA Computer Code
Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.
2008-01-07
The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program has adopted the computer code IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis) as its primary code for bioassay data evaluation and dose assessment using methodologies of ICRP Publications 60, 66, 67, 68, and 78. The adoption of this code was part of the implementation plan for the June 8, 2007 amendments to 10 CFR 835. This information release includes action items unique to IMBA that were required by PNNL quality assurance standards for implementation of safety software. Copie of the IMBA software verification test plan and the outline of the briefing given to new users are also included.
Automated computer software development standards enforcement
Yule, H.P.; Formento, J.W.
1991-01-01
The Uniform Development Environment (UDE) is being investigated as a means of enforcing software engineering standards. For the programmer, it provides an environment containing the tools and utilities necessary for orderly and controlled development and maintenance of code according to requirements. In addition, it provides DoD management and developer management the tools needed for all phases of software life cycle management and control, from project planning and management, to code development, configuration management, version control, and change control. This paper reports the status of UDE development and field testing. 5 refs.
VARSKIN MOD 2 and SADDE MOD2: Computer codes for assessing skin dose from skin contamination
Durham, J.S. )
1992-12-01
The computer code VARSKIN has been modified to calculate dose to skin from three-dimensional sources, sources separated from the skin by layers of protective clothing, and gamma dose from certain radionuclides correction for backscatter has also been incorporated for certain geometries. This document describes the new code, VARSKIN Mod 2, including installation and operation instructions, provides detailed descriptions of the models used, and suggests methods for avoiding misuse of the code. The input data file for VARSKIN Mod 2 has been modified to reflect current physical data, to include the contribution to dose from internal conversion and Auger electrons, and to reflect a correction for low-energy electrons. In addition, the computer code SADDE: Scaled Absorbed Dose Distribution Evaluator has been modified to allow the generation of scaled absorbed dose distributions for mixtures of radionuclides and intereat conversion and Auger electrons. This new code, SADDE Mod 2, is also described in this document. Instructions for installation and operation of the code and detailed descriptions of the models used in the code are provided.
Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team
2016-03-01
We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.
MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.
2009-06-01
Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are
A computational theory for the classification of natural biosonar targets based on a spike code.
Müller, Rolf
2003-08-01
A computational theory for the classification of natural biosonar targets is developed based on the properties of an example stimulus ensemble. An extensive set of echoes (84 800) from four different foliages was transcribed into a spike code using a parsimonious model (linear filtering, half-wave rectification, thresholding). The spike code is assumed to consist of time differences (interspike intervals) between threshold crossings. Among the elementary interspike intervals flanked by exceedances of adjacent thresholds, a few intervals triggered by disjoint half-cycles of the carrier oscillation stand out in terms of resolvability, visibility across resolution scales and a simple stochastic structure (uncorrelatedness). They are therefore argued to be a stochastic analogue to edges in vision. A three-dimensional feature vector representing these interspike intervals sustained a reliable target classification performance (0.06% classification error) in a sequential probability ratio test, which models sequential processing of echo trains by biological sonar systems. The dimensions of the representation are the first moments of duration and amplitude location of these interspike intervals as well as their number. All three quantities are readily reconciled with known principles of neural signal representation, since they correspond to the centre of gravity of excitation on a neural map and the total amount of excitation. PMID:12938773
A Computer Code for Gas Turbine Engine Weight And Disk Life Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tong, Michael T.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Halliwell, Ian; Wickenheiser, Tim (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Reliable engine-weight estimation at the conceptual design stage is critical to the development of new aircraft engines. It helps to identify the best engine concept amongst several candidates. In this paper, the major enhancements to NASA's engine-weight estimate computer code (WATE) are described. These enhancements include the incorporation of improved weight-calculation routines for the compressor and turbine disks using the finite-difference technique. Furthermore, the stress distribution for various disk geometries was also incorporated, for a life-prediction module to calculate disk life. A material database, consisting of the material data of most of the commonly-used aerospace materials, has also been incorporated into WATE. Collectively, these enhancements provide a more realistic and systematic way to calculate the engine weight. They also provide additional insight into the design trade-off between engine life and engine weight. To demonstrate the new capabilities, the enhanced WATE code is used to perform an engine weight/life trade-off assessment on a production aircraft engine.
CoBRA: Cone beam Computed Tomography (CT) reconstruction code in Interactive Data Language (IDL)
Sheats, M.J.; Stupin, D.M.
1997-10-01
In support of stockpile stewardship and other important missions, Los Alamos is continually looking for fast and effective ways of inspecting and evaluating industrial parts. Thus, Los Alamos is continually striving to improve our radiography and computed tomography (CT) capabilities. Cormack and Hounsfield received the Nobel Prize in 1979 for their pioneering work in computed tomography that led to the development of medical scanners. Copley et al. provides a good history of the development of industrial CT systems. The early systems collect data via a single detector or linear detector array. While CT offers greatly increased spatial resolutions over radiography, CT inspections with a linear array are slow and costly. To improve the viability of CT for NDT applications, Feldkamp, Davis, and Kress reported a cone beam reconstruction technique that speeds up the CT process by using image data rather than data collected by a linear array. Because it potentially offers processing speeds up to 10 times faster than CT systems that use a linear array, we are building a cone beam CT for use with our 20 MV x-ray source and Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) neutron sources. Our software, called CoBRA, is a portable cone beam reconstruction code for CT applications that efficiently and rapidly reconstructs large data sets. CoBRA applications include both x-ray and neutron inspections using x-ray phosphor screens coupled to either a CCD camera or flat-panel amorphous silicon arrays. Photographs of two amorphous silicon arrays.
Equivalence of computer codes for calculation of coincidence summing correction factors - Part II.
Vidmar, T; Camp, A; Hurtado, S; Jäderström, H; Kastlander, J; Lépy, M-C; Lutter, G; Ramebäck, H; Sima, O; Vargas, A
2016-03-01
The aim of this study was to check for equivalence of computer codes that are capable of performing calculations of true coincidence summing (TCS) correction factors. All calculations were performed for a set of well-defined detector parameters, sample parameters and decay scheme data. The studied geometry was a point source of (133)Ba positioned directly on the detector window of a low-energy (n-type) detector. Good agreement was established between the TCS correction factors computed by the different codes. PMID:26651169
Modeling Improvements and Users Manual for Axial-flow Turbine Off-design Computer Code AXOD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, Arthur J.
1994-01-01
An axial-flow turbine off-design performance computer code used for preliminary studies of gas turbine systems was modified and calibrated based on the experimental performance of large aircraft-type turbines. The flow- and loss-model modifications and calibrations are presented in this report. Comparisons are made between computed performances and experimental data for seven turbines over wide ranges of speed and pressure ratio. This report also serves as the users manual for the revised code, which is named AXOD.
Design geometry and design/off-design performance computer codes for compressors and turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, Arthur J.
1995-01-01
This report summarizes some NASA Lewis (i.e., government owned) computer codes capable of being used for airbreathing propulsion system studies to determine the design geometry and to predict the design/off-design performance of compressors and turbines. These are not CFD codes; velocity-diagram energy and continuity computations are performed fore and aft of the blade rows using meanline, spanline, or streamline analyses. Losses are provided by empirical methods. Both axial-flow and radial-flow configurations are included.
ARMP-02 documentation: Part 2, Chapter 6: CPM-2 computer code manual: Volume 3, Programmer's manual
Jones, D.B.
1987-04-01
CPM-2 is a lattice physics computer code which employs two-dimensional, multigroup neutron transport equations to solve for detailed neutron flux distributions and eigenvalues in fuel assembly designs typical of light water reactors. CPM-2 employs a special predictor-corrector methodology for calculating the burnup of fuel isotopics. CPM-2 combines the rigorous theory of collision probabilities, simple input and enhanced Restart/Data file management capabilities to form an accurate, production-oriented tool for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies. CPM-2 is a single-source computer code written entirely in FORTRAN and is available in CDC and IBM versions.
ARMP-02 documentation: Part 2, Chapter 6: CPM-2 computer code manual: Volume 2, User's manual
Jones, D.B.
1987-04-01
CPM-2 is a lattice physics computer code which employs two-dimensional, multigroup neutron transport equations to solve for detailed neutron flux distributions and eigenvalues in fuel assembly designs typical of light water reactors. CPM-2 employs a special predictor-corrector methodology for calculating the burnup of fuel isotopics. CPM-2 combines the rigorous theory of collision probabilities, simple input and enhanced Restart/Data file management capabilities to form an accurate, production-oriented tool for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies. CPM-2 is a single-source computer code written entirely in FORTRAN and is available in CDC and IBM versions.
Engine structures modeling software system: Computer code. User's manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
ESMOSS is a specialized software system for the construction of geometric descriptive and discrete analytical models of engine parts, components and substructures which can be transferred to finite element analysis programs such as NASTRAN. The software architecture of ESMOSS is designed in modular form with a central executive module through which the user controls and directs the development of the analytical model. Modules consist of a geometric shape generator, a library of discretization procedures, interfacing modules to join both geometric and discrete models, a deck generator to produce input for NASTRAN and a 'recipe' processor which generates geometric models from parametric definitions. ESMOSS can be executed both in interactive and batch modes. Interactive mode is considered to be the default mode and that mode will be assumed in the discussion in this document unless stated otherwise.
Users manual and modeling improvements for axial turbine design and performance computer code TD2-2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, Arthur J.
1992-01-01
Computer code TD2 computes design point velocity diagrams and performance for multistage, multishaft, cooled or uncooled, axial flow turbines. This streamline analysis code was recently modified to upgrade modeling related to turbine cooling and to the internal loss correlation. These modifications are presented in this report along with descriptions of the code's expanded input and output. This report serves as the users manual for the upgraded code, which is named TD2-2.
Independent verification and validation testing of the FLASH computer code, Versiion 3.0
Martian, P.; Chung, J.N.
1992-06-01
Independent testing of the FLASH computer code, Version 3.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at various Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Verification tests, and validation tests, were used to determine the operational status of the FLASH computer code. These tests were specifically designed to test: correctness of the FORTRAN coding, computational accuracy, and suitability to simulating actual hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured evaluation protocol which consisted of: blind testing, independent applications, and graduated difficulty of test cases. Both quantitative and qualitative testing was performed through evaluating relative root mean square values and graphical comparisons of the numerical, analytical, and experimental data. Four verification test were used to check the computational accuracy and correctness of the FORTRAN coding, and three validation tests were used to check the suitability to simulating actual conditions. These tests cases ranged in complexity from simple 1-D saturated flow to 2-D variably saturated problems. The verification tests showed excellent quantitative agreement between the FLASH results and analytical solutions. The validation tests showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of this testing, it was concluded that the FLASH code is a versatile and powerful two-dimensional analysis tool for fluid flow. In conclusion, all aspects of the code that were tested, except for the unit gradient bottom boundary condition, were found to be fully operational and ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies.
Independent verification and validation testing of the FLASH computer code, Versiion 3. 0
Martian, P.; Chung, J.N. . Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering)
1992-06-01
Independent testing of the FLASH computer code, Version 3.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at various Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Verification tests, and validation tests, were used to determine the operational status of the FLASH computer code. These tests were specifically designed to test: correctness of the FORTRAN coding, computational accuracy, and suitability to simulating actual hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured evaluation protocol which consisted of: blind testing, independent applications, and graduated difficulty of test cases. Both quantitative and qualitative testing was performed through evaluating relative root mean square values and graphical comparisons of the numerical, analytical, and experimental data. Four verification test were used to check the computational accuracy and correctness of the FORTRAN coding, and three validation tests were used to check the suitability to simulating actual conditions. These tests cases ranged in complexity from simple 1-D saturated flow to 2-D variably saturated problems. The verification tests showed excellent quantitative agreement between the FLASH results and analytical solutions. The validation tests showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of this testing, it was concluded that the FLASH code is a versatile and powerful two-dimensional analysis tool for fluid flow. In conclusion, all aspects of the code that were tested, except for the unit gradient bottom boundary condition, were found to be fully operational and ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies.
Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Hermann, O.W.
1984-11-01
TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location.
The Facial Expression Coding System (FACES): Development, Validation, and Utility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kring, Ann M.; Sloan, Denise M.
2007-01-01
This article presents information on the development and validation of the Facial Expression Coding System (FACES; A. M. Kring & D. Sloan, 1991). Grounded in a dimensional model of emotion, FACES provides information on the valence (positive, negative) of facial expressive behavior. In 5 studies, reliability and validity data from 13 diverse…
Software Development Processes Applied to Computational Icing Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levinson, Laurie H.; Potapezuk, Mark G.; Mellor, Pamela A.
1999-01-01
The development of computational icing simulation methods is making the transition form the research to common place use in design and certification efforts. As such, standards of code management, design validation, and documentation must be adjusted to accommodate the increased expectations of the user community with respect to accuracy, reliability, capability, and usability. This paper discusses these concepts with regard to current and future icing simulation code development efforts as implemented by the Icing Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center in collaboration with the NASA Lewis Engineering Design and Analysis Division. With the application of the techniques outlined in this paper, the LEWICE ice accretion code has become a more stable and reliable software product.
Non-coding RNAs in Mammary Gland Development and Disease.
Sandhu, Gurveen K; Milevskiy, Michael J G; Wilson, Wesley; Shewan, Annette M; Brown, Melissa A
2016-01-01
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are untranslated RNA molecules that function to regulate the expression of numerous genes and associated biochemical pathways and cellular functions. NcRNAs include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). They participate in the regulation of all developmental processes and are frequently aberrantly expressed or functionally defective in disease. This Chapter will focus on the role of ncRNAs, in particular miRNAs and lncRNAs, in mammary gland development and disease. PMID:26659490
Development of a CFD Code for Analysis of Fluid Dynamic Forces in Seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Athavale, Mahesh M.; Przekwas, Andrzej J.; Singhal, Ashok K.
1991-01-01
The aim is to develop a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the analysis of fluid flow in cylindrical seals and evaluation of the dynamic forces on the seals. This code is expected to serve as a scientific tool for detailed flow analysis as well as a check for the accuracy of the 2D industrial codes. The features necessary in the CFD code are outlined. The initial focus was to develop or modify and implement new techniques and physical models. These include collocated grid formulation, rotating coordinate frames and moving grid formulation. Other advanced numerical techniques include higher order spatial and temporal differencing and an efficient linear equation solver. These techniques were implemented in a 2D flow solver for initial testing. Several benchmark test cases were computed using the 2D code, and the results of these were compared to analytical solutions or experimental data to check the accuracy. Tests presented here include planar wedge flow, flow due to an enclosed rotor, and flow in a 2D seal with a whirling rotor. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results for an annular seal and a 7-cavity labyrinth seal are also included.
White, W.T. III; Taflove, A.; Stringer, J.C.; Kluge, R.F.
1986-12-01
As computers get larger and faster, demands upon electromagnetics codes increase. Ever larger volumes of space must be represented with increasingly more accuracy and detail. This requires continually more efficient EM codes. To meet present and future needs in DOE and DOD, we are developing FDTD3D, a three-dimensional finite-difference, time-domain EM solver. When complete, the code will efficiently solve problems with tens of millions of unknowns. It already operates faster than any other 3D, time-domain EM code, and we are using it to model linear coupling to a generic missile section. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we anticipate the ultimate need for such a code if we are to model EM threats to objects such as airplanes or missiles. This article describes the design and implementation of FDTD3D. The first section, ''Design of FDTD3D,'' contains a brief summary of other 3D time-domain EM codes at LLNL followed by a description of the efficiency of FDTD3D. The second section, ''Implementation of FDTD3D,'' discusses recent work and future plans.
Computer Literacy for Workforce Development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ndahi, Hassan; Gupta, Abha
2000-01-01
Describes a GTE Project that provides technology equipment and assistance in computer literacy for adult learners. Indicates that the training sessions benefited them in the use of the reading software, Internet, Power Point, web importing programs, and use of electronic portfolio. Reports that all trainees felt better prepared to participate…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Shiao, Michael C.
1993-01-01
A methodology and attendant computer code have been developed and are described to computationally simulate the uncertain behavior of composite structures. The uncertain behavior includes buckling loads, stress concentration factors, displacements, stress/strain etc., which are the consequences of the inherent uncertainties (scatter) in the primitive (independent random) variables (constituent, ply, laminate and structural) that describe the composite structures. The computer code, IPACS (Integrated Probabilistic Assessment of Composite Structures), can handle both composite mechanics and composite structures. Application to probabilistic composite mechanics is illustrated by its uses to evaluate the uncertainties in the major Poisson's ratio and in laminate stiffness and strength. IPACS application to probabilistic structural analysis is illustrated by its use to evaluate the uncertainties in the buckling of a composite plate, in the stress concentration factor in a composite panel and in the vertical displacement and ply stress in a composite aircraft wing segment.
VTLOGANL: A Computer Program for Coding and Analyzing Data Gathered on Video Tape.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hecht, Jeffrey B.; And Others
To code and analyze research data on videotape, a methodology is needed that allows the researcher to code directly and then analyze the observed degree of intensity of the observed events. The establishment of such a methodology is the next logical step in the development of the use of video recorded data in research. The Technological…
Trent, D.S.; Eyler, L.L.
1982-09-01
In this study several aspects of simulating hydrogen distribution in geometric configurations relevant to reactor containment structures were investigated using the TEMPEST computer code. Of particular interest was the performance of the TEMPEST turbulence model in a density-stratified environment. Computed results illustrated that the TEMPEST numerical procedures predicted the measured phenomena with good accuracy under a variety of conditions and that the turbulence model used is a viable approach in complex turbulent flow simulation.