Science.gov

Sample records for computer materials science

  1. EDITORIAL: Computational materials science Computational materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Gerhard; Kresse, Georg

    2011-10-01

    Special issue in honour of Jürgen Hafner On 30 September 2010, Jürgen Hafner, one of the most prominent and influential members within the solid state community, retired. His remarkably broad scientific oeuvre has made him one of the founding fathers of modern computational materials science: more than 600 scientific publications, numerous contributions to books, and a highly cited monograph, which has become a standard reference in the theory of metals, witness not only the remarkable productivity of Jürgen Hafner but also his impact in theoretical solid state physics. In an effort to duly acknowledge Jürgen Hafner's lasting impact in this field, a Festsymposium was held on 27-29 September 2010 at the Universität Wien. The organizers of this symposium (and authors of this editorial) are proud to say that a large number of highly renowned scientists in theoretical condensed matter theory—co-workers, friends and students—accepted the invitation to this celebration of Hafner's jubilee. Some of these speakers also followed our invitation to submit their contribution to this Festschrift, published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, a journal which Jürgen Hafner served in 2000-2003 and 2003-2006 as a member of the Advisory Editorial Board and member of the Executive Board, respectively. In the subsequent article, Volker Heine, friend and co-worker of Jürgen Hafner over many decades, gives an account of Hafner's impact in the field of theoretical condensed matter physics. Computational materials science contents Theoretical study of structural, mechanical and spectroscopic properties of boehmite (γ-AlOOH) D Tunega, H Pašalić, M H Gerzabek and H Lischka Ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by chlorine-promoted silver oxide M O Ozbek, I Onal and R A Van Santen First-principles study of Cu2ZnSnS4 and the related band offsets for photovoltaic applicationsA Nagoya, R Asahi and G Kresse Renormalization group study of random quantum magnetsIstván A Kovács and

  2. Theory VI. Computational Materials Sciences Network (CMSN)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z Y

    2008-06-25

    The Computational Materials Sciences Network (CMSN) is a virtual center consisting of scientists interested in working together, across organizational and disciplinary boundaries, to formulate and pursue projects that reflect challenging and relevant computational research in the materials sciences. The projects appropriate for this center involve those problems best pursued through broad cooperative efforts, rather than those key problems best tackled by single investigator groups. CMSN operates similarly to the DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials, coordinated by George Samara at Sandia. As in the Synthesis and Processing Center, the intent of the modest funding for CMSN is to foster partnering and collective activities. All CMSN proposals undergo external peer review and are judged foremost on the quality and timeliness of the science and also on criteria relevant to the objective of the center, especially concerning a strategy for partnering. More details about CMSN can be found on the CMSN webpages at: http://cmpweb.ameslab.gov/ccms/CMSN-homepage.html.

  3. Computational materials science: Predictions of pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paruch, Patrycja; Ghosez, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    A multiscale model has been implemented that provides accurate predictions of the behaviour of ferroelectric materials in electric fields, and might aid efforts to design devices such as sensors and digital memory. See Letter p.360

  4. Materials science. Materials that couple sensing, actuation, computation, and communication.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, M A; Correll, N

    2015-03-20

    Tightly integrating sensing, actuation, and computation into composites could enable a new generation of truly smart material systems that can change their appearance and shape autonomously. Applications for such materials include airfoils that change their aerodynamic profile, vehicles with camouflage abilities, bridges that detect and repair damage, or robotic skins and prosthetics with a realistic sense of touch. Although integrating sensors and actuators into composites is becoming increasingly common, the opportunities afforded by embedded computation have only been marginally explored. Here, the key challenge is the gap between the continuous physics of materials and the discrete mathematics of computation. Bridging this gap requires a fundamental understanding of the constituents of such robotic materials and the distributed algorithms and controls that make these structures smart. PMID:25792332

  5. Computer Data Acquisition Applications in the Materials Science Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Eugene E., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described are applications of computer data acquisition to three laboratories in materials science at the United States Naval Academy. In each laboratory, data are input to a minicomputer, scaled using previously obtained and stored calibration factors to convert the transducer signals to load, displacement, temperature, etc., and then stored on…

  6. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, George; Glotzer, Sharon; McCurdy, Bill; Roberto, Jim

    2010-07-26

    This report is based on a SC Workshop on Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation on July 26-27, 2010, to assess the potential of state-of-the-art computer simulations to accelerate understanding and discovery in materials science and chemistry, with a focus on potential impacts in energy technologies and innovation. The urgent demand for new energy technologies has greatly exceeded the capabilities of today's materials and chemical processes. To convert sunlight to fuel, efficiently store energy, or enable a new generation of energy production and utilization technologies requires the development of new materials and processes of unprecedented functionality and performance. New materials and processes are critical pacing elements for progress in advanced energy systems and virtually all industrial technologies. Over the past two decades, the United States has developed and deployed the world's most powerful collection of tools for the synthesis, processing, characterization, and simulation and modeling of materials and chemical systems at the nanoscale, dimensions of a few atoms to a few hundred atoms across. These tools, which include world-leading x-ray and neutron sources, nanoscale science facilities, and high-performance computers, provide an unprecedented view of the atomic-scale structure and dynamics of materials and the molecular-scale basis of chemical processes. For the first time in history, we are able to synthesize, characterize, and model materials and chemical behavior at the length scale where this behavior is controlled. This ability is transformational for the discovery process and, as a result, confers a significant competitive advantage. Perhaps the most spectacular increase in capability has been demonstrated in high performance computing. Over the past decade, computational power has increased by a factor of a million due to advances in hardware and software. This rate of improvement, which shows no sign of abating, has

  7. Uses of Computed Tomography in the NASA Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, H. Peter; Gillies, Donald C.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has proved to be of inestimable use in providing a rapid evaluation of a variety of samples from Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) to electronic materials (Ge-Si alloys) to space grown materials such as meteorites. The system at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), because of its convenient geographical location, is ideal for examining samples immediately after returning to Earth. It also has the advantage of the choice of fluxes, and in particular the use of a radioactive cobalt source, which is basically monochromatic. This permits a reasonable measurement of density to be made from which chemical composition can be determined. Due to the current dearth of long duration space grown materials, the CT instrument has been used to characterize materials in preparation for flight, to determine thermal expansion values, and to examine long duration space grown materials, i.e. meteorites. The work will first describe the establishment of the protocol for obtaining the optimum density readings for any material. This will include both the effects of the hardware or instrumental parameters that can be controlled, and the techniques used to process the CT data. Examples will be given of the compositional variation along single crystals of germanium-silicon alloys. Density variation with temperature has been measured in preparation for future materials science experiments; this involved the fabrication and installation of a single zone furnace incorporating a heat pipe to ensure of high temperature uniformity. At the time of writing the thermal expansion of lead has been measured from room temperature to 900 C. Three methods are available. Digital radiography enable length changes to be determined. Prior to melting the sample is small than the container and the diameter change can be measured. Most critical, however, is the density change in solid, through the melting region, and in the liquid state. These data are needed for engineering purposes to aid

  8. Computed Tomography Support for Microgravity Materials Science Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Engel, H. Peter; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The accurate measurement of density in both liquid and solid samples is of considerable interest to Principal Investigators with materials science experiments slated for the ISS. The work to be described is an innovative application of a conventional industrial nondestructive evaluation instrument. Traditional applications of industrial computed tomography (CT) rely on reconstructing cross sections of large structures to provide two-dimensional planar views which can identify defects such as porosity, or other material anomalies. This has been done on microgravity materials science experiments to check the integrity of ampoule-cartridge assemblies for safety purposes. With a substantially monoenergetic flux, as can be obtained with a radioactive cobalt source, there will be a direct correlation between absorption and density. Under such conditions it then becomes possible to make accurate measurements of density throughout a sample, and even when the sample itself is enclosed within a furnace and a safety required cartridge. Such a system has been installed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and is available to PIs to examine samples before and after flight. The CT system is being used to provide density information for two purposes. Firstly, the determination of density changes from liquid to solid is vital information to the PI for purposes of modeling the solidification behavior of his sample, and to engineers who have to design containment ampoules and must allow for shrinkage and other volume changes that may occur during processing. While such information can be obtained by pycnometric measurements, the possibility of using a furnace installed on the CT system enables one to examine potentially dangerous materials having high vapor pressures, while not needing visible access to the material. In addition, uniform temperature can readily be obtained, and the system can be controlled to ramp up, hold, and ramp down while collecting data over a wide range of

  9. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselyova, N. N.; Dudarev, V. A.; Zemskov, V. S.

    2010-02-01

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  10. Computer sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  11. The use of computers in a materials science laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neville, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to make available a method of easily recording the microstructure of a sample by means of a computer. The method requires a minimum investment and little or no instruction on the operation of a computer. An outline of the setup involving a black and white TV camera, a digitizer control box, a metallurgical microscope and a computer screen, printer, and keyboard is shown.

  12. Computer Related Mathematics and Science Curriculum Materials - A National Science Foundation Cooperative College-School Science Program in Computing Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Chuan C.

    Reported is the Cooperative College-School Science Program in Computing Science Education which was conducted by the University of Colorado Department of Civil Engineering in the summer of 1967. The program consisted of two five-week terms. The course work was composed of two formal lecture courses in Computer Related Mathematics and Computer…

  13. Computational techniques in tribology and material science at the atomic level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Bozzolo, G. H.

    1992-01-01

    Computations in tribology and material science at the atomic level present considerable difficulties. Computational techniques ranging from first-principles to semi-empirical and their limitations are discussed. Example calculations of metallic surface energies using semi-empirical techniques are presented. Finally, application of the methods to calculation of adhesion and friction are presented.

  14. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    DAVENPORT,J.

    2004-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security.

  15. Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  16. From computational materials science to nanoscale device physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Avik

    2008-10-01

    I will outline formal, computational and device level challenges for modeling and simulation of nanoelectronic devices and systems. Formal challenges involve developing the basic equations for quantum transport in the presence of strong many-body correlations (Coulomb Blockade), incoherent scattering (phonons) and time-dependent effects at the nano-micro interface (hysteretic switching and random telegraph noise). Computational challenges involve translating these equations into quantitative, predictive models, particularly at surfaces and interfaces, where we need practical semi-empirical descriptions with transferable parameters to handle hybrid regions. In addition, we need multiscaling and embedding techniques to merge these models with more detailed ``ab-initio'' descriptions of chemically significant moieties. Finally, Device level challenges involve identifying fundamental limits of existing device paradigms, such as molecular FETs, as well as exploring novel device operational principles. I will touch upon the fundamental issues that arise in context of each challenge, and possible means of solving them. I will then apply these ideas to a specific device architecture, namely, an ordered array of quantum dots grown on the surface of a nanoscale silicon transistor. All of the challenges identified above manifest themselves prominently in this geometry that operates at the nano-micro interface. Specifically, I will discuss how the strongly correlated electrons in the nanoscale dots ``talk'' to their weakly interacting macroscopic counterparts, how the interfacial electronic structure captures both long-ranged band correlations and short-ranged chemical correlations, and how the tunable coupling with the localized dot degrees of freedom can lead to novel physics, such as the experimentally observed blocking and unblocking of a nanotube current by correlated interactions between multiple oxide traps.

  17. Computational materials science and engineering education: A survey of trends and needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, K.; Nola, Samanthule; Edwin Garcia, R.; Asta, Mark; Olson, G. B.

    2009-10-01

    Results from a recent reassessment of the state of computational materials science and engineering (CMSE) education are reported. Surveys were distributed to the chairs and heads of materials programs, faculty members engaged in computational research, and employers of materials scientists and engineers, mainly in the United States. The data was compiled to assess current course offerings related to CMSE, the general climate for introducing computational methods in MSE curricula, and the requirements from the employers’ viewpoint. Furthermore, the available educational resources and their utilization by the community are examined. The surveys show a general support for integrating computational content into MSE education. However, they also reflect remaining issues with implementation, as well as a gap between the tools being taught in courses and those that are used by employers. Overall, the results suggest the necessity for a comprehensively developed vision and plans to further the integration of computational methods into MSE curricula.

  18. Year 1 Progress Report Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Rehr, John J.

    2012-08-02

    This document reports progress on the project “Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network Administration,” which is supported by DOE BES Grant DE-FG02-02ER45990 MOD 08. As stated in the original proposal, the primary goal of this project is to carry out the scientific administrative responsibilities for the Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. These responsibilities include organizing meetings, publishing and maintaining CMCSN’s website, publishing a periodic newsletter, writing original material for both the website and the newsletter, maintaining CMCSN documentation, editing scientific documents, as needed, serving as liaison for the entire Network, facilitating information exchange across the network, communicating CMCSN’s success stories to the larger community and numerous other tasks outside the purview of the scientists in the CMCSN. Given the dramatic increase in computational power, advances in computational materials science can have an enormous impact in science and technology. For many of the questions that can be addressed by computation there is a choice of theoretical techniques available, yet often there is no accepted understanding of the relative strengths and effectiveness of the competing approaches. The CMCSN fosters progress in this understanding by providing modest additional funding to research groups which engage in collaborative activities to develop, compare, and test novel computational techniques. Thus, the CMCSN provides the “glue” money which enables different groups to work together, building on their existing programs and expertise while avoiding unnecessary duplication of effort. This includes travel funding, partial postdoc salaries, and funding for periodic scientific meetings. The activities supported by this grant are briefly summarized below.

  19. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2005-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include, for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security. To achieve our goals we have established a close alliance with applied mathematicians and computer scientists at Stony Brook and Columbia Universities.

  20. Theory, Modeling, Software and Hardware Development for Analytical and Computational Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Gerald W.; Clemons, Curtis B.

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this Cooperative Agreement between the Computational Materials Laboratory (CML) of the Processing Science and Technology Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics at The University of Akron was in the areas of system development of the CML workstation environment, modeling of microgravity and earth-based material processing systems, and joint activities in laboratory projects. These efforts complement each other as the majority of the modeling work involves numerical computations to support laboratory investigations. Coordination and interaction between the modelers, system analysts, and laboratory personnel are essential toward providing the most effective simulations and communication of the simulation results. Toward these means, The University of Akron personnel involved in the agreement worked at the Applied Mathematics Research Laboratory (AMRL) in the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics while maintaining a close relationship with the personnel of the Computational Materials Laboratory at GRC. Network communication between both sites has been established. A summary of the projects we undertook during the time period 9/1/03 - 6/30/04 is included.

  1. FOREWORD: Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Volker

    2011-10-01

    groups extended these studies to molten [19] and quasicrystalline metals. The stunning result was that among the distorted structures there was a region where quasicrystals were stable with the lowest energy among all the structures they tried and which had shown up elsewhere [20]. In addition to Jürgen Hafner's actual research work published in over 600 research papers, including numerous review articles, several contributions to books and one monograph, he has done a great deal to establish our field of electronic structure calculation as the basis for understanding materials in Austria and across Europe. The founding and expansion of the Computational Materials Science Centre (CMS) in Vienna owes much to him, as well as the development of the European Psi-k network where he served as acting chairman in 1997-1999. He has been one of the leaders of the 'Surfaces and Catalysis Working Group' of Psi-k, and the instigator of several 'Theory Meets Industry' workshops [21] to stimulate the transfer of our methodology to industrial problems. Jürgen Hafner has always aimed for the highest intellectual standards. His nose for finding the most advanced work going on elsewhere has resulted in many international cooperations, including some in the USA and Japan. His list of international joint research projects runs to many pages. This in turn has been a major contributor to European cooperation, and in making it now the leading area in the world for our field. Hafner's research has always been linked closely to understanding puzzling experimental results, and in this way he has helped to establish a good reputation for computational physics within the mainstream of condensed matter physics of materials. It has taken quite a long time to establish computer simulations as a respectable component of research in condensed matter physics. "It is not real theory" people sneered from one side, and "computer simulations are not like real experiments" from the other. In the late 1990s a

  2. Materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, T.M.

    1995-10-01

    The science-based stockpile stewardship program emphasizes a better understanding of how complex components function through advanced computer calculations. Many of the problem areas are in the behavior of materials making up the equipment. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) can contribute to solving these problems by providing diagnostic tools to examine parts noninvasively and by providing the experimental tools to understand material behavior in terms of both the atomic structure and the microstructure. Advanced computer codes need experimental information on material behavior in response to stress, temperature, and pressure as input, and they need benchmarking experiments to test the model predictions for the finished part.

  3. Computational materials science aided design of glass ceramics and crystal properties (abstract only).

    PubMed

    Mannstadt, Wolfgang

    2008-02-13

    Today's high tech materials have in many cases highly specialized properties and designed functionalities. Materials parameters like high temperature stability, high stiffness and certain optical properties have to be optimized and in many cases an adaptation to given processes is necessary. Many materials are compounds or layered structures. Thus, surface and interface properties need to be considered as well. At the same time to some extent just a few atomic layers sometimes determine the properties of the material, as is well known in semiconductor and other thin film technologies. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the materials properties at the atomic scale becomes more and more important. In addition many high tech materials have to be of high purity or selective dopant concentrations have to be adjusted to fulfill the desired functionality. Modern materials developments successfully use computational materials science to achieve that goal. Improved software tools and continuously growing computational power allow us to predict macroscopic properties of materials on the basis of microscopic/atomic ab initio simulation approaches. At Schott, special materials, in particular glasses and glass ceramics, are produced for a variety of applications. For a glass ceramic all the above mentioned difficulties for materials development arise. The properties of a glass ceramic are determined by the interplay of crystalline phases embedded in an amorphous glass matrix. For materials development the understanding of crystal structures and their properties, surfaces and interface phenomena, and amorphous systems are necessary, likewise. Each by itself is already a challenging problem. Many crystal phases that are grown within the glass matrix do not exist as single crystals or are difficult to grow in reasonable amounts for experimental investigations. The only way to obtain the properties of these crystalline phases is through 'ab initio' simulations in the computer

  4. Computational materials science aided design of glass ceramics and crystal properties (abstract only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannstadt, Wolfgang

    2008-02-01

    Today's high tech materials have in many cases highly specialized properties and designed functionalities. Materials parameters like high temperature stability, high stiffness and certain optical properties have to be optimized and in many cases an adaptation to given processes is necessary. Many materials are compounds or layered structures. Thus, surface and interface properties need to be considered as well. At the same time to some extent just a few atomic layers sometimes determine the properties of the material, as is well known in semiconductor and other thin film technologies. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the materials properties at the atomic scale becomes more and more important. In addition many high tech materials have to be of high purity or selective dopant concentrations have to be adjusted to fulfill the desired functionality. Modern materials developments successfully use computational materials science to achieve that goal. Improved software tools and continuously growing computational power allow us to predict macroscopic properties of materials on the basis of microscopic/atomic ab initio simulation approaches. At Schott, special materials, in particular glasses and glass ceramics, are produced for a variety of applications. For a glass ceramic all the above mentioned difficulties for materials development arise. The properties of a glass ceramic are determined by the interplay of crystalline phases embedded in an amorphous glass matrix. For materials development the understanding of crystal structures and their properties, surfaces and interface phenomena, and amorphous systems are necessary, likewise. Each by itself is already a challenging problem. Many crystal phases that are grown within the glass matrix do not exist as single crystals or are difficult to grow in reasonable amounts for experimental investigations. The only way to obtain the properties of these crystalline phases is through 'ab initio' simulations in the computer

  5. Computational materials science: an increasingly reliable engineering tool (example: defects in HgCdTe alloys)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, Arden; van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M. A.

    1998-04-01

    Computational materials science has evolved in recent years into a reliable theory capable of predicting not only idealized materials and device performance properties, but also those that apply to practical engineering developments. The codes run on workstations and even now are fast enough to be useful design tools. A review will be presented of the current status of this rapidly advancing field.As a demonstration of the power of the methods, predictions of the native point and complex defect, and impurity densities for the Hg0.8Cd0.2Te alloy as functions of external processing conditions will be treated. Where measurements have been done, the observed values agree well with the predictions. As an example, we find that As incorporates predominately on the cation sublattice, if the material is grown form the Te side of the existence curve, whereas it tends to reside on the anion sublattice in Hg-saturated growth. On the cation sublattice As is a donor. It is an acceptor on the Te sublattice. We have devised a post-MBE- growth processing method to encourage the transfer of As form the cation to the anion sublattice. Those aspects of the proposed process that have been tested work.

  6. Advancing a distributed multi-scale computing framework for large-scale high-throughput discovery in materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knap, J.; Spear, C. E.; Borodin, O.; Leiter, K. W.

    2015-10-01

    We describe the development of a large-scale high-throughput application for discovery in materials science. Our point of departure is a computational framework for distributed multi-scale computation. We augment the original framework with a specialized module whose role is to route evaluation requests needed by the high-throughput application to a collection of available computational resources. We evaluate the feasibility and performance of the resulting high-throughput computational framework by carrying out a high-throughput study of battery solvents. Our results indicate that distributed multi-scale computing, by virtue of its adaptive nature, is particularly well-suited for building high-throughput applications.

  7. FOREWORD: Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Volker

    2011-10-01

    Jürgen Hafner started in the early 1970s with pseudopotential calculations on the structures and properties of sp-bonded metals, improving on work done elsewhere [1]. This expanded in four directions: transition metals, molten metals, magnetism and alloys, and combinations of these. As well as electronic structure calculations, he helped to advance the statistical mechanical classical theory of liquids for the molten metals [2]. In magnetism he was one of the pioneers of calculations with non-collinear spins [3, 4]. As well as simple (solid and molten) alloys, he also treated materials with strong chemical interaction such as sulphides and liquids such as arsenic and tellurium [5, 6]. All this fed into two directions which dominated much of his work for many years, namely the theory of glassy metals [7] and that of quasicrystals [8]. One notable result in the latter was to show that it was possible to construct hypothetical materials for which the quasicrystalline state is indeed the lowest energy structure. This displaced the established wisdom of the time that quasicrystals were necessarily metastable forms. In more recent years he has turned to calculations in surface science [9, 10], including catalysis of chemical reactions on surfaces [11, 12]. What really brought Jürgen first to my attention was that he had managed to do a better job than we had of calculations with the new approach of pseudopotentials, particularly regarding the screening part of the calculation. This is very important in alloys where there is a large difference in the electron density in the two types of atom due to their different volumes or valences such as in the phase diagram and structure of LiK or KPb [5, 13]. We have been in contact over many years including one close collaboration and I always learned something new in talking with Jürgen. In the late 1970s in Cambridge we performed phonon calculations on models of amorphous silicon [14], to see if these could distinguish between

  8. Democratizing Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Ryoo, Jean J.

    2015-01-01

    Computer science programs are too often identified with a narrow stratum of the student population, often white or Asian boys who have access to computers at home. But because computers play such a huge role in our world today, all students can benefit from the study of computer science and the opportunity to build skills related to computing. The…

  9. ICASE Computer Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering computer science program is discussed in outline form. Information is given on such topics as problem decomposition, algorithm development, programming languages, and parallel architectures.

  10. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR THE STUDY OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON X-RAY COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY.

    SciTech Connect

    FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.; MCGUIGAN,M.; SMITH,G.J.; SPILETIC,J.

    2001-10-12

    Synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) is a non-destructive method for examination of rock, soil, and other types of samples studied in the earth and environmental sciences. The high x-ray intensities of the synchrotron source make possible the acquisition of tomographic volumes at a high rate that requires the application of high-performance computing techniques for data reconstruction to produce the three-dimensional volumes, for their visualization, and for data analysis. These problems are exacerbated by the need to share information between collaborators at widely separated locations over both local and tide-area networks. A summary of the CMT technique and examples of applications are given here together with a discussion of the applications of high-performance computing methods to improve the experimental techniques and analysis of the data.

  11. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Material on Students' Cognitive Levels, Misconceptions and Attitudes Towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which there were…

  12. A review of computational methods in materials science: examples from shock-wave and polymer physics.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Martin O; Hiermaier, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    This review discusses several computational methods used on different length and time scales for the simulation of material behavior. First, the importance of physical modeling and its relation to computer simulation on multiscales is discussed. Then, computational methods used on different scales are shortly reviewed, before we focus on the molecular dynamics (MD) method. Here we survey in a tutorial-like fashion some key issues including several MD optimization techniques. Thereafter, computational examples for the capabilities of numerical simulations in materials research are discussed. We focus on recent results of shock wave simulations of a solid which are based on two different modeling approaches and we discuss their respective assets and drawbacks with a view to their application on multiscales. Then, the prospects of computer simulations on the molecular length scale using coarse-grained MD methods are covered by means of examples pertaining to complex topological polymer structures including star-polymers, biomacromolecules such as polyelectrolytes and polymers with intrinsic stiffness. This review ends by highlighting new emerging interdisciplinary applications of computational methods in the field of medical engineering where the application of concepts of polymer physics and of shock waves to biological systems holds a lot of promise for improving medical applications such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy or tumor treatment. PMID:20054467

  13. A Review of Computational Methods in Materials Science: Examples from Shock-Wave and Polymer Physics

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauser, Martin O.; Hiermaier, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses several computational methods used on different length and time scales for the simulation of material behavior. First, the importance of physical modeling and its relation to computer simulation on multiscales is discussed. Then, computational methods used on different scales are shortly reviewed, before we focus on the molecular dynamics (MD) method. Here we survey in a tutorial-like fashion some key issues including several MD optimization techniques. Thereafter, computational examples for the capabilities of numerical simulations in materials research are discussed. We focus on recent results of shock wave simulations of a solid which are based on two different modeling approaches and we discuss their respective assets and drawbacks with a view to their application on multiscales. Then, the prospects of computer simulations on the molecular length scale using coarse-grained MD methods are covered by means of examples pertaining to complex topological polymer structures including star-polymers, biomacromolecules such as polyelectrolytes and polymers with intrinsic stiffness. This review ends by highlighting new emerging interdisciplinary applications of computational methods in the field of medical engineering where the application of concepts of polymer physics and of shock waves to biological systems holds a lot of promise for improving medical applications such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy or tumor treatment. PMID:20054467

  14. Recognizing Computational Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2006-08-01

    There are prestigious international awards that recognize the role of theory and experiment in science and mathematics, but there are no awards of a similar stature that explicitly recognize the role of computational science in a scientific field. In 1945, John von Neumann noted that "many branches of both pure and applied mathematics are in great need of computing instruments to break the present stalemate created by the failure of the purely analytical approach to nonlinear problems." In the past few decades, great strides in mathematics and in the applied sciences can be linked to computational science.

  15. Computers in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Science fiction writers' perceptions of the "thinking machine" are examined through a review of Baum's Oz books, Heinlein's "Beyond This Horizon," science fiction magazine articles, and works about robots including Asimov's "I, Robot." The future of computers in science fiction is discussed and suggested readings are listed. (MBR)

  16. Women in Computer Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Clare; Menninger, Sally Ann

    The keynote address of a conference that focused on the future of women in science and engineering fields and the opportunities available to them in the computer sciences is presented. Women's education in the sciences and education and entry into the job market in these fields has steadily been increasing. Excellent employment opportunities are…

  17. Computer Science Professionals and Greek Library Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dendrinos, Markos N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the current state of computer science penetration into librarianship in terms of both workplace and education issues. The shift from material libraries into digital libraries is mirrored in the corresponding shift from librarians into information scientists. New library data and metadata, as well as new automated…

  18. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2006-11-01

    Computational Science is an integral component of Brookhaven's multi science mission, and is a reflection of the increased role of computation across all of science. Brookhaven currently has major efforts in data storage and analysis for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the ATLAS detector at CERN, and in quantum chromodynamics. The Laboratory is host for the QCDOC machines (quantum chromodynamics on a chip), 10 teraflop/s computers which boast 12,288 processors each. There are two here, one for the Riken/BNL Research Center and the other supported by DOE for the US Lattice Gauge Community and other scientific users. A 100 teraflop/s supercomputer will be installed at Brookhaven in the coming year, managed jointly by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, and funded by a grant from New York State. This machine will be used for computational science across Brookhaven's entire research program, and also by researchers at Stony Brook and across New York State. With Stony Brook, Brookhaven has formed the New York Center for Computational Science (NYCCS) as a focal point for interdisciplinary computational science, which is closely linked to Brookhaven's Computational Science Center (CSC). The CSC has established a strong program in computational science, with an emphasis on nanoscale electronic structure and molecular dynamics, accelerator design, computational fluid dynamics, medical imaging, parallel computing and numerical algorithms. We have been an active participant in DOES SciDAC program (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing). We are also planning a major expansion in computational biology in keeping with Laboratory initiatives. Additional laboratory initiatives with a dependence on a high level of computation include the development of hydrodynamics models for the interpretation of RHIC data, computational models for the atmospheric transport of aerosols, and models for combustion and for energy utilization. The CSC was formed to bring together

  19. Research in computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Various graduate research activities in the field of computer science are reported. Among the topics discussed are: (1) failure probabilities in multi-version software; (2) Gaussian Elimination on parallel computers; (3) three dimensional Poisson solvers on parallel/vector computers; (4) automated task decomposition for multiple robot arms; (5) multi-color incomplete cholesky conjugate gradient methods on the Cyber 205; and (6) parallel implementation of iterative methods for solving linear equations.

  20. Panel 3 - material science

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrao, John L; Yip, Sidney

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, NNSA's national security challenge has evolved, and the role of simulation and computation has grown dramatically. The process of certifying nuclear weapons performance has changed from one based on integrated tests to science-based certification in which underground nuclear tests have been replaced by large-scale simulations, appropriately validated with fundamental experimental data. Further, the breadth of national security challenges has expanded beyond stewardship of a nuclear deterrent to a broad range of global and asymmetric threats. Materials challenges are central to the full suite of these national security challenges. Mission requirements demand that materials perform predictably in extreme environments -- high pressure, high strain rate, and hostile irradiation and chemical conditions. Considerable advances have been made in incorporating fundamental materials physics into integrated codes used for component certification. On the other hand, significant uncertainties still remain, and materials properties, especially at the mesoscale, are key to understanding uncertainties that remain in integrated weapons performance codes and that at present are treated as empirical knobs. Further, additional national security mission challenges could be addressed more robustly with new and higher performing materials.

  1. Research in computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Synopses are given for NASA supported work in computer science at the University of Virginia. Some areas of research include: error seeding as a testing method; knowledge representation for engineering design; analysis of faults in a multi-version software experiment; implementation of a parallel programming environment; two computer graphics systems for visualization of pressure distribution and convective density particles; task decomposition for multiple robot arms; vectorized incomplete conjugate gradient; and iterative methods for solving linear equations on the Flex/32.

  2. Partnership in Computational Science

    SciTech Connect

    Huray, Paul G.

    1999-02-24

    This is the final report for the "Partnership in Computational Science" (PICS) award in an amount of $500,000 for the period January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993. A copy of the proposal with its budget is attached as Appendix A. This report first describes the consequent significance of the DOE award in building infrastructure of high performance computing in the Southeast and then describes the work accomplished under this grant and a list of publications resulting from it.

  3. Computer/Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Ken; Roughgarden, Tim; Seltzer, Margo; Spohrer, Jim; Stolterman, Erik; Kearsley, Greg; Koszalka, Tiffany; de Jong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of computer/information science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Ken Birman, Jennifer Rexford, Tim Roughgarden, Margo Seltzer, Jim Spohrer, and…

  4. Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  5. The Need for Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Bernier, David

    2011-01-01

    Broadening computer science learning to include more students is a crucial item on the United States' education agenda, these authors say. Although policymakers advocate more computer science expertise, computer science offerings in high schools are few--and actually shrinking. In addition, poorly resourced schools with a high percentage of…

  6. Computer Science Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun-Lin, Su

    1988-01-01

    Describes the history of computer science departments at universities in China. Educational principles that characterize Chinese computer science education are discussed, selection of students for universities is described, and curricula for both undergraduate and graduate computer science studies are outlined. (LRW)

  7. Computational conformational antimicrobial analysis developing mechanomolecular theory for polymer biomaterials in materials science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-03-01

    Single-bond rotations or pyramidal inversions tend to either hide or expose relative energies that exist for atoms with nonbonding lone-pair electrons. Availability of lone-pair electrons depends on overall molecular electron distributions and differences in the immediate polarity of the surrounding pico/nanoenvironment. Stereochemistry three-dimensional aspects of molecules provide insight into conformations through single-bond rotations with associated lone-pair electrons on oxygen atoms in addition to pyramidal inversions with nitrogen atoms. When electrons are protected, potential energy is sheltered toward an energy minimum value to compatibilize molecularly with nonpolar environments. When electrons are exposed, maximum energy is available toward polar environment interactions. Computational conformational analysis software calculated energy profiles that exist during specific oxygen ether single-bond rotations with easy-to-visualize three-dimensional models for the trichlorinated bisaromatic ether triclosan antimicrobial polymer additive. As shown, fluctuating alternating bond rotations can produce complex interactions between molecules to provide entanglement strength for polymer toughness or alternatively disrupt weak secondary bonds of attraction to lower resin viscosity for new additive properties with nonpolar triclosan as a hydrophobic toughening/wetting agent. Further, bond rotations involving lone-pair electrons by a molecule at a nonpolar-hydrocarbon-membrane/polar-biologic-fluid interface might become sufficiently unstable to provide free mechanomolecular energies to disrupt weaker microbial membranes, for membrane transport of molecules into cells, provide cell signaling/recognition/defense and also generate enzyme mixing to speed reactions.

  8. Computational conformational antimicrobial analysis developing mechanomolecular theory for polymer biomaterials in materials science and engineering

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Single-bond rotations or pyramidal inversions tend to either hide or expose relative energies that exist for atoms with nonbonding lone-pair electrons. Availability of lone-pair electrons depends on overall molecular electron distributions and differences in the immediate polarity of the surrounding pico/nanoenvironment. Stereochemistry three-dimensional aspects of molecules provide insight into conformations through single-bond rotations with associated lone-pair electrons on oxygen atoms in addition to pyramidal inversions with nitrogen atoms. When electrons are protected, potential energy is sheltered toward an energy minimum value to compatibilize molecularly with nonpolar environments. When electrons are exposed, maximum energy is available toward polar environment interactions. Computational conformational analysis software calculated energy profiles that exist during specific oxygen ether single-bond rotations with easy-to-visualize three-dimensional models for the trichlorinated bisaromatic ether triclosan antimicrobial polymer additive. As shown, fluctuating alternating bond rotations can produce complex interactions between molecules to provide entanglement strength for polymer toughness or alternatively disrupt weak secondary bonds of attraction to lower resin viscosity for new additive properties with nonpolar triclosan as a hydrophobic toughening/wetting agent. Further, bond rotations involving lone-pair electrons by a molecule at a nonpolar-hydrocarbon-membrane/polar-biologic-fluid interface might become sufficiently unstable to provide free mechanomolecular energies to disrupt weaker microbial membranes, for membrane transport of molecules into cells, provide cell signaling/recognition/defense and also generate enzyme mixing to speed reactions. PMID:25598972

  9. Materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    During FY-96, work within the Materials Science and Engineering Thrust Area was focused on material modeling. Our motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as material processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, in support of many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These studies are described in (1) Strength and Fracture Toughness of Material Interfaces; (2) Damage Evolution in Fiber Composite Materials; (3) Flashlamp Envelope Optical Properties and Failure Analysis; (4) Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite; and (5) Room Temperature Creep Compliance of Bulk Kel-E.

  10. Materials Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piippo, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a materials science and technology course for high school students, which combines chemistry, physics, engineering, math, technology education, and crafts to introduce students to the atomic make-up and physical properties of materials and to apply this knowledge in creative activities. (SK)

  11. Materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D R

    1998-01-01

    During FY-97, work within the Materials Science and Engineering thrust area was focused on material modeling. Their motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as materials processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, which support many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Recent examples of structural response problems studied include material fracture (such as interface failure), damage in laser optics, the response of weapons components (such as high explosives) and the failure of composite materials. For materials processing, typical problems studied include metal forming, laser processing, casting, and heat treating. To improve our ability to model material behavior, much of the work involves developing new material models and failure models, as well as applying the codes to new problems. Most investigations involve experimental studies to gather basic information on material response and to validate codes or material models. Projects are inherently multi-disciplinary, involving several investigators with expertise in materials and mechanics. The thrust area studies for FY-97 are described in the following three articles: (1) Evolution of Anisotropic Yield Behavior; (2) Modeling of She Localization in Materials; and (3) Modeling of Casting Microstructures and Defects.

  12. Computer Sciences in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Speeches presented to an international seminar on computer science are reprinted. These aspects of computer science courses in secondary education are considered: the significance of including such courses in the curriculum; objectives and contents for such courses; the integration of computer courses with other school subjects; methods and…

  13. Science Teaching and Computer Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Alfred M.

    Computer languages are analyzed and compared from the standpoint of the science teacher using computers in the classroom. Computers have three basic uses in teaching, to compute, to instruct, and to motivate; effective computer languages should be responsive to these three modes. Widely-used languages, including FORTRAN, ALGOL, PL/1, and APL, are…

  14. Process Simulation Role in the Development of New Alloys Based on Integrated Computational Material Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Porter, Wallace D; Roy, Shibayan; Shyam, Amit

    2014-01-01

    To accelerate the introduction of new materials and components, the development of metal casting processes requires the teaming between different disciplines, as multi-physical phenomena have to be considered simultaneously for the process design and optimization of mechanical properties. The required models for physical phenomena as well as their validation status for metal casting are reviewed. The data on materials properties, model validation, and relevant microstructure for materials properties are highlighted. One vehicle to accelerate the development of new materials is through combined experimental-computational efforts. Integrated computational/experimental practices are reviewed; strengths and weaknesses are identified with respect to metal casting processes. Specifically, the examples are given for the knowledge base established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and computer models for predicting casting defects and microstructure distribution in aluminum alloy components.

  15. Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) has been planned, designed, and is being developed. This laboratory will support related efforts to define the requirements for the Microgravity and Materials Processing Laboratory (MMPF) and the MMPF Test Bed for the Space Station. The MMSL will serve as a check out and training facility for science mission specialists for STS, Spacelab and Space Station prior to the full operation of the MMPF Test Bed. The focus of the MMSL will be on experiments related to the understanding of metal/ceramic/glass solidification, high perfection crystal growth and fluid physics. This ground-based laboratory will be used by university/industry/government researchers to examine and become familiar with the potential of new microgravity materials science concepts and to conduct longer term studies aimed at fully developing a l-g understanding of materials and processing phenomena. Such research will help create new high quality concepts for space experiments and will provide the basis for modeling, theories, and hypotheses upon which key space experiments can be defined and developed.

  16. Recommended data elements for the descriptive cataloging of computer-based educational materials in the health sciences.

    PubMed

    Lyon-Hartmann, B; Goldstein, C M

    1978-01-01

    A large part of the mission of the National Library of Medicine is to collect, index, and disseminate the world's biomedical literature. Until recently, this related only to serial and monographic material, but as new forms of information appear responsibility for bibliographic control of these also must be assumed by the National Library of Medicine. This paper briefly describes the type of information that will be necessary before descriptive cataloging of computer-based educational materials can be attempted. PMID:10306980

  17. COMPUTER SCIENCES IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    THE COMMITTEE ON COMPUTER SCIENCES IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (COSINE COMMITTEE) OF THE COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING REPORTS ITS EXPLORATION OF THE ROLE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN COMPUTER SCIENCES. GREATER FLEXIBILITY IN ENGINEERING CURRICULA IS FELT ESSENTIAL TO MEET THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS IN SUCH A RAPIDLY CHANGING AND DIVERSE FIELD. THE MAJOR…

  18. Computer Science: A Dissertation Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    Over 6,300 doctoral dissertation titles relevant to the study of computer and information sciences are cited in this publication. Titles cover the full range of computer and information sciences activities including: (1) automatic theory; (2) modeling; (3) operations research; (4) programming; (5) hardware design; (6) logic elements; and (7) data…

  19. NASA's computer science research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Following a major assessment of NASA's computing technology needs, a new program of computer science research has been initiated by the Agency. The program includes work in concurrent processing, management of large scale scientific databases, software engineering, reliable computing, and artificial intelligence. The program is driven by applications requirements in computational fluid dynamics, image processing, sensor data management, real-time mission control and autonomous systems. It consists of university research, in-house NASA research, and NASA's Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) and Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE). The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA to exploit advancing computing technology in aerospace applications.

  20. 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald (Editor); Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 25-26, 2002, at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Physical Sciences Research Division, NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and member institutions under the Cooperative Research in Biology and Materials Science (CORBAMS) agreement, the conference provided a forum to review the current research and activities in materials science, discuss the envisioned long-term goals, highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to the Physical Sciences Research Division, and inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity. An abstracts book was published and distributed at the conference to the approximately 240 people attending, who represented industry, academia, and other NASA Centers. This CD-ROM proceedings is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators in the Microgravity Materials Science program.

  1. Theoretical computer science and the natural sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, Bruno

    2005-12-01

    I present some fundamental theorems in computer science and illustrate their relevance in Biology and Physics. I do not assume prerequisites in mathematics or computer science beyond the set N of natural numbers, functions from N to N, the use of some notational conveniences to describe functions, and at some point, a minimal amount of linear algebra and logic. I start with Cantor's transcendental proof by diagonalization of the non enumerability of the collection of functions from natural numbers to the natural numbers. I explain why this proof is not entirely convincing and show how, by restricting the notion of function in terms of discrete well defined processes, we are led to the non algorithmic enumerability of the computable functions, but also-through Church's thesis-to the algorithmic enumerability of partial computable functions. Such a notion of function constitutes, with respect to our purpose, a crucial generalization of that concept. This will make easy to justify deep and astonishing (counter-intuitive) incompleteness results about computers and similar machines. The modified Cantor diagonalization will provide a theory of concrete self-reference and I illustrate it by pointing toward an elementary theory of self-reproduction-in the Amoeba's way-and cellular self-regeneration-in the flatworm Planaria's way. To make it easier, I introduce a very simple and powerful formal system known as the Schoenfinkel-Curry combinators. I will use the combinators to illustrate in a more concrete way the notion introduced above. The combinators, thanks to their low-level fine grained design, will also make it possible to make a rough but hopefully illuminating description of the main lessons gained by the careful observation of nature, and to describe some new relations, which should exist between computer science, the science of life and the science of inert matter, once some philosophical, if not theological, hypotheses are made in the cognitive sciences. In the

  2. Molecular Science Computing: 2010 Greenbook

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, Wibe A.; Cowley, David E.; Dunning, Thom H.; Vorpagel, Erich R.

    2010-04-02

    This 2010 Greenbook outlines the science drivers for performing integrated computational environmental molecular research at EMSL and defines the next-generation HPC capabilities that must be developed at the MSC to address this critical research. The EMSL MSC Science Panel used EMSL’s vision and science focus and white papers from current and potential future EMSL scientific user communities to define the scientific direction and resulting HPC resource requirements presented in this 2010 Greenbook.

  3. Computational Material Processing in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Working with Professor David Matthiesen at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) a computer model of the DPIMS (Diffusion Processes in Molten Semiconductors) space experiment was developed that is able to predict the thermal field, flow field and concentration profile within a molten germanium capillary under both ground-based and microgravity conditions as illustrated. These models are coupled with a novel nonlinear statistical methodology for estimating the diffusion coefficient from measured concentration values after a given time that yields a more accurate estimate than traditional methods. This code was integrated into a web-based application that has become a standard tool used by engineers in the Materials Science Department at CWRU.

  4. Computational Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Gates, Thomas S. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Computational Materials aims to model and predict thermodynamic, mechanical, and transport properties of polymer matrix composites. This workshop, the second coordinated by NASA Langley, reports progress in measurements and modeling at a number of length scales: atomic, molecular, nano, and continuum. Assembled here are presentations on quantum calculations for force field development, molecular mechanics of interfaces, molecular weight effects on mechanical properties, molecular dynamics applied to poling of polymers for electrets, Monte Carlo simulation of aromatic thermoplastics, thermal pressure coefficients of liquids, ultrasonic elastic constants, group additivity predictions, bulk constitutive models, and viscoplasticity characterization.

  5. Computational Science Guides and Accelerates Hydrogen Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in using computational science to enhance hydrogen-related research and development in areas such as storage and photobiology. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center and Biosciences Center.

  6. Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two…

  7. Computer Science Research at Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. J. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A workshop was held at Langley Research Center, November 2-5, 1981, to highlight ongoing computer science research at Langley and to identify additional areas of research based upon the computer user requirements. A panel discussion was held in each of nine application areas, and these are summarized in the proceedings. Slides presented by the invited speakers are also included. A survey of scientific, business, data reduction, and microprocessor computer users helped identify areas of focus for the workshop. Several areas of computer science which are of most concern to the Langley computer users were identified during the workshop discussions. These include graphics, distributed processing, programmer support systems and tools, database management, and numerical methods.

  8. Research in computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Several short summaries of the work performed during this reporting period are presented. Topics discussed in this document include: (1) resilient seeded errors via simple techniques; (2) knowledge representation for engineering design; (3) analysis of faults in a multiversion software experiment; (4) implementation of parallel programming environment; (5) symbolic execution of concurrent programs; (6) two computer graphics systems for visualization of pressure distribution and convective density particles; (7) design of a source code management system; (8) vectorizing incomplete conjugate gradient on the Cyber 203/205; (9) extensions of domain testing theory and; (10) performance analyzer for the pisces system.

  9. Intriguing Freshmen with Materials Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pond, Robert B., Sr.

    Described is a course designed for engineering science and natural science freshmen and open to upperclass nonscience majors entitled "Science of Modern Materials" and which has been successfully presented for several years. This paper presents the philosophy behind the course, the teaching methods employed, and the content of the course. The…

  10. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, Frank R. (Compiler); McCauley, D. (Compiler); Walker, C. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 10-11, 1996 at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the second NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 80 investigations and 69 principal investigators in FY96, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) scheduled for release in late 1996 by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the MSFC microgravity research facilities was held on June 12, 1996. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference and presentations made by various NASA microgravity science managers.

  11. Careers in Materials Science Promoted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggin, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Described is a new university-industry collaboration designed to attack the scientific "pipeline" problem from a materials science perspective. Discussed are the results of a conference that sought to generate interest in graduate study in materials science among well-qualified undergraduates. (KR)

  12. Alliance for Computational Science Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Scheick, S. H.

    2003-04-26

    The mission of this alliance is to promote, encourage, and facilitate computational science activities at the member HBCUs and to use collaborative technologies among the alliance partners to create an environment in which students and researchers from a wide variety of applications areas can exchange ideas and share resources.

  13. SIAM Conference on Computational Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    2003-01-01

    The Second SIAM Conference on Computational Science and Engineering was held in San Diego from February 10-12, 2003. Total conference attendance was 553. This is a 23% increase in attendance over the first conference. The focus of this conference was to draw attention to the tremendous range of major computational efforts on large problems in science and engineering, to promote the interdisciplinary culture required to meet these large-scale challenges, and to encourage the training of the next generation of computational scientists. Computational Science & Engineering (CS&E) is now widely accepted, along with theory and experiment, as a crucial third mode of scientific investigation and engineering design. Aerospace, automotive, biological, chemical, semiconductor, and other industrial sectors now rely on simulation for technical decision support. For federal agencies also, CS&E has become an essential support for decisions on resources, transportation, and defense. CS&E is, by nature, interdisciplinary. It grows out of physical applications and it depends on computer architecture, but at its heart are powerful numerical algorithms and sophisticated computer science techniques. From an applied mathematics perspective, much of CS&E has involved analysis, but the future surely includes optimization and design, especially in the presence of uncertainty. Another mathematical frontier is the assimilation of very large data sets through such techniques as adaptive multi-resolution, automated feature search, and low-dimensional parameterization. The themes of the 2003 conference included, but were not limited to: Advanced Discretization Methods; Computational Biology and Bioinformatics; Computational Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Computational Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Computational Electromagnetics; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Computational Medicine and Bioengineering; Computational Physics and Astrophysics; Computational Solid Mechanics and Materials; CS

  14. The NASA computer science research program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomy of computer science is included, one state of the art of each of the major computer science categories is summarized. A functional breakdown of NASA programs under Aeronautics R and D, space R and T, and institutional support is also included. These areas were assessed against the computer science categories. Concurrent processing, highly reliable computing, and information management are identified.

  15. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held July 14-16, 1998 at the Von Braun Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications. It was the third NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 125 investigations and 100 principal investigators in FY98, almost all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement scheduled for release in late 1998 by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the Marshall Space Flight Center microgravity research facilities was held on July 16, 1998. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference.

  16. Density functional theory in materials science

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Hickel, Tilmann

    2013-01-01

    Materials science is a highly interdisciplinary field. It is devoted to the understanding of the relationship between (a) fundamental physical and chemical properties governing processes at the atomistic scale with (b) typically macroscopic properties required of materials in engineering applications. For many materials, this relationship is not only determined by chemical composition, but strongly governed by microstructure. The latter is a consequence of carefully selected process conditions (e.g., mechanical forming and annealing in metallurgy or epitaxial growth in semiconductor technology). A key task of computational materials science is to unravel the often hidden composition–structure–property relationships using computational techniques. The present paper does not aim to give a complete review of all aspects of materials science. Rather, we will present the key concepts underlying the computation of selected material properties and discuss the major classes of materials to which they are applied. Specifically, our focus will be on methods used to describe single or polycrystalline bulk materials of semiconductor, metal or ceramic form. PMID:24563665

  17. Materials Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    Five papers are included: processing/characterization of laminated metal composites, casting process modeling, characterizing the failure of composite materials, fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for cure monitoring of advanced polymer composites, and modeling superplastic materials. The papers are processed separately for the data base.

  18. Materials sciences in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feuerbacher, B. (Editor); Hamacher, H. (Editor); Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A summary is presented of recent theoretical and experimental examinations of materials processing methods in microgravity conditions. The discussion covers Skylab and Spacelab flights, rocket and parabolic flights, and drop tube experiments. Attention is given to crystal growth, fluid physics, metallurgical and electrophoresis experiments.

  19. Weightless Materials Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Gravity affects everything we do. Only in very recent years have we been able to carry out experiments in orbit around the Earth and see for the first time how things behave in its absence. This has allowed us to understand fundamental processes better and to design new materials using this knowledge. (Contains 6 figures.)

  20. Science Prospects And Benefits with Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kothe, Douglas B

    2007-12-01

    Scientific computation has come into its own as a mature technology in all fields of science. Never before have we been able to accurately anticipate, analyze, and plan for complex events that have not yet occurred from the operation of a reactor running at 100 million degrees centigrade to the changing climate a century down the road. Combined with the more traditional approaches of theory and experiment, scientific computation provides a profound tool for insight and solution as we look at complex systems containing billions of components. Nevertheless, it cannot yet do all we would like. Much of scientific computation s potential remains untapped in areas such as materials science, Earth science, energy assurance, fundamental science, biology and medicine, engineering design, and national security because the scientific challenges are far too enormous and complex for the computational resources at hand. Many of these challenges are of immediate global importance. These challenges can be overcome by a revolution in computing that promises real advancement at a greatly accelerated pace. Planned petascale systems (capable of a petaflop, or 1015 floating point operations per second) in the next 3 years and exascale systems (capable of an exaflop, or 1018 floating point operations per second) in the next decade will provide an unprecedented opportunity to attack these global challenges through modeling and simulation. Exascale computers, with a processing capability similar to that of the human brain, will enable the unraveling of longstanding scientific mysteries and present new opportunities. Table ES.1 summarizes these scientific opportunities, their key application areas, and the goals and associated benefits that would result from solutions afforded by exascale computing.

  1. Computational Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.

    1998-01-01

    High temperature thermoplastic polyimide polymers are incorporated in engineering structures in the form of matrix materials in advanced fiber composites and adhesives in bonded joints. Developing analytical tools to predict long term performance and screen for final materials selection for polymers is the impetus for intensive studies at NASA and major industry based airframe developers. These fiber-reinforced polymeric composites (FRPCs) combine high strength with lightweight. In addition, they offer corrosion and fatigue resistance, a reduction in parts count, and new possibilities for control through aeroelastic tailoring and "smart" structures containing fully-integrated sensors and actuators. However, large-scale acceptance and use of polymer composites has historically been extremely slow. Reasons for this include a lack of familiarity of designers with the materials; the need for new tooling and new inspection and repair infrastructures; and high raw materials and fabrication costs.

  2. Wanted: Female Computer-Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The Computing Research Association revealed that the percentage of American women in computer science and related fields remains low and stagnant, while other fields, like mathematics, science, and chemistry are seeing growing enrollment of women. Some researchers suggest computer-science programs are stacked women and the way they learn, but…

  3. Girls Save the World through Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Christine

    2011-01-01

    It's no secret that fewer and fewer women are entering computer science fields. Attracting high school girls to computer science is only part of the solution. Retaining them while they are in higher education or the workforce is also a challenge. To solve this, there is a need to show girls that computer science is a wide-open field that offers…

  4. Computer Science and the Liberal Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Computer science and the liberal arts have much to offer each other. Yet liberal arts colleges, in particular, have been slow to recognize the opportunity that the study of computer science provides for achieving the goals of a liberal education. After the precipitous drop in computer science enrollments during the first decade of this century,…

  5. Preparing Future Secondary Computer Science Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajwa, Iyad

    2007-01-01

    Although nearly every college offers a major in computer science, many computer science teachers at the secondary level have received little formal training. This paper presents details of a project that could make a significant contribution to national efforts to improve computer science education by combining teacher education and professional…

  6. Setting science free from materialism.

    PubMed

    Sheldrake, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary science is based on the claim that all reality is material or physical. There is no reality but material reality. Consciousness is a by-product of the physical activity of the brain. Matter is unconscious. Evolution is purposeless. This view is now undergoing a credibility crunch. The biggest problem of all for materialism is the existence of consciousness. Panpsychism provides a way forward. So does the recognition that minds are not confined to brains. PMID:23906099

  7. NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1997-07-01

    The Microgravity Research Division of NASA funds materials science research through biannual research programs known as NASA Research Announcements (NRA). Selection is via external peer review with proposals being categorized for ground based research or flight definition status. Topics of special interest to NASA are described in the NRAs and guidelines for successful proposals are outlined. The procedure for progressing from selection to a manifested flight experiment will involve further reviews of the science and also of the engineering needed to complete the experiment successfully. The topics of interest to NASA within the NRAs cover a comprehensive range of subjects, but with the common denominator that the proposed work must necessitate access to the microgravity environment for successful completion. Understanding of the fundamental nature of microstructure and its effects on properties is a major part of the program because it applies to almost all fields of materials science. Other important aspects of the program include non-linear optical materials, glasses and ceramics, metal and alloys and the need to develop materials science specifically to support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The transition to the International Space Station (ISS) represents the next stage of the Materials Science program.

  8. How One Computer Science Program Grew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, James C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes growth of computer science program in Chetek Junior High School (Wisconsin), from having a single DecWriter II terminal to 14 microprocessors, electronic training devices, and a sequence of computer science courses. Students learn about basic computer literacy, hardware, software, programing, and computer technology. (EAO)

  9. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  10. Defining Computational Thinking for Mathematics and Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintrop, David; Beheshti, Elham; Horn, Michael; Orton, Kai; Jona, Kemi; Trouille, Laura; Wilensky, Uri

    2016-02-01

    Science and mathematics are becoming computational endeavors. This fact is reflected in the recently released Next Generation Science Standards and the decision to include "computational thinking" as a core scientific practice. With this addition, and the increased presence of computation in mathematics and scientific contexts, a new urgency has come to the challenge of defining computational thinking and providing a theoretical grounding for what form it should take in school science and mathematics classrooms. This paper presents a response to this challenge by proposing a definition of computational thinking for mathematics and science in the form of a taxonomy consisting of four main categories: data practices, modeling and simulation practices, computational problem solving practices, and systems thinking practices. In formulating this taxonomy, we draw on the existing computational thinking literature, interviews with mathematicians and scientists, and exemplary computational thinking instructional materials. This work was undertaken as part of a larger effort to infuse computational thinking into high school science and mathematics curricular materials. In this paper, we argue for the approach of embedding computational thinking in mathematics and science contexts, present the taxonomy, and discuss how we envision the taxonomy being used to bring current educational efforts in line with the increasingly computational nature of modern science and mathematics.

  11. Materials Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Microgravity materials processing experiments provide an opportunity to perform scientific research in an environment which allows one to observe various phenomena without the masking effects of gravity-driven convective flows, buoyancy, or contaminating influences of walled containers. Even for the most experienced scientists, it is still difficult to predict beforehand, whether or not microgravity experimentation can be successfully performed in space and achieve solutions to problems which are not attainable in 1 g. Consequently, experimentation in ground based facilities which are capable of simulating, in somewhat lesser time frames and to a lesser degree of microgravity, provides a unique low-cost approach to determine the feasibility of continuing research in a particular experiment. The utilization of these facilities in developing the full requirements for a space experiment does present a very cost-effective approach to microgravity experimentation. The Drop Tube Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides an excellent test bed for containerless processing experiments such as described here. These facilities have demonstrated for a number of years the capability to develop insight into space experiments involving containerless processing, rapid solidification, and wetting phenomena through the use of lower-cost ground facilities. Once sufficient data has been obtained, then a space-based experiment can be better defined.

  12. A Computer Assisted Learning Project in Engineering Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesewright, R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A British project in engineering science is described. Computer assisted instruction packages are being developed to provide students with experience with models or systems of models related to lecture material on electrical, electronic, nuclear, and mechanical engineering. (SD)

  13. Berkeley Lab Computing Sciences: Accelerating Scientific Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John A

    2008-12-12

    Scientists today rely on advances in computer science, mathematics, and computational science, as well as large-scale computing and networking facilities, to increase our understanding of ourselves, our planet, and our universe. Berkeley Lab's Computing Sciences organization researches, develops, and deploys new tools and technologies to meet these needs and to advance research in such areas as global climate change, combustion, fusion energy, nanotechnology, biology, and astrophysics.

  14. Theoretical Problems in Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, J. S.; Glicksman, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between theoretical physics and material sciences to identify problems of common interest in which some of the powerful theoretical approaches developed for other branches of physics may be applied to problems in materials science are presented. A unique structure was identified in rapidly quenched Al-14% Mn. The material has long-range directed bonds with icosahedral symmetry which does not form a regular structure but instead forms an amorphous-like quasiperiodic structure. Finite volume fractions of second phase material is advanced and is coupled with nucleation theory to describe the formation and structure of precipitating phases in alloys. Application of the theory of pattern formation to the problem of dendrite formation is studied.

  15. Computers in Science: Thinking Outside the Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Computers in Science course which integrates computer-related techniques into the science disciplines of chemistry, physics, biology, and Earth science. Uses a team teaching approach and teaches students how to solve chemistry problems with spreadsheets, identify minerals with X-rays, and chemical and force analysis. (Contains 14…

  16. The materials processing sciences glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traweek, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Processing Sciences Glovebox is a rack mounted workstation which allows on orbit sample preparation and characterization of specimens from various experiment facilities. It provides an isolated safe, clean, and sterile environment for the crew member to work with potentially hazardous materials. It has to handle a range of chemicals broader than even PMMS. The theme is that the Space Station Laboratory experiment preparation and characterization operations provide the fundamental glovebox design characteristics. Glovebox subsystem concepts and how internal material handling operations affect the design are discussed.

  17. Writing Instruction for the Computer Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Thomas

    This paper examines patterns of English discourse related to computer science and makes suggestions for the design and content of a technical writing course in English as a Second Language for computer specialists. An introductory section provides background information on computer science education and two professional associations with which…

  18. The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowndes, Douglas

    2005-03-01

    The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be the first DOE Nanoscale Science Research Center to begin operation, with construction to be completed in April 2005 and initial operations in October 2005. The CNMS' scientific program has been developed through workshops with the national community, with the goal of creating a highly collaborative research environment to accelerate discovery and drive technological advances. Research at the CNMS is organized under seven Scientific Themes selected to address challenges to understanding and to exploit particular ORNL strengths (see http://cnms.ornl.govhttp://cnms.ornl.gov). These include extensive synthesis and characterization capabilities for soft, hard, nanostructured, magnetic and catalytic materials and their composites; neutron scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor; computational nanoscience in the CNMS' Nanomaterials Theory Institute and utilizing facilities and expertise of the Center for Computational Sciences and the new Leadership Scientific Computing Facility at ORNL; a new CNMS Nanofabrication Research Laboratory; and a suite of unique and state-of-the-art instruments to be made reliably available to the national community for imaging, manipulation, and properties measurements on nanoscale materials in controlled environments. The new research facilities will be described together with the planned operation of the user research program, the latter illustrated by the current ``jump start'' user program that utilizes existing ORNL/CNMS facilities.

  19. Thermodynamic aspects of materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    As materials science studies physicochemical properties of materials, it needs a support of thermodynamics, which predicts general regularities for physicochemical properties of matter. This survey deals with solid materials the thermodynamic description of which is especially complicated. The achievements of last years provide better insight in the chemical potential anisotropy and, on this grounding, in the anisotropy of chemical affinity governing all processes in solid materials. The survey summarizes novel approaches and thermodynamic equations and then exhibits their use in materials science. As examples, the solubility, creep and corrosion of materials are analyzed. A newly discovered phenomenon, the strain sign effect in corrosion under stress (e.g., a difference in the corrosion rate on the opposite sides of a bent metallic plate), is described and explained thermodynamically. A modern theory of the strength of materials developed during last years is also presented with the characterization of crack properties, the mechanisms of crack propagation and estimation of the ultimate stress. The development of this area required the introduction of a novel thermodynamic potential that formed the basis for the theory of strength. The bibliography includes 47 references.

  20. Models, Databases, and Simulation Tools Needed for the Realization of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering. Proceedings of the Symposium Held at Materials Science and Technology 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M. (Editor); Wong, Terry T. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: An Annotative Review of Multiscale Modeling and its Application to Scales Inherent in the Field of ICME; and A Multiscale, Nonlinear, Modeling Framework Enabling the Design and Analysis of Composite Materials and Structures.

  1. Know Your Discipline: Teaching the Philosophy of Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedre, Matti

    2007-01-01

    The diversity and interdisciplinarity of computer science and the multiplicity of its uses in other sciences make it hard to define computer science and to prescribe how computer science should be carried out. The diversity of computer science also causes friction between computer scientists from different branches. Computer science curricula, as…

  2. Interdisciplinary Educational Collaborations: Chemistry and Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Ronald S.; Woo, Daniel T.; Hudson, Benjamin T.; Mori, Joji C.; Ngan, Evey S. M.; Pak, Wing-Yee

    2007-01-01

    Research collaborations between chemists and other scientists resulted in significant outcomes such as development of software. Such collaboration provided a realistic learning experience for computer science students.

  3. Computer Applications in Health Science Education.

    PubMed

    Juanes, Juan A; Ruisoto, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, computer application development has experienced exponential growth, not only in the number of publications but also in the scope or contexts that have benefited from its use. In health science training, and medicine specifically, the gradual incorporation of technological developments has transformed the teaching and learning process, resulting in true "educational technology". The goal of this paper is to review the main features involved in these applications and highlight the main lines of research for the future. The results of peer reviewed literature published recently indicate the following features shared by the key technological developments in the field of health science education: first, development of simulation and visualization systems for a more complete and realistic representation of learning material over traditional paper format; second, portability and versatility of the applications, adapted for an increasing number of devices and operative systems; third, increasing focus on open source applications such as Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). PMID:26254251

  4. Materials science experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S. H.; Giessen, B. C.; Glicksman, M. E.; Margrave, J. L.; Markovitz, H.; Nowick, A. S.; Verhoeven, J. D.; Witt, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The criteria for the selection of the experimental areas and individual experiments were that the experiment or area must make a meaningful contribution to the field of material science and that the space environment was either an absolute requirement for the successful execution of the experiment or that the experiment can be more economically or more conveniently performed in space. A number of experimental areas and individual experiments were recommended for further consideration as space experiments. Areas not considered to be fruitful and others needing additional analysis in order to determine their suitability for conduct in space are also listed. Recommendations were made concerning the manner in which these materials science experiments are carried out and the related studies that should be pursued.

  5. A Microcomputer-Based Computer Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compeau, Larry D.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the use of the microcomputer in computer science programs as an alternative to time-sharing computers at North Country Community College. Discusses factors contributing to the program's success, security problems, outside application possibilities, and program implementation concerns. (DMM)

  6. NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Materials Science research programs are funded by NASA through the Microgravity Research Division. Such programs are normally designated as flight definition or ground based and can be awarded initially for up to four years. Selection is through a peer review process in response to a biennial NASA Research Announcement (NRA). The next announcement is due in November 1998 with proposals due in March 1999. Topics of special interest to NASA are described in the guidelines for proposal writing within the NRA. NASA's interest in materials is wide and covers a range which includes metals and alloys, ceramics, glasses, polymers, non-linear optics, aerogels and nanostructures. With increasing interest in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program, the materials research funded will not be exclusively devoted to processes dependent on microgravity, but will also support materials of strategic interest in meeting NASA's long range plans of interplanetary travel.

  7. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  8. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  9. ASCR Workshop on Quantum Computing for Science

    SciTech Connect

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Van Dam, Wim; Farhi, Edward; Gaitan, Frank; Humble, Travis; Jordan, Stephen; Landahl, Andrew J; Love, Peter; Lucas, Robert; Preskill, John; Muller, Richard P.; Svore, Krysta; Wiebe, Nathan; Williams, Carl

    2015-06-01

    This report details the findings of the DOE ASCR Workshop on Quantum Computing for Science that was organized to assess the viability of quantum computing technologies to meet the computational requirements of the DOE’s science and energy mission, and to identify the potential impact of quantum technologies. The workshop was held on February 17-18, 2015, in Bethesda, MD, to solicit input from members of the quantum computing community. The workshop considered models of quantum computation and programming environments, physical science applications relevant to DOE's science mission as well as quantum simulation, and applied mathematics topics including potential quantum algorithms for linear algebra, graph theory, and machine learning. This report summarizes these perspectives into an outlook on the opportunities for quantum computing to impact problems relevant to the DOE’s mission as well as the additional research required to bring quantum computing to the point where it can have such impact.

  10. Science Grade 9, Science Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester City School District, NY.

    This curriculum guide is the third in a series of general science guides modified from the New York State Experimental Syllabus, Science 7-8-9 to meet the needs of students whose interests are in areas other than science. The guide is laboratory-oriented and contains many open ended, pupil activities in five activity blocks: orientation, forces at…

  11. Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The research program sponsored by this grant, "Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design", covers a period of time of enormous change in the emerging field of computational materials science. The computational materials program started with the development of the BFS method for alloys, a quantum approximate method for atomistic analysis of alloys specifically tailored to effectively deal with the current challenges in the area of atomistic modeling and to support modern experimental programs. During the grant period, the program benefited from steady growth which, as detailed below, far exceeds its original set of goals and objectives. Not surprisingly, by the end of this grant, the methodology and the computational materials program became an established force in the materials communitiy, with substantial impact in several areas. Major achievements during the duration of the grant include the completion of a Level 1 Milestone for the HITEMP program at NASA Glenn, consisting of the planning, development and organization of an international conference held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in August of 2002, finalizing a period of rapid insertion of the methodology in the research community worlwide. The conference, attended by citizens of 17 countries representing various fields of the research community, resulted in a special issue of the leading journal in the area of applied surface science. Another element of the Level 1 Milestone was the presentation of the first version of the Alloy Design Workbench software package, currently known as "adwTools". This software package constitutes the first PC-based piece of software for atomistic simulations for both solid alloys and surfaces in the market.Dissemination of results and insertion in the materials community worldwide was a primary focus during this period. As a result, the P.I. was responsible for presenting 37 contributed talks, 19 invited talks, and publishing 71 articles in peer-reviewed journals, as

  12. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. A larger image is available without labels (No. 0101755).

  13. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830).

  14. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  15. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101830, and TBD).

  16. Reversing: A Fundamental Idea in Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Ginat, David

    2008-01-01

    Reversing is the notion of thinking or working in reverse. Computer science textbooks and tutors recognize it primarily in the form of recursion. However, recursion is only one form of reversing. Reversing appears in the computer science curriculum in many other forms, at various intellectual levels, in a variety of fundamental courses. As such,…

  17. A New K-12 Computer Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    Although there are numerous challenges for implementing a comprehensive K-12 computer science curriculum in the United States, the need is obvious, and the time to begin is now. Computer science is a well-established academic discipline at the collegiate and postgraduate levels, as well as a distinct and important profession in the world economy.…

  18. Creating Science Simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

    2012-01-01

    Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction.…

  19. Theory-Guided Technology in Computer Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2001-01-01

    Examines the history of major achievements in computer science as portrayed by winners of the prestigious Turing award and identifies a possibly unique activity called Theory-Guided Technology (TGT). Researchers develop TGT by using theoretical results to create practical technology. Discusses reasons why TGT is practical in computer science and…

  20. Central Computer Science Concepts to Research-Based Teacher Training in Computer Science: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendler, Andreas; Klaudt, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The significance of computer science for economics and society is undisputed. In particular, computer science is acknowledged to play a key role in schools (e.g., by opening multiple career paths). The provision of effective computer science education in schools is dependent on teachers who are able to properly represent the discipline and whose…

  1. Annual review of materials science

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    This book discusses timely, and critical appraisals of various areas within materials science, with special emphasis upon recent progress and current trends. It is hoped that it will help provide definition and coherence in this field, and be of significant assistance to the increasing number of those involved in materials education, as well as to those actively involved in the many rapidly moving areas of materials research and technology. The Editorial Committee selects topics and authors and organizes the presentation of their contributions in these volumes so as to promote this amalgamation of concepts, tools, and techniques, and thereby to further this multifaceted approach to the understanding and control of physical phenomena and technological properties in a wide range of substances.

  2. Theory-Guided Technology in Computer Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    Scientists usually identify themselves as either theoreticians or experimentalists, while technology - the application of science in practice - is done by engineers. In computer science, these distinctions are often blurred. This paper examines the history of major achievements in computer science as portrayed by the winners of the prestigious Turing Award and identifies a possibly unique activity called Theory-Guided Technology (TGT). Researchers develop TGT by using theoretical results to create practical technology. The reasons why TGT is practical in computer science are discussed, as is the cool reception that TGT has been received by software engineers.

  3. The Current Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    A description will be made of the current materials science program within the microgravity research division. This presentation will be made at a plenary session of the biennial materials Science Conference.

  4. Thermal Boundary Conductance: A Materials Science Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachon, Christian; Weber, Ludger; Dames, Chris

    2016-07-01

    The thermal boundary conductance (TBC) of materials pairs in atomically intimate contact is reviewed as a practical guide for materials scientists. First, analytical and computational models of TBC are reviewed. Five measurement methods are then compared in terms of their sensitivity to TBC: the 3ω method, frequency- and time-domain thermoreflectance, the cut-bar method, and a composite effective thermal conductivity method. The heart of the review surveys 30 years of TBC measurements around room temperature, highlighting the materials science factors experimentally proven to influence TBC. These factors include the bulk dispersion relations, acoustic contrast, and interfacial chemistry and bonding. The measured TBCs are compared across a wide range of materials systems by using the maximum transmission limit, which with an attenuated transmission coefficient proves to be a good guideline for most clean, strongly bonded interfaces. Finally, opportunities for future research are discussed.

  5. Literature Resources Relating to Computer Science Education in Small Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Gerald L.

    Over 100 key resources regarding computer science education at small colleges are collected in this bibliography. A brief review of the collected documents introduces the bibliography, categorizing and relating the materials and noting their emphases. The review concentrates on materials published after 1978, but cites the major works providing…

  6. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  7. Semiotics, Information Science, Documents and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Julian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the relationship and value of semiotics to the established domains of information science. Highlights include documentation; computer operations; the language of computing; automata theory; linguistics; speech and writing; and the written language as a unifying principle for the document and the computer. (93 references) (LRW)

  8. Enabling Earth Science Through Cloud Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Riofrio, Andres; Shams, Khawaja; Freeborn, Dana; Springer, Paul; Chafin, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing holds tremendous potential for missions across the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Several flight missions are already benefiting from an investment in cloud computing for mission critical pipelines and services through faster processing time, higher availability, and drastically lower costs available on cloud systems. However, these processes do not currently extend to general scientific algorithms relevant to earth science missions. The members of the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment task at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have worked closely with the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to integrate cloud computing into their science data processing pipeline. This paper details the efforts involved in deploying a science data system for the CARVE mission, evaluating and integrating cloud computing solutions with the system and porting their science algorithms for execution in a cloud environment.

  9. Mechanistic models in computational social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative social science is not only about regression analysis or, in general, data inference. Computer simulations of social mechanisms have an over 60 years long history. They have been used for many different purposes—to test scenarios, to test the consistency of descriptive theories (proof-of-concept models), to explore emergent phenomena, for forecasting, etc. In this essay, we sketch these historical developments, the role of mechanistic models in the social sciences and the influences from the natural and formal sciences. We argue that mechanistic computational models form a natural common ground for social and natural sciences, and look forward to possible future information flow across the social-natural divide.

  10. Pattern recognition with "materials that compute".

    PubMed

    Fang, Yan; Yashin, Victor V; Levitan, Steven P; Balazs, Anna C

    2016-09-01

    Driven by advances in materials and computer science, researchers are attempting to design systems where the computer and material are one and the same entity. Using theoretical and computational modeling, we design a hybrid material system that can autonomously transduce chemical, mechanical, and electrical energy to perform a computational task in a self-organized manner, without the need for external electrical power sources. Each unit in this system integrates a self-oscillating gel, which undergoes the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, with an overlaying piezoelectric (PZ) cantilever. The chemomechanical oscillations of the BZ gels deflect the PZ layer, which consequently generates a voltage across the material. When these BZ-PZ units are connected in series by electrical wires, the oscillations of these units become synchronized across the network, where the mode of synchronization depends on the polarity of the PZ. We show that the network of coupled, synchronizing BZ-PZ oscillators can perform pattern recognition. The "stored" patterns are set of polarities of the individual BZ-PZ units, and the "input" patterns are coded through the initial phase of the oscillations imposed on these units. The results of the modeling show that the input pattern closest to the stored pattern exhibits the fastest convergence time to stable synchronization behavior. In this way, networks of coupled BZ-PZ oscillators achieve pattern recognition. Further, we show that the convergence time to stable synchronization provides a robust measure of the degree of match between the input and stored patterns. Through these studies, we establish experimentally realizable design rules for creating "materials that compute." PMID:27617290

  11. Learning computer science concepts with Scratch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; (Moti) Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-09-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two years. Tests were constructed based upon a novel combination of the revised Bloom taxonomy and the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy. These instruments were augmented with qualitative tools, such as observations and interviews. The results showed that students could successfully learn important concepts of CS, although there were problems with some concepts such as repeated execution, variables, and concurrency. We believe that these problems can be overcome by modifications to the teaching process that we suggest.

  12. SC2IT: a cloud computing interface that makes computational science available to non-specialists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, Kevin; Vila, Fernando; Rehr, John

    2012-10-01

    Computational work is a vital part of much scientific research. In materials science research in particular, theoretical models are usually needed to understand measurements. There is currently a double barrier that keeps a broad class of researchers from using state-of-the-art materials science (MS) codes: the software typically lacks user-friendliness, and the hardware requirements can demand a significant investment, e.g. the purchase of a Beowulf cluster. Scientific Cloud Computing (SCC) has the potential to breach this barrier and make computational science accessible to a wide class of non-specialists scientists. We present a platform, SC2IT, that enables seamless control of virtual compute clusters in the Amazon EC2 cloud and is designed to be embedded in user-friendly Java GUIs. Thus users can create powerful High-Performance Computing systems with preconfigured MS codes in the cloud with a single mouse click. We present applications of our SCC platform to the materials science codes FEFF9, WIEN2k, and MEEP-mpi. SC2IT and the paradigm described here are applicable to other fields of research beyond materials science, although the computational performance of Cloud Computing may vary with the characteristics of the calculations.

  13. NASA Now: Materials Science: Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    Metallurgical and materials engineers use science, technology and mathematics to study different types of materials. They analyze the materials to determine what they are made of and evaluate their...

  14. ICT4D: A Computer Science Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutinen, Erkki; Tedre, Matti

    The term ICT4D refers to the opportunities of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an agent of development. Research in that field is often focused on evaluating the feasibility of existing technologies, mostly of Western or Far East Asian origin, in the context of developing regions. A computer science perspective is complementary to that agenda. The computer science perspective focuses on exploring the resources, or inputs, of a particular context and on basing the design of a technical intervention on the available resources, so that the output makes a difference in the development context. The modus operandi of computer science, construction, interacts with evaluation and exploration practices. An analysis of a contextualized information technology curriculum of Tumaini University in southern Tanzania shows the potential of the computer science perspective for designing meaningful information and communication technology for a developing region.

  15. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  16. Optimizing a reconfigurable material via evolutionary computation.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Sam; Miskin, Marc Z; Jaeger, Heinrich M

    2015-08-01

    Rapid prototyping by combining evolutionary computation with simulations is becoming a powerful tool for solving complex design problems in materials science. This method of optimization operates in a virtual design space that simulates potential material behaviors and after completion needs to be validated by experiment. However, in principle an evolutionary optimizer can also operate on an actual physical structure or laboratory experiment directly, provided the relevant material parameters can be accessed by the optimizer and information about the material's performance can be updated by direct measurements. Here we provide a proof of concept of such direct, physical optimization by showing how a reconfigurable, highly nonlinear material can be tuned to respond to impact. We report on an entirely computer controlled laboratory experiment in which a 6×6 grid of electromagnets creates a magnetic field pattern that tunes the local rigidity of a concentrated suspension of ferrofluid and iron filings. A genetic algorithm is implemented and tasked to find field patterns that minimize the force transmitted through the suspension. Searching within a space of roughly 10^{10} possible configurations, after testing only 1500 independent trials the algorithm identifies an optimized configuration of layered rigid and compliant regions. PMID:26382399

  17. Optimizing a reconfigurable material via evolutionary computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilken, Sam; Miskin, Marc Z.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2015-08-01

    Rapid prototyping by combining evolutionary computation with simulations is becoming a powerful tool for solving complex design problems in materials science. This method of optimization operates in a virtual design space that simulates potential material behaviors and after completion needs to be validated by experiment. However, in principle an evolutionary optimizer can also operate on an actual physical structure or laboratory experiment directly, provided the relevant material parameters can be accessed by the optimizer and information about the material's performance can be updated by direct measurements. Here we provide a proof of concept of such direct, physical optimization by showing how a reconfigurable, highly nonlinear material can be tuned to respond to impact. We report on an entirely computer controlled laboratory experiment in which a 6 ×6 grid of electromagnets creates a magnetic field pattern that tunes the local rigidity of a concentrated suspension of ferrofluid and iron filings. A genetic algorithm is implemented and tasked to find field patterns that minimize the force transmitted through the suspension. Searching within a space of roughly 1010 possible configurations, after testing only 1500 independent trials the algorithm identifies an optimized configuration of layered rigid and compliant regions.

  18. Computer Science Concept Inventories: Past and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, C.; Zingaro, D.; Porter, L.; Webb, K. C.; Lee, C. B.; Clancy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Concept Inventories (CIs) are assessments designed to measure student learning of core concepts. CIs have become well known for their major impact on pedagogical techniques in other sciences, especially physics. Presently, there are no widely used, validated CIs for computer science. However, considerable groundwork has been performed in the form…

  19. Materials sciences programs, Fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in materials science topics important to the mission of the Department of Energy. The programmatic divisions under the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geosciences, and Energy Biosciences. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship among synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences subfields include: physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 517 research programs including 255 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 262 research grants (233 of which are at universities), and 29 Small Business Innovation Research Grants. Five cross-cutting indices located at the rear of this book identify all 517 programs according to principal investigator(s), materials, techniques, phenomena, and environment.

  20. Computers in the Curriculum: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Karen Doyle

    1985-01-01

    Defines microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL); discusses necessary hardware and software for operation of an MBL; reviews science applications in secondary education and eight steps involved in constructing a four-paddle interface box, the heart of an MBL; and provides information on suppliers of resources for creating an MBL. (MBR)

  1. Nuffield Secondary Science, Theme 7, Using Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackledge, J.; And Others

    Nuffield Secondary Science is a set of tested materials from which teachers can prepare courses for students in grades 9-11 (approximately) who do not intend to major in science. The materials are designed for British secondary schools but are adaptable for other countries. The Teachers' Guide to the entire set of materials is described in SE 015…

  2. Computational Discovery, Characterization, and Design of Single-Layer Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Hennig, Richard G.

    2014-03-01

    Single-layer materials open up tremendous opportunities for applications in nanoelectronic devices and energy technologies. We first review the four components of a materials science tetrahedron for single-layer materials. We then provide a theoretical perspective of characterizing single-layer materials. This leads to a general data-mining process to predict and computationally characterize emerging single-layer materials. Finally, we comment on limitations and possible improvements of current computational procedures for the discovery, characterization, and design of single-layer materials.

  3. Group Projects and the Computer Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Group projects in computer science are normally delivered with reference to good software engineering practice. The discipline of software engineering is rapidly evolving, and the application of the latest 'agile techniques' to group projects causes a potential conflict with constraints imposed by regulating bodies on the computer science…

  4. Teaching Computer Science at a Small University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briner, Jack V., Jr.; Roberts, James E.; Worthy, Fred

    2005-01-01

    Small universities do not have all of the resources that larger ones do. There are fewer computers, fewer teachers, fewer technicians and of course less money. Charleston Southern University (CSU) seeks to be one of the smallest universities to meet national accreditation standards in computer science (ABET-CAC). This presentation will provide a…

  5. A high performance scientific cloud computing environment for materials simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, K.; Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the development of a scientific cloud computing (SCC) platform that offers high performance computation capability. The platform consists of a scientific virtual machine prototype containing a UNIX operating system and several materials science codes, together with essential interface tools (an SCC toolset) that offers functionality comparable to local compute clusters. In particular, our SCC toolset provides automatic creation of virtual clusters for parallel computing, including tools for execution and monitoring performance, as well as efficient I/O utilities that enable seamless connections to and from the cloud. Our SCC platform is optimized for the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). We present benchmarks for prototypical scientific applications and demonstrate performance comparable to local compute clusters. To facilitate code execution and provide user-friendly access, we have also integrated cloud computing capability in a JAVA-based GUI. Our SCC platform may be an alternative to traditional HPC resources for materials science or quantum chemistry applications.

  6. College Student Notions of Computer Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruslanov, Anatole D.; Yolevich, Andrew P.

    2011-08-01

    Two surveys of college students were conducted to study the students' perceptions and knowledge of computer science as a profession and as a career. Ignorance of the field was consistently observed in both samples. Students with an aptitude for computing tend to blame their high schools, media, and society for their lack of knowledge. These findings suggest that high school students need to be provided with a more balanced perspective on computing.

  7. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable than

  8. FOREWORD: Focus on Combinatorial Materials Science Focus on Combinatorial Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikyo, Toyohiro

    2011-10-01

    About 15 years have passed since the introduction of modern combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput techniques for the development of novel inorganic materials; however, similar methods existed before. The most famous was reported in 1970 by Hanak who prepared composition-spread films of metal alloys by sputtering mixed-material targets. Although this method was innovative, it was rarely used because of the large amount of data to be processed. This problem is solved in the modern combinatorial material research, which is strongly related to computer data analysis and robotics. This field is still at the developing stage and may be enriched by new methods. Nevertheless, given the progress in measurement equipment and procedures, we believe the combinatorial approach will become a major and standard tool of materials screening and development. The first article of this journal, published in 2000, was titled 'Combinatorial solid state materials science and technology', and this focus issue aims to reintroduce this topic to the Science and Technology of Advanced Materials audience. It covers recent progress in combinatorial materials research describing new results in catalysis, phosphors, polymers and metal alloys for shape memory materials. Sophisticated high-throughput characterization schemes and innovative synthesis tools are also presented, such as spray deposition using nanoparticles or ion plating. On a technical note, data handling systems are introduced to familiarize researchers with the combinatorial methodology. We hope that through this focus issue a wide audience of materials scientists can learn about recent and future trends in combinatorial materials science and high-throughput experimentation.

  9. Computational Science in Armenia (Invited Talk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandjian, H.; Shoukourian, Yu.

    This survey is devoted to the development of informatics and computer science in Armenia. The results in theoretical computer science (algebraic models, solutions to systems of general form recursive equations, the methods of coding theory, pattern recognition and image processing), constitute the theoretical basis for developing problem-solving-oriented environments. As examples can be mentioned: a synthesizer of optimized distributed recursive programs, software tools for cluster-oriented implementations of two-dimensional cellular automata, a grid-aware web interface with advanced service trading for linear algebra calculations. In the direction of solving scientific problems that require high-performance computing resources, examples of completed projects include the field of physics (parallel computing of complex quantum systems), astrophysics (Armenian virtual laboratory), biology (molecular dynamics study of human red blood cell membrane), meteorology (implementing and evaluating the Weather Research and Forecast Model for the territory of Armenia). The overview also notes that the Institute for Informatics and Automation Problems of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia has established a scientific and educational infrastructure, uniting computing clusters of scientific and educational institutions of the country and provides the scientific community with access to local and international computational resources, that is a strong support for computational science in Armenia.

  10. [Activities of Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at ICASE in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, computer science, and structures and material sciences during the period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000.

  11. Integrated computational materials engineering: Tools, simulations and new applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Madison, Jonathan D.

    2016-03-30

    Here, Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is a relatively new methodology full of tremendous potential to revolutionize how science, engineering and manufacturing work together. ICME was motivated by the desire to derive greater understanding throughout each portion of the development life cycle of materials, while simultaneously reducing the time between discovery to implementation [1,2].

  12. Computer Networking Strategies for Building Collaboration among Science Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aust, Ronald

    The development and dissemination of science materials can be associated with technical delivery systems such as the Unified Network for Informatics in Teacher Education (UNITE). The UNITE project was designed to investigate ways for using computer networking to improve communications and collaboration among university schools of education and…

  13. A Visualization-Based Computer Science Hypertextbook Prototype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossling, Guido; Vellaramkalayil, Teena

    2009-01-01

    Hypertextbooks for Computer Science contents present an interesting approach to better support learners and integrate algorithm animations into the learning materials. We have developed a prototype for integrating a selection of the functionality of such a hypertextbook into the established Moodle LCMS. This article describes the goals and…

  14. Computer Science Education Accreditation Guidelines: New Vistas in Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harriet; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents background material leading to the development of guidelines for computer science education teacher preparation programs. An overview of the two basic programs is presented, implications for professional education units and the education community are explored, and future directions are identified. (GLR)

  15. Computer Software in the Undergraduate Political Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipress, Morton

    This paper reports on student reaction to the use of computer programs in political science courses during 1991-1995 at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. The courses were junior-senior level courses, except for the honors section. Three types of software were used: (1) simulations; (2) Internet materials; and (3) data processing software…

  16. Strategic Research Directions In Microgravity Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.; Wargo, Michael J.; Marzwell, Neville L.; Sanders, Gerald; Schlagheck, Ron; Semmes, Ed; Bassler, Julie; Cook, Beth

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) is moving aggressively to align programs, projects, and products with the vision for space exploration. Research in advanced materials is a critical element in meeting exploration goals. Research in low gravity materials science in OBPR is being focused on top priority needs in support of exploration: 1) Space Radiation Shielding; 2) In Situ Resource Utilization; 3) In Situ Fabrication and Repair; 4) Materials Science for Spacecraft and Propulsion Systems; 5) Materials Science for Advanced Life Support Systems. Roles and responsibilities in low gravity materials research for exploration between OBPR and the Office of Exploration Systems are evolving.

  17. Digital video delivery for a digital library in computer science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Edward A.; Abdulla, Ghaleb

    1994-04-01

    With support from four NSF awards we aim to develop a prototype digital library in computer science and apply it to improve undergraduate educations. First, Project Envision, `A User- Centered Database from the Computer Science Literature,' 1991-94, deals with translation, coding standards including SGML, retrieval/previewing/presentation/browsing/linking, human-computer interaction, and construction of a partial archive using text and multimedia materials provided by ACM. Second, `Interactive Learning with a Digital Library in Computer Science,' 1993-96, supported by NSF and ACM with additional assistance from other publishers, focuses on improving learning through delivery of materials from the archive. Third, `Networked Multimedia File System with HyTime,' funded by NSF through the SUCCEED coalition, considers networking support for distributed multimedia applications and the use of HyTime for description of such applications. Fourth, equipment support comes from the Information Access Laboratory allotment of the `Interactive Accessibility: Breaking Barriers to the Power of Computing' grant funded by NSF for 1993-98. In this paper we report on plans and work with digital video relating to these projects. In particular we focus on our analysis of the requirements for a multimedia digital library in computer science and our experience with MPEG as it applies to that library.

  18. Probability, statistics, and computational science.

    PubMed

    Beerenwinkel, Niko; Siebourg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review basic concepts from probability theory and computational statistics that are fundamental to evolutionary genomics. We provide a very basic introduction to statistical modeling and discuss general principles, including maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Markov chains, hidden Markov models, and Bayesian network models are introduced in more detail as they occur frequently and in many variations in genomics applications. In particular, we discuss efficient inference algorithms and methods for learning these models from partially observed data. Several simple examples are given throughout the text, some of which point to models that are discussed in more detail in subsequent chapters. PMID:22407706

  19. Plagiarism in computer science courses

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    Plagiarism of computer programs has long been a problem in higher education. Ease of electronic copying, vague understanding by students as to what constitutes plagiarism, increasing acceptance of plagiarism by students, lack of enforcement by instructors and school administrators, and a whole host of other factors contribute to plagiarism. The first step in curbing plagiarism is prevention, the second (and much less preferable) is detection. History files and software metrics can be used as a tool to aid in detecting possible plagiarism. This paper gives advice concerning how to deal with plagiarism and with using software monitors to detect plagiarism.

  20. MateriApps — a Portal Site of Materials Science Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Yusuke; Igarashi, Ryo; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Kato, Takeo; Kawashima, Naoki; Kawatsu, Tsutomu; Kouta, Hikaru; Noda, Masashi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Terada, Yayoi; Todo, Synge; Tsuchida, Shigehiro; Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Yoshizawa, Kanako

    "MateriApps" is a portal website of computational materials science simulation that has a database containing over 100 application software including density functional theory calculation, quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc. On the MateriApps website, researchers can find applications suitable for their own research in materials science by browsing the website or searching by keywords. We also provide forums and tutorial courses of applications. In order to avoid troublesome installation procedures and provide users an environment in which they can try out various applications easily, we develop and freely distribute "MateriApps LIVE!," a live Linux system, in which several applications introduced in MateriApps are pre-installed.

  1. New Directions in NASA's Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recently, NASA's Microgravity Research Division was re-aligned to match the Agency's increasing awareness of the importance of biological and nano-structural sciences. The Division has become the Physical Sciences Research section within the newly created Office of Biological and Physical Research. Within materials science and in the last few years, new programs aimed at biomaterials have been initiated. Results from these programs and also new research pertaining to materials for radiation protection will be discussed.

  2. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  3. Materials sciences programs, fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the DOE in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in strategic materials science topics of critical importance to the mission of the Department and its Strategic Plan. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship amongst the synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences sub-fields include physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 458 research programs including 216 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 242 research grants (233 for universities), and 9 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grants. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the SBIR Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F contains descriptions of other user facilities; G, a summary of funding levels; and H, indices characterizing research projects.

  4. Demystifying computer science for molecular ecologists.

    PubMed

    Belcaid, Mahdi; Toonen, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    In this age of data-driven science and high-throughput biology, computational thinking is becoming an increasingly important skill for tackling both new and long-standing biological questions. However, despite its obvious importance and conspicuous integration into many areas of biology, computer science is still viewed as an obscure field that has, thus far, permeated into only a few of the biology curricula across the nation. A national survey has shown that lack of computational literacy in environmental sciences is the norm rather than the exception [Valle & Berdanier (2012) Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 93, 373-389]. In this article, we seek to introduce a few important concepts in computer science with the aim of providing a context-specific introduction aimed at research biologists. Our goal was to help biologists understand some of the most important mainstream computational concepts to better appreciate bioinformatics methods and trade-offs that are not obvious to the uninitiated. PMID:25824671

  5. Seeing beyond Computer Science and Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nori, Kesav Vithal

    The boundaries of computer science are defined by what symbolic computation can accomplish. Software Engineering is concerned with effective use of computing technology to support automatic computation on a large scale so as to construct desirable solutions to worthwhile problems. Both focus on what happens within the machine. In contrast, most practical applications of computing support end-users in realizing (often unsaid) objectives. It is often said that such objectives cannot be even specified, e.g., what is the specification of MS Word, or for that matter, any flavour of UNIX? This situation points to the need for architecting what people do with computers. Based on Systems Thinking and Cybernetics, we present such a viewpoint which hinges on Human Responsibility and means of living up to it.

  6. Democratizing Children's Computation: Learning Computational Science as Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Amy Voss; Sengupta, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Amy Voss Farris and Pratim Sengupta argue that a democratic approach to children's computing education in a science class must focus on the "aesthetics" of children's experience. In "Democracy and Education," Dewey links "democracy" with a distinctive understanding of "experience." For Dewey,…

  7. Teaching Computer Science Courses in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huan, Xiaoli; Shehane, Ronald; Ali, Adel

    2011-01-01

    As the success of distance learning (DL) has driven universities to increase the courses offered online, certain challenges arise when teaching computer science (CS) courses to students who are not physically co-located and have individual learning schedules. Teaching CS courses involves high level demonstrations and interactivity between the…

  8. The Student/Library Computer Science Collaborative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Jim

    2015-01-01

    With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services demonstration grant, librarians of the Undergraduate Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign partnered with students in computer science courses to design and build student-centered mobile apps. The grant work called for demonstration of student collaboration…

  9. Computer Simulations in the Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, John; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explorer is an interactive environment based on a constructivist epistemology of learning that integrates animated computer models with analytic capabilities for learning science. The system includes graphs, a spreadsheet, scripting, and interactive tools. Two examples involving the dynamics of colliding objects and electric circuits illustrate…

  10. Computer Software Designs for College Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Duli C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Computer-assisted-instruction software was developed to supplement the conventional lecture-laboratory mode of instruction with another instructional aid for learning science in an individualized, nonthreatening environment. This development project was designed to teach physical concepts, mathematical techniques, and problem solving strategies.…

  11. Computer Clinical Simulations in Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gary L; Keith, Kenneth D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the key characteristics of clinical simulation, some developmental foundations, two current research studies, and some implications for the future of health science education. Investigations of the effects of computer-based simulation indicate that acquisition of decision-making skills is greater than with noncomputerized simulations.…

  12. A Computer-Integrated Science Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillebrown-DiDomenico, Karen

    1992-01-01

    Describes secondary science programs designed to meet the educational, behavioral, social, and emotional needs of students who do not appear able to benefit from, or adapt to, the traditional educational system. Includes an outline of lessons encompassing a multidisciplinary, computer integration plan for hatching chicken eggs, and directions for…

  13. Teaching Computer Science to Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safir, Aran; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In 1971 the National Library of Medicine underwrote the promotion of computer technology integration into clinical medicine by providing graduate-level training for faculty members in the health sciences. The experience of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in the implementation of an NLM training grant is reported. (MLW)

  14. Computational Experiments for Science and Engineering Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Charles

    2011-01-01

    How to integrate simulation-based engineering and science (SBES) into the science curriculum smoothly is a challenging question. For the importance of SBES to be appreciated, the core value of simulations-that they help people understand natural phenomena and solve engineering problems-must be taught. A strategy to achieve this goal is to introduce computational experiments to the science curriculum to replace or supplement textbook illustrations and exercises and to complement or frame hands-on or wet lab experiments. In this way, students will have an opportunity to learn about SBES without compromising other learning goals required by the standards and teachers will welcome these tools as they strengthen what they are already teaching. This paper demonstrates this idea using a number of examples in physics, chemistry, and engineering. These exemplary computational experiments show that it is possible to create a curriculum that is both deeper and wider.

  15. Information and computer-aided system for structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrashevitch, Ju. G.; Nizametdinov, Sh. U.; Polkovnikov, A. V.; Rumjantzev, V. P.; Surina, O. N.; Kalinin, G. M.; Sidorenkov, A. V.; Strebkov, Ju. S.

    1992-09-01

    An information and computer-aided system for structural materials data has been developed to provide data for the fusion and fission reactor system design. It is designed for designers, industrial engineers, and material science specialists and provides a friendly interface in an interactive mode. The database for structural materials contains the master files: chemical composition, physical, mechanical, corrosion, technological properties, regulatory and technical documentation. The system is implemented on a PC/AT running the PS/2 operating system.

  16. The Science of Smart Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boohan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, smart materials have become increasingly important in the design of products. Essentially, a smart material is one that has been designed to respond to a stimulus, such as a change in temperature or magnetic field, in a particular and useful way. This article looks at a range of smart materials that are relatively…

  17. Computational thinking in life science education.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny

    2014-11-01

    We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others. PMID:25411839

  18. Computational Thinking in Life Science Education

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny

    2014-01-01

    We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational “culture.” The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others. PMID:25411839

  19. [Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, James (Technical Monitor); Merkey, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    This grant supported the effort to characterize the problem domain of the Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project, to engage the Beowulf Cluster Computing Community as well as the High Performance Computing Research Community so that we can predict the applicability of said technologies to the scientific community represented by the CT project and formulate long term strategies to provide the computational resources necessary to attain the anticipated scientific objectives of the CT project. Specifically, the goal of the evaluation effort is to use the information gathered over the course of the Round-3 investigations to quantify the trends in scientific expectations, the algorithmic requirements and capabilities of high-performance computers to satisfy this anticipated need.

  20. Materials Science for Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, Anthony J.

    2008-03-01

    In response to the elevated importance of nuclear detection technology, a variety of research efforts have sought to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials These efforts have goals such as improving our understanding of how these materials perform, supporting the development of formalized discovery tools, or enabling rapid and effective performance characterization. This article provides an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of these materials.

  1. Computational ecology as an emerging science

    PubMed Central

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that numerical modelling and computer simulations can be used as a powerful research tool to understand, and sometimes to predict, the tendencies and peculiarities in the dynamics of populations and ecosystems. It has been, however, much less appreciated that the context of modelling and simulations in ecology is essentially different from those that normally exist in other natural sciences. In our paper, we review the computational challenges arising in modern ecology in the spirit of computational mathematics, i.e. with our main focus on the choice and use of adequate numerical methods. Somewhat paradoxically, the complexity of ecological problems does not always require the use of complex computational methods. This paradox, however, can be easily resolved if we recall that application of sophisticated computational methods usually requires clear and unambiguous mathematical problem statement as well as clearly defined benchmark information for model validation. At the same time, many ecological problems still do not have mathematically accurate and unambiguous description, and available field data are often very noisy, and hence it can be hard to understand how the results of computations should be interpreted from the ecological viewpoint. In this scientific context, computational ecology has to deal with a new paradigm: conventional issues of numerical modelling such as convergence and stability become less important than the qualitative analysis that can be provided with the help of computational techniques. We discuss this paradigm by considering computational challenges arising in several specific ecological applications. PMID:23565336

  2. Computer simulations in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, John; Barowy, William; Levin, Dov

    1992-03-01

    In this paper we describe software for science instruction that is based upon a constructivist epistemology of learning. From a constructivist perspective, the process of learning is viewed as an active construction of knowledge, rather than a passive reception of information. The computer has the potential to provide an environment in which students can explore their understanding and better construct scientific knowledge. The Explorer is an interactive environment that integrates animated computer models with analytic capabilities for learning and teaching science. The system include graphs, a spreadsheet, scripting, and interactive tools. During formative evaluation of Explorer in the classroom, we have focused on learning the function and effectiveness of computer models in teaching science. Models have helped students relate theory to experiment when used in conjunction with hands-on activities and when the simulation addressed students' naive understanding of the phenomena. Two classroom examples illustrate our findings. The first is based on the dynamics of colliding objects. The second describes a class modeling the function of simple electric circuits. The simulations bridge between phenomena and theory by providing an abstract representation on which students may make measurements. Simulations based on scientific theory help to provide a set of interrelated experiences that challenge students' informal understanding of the science.

  3. Scientific Visualization and Computational Science: Natural Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uselton, Samuel P.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Scientific visualization is developing rapidly, stimulated by computational science, which is gaining acceptance as a third alternative to theory and experiment. Computational science is based on numerical simulations of mathematical models derived from theory. But each individual simulation is like a hypothetical experiment; initial conditions are specified, and the result is a record of the observed conditions. Experiments can be simulated for situations that can not really be created or controlled. Results impossible to measure can be computed.. Even for observable values, computed samples are typically much denser. Numerical simulations also extend scientific exploration where the mathematics is analytically intractable. Numerical simulations are used to study phenomena from subatomic to intergalactic scales and from abstract mathematical structures to pragmatic engineering of everyday objects. But computational science methods would be almost useless without visualization. The obvious reason is that the huge amounts of data produced require the high bandwidth of the human visual system, and interactivity adds to the power. Visualization systems also provide a single context for all the activities involved from debugging the simulations, to exploring the data, to communicating the results. Most of the presentations today have their roots in image processing, where the fundamental task is: Given an image, extract information about the scene. Visualization has developed from computer graphics, and the inverse task: Given a scene description, make an image. Visualization extends the graphics paradigm by expanding the possible input. The goal is still to produce images; the difficulty is that the input is not a scene description displayable by standard graphics methods. Visualization techniques must either transform the data into a scene description or extend graphics techniques to display this odd input. Computational science is a fertile field for visualization

  4. Materials science aspects of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wert, Charles; Weller, Manfred

    2001-04-01

    Natural organic materials are arrangements of linear aliphatic units and ring-like aromatic units arranged in a polymeric pattern. We show that fossilized organic materials such as coals and oil shale retain this polymeric character. We also show the polymeric nature of jet and amber, fossilized organic matter used for centuries for ornamentation.

  5. Perspective: Codesign for materials science: An optimal learning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lookman, Turab; Alexander, Francis J.; Bishop, Alan R.

    2016-05-01

    A key element of materials discovery and design is to learn from available data and prior knowledge to guide the next experiments or calculations in order to focus in on materials with targeted properties. We suggest that the tight coupling and feedback between experiments, theory and informatics demands a codesign approach, very reminiscent of computational codesign involving software and hardware in computer science. This requires dealing with a constrained optimization problem in which uncertainties are used to adaptively explore and exploit the predictions of a surrogate model to search the vast high dimensional space where the desired material may be found.

  6. Classroom Demonstrations in Materials Science/Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschhorn, J. S.; And Others

    Examples are given of demonstrations used at the University of Wisconsin in a materials science course for nontechnical students. Topics include crystal models, thermal properties, light, and corrosion. (MLH)

  7. Neuromorphic Computing – From Materials Research to Systems Architecture Roundtable

    SciTech Connect

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Stevens, Rick; Pino, Robinson; Pechan, Michael

    2015-10-29

    Computation in its many forms is the engine that fuels our modern civilization. Modern computation—based on the von Neumann architecture—has allowed, until now, the development of continuous improvements, as predicted by Moore’s law. However, computation using current architectures and materials will inevitably—within the next 10 years—reach a limit because of fundamental scientific reasons. DOE convened a roundtable of experts in neuromorphic computing systems, materials science, and computer science in Washington on October 29-30, 2015 to address the following basic questions: Can brain-like (“neuromorphic”) computing devices based on new material concepts and systems be developed to dramatically outperform conventional CMOS based technology? If so, what are the basic research challenges for materials sicence and computing? The overarching answer that emerged was: The development of novel functional materials and devices incorporated into unique architectures will allow a revolutionary technological leap toward the implementation of a fully “neuromorphic” computer. To address this challenge, the following issues were considered: The main differences between neuromorphic and conventional computing as related to: signaling models, timing/clock, non-volatile memory, architecture, fault tolerance, integrated memory and compute, noise tolerance, analog vs. digital, and in situ learning New neuromorphic architectures needed to: produce lower energy consumption, potential novel nanostructured materials, and enhanced computation Device and materials properties needed to implement functions such as: hysteresis, stability, and fault tolerance Comparisons of different implementations: spin torque, memristors, resistive switching, phase change, and optical schemes for enhanced breakthroughs in performance, cost, fault tolerance, and/or manufacturability.

  8. Instructional multimedia computing in the health sciences.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, P

    1992-01-01

    This article focuses on the development and utilization of interactive videodisc (IVD) and multimedia instruction in the health sciences. The characteristics of IVD and multimedia are outlined and the four levels of IVD systems that can be used in health science education are described. The advantages of utilization of videodisc or multimedia materials are presented, as well as instructional approaches. Potential applications such as simulations, tutorials, role-modeling, and drill-and-practice are described. Research findings, levels of curricular integration, instructional delivery, and courseware networking are also described. The article concludes with suggestions for institutional development of IVD materials or the incorporation of off-the-shelf programs into health science curricula. PMID:1400275

  9. Materials Frontiers to Empower Quantum Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Antoinette Jane; Sarrao, John Louis; Richardson, Christopher

    2015-06-11

    This is an exciting time at the nexus of quantum computing and materials research. The materials frontiers described in this report represent a significant advance in electronic materials and our understanding of the interactions between the local material and a manufactured quantum state. Simultaneously, directed efforts to solve materials issues related to quantum computing provide an opportunity to control and probe the fundamental arrangement of matter that will impact all electronic materials. An opportunity exists to extend our understanding of materials functionality from electronic-grade to quantum-grade by achieving a predictive understanding of noise and decoherence in qubits and their origins in materials defects and environmental coupling. Realizing this vision systematically and predictively will be transformative for quantum computing and will represent a qualitative step forward in materials prediction and control.

  10. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Material Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in materials science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was

  11. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Bennett, Nancy; McCauley, Dannah; Murphy, Karen; Poindexter, Samantha

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 3 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close

  12. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference %%,its to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance

  13. Mastering cognitive development theory in computer science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluga, Richard; Kay, Judy; Lister, Raymond; Simon; Kleitman, Sabina

    2013-03-01

    To design an effective computer science curriculum, educators require a systematic method of classifying the difficulty level of learning activities and assessment tasks. This is important for curriculum design and implementation and for communication between educators. Different educators must be able to use the method consistently, so that classified activities and assessments are comparable across the subjects of a degree, and, ideally, comparable across institutions. One widespread approach to supporting this is to write learning objects in terms of Bloom's Taxonomy. This, or other such classifications, is likely to be more effective if educators can use them consistently, in the way experts would use them. To this end, we present the design and evaluation of our online interactive web-based tutorial system, which can be configured and used to offer training in different classification schemes. We report on results from three evaluations. First, 17 computer science educators complete a tutorial on using Bloom's Taxonomy to classify programming examination questions. Second, 20 computer science educators complete a Neo-Piagetian tutorial. Third evaluation was a comparison of inter-rater reliability scores of computer science educators classifying programming questions using Bloom's Taxonomy, before and after taking our tutorial. Based on the results from these evaluations, we discuss the effectiveness of our tutorial system design for teaching computer science educators how to systematically and consistently classify programming examination questions. We also discuss the suitability of Bloom's Taxonomy and Neo-Piagetian theory for achieving this goal. The Bloom's and Neo-Piagetian tutorials are made available as a community resource. The contributions of this paper are the following: the tutorial system for learning classification schemes for the purpose of coding the difficulty of computing learning materials; its evaluation; new insights into the consistency

  14. Computer programming: Science, art, or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gum, Sandra Trent

    The purpose of this study was to determine if spatial intelligence contributes to a student's success in a computer science major or if mathematical-logical intelligence is sufficient data on which to base a prediction of success. The study was performed at a small university. The sample consisted of 15 computer science (CS) majors, enrolled in a computer science class, and 15 non-CS-majors, enrolled in a statistics class. Seven of the CS-majors were considered advanced and seven were considered less advanced. The independent measures were: the mathematics and the English scores from the ACT/SAT (CS-majors); a questionnaire to obtain personal information; the major area of study which compared CS-majors to all other majors; and the number of completed computer science classes (CS-majors) to determine advanced and less advanced CS-majors. The dependent measures were: a multiple intelligence inventory for adults to determine perception of intelligences; the GEFT to determine field independence independence; the Card Rotations Test to determine spatial orientation ability; the Maze Tracing Speed Test to determine spatial scanning ability; and the Surface Development test to determine visualization ability. The visualization measure correlated positively and significantly with the GEFT. The year in college correlated positively and significantly with the GEFT and visualization measure for CS-majors and correlated negatively for non-CS-majors. Although non-CS-majors scored higher on the spatial orientation measure, CS-majors scored significantly higher on the spatial scanning measure. The year in college correlated negatively with many of the measures and perceptions of intelligences among both groups; however, there were more significant negative correlations among non-CS-majors. Results indicated that experience in computer programming may increase field independence, visualization ability, and spatial scanning ability while decreasing spatial orientation ability. The

  15. Open computing grid for molecular science and engineering.

    PubMed

    Sild, Sulev; Maran, Uko; Lomaka, Andre; Karelson, Mati

    2006-01-01

    Grid is an emerging infrastructure for distributed computing that provides secure and scalable mechanisms for discovering and accessing remote software and data resources. Applications built on this infrastructure have great potential for addressing and solving large scale chemical, pharmaceutical, and material science problems. The article describes the concept behind grid computing and will present the OpenMolGRID system that is an open computing grid for molecular science and engineering. This system provides grid enabled components, such as a data warehouse for chemical data, software for building QSPR/QSAR models, and molecular engineering tools for generating compounds with predefined chemical properties or biological activities. The article also provides an overview about the availability of chemical applications in the grid. PMID:16711713

  16. Large-scale temporal analysis of computer and information science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soos, Sandor; Kampis, George; Gulyás, László

    2013-09-01

    The main aim of the project reported in this paper was twofold. One of the primary goals was to produce an extensive source of network data for bibliometric analyses of field dynamics in the case of Computer and Information Science. To this end, we rendered the raw material of the DBLP computer and infoscience bibliography into a comprehensive collection of dynamic network data, promptly available for further statistical analysis. The other goal was to demonstrate the value of our data source via its use in mapping Computer and Information Science (CIS). An analysis of the evolution of CIS was performed in terms of collaboration (co-authorship) network dynamics. Dynamic network analysis covered three quarters of the XX. century (76 years, from 1936 to date). Network evolution was described both at the macro- and the mezo level (in terms of community characteristics). Results show that the development of CIS followed what appears to be a universal pattern of growing into a "mature" discipline.

  17. Issues in undergraduate education in computational science and high performance computing

    SciTech Connect

    Marchioro, T.L. II; Martin, D.

    1994-12-31

    The ever increasing need for mathematical and computational literacy within their society and among members of the work force has generated enormous pressure to revise and improve the teaching of related subjects throughout the curriculum, particularly at the undergraduate level. The Calculus Reform movement is perhaps the best known example of an organized initiative in this regard. The UCES (Undergraduate Computational Engineering and Science) project, an effort funded by the Department of Energy and administered through the Ames Laboratory, is sponsoring an informal and open discussion of the salient issues confronting efforts to improve and expand the teaching of computational science as a problem oriented, interdisciplinary approach to scientific investigation. Although the format is open, the authors hope to consider pertinent questions such as: (1) How can faculty and research scientists obtain the recognition necessary to further excellence in teaching the mathematical and computational sciences? (2) What sort of educational resources--both hardware and software--are needed to teach computational science at the undergraduate level? Are traditional procedural languages sufficient? Are PCs enough? Are massively parallel platforms needed? (3) How can electronic educational materials be distributed in an efficient way? Can they be made interactive in nature? How should such materials be tied to the World Wide Web and the growing ``Information Superhighway``?

  18. Creating science simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

    Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.

  19. Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a

  20. Imprinting Community College Computer Science Education with Software Engineering Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundley, Jacqueline Holliday

    Although the two-year curriculum guide includes coverage of all eight software engineering core topics, the computer science courses taught in Alabama community colleges limit student exposure to the programming, or coding, phase of the software development lifecycle and offer little experience in requirements analysis, design, testing, and maintenance. We proposed that some software engineering principles can be incorporated into the introductory-level of the computer science curriculum. Our vision is to give community college students a broader exposure to the software development lifecycle. For those students who plan to transfer to a baccalaureate program subsequent to their community college education, our vision is to prepare them sufficiently to move seamlessly into mainstream computer science and software engineering degrees. For those students who plan to move from the community college to a programming career, our vision is to equip them with the foundational knowledge and skills required by the software industry. To accomplish our goals, we developed curriculum modules for teaching seven of the software engineering knowledge areas within current computer science introductory-level courses. Each module was designed to be self-supported with suggested learning objectives, teaching outline, software tool support, teaching activities, and other material to assist the instructor in using it.

  1. NASA Center for Computational Sciences: History and Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Nasa Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) has been a leading capacity computing facility, providing a production environment and support resources to address the challenges facing the Earth and space sciences research community.

  2. Making Computer Science More Accessible to Educationally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ian; Mueller, Conrad

    1994-01-01

    Addresses how the Department of Computer Science at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa has attempted to make computer science accessible to students who have been disadvantaged by the apartheid system. (Author/MKR)

  3. Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science during the period April 1, 1983 through September 30, 1983 is summarized.

  4. [Research activities in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period April 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995.

  5. Research in Applied Mathematics, Fluid Mechanics and Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1998 through March 31, 1999.

  6. The Materials Science of Superheroes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakalios, James

    2008-03-01

    While materials scientists don't typically consult comic books when selecting research topics, innovations first introduced in superhero adventures as fiction can sometimes find their way off the comic book page and into reality. As amazing as the Fantastic Four's powers is the fact that their costumes are undamaged when the Human Torch flames on or Mr. Fantastic stretches his elastic body. In shape memory materials, an external force or torque induces a structural change that is reversed upon warming. Smart fabrics used in hiking clothing expand at low temperatures, while other materials increase their porosity at higher temperatures, allowing body heat and water vapor to escape. Some polymers can be stretched to over twice their normal dimensions and return to their original state when annealed, a feature appreciated by Mr. Fantastic. In order to keep track of the Invisible Woman, the Fantastic Four's arch nemesis Dr. Doom employed sensors in the eye-slits of his armored face-plate, using the same physics underlying night vision goggles. Certain forms of blindness may be treated using an artificial retina consisting of silicon microelectrode arrays, surgically attached to the back of the eye, that transmit a voltage to the optic nerve proportional to the incident visible light intensity (one of the few positive applications of Dr. Doom's scheming). Spider-Man's wall crawling ability has been ascribed to the same van der Waals attractive force that gecko lizards employ through the millions of microscopic hairs on their toes. Scientists have recently developed ``gecko tape,'' consisting of arrays of fibers that provide a strong enough attraction to support a modest weight. Before this tape is able to support a person, however, major materials constraints must be overcome (if this product ever becomes commercially available, I for one will never wait for the elevator again!) All this, and the chemical composition of Captain America's shield, will be discussed.

  7. Materials science research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H.

    1992-01-01

    There are several important attributes of an extended duration microgravity environment that offer a new dimension in the control of the microstructure, processing, and properties of materials. First, when gravitational effects are minimized, buoyancy driven convection flows are also minimized. The flows due to density differences, brought about either by composition or temperature gradients will then be reduced or eliminated to permit a more precise control of the temperature and the composition of a melt which is critical in achieving high quality crystal growth of electronic materials or alloy structures. Secondly, body force effects such as sedimentation, hydrostatic pressure, and deformation are similarly reduced. These effects may interfere with attempts to produce uniformly dispersed or aligned second phases during melt solidification. Thirdly, operating in a microgravity environment will facilitate the containerless processing of melts to eliminate the limitations of containment for reactive melts. The noncontacting forces such as those developed from electromagnet, electrostatic, or acoustic fields can be used to position samples. With this mode of operation, contamination can be minimized to enable the study of reactive melts and to eliminate extraneous crystal nucleation so that novel crystalline structures and new glass compositions may be produced. In order to take advantage of the microgravity environment for materials research, it has become clear that reliable processing models based on a sound ground based experimental experience and an established thermophysical property data base are essential.

  8. Why materials science and engineering is good for metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemings, Merton C.

    2001-04-01

    Metallurgy/materials education will continue to evolve to encompass, in an intellectually unified way, the full range of structural and functional materials. Computation, information, and other advanced sciences and technologies will assume increasing roles in materials education, as will distance and continuing education. The advantages of the changes will be many … to the graduates, to emerging industries, and to the traditional metallurgical industries seeking productive, creative young engineers as employees. The need for continuing change in our metallurgy/materials departments is now no less if we are to attract the best young people into our field in the numbers needed and to best serve the needs of industry.

  9. Why materials science and engineering is good for metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemings, Merton C.

    2001-04-01

    Metallurgy/materials education will continue to evolve to encompass, in an intellectually unified way, the full range of structural and functional materials. Computation, information, and other advanced sciences and technologies will assume increasing roles in materials education, as will distance and continuing education. The advantages of the changes will be many ... to the graduates, to emerging industries, and to the traditional metallurgical industries seeking productive, creative young engineers as employees. The need for continuing change in our metallurgy/materials departments is now no less if we are to attract the best young people into our field in the numbers and to best serve the needs of industry.

  10. Editorial: Defining materials science: A vision from APL Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacManus-Driscoll, Judith

    2014-07-01

    These are exciting times for materials science—a field which is growing more rapidly than any other physical science discipline. More than ever, the field is providing the vital link between science and engineering, between pure and applied. But what is the subject's definition and why is the field ballooning? I address these questions in the context of how APL Materials intends to play a role in advancing this important field. My introspective focus arises as we approach the first year anniversary of APL Materials.

  11. Materials Science and Technology Teachers Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Wieda, Karen J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Bliss, Mary; Pitman, Stan G.; Eschbach, Eugene A.

    2008-09-04

    The Materials Science and Technology (MST) Handbook was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in Richland, Washington, under support from the U.S. Department of Energy. Many individuals have been involved in writing and reviewing materials for this project since it began at Richland High School in 1986, including contributions from educators at the Northwest Regional Education Laboratory, Central Washington University, the University of Washington, teachers from Northwest Schools, and science and education personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Support for its development was also provided by the U.S. Department of Education. This introductory course combines the academic disciplines of chemistry, physics, and engineering to create a materials science and technology curriculum. The course covers the fundamentals of ceramics, glass, metals, polymers and composites. Designed to appeal to a broad range of students, the course combines hands-on activities, demonstrations and long term student project descriptions. The basic philosophy of the course is for students to observe, experiment, record, question, seek additional information, and, through creative and insightful thinking, solve problems related to materials science and technology. The MST Teacher Handbook contains a course description, philosophy, student learning objectives, and instructional approach and processes. Science and technology teachers can collaborate to build the course from their own interests, strengths, and experience while incorporating existing school and community resources. The course is intended to meet local educational requirements for technology, vocational and science education.

  12. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton

    2012-01-01

    The microgravity materials program was nearly eliminated in the middle of the aughts due to budget constraints. Hardware developments were eliminated. Some investigators with experiments that could be performed using ISS partner hardware received continued funding. Partnerships were established between US investigators and ESA science teams for several investigations. ESA conducted peer reviews on the proposals of various science teams as part of an ESA AO process. Assuming he or she was part of a science team that was selected by the ESA process, a US investigator would submit a proposal to NASA for grant funding to support their part of the science team effort. In a similar manner, a US materials investigator (Dr. Rohit Trivedi) is working as a part of a CNES selected science team. As funding began to increase another seven materials investigators were selected in 2010 through an NRA mechanism to perform research related to development of Materials Science Research Rack investigations. One of these has since been converted to a Glovebox investigation.

  13. Is ""predictability"" in computational sciences a myth?

    SciTech Connect

    Hemez, Francois M

    2011-01-31

    Within the last two decades, Modeling and Simulation (M&S) has become the tool of choice to investigate the behavior of complex phenomena. Successes encountered in 'hard' sciences are prompting interest to apply a similar approach to Computational Social Sciences in support, for example, of national security applications faced by the Intelligence Community (IC). This manuscript attempts to contribute to the debate on the relevance of M&S to IC problems by offering an overview of what it takes to reach 'predictability' in computational sciences. Even though models developed in 'soft' and 'hard' sciences are different, useful analogies can be drawn. The starting point is to view numerical simulations as 'filters' capable to represent information only within specific length, time or energy bandwidths. This simplified view leads to the discussion of resolving versus modeling which motivates the need for sub-scale modeling. The role that modeling assumptions play in 'hiding' our lack-of-knowledge about sub-scale phenomena is explained which leads to discussing uncertainty in simulations. It is argued that the uncertainty caused by resolution and modeling assumptions should be dealt with differently than uncertainty due to randomness or variability. The corollary is that a predictive capability cannot be defined solely as accuracy, or ability of predictions to match the available physical observations. We propose that 'predictability' is the demonstration that predictions from a class of 'equivalent' models are as consistent as possible. Equivalency stems from defining models that share a minimum requirement of accuracy, while being equally robust to the sources of lack-of-knowledge in the problem. Examples in computational physics and engineering are given to illustrate the discussion.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes: Miracle of Materials Science?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Files, Bradley S.; Mayeaux, Brian M.

    1999-01-01

    Article to be sent to Advanced Materials and Processes, journal of ASM International, as attached. This is a news-type technical journal for a large organization of scientists, engineers, salesmen, and managers. The article is quite general, meant to be an introduction to the properties of nanotubes. This is a materials science organization, therefore the article is geared toward using nanotubes for materials uses. Pictures have not been included in this version.

  15. Materials science with muon spin rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    During this reporting period, the focus of activity in the Materials Science with Muon Spin Rotation (MSMSR) program was muon spin rotation studies of superconducting materials, in particular the high critical temperature and heavy-fermion materials. Apart from these studies, work was continued on the analysis of muon motion in metal hydrides. Results of these experiments are described in six papers included as appendices.

  16. Correlation Educational Model in Primary Education Curriculum of Mathematics and Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macinko Kovac, Maja; Eret, Lidija

    2012-01-01

    This article gives insight into methodical correlation model of teaching mathematics and computer science. The model shows the way in which the related areas of computer science and mathematics can be supplemented, if it transforms the way of teaching and creates a "joint" lessons. Various didactic materials are designed, in which all…

  17. Selective Guide to Literature on Computer Science. Engineering Literature Guides, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Rosemary, Comp.

    With new developments constantly occurring in computer science, it is difficult for anyone to keep up with the changes and the material being published in the field. This document is a survey of information sources in computer science and is intended to identify those core resources which can help engineers and librarians to find information about…

  18. Where Computer Science and Cultural Studies Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Most users have no more knowledge of what their computer or code is actually doing than most automobile owners have of their carburetor or catalytic converter. Nor is any such knowledge necessarily needed. But for academics, driven by an increasing emphasis on the materiality of new media--that is, the social, cultural, and economic factors…

  19. Hispanic Women Overcoming Deterrents to Computer Science: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herling, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    The products of computer science are important to all aspects of society and are tools in the solution of the world's problems. It is, therefore, troubling that the United States faces a shortage in qualified graduates in computer science. The number of women and minorities in computer science is significantly lower than the percentage of the…

  20. Marrying Content and Process in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendler, A.; Spannagel, C.; Klaudt, D.

    2011-01-01

    Constructivist approaches to computer science education emphasize that as well as knowledge, thinking skills and processes are involved in active knowledge construction. K-12 computer science curricula must not be based on fashions and trends, but on contents and processes that are observable in various domains of computer science, that can be…

  1. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  2. Empirical Determination of Competence Areas to Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendler, Andreas; Klaudt, Dieter; Seitz, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss empirically determined competence areas to K-12 computer science education, emphasizing the cognitive level of competence. The results of a questionnaire with 120 professors of computer science serve as a database. By using multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis, four competence areas to computer science education…

  3. 78 FR 10180 - Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference AGENCY... public conference entitled ``The FDA/PhUSE Annual Computational Science Symposium.'' The purpose of the conference is to help the broader community align and share experiences to advance computational science....

  4. Breadth-Oriented Outcomes Assessment in Computer Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, David; And Others

    Little work has been done regarding the overall assessment of quality of computer science graduates at the undergraduate level. This paper reports on a pilot study at the University of Alabama of a prototype computer science outcomes assessment designed to evaluate the breadth of knowledge of computer science seniors. The instrument evaluated two…

  5. Opportunities in theoretical and computational polymeric materials and soft matter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Andrea J; Grest, Gary S; Marchetti, M Cristina; Grason, Gregory M; Robbins, Mark O; Fredrickson, Glenn H; Rubinstein, Michael; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-03-28

    Soft materials are abundant in nature and ubiquitous in living systems. Elucidating their multi-faceted properties and underlying mechanisms is not only theoretically challenging and important in its own right, but also serves as the foundation for new materials and applications that will have wide-ranging impact on technology and the national economy. Recent initiatives in computation and data-driven materials discovery, such as the Materials Genome Initiative and the National Science Foundation Designing Materials to Revolutionize and Engineer our Future (NSF-DMREF) program, recognize and highlight the many future opportunities in the field. Building upon similar past efforts, a workshop was held at the University of California, Santa Barbara in October 2013 to specifically identify the central challenges and opportunities in theoretical and computational studies of polymeric as well as non-polymeric soft materials. This article presents a summary of the main findings of the workshop. PMID:25711605

  6. Advances and challenges in computational plasma science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, W. M.

    2005-02-01

    Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behaviour. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper, with illustrative examples, chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics and other topics. Progress has been stimulated, in particular, by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modelling. This was enabled by two key factors: (a) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (b) access to powerful new computational resources. Excellent progress has been made in developing codes for which computer run-time and problem-size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Examples include the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPPs to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations that have accelerated advances in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. These calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In looking towards the future, the current results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. This

  7. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period April l, 1988 through September 30, 1988.

  8. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period October 1, 1986 through March 31, 1987 is summarized.

  9. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period April, 1986 through September 30, 1986 is summarized.

  10. Computed laminography for materials testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Maisl, M.; Reiter, H.; Arnold, W.

    1996-06-01

    We have developed a computed laminography system for the inspection of large or flat objects using x rays. By this new laminographic method only a translation of the object is necessary. Both the x-ray source and the detector remain stationary. Object cross sections are reconstructed from digital projections taken during the object motions and for the reconstruction well-known algorithms are used. By use of a microfocus x-ray tube and a line detector, objects can be inspected with a slice resolution of about 50 μm independent of the object size.

  11. Factors influencing exemplary science teachers' levels of computer use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakverdi, Meral

    This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to

  12. Technical activities 1980: Center for Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachtman, J. B., Jr.; Hoffman, J. D.

    1980-10-01

    Part of the National Measurement Laboratory, one of the principal laboratories comprising the National Bureau of Standards, the Materials Science Center is organized in six divisions, each having responsibility in different areas of materials science appropriate to the major classes of materials metals, polymers, and ceramics and glass. These Divisions vary in their balance between theory and experiments, between direct standards work and research, and in their orientation toward industrial and Government needs and the needs of other components of the scientific and technical community. Achievements reported relate to signal processing and imaging; fracture theory; conformational changes in polymers; chemical stability and corrosion; fracture deformation; polymer science and standards; metallurgy and alloys; ceramics, glass, and solid state; and reactor radiation.

  13. Material Science Experiments on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity materials experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. There were six experiments, all of which investigated some aspect of diffusivity in liquid melts. The Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD) experiment investigated the diffusivity of molten Indium samples at 185 C using a radioactive tracer, In-114m. By monitoring two different gamma ray energies (190 keV and 24 keV) emitted by the samples it was possible to measure independently the diffusion rates in the bulk and at the surface of the samples. The Queens University Experiment in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD) was the furnace facility used to process 213 samples for the five other experiments. These experiments investigated the diffusion, ripening, crystal growth, and glass formation in metal, semiconductor, and glass samples. This facility had the capability to process samples in an isothermal or gradient configuration for varying periods of time at temperatures up to 900 C. Both the LMD and the QUELD furnaces were mounted on the Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM) which provided isolation from g-jitter. All the microgravity experiments were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS); a three head three axes acceleration monitoring system which measured and recorded the acceleration environment.

  14. NEW MATERIALS: Challenge of Materials at the Science Museum: a resource for GNVQ Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, David

    1997-05-01

    The new Challenge of Materials gallery at the Science Museum, London, provides exciting possibilities for enhancing work in schools and colleges related to materials science and technology. A resource pack has been developed, directed at GNVQs in Science and Engineering. This is intended to help tutors and students to structure their work around a visit to the gallery. This article describes the resource pack, and suggests ways in which teachers at all levels might make use of the gallery.

  15. Computer-Game Construction: A Gender-Neutral Attractor to Computing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonaro, Mike; Szafron, Duane; Cutumisu, Maria; Schaeffer, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment in Computing Science university programs is at a dangerously low level. A major reason for this is the general lack of interest in Computing Science by females. In this paper, we discuss our experience with using a computer game construction environment as a vehicle to encourage female participation in Computing Science. Experiments…

  16. High Performance Computing in Solid Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, V. C.; Manea, M.; Pomeran, M.; Besutiu, L.; Zlagnean, L.

    2012-04-01

    Presently, the solid earth sciences started to move towards implementing high performance computational (HPC) research facilities. One of the key tenants of HPC is performance, and designing a HPC solution tailored to a specific research field as solid earth that represents an optimum price/performance ratio is often a challenge. The HPC system performance strongly depends on the software-hardware interaction, and therefore prior knowledge on how well specific parallelized software performs on different HPC architectures can weight significantly on choosing the final configuration. In this paper we present benchmark results from two different HPC systems: one low-end HPCC (Horus) with 300 cores and 1.6 TFlops theoretical peak performance, and one high-end HPCC (CyberDyn) with 1344 cores and 11.2 TFlops theoretical peak performance. The software benchmark used in this paper is the open source package CitcomS, which is widely used in the solid earth community (www.geodynamics.org). Testing a CFD code specific for earth sciences, the HPC system Horus based on Gigabit Ethernet performed remarkably well compared with its counterpart Cyeberdyn which is based on Infiniband QDR fabric, but only for a relatively small number of computing cores (96). However, increasing the mesh size and the number of computing cores the HPCC CyberDyn starts outperforming the HPCC Horus because of the low-latency high-speed QDR network dedicated to MPI traffic. Since presently we are moving towards high-resolution simulations for geodynamic predictions that require the same scale as observations, HPC facilities used in earth sciences should benefit from larger up-front investment in future systems that are based on high-speed interconnects.

  17. Computer Model Buildings Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-05-19

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material.

  18. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-06-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software development, but it is not directly applicable to other CS communities, especially those that deal with non-CS application areas. Nevertheless, situated learning can inform CS education by analyzing debates on curriculum and pedagogy within this framework. CS educators should closely examine professional CS communities of practice and design educational activities to model the actual activities of those communities.

  19. Non-Determinism: An Abstract Concept in Computer Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Non-determinism is one of the most important, yet abstract, recurring concepts of Computer Science. It plays an important role in Computer Science areas such as formal language theory, computability theory, distributed computing, and operating systems. We conducted a series of studies on the perception of non-determinism. In the current research,…

  20. Effective Computer Aided Instruction in Biomedical Science

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Lawrence L.

    1985-01-01

    A menu-driven Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) package was integrated with word processing and effectively applied in five curricula at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Integration with word processing facilitates the ease of CAI development by instructors and was found to be the most important step in the development of CAI. CAI modules were developed and are currently used to reinforce lectures in medical pathology, laboratory quality control, computer programming and basic science reviews of medicine. Modules help the lecturer efficiently cover fundamentals and provide the student with a self-directed learning alternative. A structured approach to CAI has helped build a CAI program which supports other traditional modes of instruction at MCW.

  1. Polymeric materials science in the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The microgravity environment presents some interesting possibilities for the study of polymer science. Properties of polymeric materials depend heavily on their processing history and environment. Thus, there seem to be some potentially interesting and useful new materials that could be developed. The requirements for studying polymeric materials are in general much less rigorous than those developed for studying metals, for example. Many of the techniques developed for working with other materials, including heat sources, thermal control hardware and noncontact temperature measurement schemes should meet the needs of the polymer scientist.

  2. Fusion power: a challenge for materials science.

    PubMed

    Duffy, D M

    2010-07-28

    The selection and design of materials that will withstand the extreme conditions of a fusion power plant has been described as one of the greatest materials science challenges in history. The high particle flux, high thermal load, thermal mechanical stress and the production of transmutation elements combine to produce a uniquely hostile environment. In this paper, the materials favoured for the diverse roles in a fusion power plant are discussed, along with the experimental and modelling techniques that are used to advance the understanding of radiation damage in materials. Areas where further research is necessary are highlighted. PMID:20566513

  3. Basis Set Exchange: A Community Database for Computational Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared M.; Li, Jun; Windus, Theresa L.

    2007-05-01

    Basis sets are one of the most important input data for computational models in the chemistry, materials, biology and other science domains that utilize computational quantum mechanics methods. Providing a shared, web accessible environment where researchers can not only download basis sets in their required format, but browse the data, contribute new basis sets, and ultimately curate and manage the data as a community will facilitate growth of this resource and encourage sharing both data and knowledge. We describe the Basis Set Exchange (BSE), a web portal that provides advanced browsing and download capabilities, facilities for contributing basis set data, and an environment that incorporates tools to foster development and interaction of communities. The BSE leverages and enables continued development of the basis set library originally assembled at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  4. Computational Nanotechnology Molecular Electronics, Materials and Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation covers research being performed on computational nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes at the NASA Ames Research Center. Topics cover include: nanomechanics of nanomaterials, nanotubes and composite materials, molecular electronics with nanotube junctions, kinky chemistry, and nanotechnology for solid-state quantum computers using fullerenes.

  5. Computer Instrumentation and the New Tools of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, H. David

    1990-01-01

    The impact and uses of new technologies in science teaching are discussed. Included are computers, software, sensors, integrated circuits, computer signal access, and computer interfaces. Uses and advantages of these new technologies are suggested. (CW)

  6. Materials and Chemical Sciences Division annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Research programs from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in materials science, chemical science, nuclear science, fossil energy, energy storage, health and environmental sciences, program development funds, and work for others is briefly described. (CBS)

  7. The quantum computer game: citizen science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damgaard, Sidse; Mølmer, Klaus; Sherson, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    Progress in the field of quantum computation is hampered by daunting technical challenges. Here we present an alternative approach to solving these by enlisting the aid of computer players around the world. We have previously examined a quantum computation architecture involving ultracold atoms in optical lattices and strongly focused tweezers of light. In The Quantum Computer Game (see http://www.scienceathome.org/), we have encapsulated the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the problem in a graphical user interface allowing for easy user input. Players can then search the parameter space with real-time graphical feedback in a game context with a global high-score that rewards short gate times and robustness to experimental errors. The game which is still in a demo version has so far been tried by several hundred players. Extensions of the approach to other models such as Gross-Pitaevskii and Bose-Hubbard are currently under development. The game has also been incorporated into science education at high-school and university level as an alternative method for teaching quantum mechanics. Initial quantitative evaluation results are very positive. AU Ideas Center for Community Driven Research, CODER.

  8. Science-Technology Coupling: The Case of Mathematical Logic and Computer Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner-Dobler, Roland

    1997-01-01

    In the history of science, there have often been periods of sudden rapprochements between pure science and technology-oriented branches of science. Mathematical logic as pure science and computer science as technology-oriented science have experienced such a rapprochement, which is studied in this article in a bibliometric manner. (Author)

  9. Enabling Wide-Scale Computer Science Education through Improved Automated Assessment Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boe, Bryce A.

    There is a proliferating demand for newly trained computer scientists as the number of computer science related jobs continues to increase. University programs will only be able to train enough new computer scientists to meet this demand when two things happen: when there are more primary and secondary school students interested in computer science, and when university departments have the resources to handle the resulting increase in enrollment. To meet these goals, significant effort is being made to both incorporate computational thinking into existing primary school education, and to support larger university computer science class sizes. We contribute to this effort through the creation and use of improved automated assessment tools. To enable wide-scale computer science education we do two things. First, we create a framework called Hairball to support the static analysis of Scratch programs targeted for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Scratch is a popular building-block language utilized to pique interest in and teach the basics of computer science. We observe that Hairball allows for rapid curriculum alterations and thus contributes to wide-scale deployment of computer science curriculum. Second, we create a real-time feedback and assessment system utilized in university computer science classes to provide better feedback to students while reducing assessment time. Insights from our analysis of student submission data show that modifications to the system configuration support the way students learn and progress through course material, making it possible for instructors to tailor assignments to optimize learning in growing computer science classes.

  10. Teaching General Chemistry: A Materials Science Companion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Arthur B.; And Others

    Many teachers and other educators have expressed a concern regarding the lack of student interest in many of the traditional science courses. To help rectify this problem a collaborative effort among educators and others concerned has led to the development of instructional materials that are more relevant to the lives of students. This document…