Science.gov

Sample records for computer society information

  1. Computer Abuse: Vandalizing the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnell, Steven M.; Warren, Matthew J.

    1997-01-01

    Computing and telecommunications, key to an information-based society, are increasingly targets for criminals and mischief makers. This article examines the effects of malicious computer abuse: hacking and viruses, highlights the apparent increase in incidents, and examines their effect on public perceptions of technology. Presents broad…

  2. The Emerging Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochai, Adakole

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on role of library and agencies charged with provision of information in an environment of technological change. Predictions concerning aspects of the emerging information society (computer literacy, home computers), the death of libraries, and effects of a paperless society on libraries in developing countries are noted. Footnotes are…

  3. Computers, Schools, and Society: American Education in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlig, George E.

    The microcomputer is only the very visible tip of a technological iceberg which demands a national technological literacy. Other important new technologies include the laser or optical videodisc and satellite-ground information transfer and telecommunications. National technological literacy requires changes in curriculum development beginning…

  4. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  5. Advanced information society(5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanizawa, Ippei

    Based on the advancement of information network technology information communication forms informationalized society giving significant impact on business activities and life style in it. The information network has been backed up technologically by development of computer technology and has got great contribution by enhanced computer technology and communication equipments. Information is transferred by digital and analog methods. Technical development which has brought out multifunctioned modems of communication equipments in analog mode, and construction of advanced information communication network which has come out by joint work of computer and communication under digital technique, are described. The trend in institutional matter and standardization of electrical communication is also described showing some examples of value-added network (VAN).

  6. Colleges Enter the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Higher Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The implications for higher education of the U.S. transformation from an industrial to an information society are discussed in six papers. Russell Edgerton provides an overview in "Entering the Information Society: An Introduction." In "The Computer: An Enabling Instrument," Louis Robinson considers the current era of the personalization of the…

  7. Advanced information society (12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    In this paper, the original Japanese idea of "advanced information society" was reviewed at the first step. Thus, advancement of information/communication technology, advancement of information/communication needs and tendency of industrialization of information" were examined. Next, by comparing studies on advanced information society in various countries, the Japanese characteristics of consensus building was reviewed. Finally, in pursuit of prospect and tasks for the society, advancement of innovation and convergence information/communication technology, information/communication needs, institutional environment for utilization of information/communication and countermeasures against information pollution. Matching of information/communication technology and needs, besides with countermeasures against information pollution were discussed.

  8. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  9. Advanced information society (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Gosei

    In considering the relationship of informationization and industrial structure, this paper analize some factors such as information revolution, informationization of industries and industrialization of information as background of informationization of Japanese society. Next, some information indicators such as, information coefficient of household which is a share of information related expenditure, information coefficient of industry which is a share of information related cost to total cost of production, and information transmission census developed by Ministry of Post and Telecommunication are introduced. Then new information indicator by Economic Planning Agency, that is, electronic info-communication indicator is showed. In this study, the information activities are defined to produce message or to supply services on process, stores or sale of message using electronic information equipment. International comparisons of information labor force are also presented.

  10. Technology and society: ideological implications of information and computer technologies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Weigle, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the impact of technology on the USSR's social system from the perspective of Soviet ideological development. The analysis of information and computer technologies within this framework de-emphasizes both modernization theories and those that assume unchallenged Communist Party control over technological development. Previous studies have examined the level of Soviet technological achievements and the gap between this level and those in the West, many referring to ideological boundaries of Soviet technological development without, however, systematically analyzing the resulting implications for the Soviet ideology of Marxism-Leninism. This study develops a framework for analyzing the impact of new technologies in the USSR in the fields of technology, ideology, and the scientific and technological revolution. On the basis of this framework, examination turns to the relevant Soviet theoretical and technical literature and debates among Soviety elites, concluding that the introduction of information and computer technologies and the organization of computer networks has exacerbated tensions in Soviety Marxism-Leninism.

  11. Consumption in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  12. Advanced information society (9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  13. Advanced information society (8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Hirotsugu

    As technology such as computer, office automation equipments, industrial robots have come into wide use, mental and physical fatigue called technostress as well as health injury has become social issues. Some people attribute this technostress to psychological unrest created by masscommunication or to computer works. On the other hand other people have been conducting investigations of the stress caused by programming works, and gathering information on the related symptoms. The expression and causes of technostress are diverse depending on the kind of computer related labor, therefore, it is necessary to have delicate and detailed countermeasures against it. However, after all technostress is much concerned with individuals' life style and industrial climate.

  14. Advanced information society(4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Shinji

    This paper proposes that, as countermeasure against the centralization of information activities at the capital Tokyo region, the construction of information infrastructure as well as urban spaces adapted for the exchange and transmission of information be needed at the local regions. Development of information activities at the local regions requires urban spaces with high amenity to promote the characteristics of the city and allow for various kinds of human activities to take place. Making it a reality, the urban spaces should allow for (1) the presentation function of information transmission; (2) the cultural invention function related to knowledge production; and (3) construction of a "Mediacity" which is the actor of information exchange and carries out the international exchange function.

  15. Advanced information society (10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Informationalization in Japan has spread among various fields of industrial and social life in wide and depth by drastic advancement in technology and networking. Looking at the change in industrial structure as well as international trend in information the Japanese Government regards the role of information and communication technology as infrastructure to be important, and is under the way of constructing various measures with ministries and agencies concerned with them. This paper describes how administrative agencies involved in information and communication such as Ministry of Postal Services, Ministry of International Trade and Industry cope with informationalization, and mentions future direction in information policies.

  16. Advanced information society (11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawa, Kotaro

    Late in the 1980's the information system of Japanese corporation has been operated strategically to strengthen its competitive position in markets rather than to make corporate management efficient. Therefore, information-oriented policy in the corporation is making remarkable progress. This policy expands the intelligence activity in the corporation and also leads to the extension of the market in an information industry. In this environment closed corporate system is transformed into open one. For this system network and database are important managerial resources.

  17. Information Epochs and Human Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Yoneji

    1982-01-01

    Mankind has experienced three societal transformations in the course of history. A new information epoch has served as a precondition for social change. The current information society is post-industrial and will lead to change in the socioeconomic structure and in social values. (KC)

  18. Education in an Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-04-01

    Last month's editorial pointed out that higher education may well change significantly as a result of the tremendous impact that information technologies are having on society. It quoted a white paper (1) by Russell Edgerton, Director of the Education Program of the Pew Charitable Trusts. Edgerton argued that higher education is currently failing to meet three challenges: to provide higher quality education; to reduce costs; and to regain its former stature as an important player in shaping public policy. Edgerton recommended that the Pew Trusts should encourage colleges and universities to set more ambitious goals for undergraduate education, to enter the public arena and play a major role in the reform of K-12 education, and to develop an academic profession interested in working toward these goals. Four new aims for undergraduate education were identified: "encouraging institutions to take learning seriously, encouraging faculty to take pedagogy seriously, demonstrating that technology can be used to reduce costs as well as to enhance learning, and developing new incentives for continuous quality improvement." One wonders why institutions of higher education should need to be encouraged toward goals that seem obviously congruent with their mission and self interest, but today's colleges and universities seem more likely to respond to outside offers of funding than to develop their own plans of action. As members of the faculty of such institutions, it behooves us to consider what some of those outside influences are likely to be and what effects they are likely to have on us, on our institutions, and on our students. Higher education is seen as a growth market by Michael Dolence and Donald Norris (2). In 1995 they projected that in five years there would be an increase of 20 million full-time equivalent enrollments in the U.S. and more than 100 million world wide. However, this growth was not projected to be traditional, on-campus students. Most was expected to

  19. Education in an Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-04-01

    Last month's editorial pointed out that higher education may well change significantly as a result of the tremendous impact that information technologies are having on society. It quoted a white paper (1) by Russell Edgerton, Director of the Education Program of the Pew Charitable Trusts. Edgerton argued that higher education is currently failing to meet three challenges: to provide higher quality education; to reduce costs; and to regain its former stature as an important player in shaping public policy. Edgerton recommended that the Pew Trusts should encourage colleges and universities to set more ambitious goals for undergraduate education, to enter the public arena and play a major role in the reform of K-12 education, and to develop an academic profession interested in working toward these goals. Four new aims for undergraduate education were identified: "encouraging institutions to take learning seriously, encouraging faculty to take pedagogy seriously, demonstrating that technology can be used to reduce costs as well as to enhance learning, and developing new incentives for continuous quality improvement." One wonders why institutions of higher education should need to be encouraged toward goals that seem obviously congruent with their mission and self interest, but today's colleges and universities seem more likely to respond to outside offers of funding than to develop their own plans of action. As members of the faculty of such institutions, it behooves us to consider what some of those outside influences are likely to be and what effects they are likely to have on us, on our institutions, and on our students. Higher education is seen as a growth market by Michael Dolence and Donald Norris (2). In 1995 they projected that in five years there would be an increase of 20 million full-time equivalent enrollments in the U.S. and more than 100 million world wide. However, this growth was not projected to be traditional, on-campus students. Most was expected to

  20. The Information Society, Schools, and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balle, Francis

    This report begins by examining the transition from the industrial society to the informatics society which began in the 1960s, when the newspaper's monopoly on information was destroyed by radio and television, followed by the development of an information-based economy. The salient features of the new area are identified as: (1) the ever…

  1. A critical view on advanced information society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    This is a record of the keynote lecture at the seminar to summarize various discussions on "advanced information society", which have have been carried by Journal of Information Processing and Management. To begin with reviewing very Japanese tendency toward technological determinism in the concept of advanced information society, it is pointed out that other factors such as growth of social needs and flexible telecommunication policy. Megatrends such as "Globalization", "Aging" and "information management" have been brought us diversified problems during the last decade of the 20th century. In the last part of this paper, major problems to be solved for advanced information society are raised.

  2. Educating Responsible Citizens in the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionini, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates three concepts central to responsible citizenship in the information society: information literacy is the basest set of skills and concepts that all citizens must attain to be functionally competent; information seeking is a basic human process; and information science is an emerging interdisciplinary field that invents new systems…

  3. Brussels and the Global Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flesch, Colette

    1997-01-01

    New communication and information technology is transforming the structure and law governing information markets and the economic, social, cultural, and political patterns of societies. This article discusses the effects of information technology (telecommuting, job growth in rural areas, distance education) and the role of the European Commission…

  4. Information Society and General Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lariccia, Giovanni; Megarry, Jacquetta

    Prepared for a 1984 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) conference, this report discusses the potential of the new information technologies for enhancing learning in school, vocational, and general education, and presents eight groups of case studies taken from member countries which illustrate what is currently being done…

  5. Lifelong Learning and the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Society is currently in the process of shifting its central focus from the production and distribution of material goods to the production and distribution of information. Indeed, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics reveal that the majority of people are now involved in occupations that center around information rather than around industry.…

  6. Young People in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebedeva, E. V.

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the Laboratory for the Social Problems of the Development of the Information Society, Institute for Socioeconomic Studies of the Population, Russian Academy of Sciences, in collaboration with the Modern Academy of the Humanities, carried out a survey of the level of use of information and communication technologies (ICT) by…

  7. Teaching the Information Society: Pragmatism or Pangloss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornby, Susan

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes one lecturer's experience of teaching the information society, addresses some of the concerns expressed by those who teach in the area, and examines the problems that tend to restrict the learning and teaching environment and methods. Uses a Bernsteinian model of framing and a Panglossian perspective of optimism. (Author/LRW)

  8. Flexible Learning in an Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Badrul, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Flexible Learning in an Information Society uses a flexible learning framework to explain the best ways of creating a meaningful learning environment. This framework consists of eight factors--institutional, management, technological, pedagogical, ethical, interface design, resource support, and evaluation--and a systematic understanding of these…

  9. On the Present State of Information Society Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Alistair S.

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the present condition of the emerging specialism of information society studies. Topics include the information economy; information technology; the information explosion; the Japanese version of information society; information society as social democracy; sociology and information science; scholarly journals; and the need for…

  10. The Language of Information Technology: Accessibility in the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmkessel, Marjorie M.

    The language of information technology is discussed, with a focus on accessibility in the information society. The metaphors of information technology as an "information superhighway" or "infobahn" are analyzed; limitations of the "road system" and developments of Internet systems are considered. The concept of connectivity of the rhizome in "A…

  11. Distributed Computing Software Building-Blocks for Ubiquitous Computing Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H. (Kane

    The steady approach of advanced nations toward realization of ubiquitous computing societies has given birth to rapidly growing demands for new-generation distributed computing (DC) applications. Consequently, economic and reliable construction of new-generation DC applications is currently a major issue faced by the software technology research community. What is needed is a new-generation DC software engineering technology which is at least multiple times more effective in constructing new-generation DC applications than the currently practiced technologies are. In particular, this author believes that a new-generation building-block (BB), which is much more advanced than the current-generation DC object that is a small extension of the object model embedded in languages C++, Java, and C#, is needed. Such a BB should enable systematic and economic construction of DC applications that are capable of taking critical actions with 100-microsecond-level or even 10-microsecond-level timing accuracy, fault tolerance, and security enforcement while being easily expandable and taking advantage of all sorts of network connectivity. Some directions considered worth pursuing for finding such BBs are discussed.

  12. Positioning Education in the Information Society: The Transnational Diffusion of the Information and Communication Technology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Seung-Hwan; Cha, Yun-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    One of the most distinctive qualities that characterize present-day society is the social fact that people are shifting to the information age. In recent years, they have witnessed remarkable developments in information and communication technology (ICT), in which microelectronics, computers, and telecommunications have converged. Transnational…

  13. Individual privacy in an information dependent society

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, B.P.

    1994-12-31

    The extraordinary technologies and capabilities of the Information Age have vastly improved communication, while allowing executives to have ultra-current information about their companies, subsidiaries, staff, clients, and practically any individual in the world. These advances, however, have stripped the individual of his privacy. Although invasions of privacy do not require a computer, computers have made it much easier to gather and select informatin, which means that it is also much easier to invade privacy. The increased value of information to policy makers leads them to covet information, even when acquiring it invades someone`s pricacy; not only do managers of private companies gather personal data, almost every citizen has files about him in Federal agencies and administrations.

  14. What computers mean for man and society.

    PubMed

    Simon, H A

    1977-03-18

    From an economic standpoint, the modern computer is simply the most recent of a long line of new technologies that increase productivity and cause a gradual shift from manufacturing to service employment. The empirical evidence provides no support for the claim sometimes made that the computer "mechanizes" and "dehumanizes" work. Perhaps the greatest significance of the computer lies in its impact on Man's view of himself. No longer accepting the geocentric view of the universe, he now begins to learn that mind, too, is a phenomenon of nature, explainable in terms of simple mechanisms. Thus the computer aids him to obey, for the first time, the ancient injunction, "Know thyself." PMID:17789730

  15. New Information Dispersal Techniques for Trustworthy Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parakh, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Information dispersal algorithms (IDA) are used for distributed data storage because they simultaneously provide security, reliability and space efficiency, constituting a trustworthy computing framework for many critical applications, such as cloud computing, in the information society. In the most general sense, this is achieved by dividing data…

  16. Electronic Communities in an Information Society: Paradise, Mirage, or Malaise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komito, Lee

    2001-01-01

    Discusses communities in the information society and examines virtual communities and the relation between technology and social life. Topics include interaction; idealized community; proximate communities; normative community; virtual communities and fragmented society; and social change versus technological change. (LRW)

  17. American Nuclear Society Exchanges of Information

    SciTech Connect

    Octave J. Du Temple

    2000-06-04

    This report describes the helpfulness of various American Nuclear Society (ANS) publications: the ''ANS Bylaws and Rules'', position papers, nuclear standards, buyers guides and directories, and Radwaste Solutions. The report's author stresses the weakness of all societies in interfacing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the ANS's attempt to be more aware of the IAEA's services.

  18. Women and the Information Society: Barriers and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulding, Anne; Spacey, Rachel

    The development and use of communication and information technologies, notably the Internet, have stimulated huge changes in the organization of work and daily life in Europe, leading to a process of transition from the "Industrial" to the "Information" society. The ultimate aim of the Information Society should be the empowerment of all its…

  19. Quantum information and computation

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.H.

    1995-10-01

    A new quantum theory of communication and computation is emerging, in which the stuff transmitted or processed is not classical information, but arbitrary superpositions of quantum states. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  20. Cyberethics and co-operation in the information society.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Christian; Bichler, Robert M; Raffl, Celina

    2009-12-01

    The task of this paper is to ground the notion of cyberethics of co-operation. The evolution of modern society has resulted in a shift from industrial society towards informational capitalism. This transformation is a multidimensional shift that affects all aspects of society. Hence also the ethical system of society is penetrated by the emergence of the knowledge society and ethical guidelines for the information age are needed. Ethical issues and conflicts in the knowledge society are connected to topics of ecological and social sustainability. For information ethics and cyberethics, the sustainable design of society, social, and socio-technological systems is important. In this context the notions of sustainability and co-operation are discussed. Based on these categories, the approach of cyberethics of co-operation can be theoretically grounded. PMID:19440854

  1. Toward the high-environment society from the high-information society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiso, Hideo

    The society in the 21st century may be cal[ed 'high-environmental society', in which information science and technology will play an essential role in creating new environments. 'Environments' in this context mean the whole outside world which is perceived by a human being, a living body, or a machine (these are 'systems' in a broad sense). The infrastructures needed for creation of the high-environmental society and plans for entering this society are discussed. In the high-environmental society, information environments and artificial environments will be greatly improved besides natural, living, and organizational environments. We should build the technological, social, and educational infrastructures for this society so that we can live a good life together with all environments.

  2. The Scope of the Syllabus of Information Society Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Alistair

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the scope of information society studies focuses on a syllabus for an ideal module in information society studies, comprising aims, learning outcomes, attained skills, and indicative content. Considers critical thinking, theoretical sensitivity, and an interdisciplinary approach that incorporates history. (Author/LRW)

  3. A History of the American Society for Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Angela Lynn

    Originally called the American Documentation Institute, over the years the American Society for Information Science (ASIS) has changed its emphasis from documentation to information science. During its 40 year history, the society has incorporated into its membership numerous individuals and agencies whose activities include classification,…

  4. The Rise of the Information Society amongst European Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the information society discourse in the European Union in relation to the European Commission's eLearning programmes, based on selected academics' conceptualisation of the term. It reveals a mixed picture of the perceptions that academics have of the information society in their respective countries. The findings indicate…

  5. Computer/Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Ken; Roughgarden, Tim; Seltzer, Margo; Spohrer, Jim; Stolterman, Erik; Kearsley, Greg; Koszalka, Tiffany; de Jong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of computer/information science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Ken Birman, Jennifer Rexford, Tim Roughgarden, Margo Seltzer, Jim Spohrer, and…

  6. The Information Society and the New Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Jaako

    1988-01-01

    Argues that in an information age competence of an individual cannot be discerned in the product they produce but on the impression they make, therefore marketing through impressions provides basis for decision making. Sees challenge to education in teaching how to process information in the most appropriate way. (KO)

  7. Business Management in the advanced information society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, Akio

    This is a record of the commemorative lecture at the fifth anniversary of the establishment of the JICST Tohoku Branch Office. Lecturer explains about business management in the information age. "Management" originally means sensing and coping with changes. Thus, the business has to get information as quickly as possible and take the best possible measure for the new issues. As it is definitely important for the business to make an appropriate prediction, information including unknown facts is very valuable. Technological prediction is particulary indispensable for the business. It is available, to some extent, by looking back the steps of technological development in the past. As the characteristics of information age, lecturer explains that there will be less information gap in the world, due to the development of telecommunication technology.

  8. Information Literacy in an Information Society: A Concept for the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Christina S.

    Information literacy is the ability to access, evaluate, and use information from a variety of sources. This document traces the history of the development of the term "information literacy" and discusses the emergence of information literacy as an important concept in contemporary society. Two major events are examined that have driven…

  9. Information Society Needs of Managers in a Large Governmental Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broos, Elizabeth; Cronje, Johannes C.

    2009-01-01

    Dealing effectively with information and communication technology in the information society is a complex task and the human dimension is often under-estimated. This paper tries to give a voice to some managers about their experiences with information, communication and technology in their working environment, which involves participating in a…

  10. Computer and information networks.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, M; Aronofsky, J; McKenney, J L; Massy, W F

    1973-10-01

    The most basic conclusion coming out of the EDUCOM seminars is that computer networking must be acknowledged as an important new mode for obtaining information and computation (15). It is a real alternative that needs to be given serious attention in current planning and decision-making. Yet the fact is that many institutions are not taking account of networks when they confer on whether or how to replace their main computer. Articulation of the possibilities of computer networks goes back to the early 1960's and before, and working networks have been in evidence for several years now, both commercially and in universities. What is new, however, is the unmistakable recognition-bordering on a sense of the inevitable-that networks are finally practical and here to stay. The visionary and promotional phases of computer networks are over. It is time for hard-nosed comparative analysis (16). Another conclusion of the seminars has to do with the factors that hinder the fuller development of networking. The major problems to be overcome in applying networks to research and education are political, organizational, and economic in nature rather than technological. This is not to say that the hardware and software problems of linking computers and information systems are completely solved, but they are not the big bottlenecks at present. Research and educational institutions must find ways to organize themselves as well as their computers to work together for greater resource sharing. The coming of age of networks takes on special significance as a result of widespread dissatisfactions expressed with the present computing situation. There is a feeling that the current mode of autonomous, self-sufficient operation in the provision of computing and information services is frequently wasteful, deficient, and unresponsive to users' needs because of duplication of effort from one installation to another, incompatibilities, and inadequate documentation, program support, and user

  11. Information-driven societies and Fermi's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Fermi's paradox is founded on the idea that one or more Galactic extraterrestrial civilizations (ETCs) existed long ago and sustained exploration for millions of years, but in spite of their advanced knowledge, they could not find a way to explore the Galaxy other than with fleets of starships or self replicating probes. Here, I question this second assumption: if advanced technology generally allows long-distance remote sensing, and if ETCs were motivated by gaining information rather than conquest or commerce, then such voyages would be unnecessary, thereby resolving Fermi's paradox.

  12. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, volume 10, number 1, March 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-03-01

    The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal hereinafter known as the ACES Journal is devoted to the exchange of information in computational electromagnetics, to the advancement of the state-of-the-art, and to the promotion of related technical activities. A primary objective of the information exchange is the elimination of the need to 're-invent the wheel' to solve a previously-solved computational problem in electrical engineering, physics, or related fields of study. The technical activities promoted by this publication include code validation, performance analysis, and input/output standardization; code or technique optimization and error minimization; innovations in solution technique or in data input/output; identification of new applications for electromagnetics modeling codes and techniques; integration of computational electromagnetics techniques with new computer architectures; and correlation of computational parameters with physical mechanisms.

  13. UNESCO and the World Summit on the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abid, Abdelaziz

    The World Summit on the Information Society will be held in two phases: Geneva, December 10-12, 2003 and Tunis in 2005. The Summit began as an initiative of the 1998 ITU Plenipotentiary Conference when it was recognized that the gap between information "haves" and "have nots" was increasing while at the same time telecommunications were playing an…

  14. The creation of a global telemedical information society.

    PubMed

    Marsh, A

    1998-01-01

    Healthcare is a major candidate for improvement in any vision of the kinds of "information highways" and "information societies" that are now being visualized. The medical information management market is one of the largest and fastest growing segments of the healthcare device industry. The expected revenue by the year 2000 is US$21 billion. Telemedicine currently accounts for only a small segment but is expanding rapidly. In the United States more than 60% of federal telemedicine projects were initiated in the last two years. The concept of telemedicine captures much of what is developing in terms of technology implementations, especially if it is combined with the growth of the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). It is foreseen that the World Wide Web (WWW) will become the most important communication medium of any future information society. If the development of such a society is to be on a global scale it should not be allowed to develop in an ad hoc manner. The Euromed Project has identified 20 building blocks resulting in 39 steps requiring multi-disciplinary collaborations. Since, the organization of information is therefore critical especially when concerning healthcare the Euromed Project has also introduced a new (global) standard called "Virtual Medical Worlds" which provides the potential to organize existing medical information and provide the foundations for its integration into future forms of medical information systems. Virtual Medical Worlds, based on 3D reconstructed medical models, utilizes the WWW as a navigational medium to remotely access multimedia medical information systems. The visualisation and manipulation of hyper-graphical 3D "body/organ" templates and patient-specific 3D/4D/and VR models is an attempt to define an information infrastructure in an emerging WWW-based telemedical information society. PMID:10384455

  15. The Creation of a global telemedical information society.

    PubMed

    Marsh, A

    1998-04-01

    Healthcare is a major candidate for improvement in any vision of the kinds of 'information highways' and 'information societies' that are now being visualized. The medical information management market is one of the largest and fastest growing segments of the healthcare device industry. The expected revenue by the year 2000 is US$21 billion. Telemedicine currently accounts for only a small segment but is expanding rapidly. In the USA more than 60% of federal telemedicine projects were initiated in the last 2 years. The concept of telemedicine captures much of what is developing in terms of technology implementations, especially if it is combined with the growth of the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). It is foreseen that the World Wide Web (WWW) will become the most important communication medium of any future information society. If the development of such a society is to be on a global scale it should not be allowed to develop in an ad hoc manner. For this reason, the Euromed Project has identified 20 building blocks resulting in 39 steps requiring multi-disciplinary collaborations. Since, the organization of information is therefore critical especially when concerning healthcare the Euromed Project has also introduced a new (global) standard called 'Virtual Medical Worlds' which provides the potential to organize existing medical information and provide the foundations for its integration into future forms of medical information systems. Virtual Medical Worlds, based on 3D reconstructed medical models, utilizes the WWW as a navigational medium to remotely access multi-media medical information systems. The visualization and manipulation of hyper-graphical 3D 'body/organ' templates and patient-specific 3D/4D/and VR models is an attempt to define an information infrastructure in an emerging WWW-based telemedical information society. PMID:9741893

  16. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Michael A.; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2010-12-01

    Part I. Fundamental Concepts: 1. Introduction and overview; 2. Introduction to quantum mechanics; 3. Introduction to computer science; Part II. Quantum Computation: 4. Quantum circuits; 5. The quantum Fourier transform and its application; 6. Quantum search algorithms; 7. Quantum computers: physical realization; Part III. Quantum Information: 8. Quantum noise and quantum operations; 9. Distance measures for quantum information; 10. Quantum error-correction; 11. Entropy and information; 12. Quantum information theory; Appendices; References; Index.

  17. Mapping the Information Society Literature: Topics, Perspectives, and Root Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Isabel; Kilbourn, Brent

    2002-01-01

    Investigates literature dealing with the information society, suggests that it often appears fragmented, and constructs a comprehensive map that charts topics, perspectives, and root metaphors. Discusses mapping the literature; and explains root, or philosophical, metaphors that incorporate philosophical views about the nature of reality to help…

  18. Information Literacy in an Information Society. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, Syracuse, NY.

    Information literacy is the ability to access, evaluate, and use information from a variety of sources. This digest defines the information literate person and describes the evolution of the concept. Information literacy is examined in the context of existing practice; and the impact of technology on the storage and dissemination of data,…

  19. The Computer and Society: Our Servant-Our Master? A Unit of the Social Education Materials Project, "People and Change."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlow, David; And Others

    Arranged in three sections, this resource for secondary school students provides an introduction to the computer's impact on society. The first section surveys historical methods of recording and storing information: clay tablets, papyrus, and books. The second section describes how computers work and ways they can be used. Also considered are the…

  20. Emerging Information Society and History of Information Science in Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragulanescu, Nicolae

    2002-01-01

    Discusses cultural influences that prevail in the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data, information, and knowledge in Romania. Highlights include a history of Romania; their scientific and technical information system; economics; governmental control of access; governmental funding; international relations; higher education for…

  1. Library and Information Education for the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Joseph F., Ed.; Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    There are 17 articles in this theme issue on library and information education: (1) "Educating Library and Information Professionals for the 21st Century" (E. J. Josey); (2) "Ready or Not Here It Comes: Library Education for 21st Century New York State" (Richard Halsey); (3) "The Challenge of Technology: An Opening Discussion" (Thomas Surprenant);…

  2. Medical Information Processing by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinmuntz, Benjamin

    The use of the computer for medical information processing was introduced about a decade ago. Considerable inroads have now been made toward its applications to problems in medicine. Present uses of the computer, both as a computational and noncomputational device include the following: automated search of patients' files; on-line clinical data…

  3. Information Skills for an Information Society: A Review of Research. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Susan

    Living in an "information society" implies dealing with a barrage of information on a daily basis, with success and survival dependent on the ability to locate, analyze, and use information skillfully and appropriately. Information literacy, which has been defined as the ability to effectively access and evaluate information for a specific need,…

  4. Information processing, computation, and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Scarantino, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both – although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use ‘computation’ and ‘information processing’ to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are the same thing. In this paper, we address this unsatisfactory state of affairs by presenting a general and theory-neutral account of computation and information processing. We also apply our framework by analyzing the relations between computation and information processing on one hand and classicism, connectionism, and computational neuroscience on the other. We defend the relevance to cognitive science of both computation, at least in a generic sense, and information processing, in three important senses of the term. Our account advances several foundational debates in cognitive science by untangling some of their conceptual knots in a theory-neutral way. By leveling the playing field, we pave the way for the future resolution of the debates’ empirical aspects. PMID:22210958

  5. Knowledge management prerequisites for building an information society in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kisilowska, Malgorzata

    2006-01-01

    The European Research Area requires either technological development or information literacy of health professionals. This information literacy shall be understood much deeper and broader than a basic preparation to use ICT tools in everyday life only. The author's first aim is to present the literature review and analysis of different definition of the "information" concept in Polish and foreign sources for health sciences, to emphasize a problem fundamental for an information society development, i.e. lack of adequate "information" understanding. Health professionals' information literacy shall also build an awareness of conceptual differences among numerous classifications, thesauruses, and information-retrieval languages, which result in different information received in a retrieval process. This problem can be of crucial effect for either health research or practice. Understanding the problem shall mobilize the researchers, classifiers, and indexers to co-ordinate efforts aimed in organizing "a translator" covering the most popular classifications' and thesauruses' concepts, to make an international research co-operation easier, relevant, and safe for the patients. PMID:16188493

  6. Quantum Information and Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, L.; Ohya, Masanori; Watanabe, N.

    2006-03-01

    Preface -- Coherent quantum control of [symbol]-atoms through the stochastic limit / L. Accardi, S. V. Kozyrev and A. N. Pechen -- Recent advances in quantum white noise calculus / L. Accardi and A. Boukas -- Control of quantum states by decoherence / L. Accardi and K. Imafuku -- Logical operations realized on the Ising chain of N qubits / M. Asano, N. Tateda and C. Ishii -- Joint extension of states of fermion subsystems / H. Araki -- Quantum filtering and optimal feedback control of a Gaussian quantum free particle / S. C. Edwards and V. P. Belavkin -- On existence of quantum zeno dynamics / P. Exner and T. Ichinose -- Invariant subspaces and control of decoherence / P. Facchi, V. L. Lepore and S. Pascazio -- Clauser-Horner inequality for electron counting statistics in multiterminal mesoscopic conductors / L. Faoro, F. Taddei and R. Fazio -- Fidelity of quantum teleportation model using beam splittings / K.-H. Fichtner, T. Miyadera and M. Ohya -- Quantum logical gates realized by beam splittings / W. Freudenberg ... [et al.] -- Information divergence for quantum channels / S. J. Hammersley and V. P. Belavkin -- On the uniqueness theorem in quantum information geometry / H. Hasegawa -- Noncanonical representations of a multi-dimensional Brownian motion / Y. Hibino -- Some of future directions of white noise theory / T. Hida -- Information, innovation and elemental random field / T. Hida -- Generalized quantum turing machine and its application to the SAT chaos algorithm / S. Iriyama, M. Ohya and I. Volovich -- A Stroboscopic approach to quantum tomography / A. Jamiolkowski -- Positive maps and separable states in matrix algebras / A. Kossakowski -- Simulating open quantum systems with trapped ions / S. Maniscalco -- A purification scheme and entanglement distillations / H. Nakazato, M. Unoki and K. Yuasa -- Generalized sectors and adjunctions to control micro-macro transitions / I. Ojima -- Saturation of an entropy bound and quantum Markov states / D. Petz -- An

  7. Computers in Information Data Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Joe Ann, Ed.; Helgeson, Duane, Ed.

    This collection of ten conference reports begins with "Historical Impact of Computers on the Operation of Libraries and Information Systems: A Personal Perspective" and is followed by "Tips on Computer Software: Advantages and Methods of Program Dissemination" and "BLOCS--A Unique Multi-Dimensional Approach to On-Line Circulation". Next, libraries…

  8. Institutional computing (IC) information session

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kenneth R; Lally, Bryan R

    2011-01-19

    The LANL Institutional Computing Program (IC) will host an information session about the current state of unclassified Institutional Computing at Los Alamos, exciting plans for the future, and the current call for proposals for science and engineering projects requiring computing. Program representatives will give short presentations and field questions about the call for proposals and future planned machines, and discuss technical support available to existing and future projects. Los Alamos has started making a serious institutional investment in open computing available to our science projects, and that investment is expected to increase even more.

  9. Computer and information technology: hardware.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D

    1998-02-01

    Computers open the door to an ever-expanding arena of knowledge and technology. Most nurses practicing in perianesthesia setting were educated before the computer era, and many fear computers and the associated technology. Frequently, the greatest difficulty is finding the resources and knowing what questions to ask. The following is the first in a series of articles on computers and information technology. This article discusses computer hardware to get the novice started or the experienced user upgraded to access new technologies and the Internet. Future articles will discuss start up and usual software applications, getting up to speed on the information superhighway, and other technologies that will broaden our knowledge and expand our personal and professional world. PMID:9543967

  10. The Education of a Marketplace: The Role of Computer Stores in Encouraging a Computer Literate Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Constance

    Computer retailers and manufacturers have found providing appropriate instruction to be an essential part of marketing and selling their products. Most computer stores have classrooms in which courses are offered, providing an informal, interactive atmosphere for the instruction. The microcomputer market has split into two major segments: the…

  11. Computers, Sex, and Society. The Microcomputing Program at Drexel University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan

    Results of 1983 and 1984 surveys of faculty and students at Drexel University are reviewed to evaluate the effects of the requirement that incoming students must buy a microcomputer. Slightly more than half the faculty were computer-competent (i.e., had considerable experience with at least one class of computer, with using computers in teaching,…

  12. [Attempt at computer modeling of evolution of human society].

    PubMed

    Levchenko, V F; Menshutkin, V V

    2009-01-01

    A model of evolution of human society and biosphere, which is based on the concepts of V. I. Vernadskii about noosphere and of L. N. Gumilev about ethnogenesis is developed and studied. The mathematical apparatus of the model is composition of finite stochastic automata. By using this model, a possibility of the global ecological crisis is demonstrated in the case of preservation of the current tendencies of interaction of the biosphere and the human civilization. PMID:19435269

  13. Digital Literacy: Tools and Methodologies for Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivoltella, Pier Cesare, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Currently in a state of cultural transition, global society is moving from a literary society to digital one, adopting widespread use of advanced technologies such as the Internet and mobile devices. Digital media has an extraordinary impact on society's formative processes, forcing a pragmatic shift in their management and organization. This…

  14. Linking Science and Society With an Environmental Information Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, L.; Seielstad, G.; Jones, D.; Peterson, J.

    2001-12-01

    Building learning communities to engage the public in identifying and solving local and regional environmental problems is the vision of the newly created Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment at the University of North Dakota. The Center serves as an Environmental Information Bridge between science and society for citizens of the region, providing information, data, and value-added remote sensing products to precision agriculture, sustainable forestry, Native American land managers, and K-lifetime educators. Guided by the needs of end users, the new Center is a prototype for a national infrastructure that meets ESE's objective to "expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal benefits from Earth science, information, and technology". The scientific community has been good at converting raw data into useful information. However, a serious communications gap exists between the communities of scientists and non-scientists. The new Center bridges this gap, creating a many-to-many exchange of information among those who learn first about the environment and those who will put those lessons to work for their economic welfare, the betterment of the quality of their lives, and the benefit of their descendants. A major outreach component of the Center, written and produced at UND, is Our Changing Planet, a public television series aimed at increasing viewers' awareness of environmental and climate change issues. Now carried by approximately 30 public television stations the series is distributed nationwide by the National Education Television Association. The Center has also recently established a partnership with StormCenter.com, LLC, a multimedia company and fellow partner in NASA's Federation of Earth Science Information Partners that uses leading-edge technology to deliver information about the environment to regional television stations. Service to the media provides a vital link between science and the public, as local weather

  15. Policy Information System Computer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Roger E.; And Others

    The concepts and methodologies outlined in "A Policy Information System for Vocational Education" are presented in a simple computer format in this booklet. It also contains a sample output representing 5-year projections of various planning needs for vocational education. Computerized figures in the eight areas corresponding to those in the…

  16. Technology solutions to support supervisory activities and also to provide information access to the society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, D.; Mello, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Inmetro's data about the conformity of certificated products, process and services are, usually, displayed at fragmented databases of difficult access for several reasons, for instance, the lack of computational solutions which allow this kind of access to its users. A discussion about some of the technological solutions to support supervisory activities by the appropriate regulatory bodies and also to provide information access to society in general is herein presented, along with a theoretical explanation of the pros and cons of such technologies to the conclusion that a mobile platform seems to be the best tool for the requirements of Inmetro.

  17. Education for Library and Information Managers: Challenges of the Post-Industrial Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Oli

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the characteristics of a postindustrial society, describes the role of information professionals within such a society, and presents a model curriculum for information managers. Education for library/information management in Malaysia is discussed and an outline of the library science curriculum at the MARA Institute of Technology is…

  18. Modelling as an indispensible research tool in the information society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Science and society would be well advised to develop a different relationship as the information revolution penetrates all aspects of modern life. Rather than produce clear answers to clear questions in a top-down manner, land-use issues related to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present "wicked"problems involving different, strongly opiniated, stakeholders with conflicting ideas and interests and risk-averse politicians. The Dutch government has invited its citizens to develop a "science agenda", defining future research needs, implicitly suggesting that the research community is unable to do so. Time, therefore, for a pro-active approach to more convincingly define our:"societal license to research". For soil science this could imply a focus on the SDGs , considering soils as living, characteristically different, dynamic bodies in a landscape, to be mapped in ways that allow generation of suitable modelling data. Models allow a dynamic characterization of water- and nutrient regimes and plant growth in soils both for actual and future conditions, reflecting e.g. effects of climate or land-use change or alternative management practices. Engaging modern stakeholders in a bottom-up manner implies continuous involvement and "joint learning" from project initiation to completion, where modelling results act as building blocks to explore alternative scenarios. Modern techniques allow very rapid calculations and innovative visualization. Everything is possible but only modelling can articulate the economic, social and environmental consequences of each scenario, demonstrating in a pro-active manner the crucial and indispensible role of research. But choices are to be made by stakeholders and reluctant policy makers and certainly not by scientists who should carefully guard their independance. Only clear results in the end are convincing proof for the impact of science, requiring therefore continued involvement of scientists up to the very end of projects. To

  19. Introduction to the Science Teacher Training in an Information Society (STTIS) Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Roser

    2002-01-01

    Describes the aims and structure of the Science Teacher Training in an Information Society (STTIS) project and sets the work reported in this issue of the journal in the context of the whole project. The project addressed general questions and challenges that the Information Society posed to science educators. (Author/MM)

  20. Humanities and the Adult Learner in an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Dale; Kamholtz, Jonathan

    Humanities courses have often been given little attention in continuing education for adults, possibly because they have been viewed as not "practical" or not "job-oriented" enough in our career-oriented, technologically advanced society. However, the humanities should be an integral part of our culture and of the lives of educated persons--a…

  1. A Society Based on Work. Information Series No. 270.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony Patrick

    American society is based on work. The industrial revolution exposed a growing proportion of the population to unemployment, underemployment, and dislocation. Early theoreticians believed that unemployment was a temporary labor market imbalance that would correct itself with downward wage adjustments. John Maynard Keynes, on the other hand, argued…

  2. Sound and computer information presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bly, S

    1982-03-01

    This thesis examines the use of sound to present data. Computer graphics currently offers a vast array of techniques for communicating data to analysts. Graphics is limited, however, by the number of dimensions that can be perceived at one time, by the types of data that lend themselves to visual representation, and by the necessary eye focus on the output. Sound offers an enhancement and an alternative to graphic tools. Multivariate, logarithmic, and time-varying data provide examples for aural representation. For each of these three types of data, the thesis suggests a method of encoding the information into sound and presents various applications. Data values were mapped to sound characteristics such as pitch and volume so that information was presented as sets or sequences of notes. In all cases, the resulting sounds conveyed information in a manner consistent with prior knowledge of the data. Experiments showed that sound does convey information accurately and that sound can enhance graphic presentations. Subjects were tested on their ability to distinguish between two sources of test items. In the first phase of the experiments, subjects discriminated between two 6-dimensional data sets represented in sound. In the second phase of the experiment, 75 subjects were selected and assigned to one of three groups. The first group of 25 heard test items, the second group saw test items, and the third group both heard and saw the test items. The average percentage correct was 64.5% for the sound-only group, 62% for the graphics-only group, and 69% for the sound and graphics group. In the third phase, additional experiments focused on the mapping between data values and sound characteristics and on the training methods.

  3. Computer-Based National Information Systems. Technology and Public Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    A general introduction to computer based national information systems, and the context and basis for future studies are provided in this report. Chapter One, the introduction, summarizes computers and information systems and their relation to society, the structure of information policy issues, and public policy issues. Chapter Two describes the…

  4. Information Sources on Computer Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossman, Marian R.

    1984-01-01

    Cites books, journals, articles, and speeches covering the gamut from computer literacy as a national crisis to a current listing of popular computer camps, educational computing, library role, and staff training. Primary focus is on microcomputers, but several less recent articles are oriented to computers in general. (MBR)

  5. Porat, Bell, and the Information Society Reconsidered: The Growth of Information Work in the Early Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schement, Jorge Reina

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the growth of information work to test Bell and Porat's view that the information society is postindustrial. The measurement of information work is discussed, information occupations in the service sector and industrial sector are described, and the effect of modern management on the growth of information work is considered. (28…

  6. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Zongtao Li, Ying Zheng, Xibin Liu, Yan Dai, Jiting Kang, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  7. Structure analysis of the Polish academic information society using MDS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliczynska, Malgorzata

    2006-03-01

    The article presents the methodology of webometrics research and analysis aiming at determining similar features of objects belonging to the Polish information society, which uses the Internet and its www resources for communication purposes. In particular, the analysis applies to the selected Polish technical universities. The research was carried out in several phases - on different data groups - with regards to the Internet space and time changes. The results have been presented in a form of two and three-dimensional topography maps. For the purposes of this analysis, the computer methods of multidimensional scaling were used. The research will be further continued for a selected group of objects over a longer time frame. Its next stage will be the research on more diversified objects, also in a multinational aspect.

  8. Personal Privacy in an Information Society. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Privacy Protection Study Commission, Washington, DC.

    This report of the Privacy Protection Study Commission was prepared in response to a Congressional mandate to study data banks, automatic data processing programs, and information systems of governmental, regional and private organizations to determine standards and procedures in force for the protection of personal information. Recommendations…

  9. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    SciTech Connect

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  10. Who Will Lead the Way to the "Information Society?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Ole

    1978-01-01

    Increasing use of automated production and information communication techniques in the future will increase the ranks of the unemployed. Thus, a long-term educational project, beginning in primary school, is needed to change our present work ethic. (BB)

  11. Information-computational system: atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, Dmitri P.; Akhlyostin, Alexey Y.; Fazliev, Alexandre Z.; Gordov, Eugeni P.; Karyakin, Alexey S.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Rodimova, Olga B.

    1999-11-01

    The atmospheric chemistry information-computational system (ICS) with Internet access is presented. The ICS is aimed summarizing fundamental data on atmospheric processes, determining the dynamics of complex chemical systems and providing educational information. The system consist of three functional blocks: data preparation, computation and information blocks, within which a user may choose the chemical reactions and atmospheric models, drive relevant kinetic equations and conservation laws, solve the kinetic equations, visualize the results of calculations and get access to related information.

  12. The Evaluation of the Cultural Journeys in the Information Society Environment as an Educational Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakas, Georgious John; Lamprianou, Iasonas; Andreou, Andreas; Pampaka, Maria; Schizas, Christos

    2005-01-01

    The "Cultural Journeys in the Information Society" is a dynamic hypermedia environment, which proposes the "Electronic Roads" as a meta-form for exploring cultural information that can form "Cultural Journeys." The Electronic Roads meta-form facilitates travelers to explore the information space in a natural and continuous way similar to the…

  13. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013). The e-Learning 2013 conference aims to…

  14. Patient information and education with modern media: the Spine Society of Europe Patient Line

    PubMed Central

    Sell, P.

    2009-01-01

    The role of the patient as an active partner in health care, and not just a passive object of diagnostic testing and medical treatment, is widely accepted. Providing information to patients is considered a crucial issue and the central focus in patient educational activities. It is necessary to educate patients on the nature of the outcomes and the benefits and risks of the procedures to involve them in the decision-making process and enable them to achieve fully informed consent. Information materials must contain scientifically reliable information and be presented in a form that is acceptable and useful to patients. Given the mismatch between public beliefs and current evidence, strategies for changing the public perceptions are required. Traditional patient education programmes have to face the potential barriers of storage, access problems and the need to keep content materials up to date. A computer-based resource provides many advantages, including “just-in-time” availability and a private learning environment. The use of the Internet for patient information needs will continue to expand as Internet access becomes readily available. However, the problem is no longer in finding information, but in assessing the credibility and validity of it. Health Web sites should provide health information that is secure and trustworthy. The large majority of the Web sites providing information related to spinal disorders are of limited and poor quality. Patient Line (PL), a patient information section in the Web site of Eurospine, was born in 2005 to offer patients and the general population the accumulated expertise represented by the members of the society and provide up-to-date information related to spinal disorders. In areas where evidence is scarce, Patient Line provides a real-time opinion of the EuroSpine membership. The published data reflect the pragmatic and the common sense range of treatments offered by the Eurospine membership. The first chapters have

  15. The Information Society in Europe: Work and Life in an Age of Globalization. Critical Media Studies: Institutions, Politics, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducatel, Ken, Ed.; Webster, Juliet, Ed.; Herrmann, Werner, Ed.

    This book takes stock of the existing socioeconomic knowledge about a range of the core social issues of the information society. Chapter 1, "Information Infrastructures or Societies?" (Ken Ducatel, Juliet Webster, Werner Herrmann), is an introduction. Part 1, "Space, Economy, and the Global Information Society" looks at the processes of economic…

  16. Responses of Chinese Higher Education to the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Guo, Wenge

    2006-01-01

    Compared to the advanced industrial countries, the use of information technology in Chinese higher education came relatively late. Nevertheless, recent Chinese practices have achieved significant progress in the country's efforts to bridge the digital divide. This article focuses special attention on the responses of Chinese higher education to…

  17. Information Society: Agenda for Action in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips of Ellesmere, Lord

    1997-01-01

    Explains the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology in the UK (United Kingdom) and discusses its report that addresses the need for information technology planning on a national basis. Topics include electronic publishing for access to government publications, universal access, regulatory framework, encryption and verification,…

  18. Informal Learning of Seniors in Canadian Society. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Margaret

    Informal learning by Canadian seniors was examined through semi-structured interviews with a purposefully selected group of 51 older Canadians (28 women and 23) who ranged in age from 58 to 95 years (average age, 73.7). All were retired or semi-retired, and all had engaged in several learning projects over the previous year in topics such as the…

  19. Teaching Basic Communications Skills for an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaConte, Ronald T.

    The flow of messages in the information age is no longer predominately down a chain of command but increasingly lateral. The modern communications process is also task specific, faster paced, more graphic and less verbal, and more technologically directed. These changes have rendered our definitions of communication skills and our school…

  20. Semiotics, Information Science, Documents and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Julian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the relationship and value of semiotics to the established domains of information science. Highlights include documentation; computer operations; the language of computing; automata theory; linguistics; speech and writing; and the written language as a unifying principle for the document and the computer. (93 references) (LRW)

  1. Spatial Information in local society's cultural conservation and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.-J.; Liao, H.-M.; Fan, I.-C.

    2015-09-01

    Center for Geographic Information Science, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences,Academia Sinica (GIS center), Coordinate short-, medium-, and long-term operations of multidisciplinary researches focusing on related topics in the sciences and humanities. Based on the requirements of multi-disciplinary research applications, sustain collection and construction of sustaining and unifying spatial base data and knowledge and building of spatial data infrastructure. Since the 1990s, GIS center build geographic information platform: "Time and space infrastructure of Chinese civilization" (Chinese Civilizationin Time and Space, CCTS) and "Taiwan History and Culture Map" (Taiwan History and Culture in Time and Space, THCTS) . the goal of both system is constructing an integrated GIS-based application infrastructure on the spatial extent of China and Taiwan, in the timeframe of Chinese and Taiwanese history, and with the contents of Chinese and Taiwanese civilization. Base on THCTS, we began to build Cultural Resources GIS(CRGIS, http://crgis.rchss.sinica.edu.tw) in 2006, to collect temples, historic Monuments, historic buildings, old trees, wind lions god and other cultural resource in Taiwan, and provide a platform for the volunteers to make for all types of tangible, intangible cultural resources, add, edit, organize and query data via Content Management System(CMS) . CRGIS collected aggregated 13,000 temples, 4,900 churches. On this basis, draw a variety of religious beliefs map-multiple times Temple distributions, different main god distributions, church distribution. Such as Mazu maps, Multiple times temple distributions map (before 1823, 1823-1895,1895-1949,1949-2015 years) at Taijiang inner sea areas in Tainan. In Taiwan, there is a religious ritual through folk activities for a period ranging from one day to several days, passing specific geospatial range and passes through some temples or houses. Such an important folk activity somewhat similar to

  2. Spatial Information in local society's cultural conservation and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.-J.; Liao, H.-M.; Fan, I.-C.

    2015-09-01

    Center for Geographic Information Science, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences,Academia Sinica (GIS center), Coordinate short-, medium-, and long-term operations of multidisciplinary researches focusing on related topics in the sciences and humanities. Based on the requirements of multi-disciplinary research applications, sustain collection and construction of sustaining and unifying spatial base data and knowledge and building of spatial data infrastructure. Since the 1990s, GIS center build geographic information platform: "Time and space infrastructure of Chinese civilization" (Chinese Civilizationin Time and Space, CCTS) and "Taiwan History and Culture Map" (Taiwan History and Culture in Time and Space, THCTS) . the goal of both system is constructing an integrated GIS-based application infrastructure on the spatial extent of China and Taiwan, in the timeframe of Chinese and Taiwanese history, and with the contents of Chinese and Taiwanese civilization. Base on THCTS, we began to build Cultural Resources GIS(CRGIS, http://crgis.rchss.sinica.edu.tw) in 2006, to collect temples, historic Monuments, historic buildings, old trees, wind lions god and other cultural resource in Taiwan, and provide a platform for the volunteers to make for all types of tangible, intangible cultural resources, add, edit, organize and query data via Content Management System(CMS) . CRGIS collected aggregated 13,000 temples, 4,900 churches. On this basis, draw a variety of religious beliefs map-multiple times Temple distributions, different main god distributions, church distribution. Such as Mazu maps, Multiple times temple distributions map (before 1823, 1823-1895,1895-1949,1949-2015 years) at Taijiang inner sea areas in Tainan. In Taiwan, there is a religious ritual through folk activities for a period ranging from one day to several days, passing specific geospatial range and passes through some temples or houses. Such an important folk activity somewhat similar to

  3. Rural Areas in the Information Society: Diminishing Distance or Increasing Learning Capacity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Seamus

    2000-01-01

    Examines prospects for rural areas within the Information Society, referring particularly to the European Union. Discusses effects of diminished distance from core markets, increased learning capacity through improved access to information, public policy emphasis on building infrastructure, disappointing outcomes for telecommunications initiatives…

  4. Education, Training, and Research in the Information Society: A National Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Helsinki (Finland).

    This report is a written synthesis of opinions and observations on the role of emerging information technology in Finnish society. It surmises that such technology will benefit the educational system and increase research activity, thereby creating new channels of information access for the public, as long as national policymakers commit…

  5. The Public Interest in the Globally Sustainable Information Society: The Traditional Knowledge Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zografos, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Society increasingly perceives information as an owned commodity. As a consequence, laws born from this conception are removing uses of information from the public domain and placing them in an enclosed domain where they are subject to an owner's exclusive control. It has been argued that this enclosure movement poses a threat to the diversity of…

  6. Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society conference on computer vision and pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on image processing and pattern recognition. Topics considered at the conference included stereovision, vision applications, parallel processing, algorithms, artificial intelligence, structure from motion, three-dimensional shape representation, array processors, industrial vision systems, computer architecture, homogeneous multiprocessors, shape from texture, and optimal likelihood generators for edge detection under Gaussian additive noise.

  7. Computing Information Value from RDF Graph Properties

    SciTech Connect

    al-Saffar, Sinan; Heileman, Gregory

    2010-11-08

    Information value has been implicitly utilized and mostly non-subjectively computed in information retrieval (IR) systems. We explicitly define and compute the value of an information piece as a function of two parameters, the first is the potential semantic impact the target information can subjectively have on its recipient's world-knowledge, and the second parameter is trust in the information source. We model these two parameters as properties of RDF graphs. Two graphs are constructed, a target graph representing the semantics of the target body of information and a context graph representing the context of the consumer of that information. We compute information value subjectively as a function of both potential change to the context graph (impact) and the overlap between the two graphs (trust). Graph change is computed as a graph edit distance measuring the dissimilarity between the context graph before and after the learning of the target graph. A particular application of this subjective information valuation is in the construction of a personalized ranking component in Web search engines. Based on our method, we construct a Web re-ranking system that personalizes the information experience for the information-consumer.

  8. Information thermodynamics of near-equilibrium computation.

    PubMed

    Prokopenko, Mikhail; Einav, Itai

    2015-06-01

    In studying fundamental physical limits and properties of computational processes, one is faced with the challenges of interpreting primitive information-processing functions through well-defined information-theoretic as well as thermodynamic quantities. In particular, transfer entropy, characterizing the function of computational transmission and its predictability, is known to peak near critical regimes. We focus on a thermodynamic interpretation of transfer entropy aiming to explain the underlying critical behavior by associating information flows intrinsic to computational transmission with particular physical fluxes. Specifically, in isothermal systems near thermodynamic equilibrium, the gradient of the average transfer entropy is shown to be dynamically related to Fisher information and the curvature of system's entropy. This relationship explicitly connects the predictability, sensitivity, and uncertainty of computational processes intrinsic to complex systems and allows us to consider thermodynamic interpretations of several important extreme cases and trade-offs. PMID:26172697

  9. Sources of Information on Computer Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Walter; And Others

    1970-01-01

    A directory of projects dealing with computer-assisted instruction, primarily at the college level, based on a survey intended to uncover fugitive sources of information in this field (e.g., unpublished project progress reports). (LS)

  10. CRISP (COMPUTER RETRIEVED INFORMATION ON SCIENTIFIC PROJECTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CRISP (Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects) is a biomedical database system containing information on research projects and programs supported by the Department of Health and Human Services. Most of the research falls within the broad category of extramural p...

  11. Computer-Based Information Networks: Selected Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Larry

    The history, purpose, and operation of six computer-based information networks are described in general and nontechnical terms. In the introduction the many definitions of an information network are explored. Ohio College Library Center's network (OCLC) is the first example. OCLC began in 1963, and since early 1973 has been extending its services…

  12. Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, John; Tu, Eugene (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Computing, Information and Communications Technology Program (CICT) was established in 2001 to ensure NASA's Continuing leadership in emerging technologies. It is a coordinated, Agency-wide effort to develop and deploy key enabling technologies for a broad range of mission-critical tasks. The NASA CICT program is designed to address Agency-specific computing, information, and communications technology requirements beyond the projected capabilities of commercially available solutions. The areas of technical focus have been chosen for their impact on NASA's missions, their national importance, and the technical challenge they provide to the Program. In order to meet its objectives, the CICT Program is organized into the following four technology focused projects: 1) Computing, Networking and Information Systems (CNIS); 2) Intelligent Systems (IS); 3) Space Communications (SC); 4) Information Technology Strategic Research (ITSR).

  13. Preparing Information Systems Graduates for a Complex Society: Aligning IS Curricula with Liberal Education Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Jean A.; Keys, Anthony; Wirkus, Tyrrell

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to encourage Information Systems (IS) faculty to intentionally revise their curriculum to address (and assess) higher-order learning skills which are demanded by industry and society and are representative of a liberal arts based education. We substantiated the need for this proposed curriculum revision by first…

  14. The Information Age and the Civil Society: An Interview with Jeremy Rifkin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Peter

    1996-01-01

    For over a century, American education's mission has centered on preparing future workers to enter the marketplace. Just as the Industrial Age ended slave labor, the Information Age will end mass wage labor, freeing up millions for shortened work weeks and/or work in the civil society or nonprofit sector. Service learning helps by creating social…

  15. Progressive and Regressive Aspects of Information Technology in Society: A Third Sector Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kandace R.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the impact of information technology on progressive and regressive values in society from the perspective of one international foundation and four of its technology-related programs. Through a critical interpretive approach employing an instrumental multiple-case method, a framework to help explain the influence of…

  16. The Information Society of the 1990s; Blue Sky and Green Pastures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Toni Carbo

    1987-01-01

    Predicts how an information-intensive society in the next 10 years will affect the daily life of an individual. Trends described include renewed emphasis of problem solving, increased awareness of the importance of lifelong learning, greater economic challenges, and redirected attention to sociocultural concerns. (EM)

  17. Mapping out the Transition toward Information Societies: Social Nature, Growth, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This research thesis sheds lights on different aspects of the transition toward information societies. It consists of a collection of interrelated studies that analyze in more rigorous terms three main and complementary aspects of the transition (see Figure below). After and "introductory" CHAPTER ONE, the consecutive CHAPTER TWO of this…

  18. A Review of Nuclear Computational Information

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue

    2010-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (NEADB) work together to acquire sets of computer codes, nuclear data, and integral experiments relevant to shielding and dosimetry applications for fission, fusion, and accelerator applications. To keep up with advances in computing technology, international researchers continue to develop nuclear software. Collection centers like RSICC and NEADB serve the community and play a role in advancing nuclear science and technology research.

  19. (CICT) Computing, Information, and Communications Technology Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Computing, Information, and Communications Technology (CICT) program is to enable NASA's Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and Aerospace Technology Missions with greater mission assurance, for less cost, with increased science return through the development and use of advanced computing, information and communications technologies. This viewgraph presentation includes diagrams of how the political guidance behind CICT is structured. The presentation profiles each part of the NASA Mission in detail, and relates the Mission to the activities of CICT. CICT's Integrated Capability Goal is illustrated, and hypothetical missions which could be enabled by CICT are profiled. CICT technology development is profiled.

  20. Thermodynamics of computation and information distance

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.H.; Gacs, P.; Li, M.; Vitanyi, P.M.B.; Zurek, W.H.

    1993-03-12

    Applying the tools of algorithmic information theory, we compare several candidates for an asymptotically machine-independent. absolute measure of the informational or ``cognitive`` distance between discrete objects x and y. The maximum of the conditional Kolmogorov complexities max{l_brace}K(y{vert_bar}z) K(m{vert_bar}y){r_brace}, is shown to be optimal, in the sense of being minimal within an additive constant among semicomputable, symmetric, positive semidefinite functions of z and y satisfying a reasonable normalization condition and obeying the triangle intequality. The optimal metric, in turn, differs by at most an additive logarithmic term from the size of the smallest program for a universal reversible computer to transform x into y. This program functions in a `catalytic`` capacity, being retained in the computer before, during, and after the computation. Similarly, the sum of the conditional complexities. K(y{vert_bar}x) + K(x{vert_bar}y), is shown to be equal within a logarithmic term to the minimal amount Of information flowing out and in during a reversible computation in which the program is not retained. Finally. using the physical theory of reversible computation, it is shown that the simple difference K(x) - K(y) is an appropriate (ie universal, antisymmetric, and transitive) measure of the amount of thermodynamic work required to transform string x into string y by the most efficient process.

  1. Thermodynamics of computation and information distance

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.H.; Gacs, P.; Li, M.; Vitanyi, P.M.B.; Zurek, W.H.

    1993-03-12

    Applying the tools of algorithmic information theory, we compare several candidates for an asymptotically machine-independent. absolute measure of the informational or cognitive'' distance between discrete objects x and y. The maximum of the conditional Kolmogorov complexities max[l brace]K(y[vert bar]z) K(m[vert bar]y)[r brace], is shown to be optimal, in the sense of being minimal within an additive constant among semicomputable, symmetric, positive semidefinite functions of z and y satisfying a reasonable normalization condition and obeying the triangle intequality. The optimal metric, in turn, differs by at most an additive logarithmic term from the size of the smallest program for a universal reversible computer to transform x into y. This program functions in a 'catalytic'' capacity, being retained in the computer before, during, and after the computation. Similarly, the sum of the conditional complexities. K(y[vert bar]x) + K(x[vert bar]y), is shown to be equal within a logarithmic term to the minimal amount Of information flowing out and in during a reversible computation in which the program is not retained. Finally. using the physical theory of reversible computation, it is shown that the simple difference K(x) - K(y) is an appropriate (ie universal, antisymmetric, and transitive) measure of the amount of thermodynamic work required to transform string x into string y by the most efficient process.

  2. Informing Mechanistic Toxicology with Computational Molecular Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational molecular models of chemicals interacting with biomolecular targets provides toxicologists a valuable, affordable, and sustainable source of in silico molecular level information that augments, enriches, and complements in vitro and in vivo effo...

  3. Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

  4. Information theoretic approaches to multidimensional neural computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Jeffrey D.

    Many systems in nature process information by transforming inputs from their environments into observable output states. These systems are often difficult to study because they are performing computations on multidimensional inputs with many degrees of freedom using highly nonlinear functions. The work presented in this dissertation deals with some of the issues involved with characterizing real-world input/output systems and understanding the properties of idealized systems using information theoretic methods. Using the principle of maximum entropy, a family of models are created that are consistent with certain measurable correlations from an input/output dataset but are maximally unbiased in all other respects, thereby eliminating all unjustified assumptions about the computation. In certain cases, including spiking neurons, we show that these models also minimize the mutual information. This property gives one the advantage of being able to identify the relevant input/output statistics by calculating their information content. We argue that these maximum entropy models provide a much needed quantitative framework for characterizing and understanding sensory processing neurons that are selective for multiple stimulus features. To demonstrate their usefulness, these ideas are applied to neural recordings from macaque retina and thalamus. These neurons, which primarily respond to two stimulus features, are shown to be well described using only first and second order statistics, indicating that their firing rates encode information about stimulus correlations. In addition to modeling multi-feature computations in the relevant feature space, we also show that maximum entropy models are capable of discovering the relevant feature space themselves. This technique overcomes the disadvantages of two commonly used dimensionality reduction methods and is explored using several simulated neurons, as well as retinal and thalamic recordings. Finally, we ask how neurons in a

  5. Computer Information System For Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, P. T.; Knowles, R. J.....; Tsen, O.

    1983-12-01

    To meet the complex needs of a nuclear medicine division serving a 1100-bed hospital, a computer information system has been developed in sequential phases. This database management system is based on a time-shared minicomputer linked to a broadband communications network. The database contains information on patient histories, billing, types of procedures, doses of radiopharmaceuticals, times of study, scanning equipment used, and technician performing the procedure. These patient records are cycled through three levels of storage: (a) an active file of 100 studies for those patients currently scheduled, (b) a temporary storage level of 1000 studies, and (c) an archival level of 10,000 studies containing selected information. Merging of this information with reports and various statistical analyses are possible. This first phase has been in operation for well over a year. The second phase is an upgrade of the size of the various storage levels by a factor of ten.

  6. Learning Computing Topics in Undergraduate Information Systems Courses: Managing Perceived Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Jeffrey D.; Knapp, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Learning technical computing skills is increasingly important in our technology driven society. However, learning technical skills in information systems (IS) courses can be difficult. More than 20 percent of students in some technical courses may dropout or fail. Unfortunately, little is known about students' perceptions of the difficulty of…

  7. Using Color as Information in Computer Displays: Problems with Perception and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Mark; Pease, Warren

    The advancement of microcomputer technology has reached the point where color monitors and color computer software are fast becoming the norm in our information society. Color is another channel for communication, and can be used for enhancement of both aesthetic characteristics and productivity. The advantage to the use of color for communication…

  8. Biomedical Computing Technology Information Center (BCTIC). Progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gurney, Jane

    1980-07-30

    The operations and activities of the Biomedical Computing Technology Information Center (BCTIC) for the period 8 April 1980 to 30 July 1980 are summarized. These include mailing list update, software package preparation, software implementation, quality control of software, and Society of Nuclear Medicine support. (ACR)

  9. An evaluation of adherence to society of pharmacists’ standards care in pharmacy information systems in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saghaeiannejad-Isfahani, Sakineh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Raeisi, Ahmadreza; Ehteshami, Asghar; Mirzaeian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pharmacy information system (PIS) is a complex computerized system used for collecting, storing, and managing the medication therapy data in the course of patients’ care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of adherence to the standards established by the societies of pharmacists in the PISs employed in the hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: The present study was an applied, descriptive-analytical study conducted on the PISs of 19 teaching, private and social insurance hospitals in Isfahan in 2011. Study population consisted of the PISs available in the hospitals under study. Study sample was the same as the study population. The data collection instrument was a self-developed checklist based on the guidelines of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, whose validity was assessed and confirmed by expert professors’ views. Having been collected by observation and interview methods, data were analyzed by SPSS 18 software using Mann–Whitney statistical test. Results: The findings of the study revealed that the highest rank in adherence to the standards of societies of pharmacists was obtained by social services hospitals (32.75%), while the private hospitals obtained the lowest rank (23.32%). Conclusions: Based on the findings, in the PISs in the hospitals under study, some standards of the society of pharmacists were ignored. Hence, prior to designing and implementing PIS, a needs analysis is required to increase its users’ motivation to identify the system potentialities and to allow the system development in compliance with the world technology advancement. PMID:25878380

  10. Information Access and Exchange among Small Worlds in a Democratic Society: The Role of Policy in Shaping Information Behavior in the Post-9/11 United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Burnett, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Every democratic society relies on deliberation and dialogue between social groups with varying perspectives to provide for the representation of the diverse members of the society. Meaningful deliberation is based on open access to information by individuals and free exchange of information between different social groups. Policy developments in…

  11. Knowledge Discovery in our World Information Society: Opportunities for the International Polar Year 2007-08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkman, P. A.

    2005-12-01

    The World Data Center system emerged in 1957-58 with the International Geophysical Year (which was renamed from the 3rd International Polar Year) to preserve and provide access to scientific data collected from observational programs throughout the Earth system. Fast forward a half century ... access to diverse digital information has become effectively infinite and instantaneous with nearly 20,000 petabytes of information produced and stored on print, optical and magnetic media each year; microprocessor speeds that have increased 5 orders of magnitude since 1972; existence of the Internet; increasing global capacity to collect and transmit information via satellites; availability of powerful search engines; and proliferation of data warehouses like the World Data Centers. The problem is that we already have reached the threshold in our world information society when accessing more information does not equate with generating more knowledge. In 2007-08, the International Council of Science and World Meteorological Organization will convene the next International Polar Year to accelerate our understanding of how the polar regions respond to, amplify and drive changes elsewhere in the Earth system (http://www.ipy.org). Beyond Earth system science, strategies and tools for integrating digital information to discover meaningful relationships among the disparate data would have societal benefits from boardrooms to classrooms. In the same sense that human-launched satellites became a strategic focus that justified national investments in the International Geophysical Year, developing the next generation of knowledge discovery tools is an opportunity for the International Polar Year 2007-08 and its affiliated programs to contribute in an area that is critical to the future of our global community. Knowledge is the common wealth of humanity. H.E. Mr. Adama Samassekou President, World Summit on the Information Society

  12. Codifications of anaesthetic information for computer processing.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M J; Johnson, F

    1981-07-01

    In order for any decision-making process to be computer-assisted it is necessary for the information to be encodable in some way so that the computer can manipulate the data using logical operations. In this paper the information used to generate an anaesthetic regiment is examined. A method is presented for obtaining a suitable set of statements to describe the patient's history and surgical requirements. These statements are then sorted by an algorithm which uses standard Boolean operators to produce a protocol for six phases of anaesthetic procedure. An example is given of the system in operation. The system incorporate knowledge at the level of a consultant anaesthetist. The program used 428 statements to encode patient data, and drew upon a list of 163 possible prescriptions. The program ran on an LSI-11/2 computer using one disc drive. The scheme has direct application in training of junior anaesthetist, as well as producing guidelines to application in other areas of medicine where the possibility of a similar codification may exist. PMID:7306370

  13. Scientific support, soil information and education provided by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil

  14. Information society in Czech healthcare 'starting point' to prognosis for the year 2013.

    PubMed

    Zvárová, Jana; Pribík, Vladimír

    2002-11-20

    A prognosis of how the information society in health care will look like in 2013 must start from the current state of affairs at the given locality regarding healthcare management by public authorities including legislative, ICT technological levels and accessibility of professional knowledge in individual fields of medicine. It is presumed that after 10 years the influence of this 'starting point' will still persist and knowledge of the current state of affairs will be needed to positively but also negatively differentiates the prognosis [Health Care in the Information Society: A Prognosis for the Year 2013, in this issue] for individual localities, e.g. Germany versus neighbouring the Czech Republic. The present article focuses on aims of Czech health care and the measures that are taken in Czech health care that are carried out and which have been already initiated. Their significance towards the future prognosis according to [Health Care in the Information Society: A Prognosis for the Year 2013, in this issue] is clear. The first measure is legalisation of conditions, which allow health care administration only be carried out with electronic forms and the protection of these sensitive personal data when they are placed in a centralised data depository where they are prepared for physicians who use them while providing health care in health institutions. In the Czech Republic an information system is developed called Internet Access to Health Patient Information (IHPI). The second measure is creating a unified central system of health information together with methodologies for data collection, data standards and protocols. In the Czech Republic there is the National Health Information System (NHIS) governed by the Institute for Health Information and Statistics (IHIS CR). The NHIS enables care providers to get information about the health state of citizens, about health institutions, about their activities and economics, it enables to regulate the provision of

  15. Commissions as information organizations: Meeting the information needs of an electronic society

    SciTech Connect

    Sevel, F.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes how commission-sponsored web sites can effectively meet electronic information needs. Demographics of internet users are presented and analyzed. Online activities and user access data are also described. The implications of the characteristics of internet users for commission-sponsored web sites are discussed, and guidelines for determining marketing objectives are presented.

  16. [Medical training in the information society. Preparing legislation for health care revolution].

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Roca, O; Abreu Reyes, J A; Abreu González, R; Suárez Delgado, M; Sola-Reche, E

    2001-06-01

    The information society is continuously pushing to a rapid change und updating of laws and training and qualification programs from which medicine is not excluded. This paper summarises the norms and laws applicable to telemedicine with three basic principles involved: medical practice, data management, and communication technologies. Following the subsidiary principle, the applicable legislative levels are: European Union, National, Autonomous Community, Medical Professional Colleges, and Local Medical Colleges. Contradictory and little innovative issues appear in the results and discussion sections of the deontologic codes, the pressing demand on doctors' awareness and to provide them with technical skills. An exhortation follows to work out an informative-ethic code for the telemedicine practice. PMID:11490906

  17. The Roles of a Primary School Teacher in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uibu, Krista; Kikas, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Introducing information and communication technology (ICT) into education has had an impact on the teacher role perception. To learn about the perceptions of primary school teachers who regularly use computers in teaching, their role and the impact of ICT on the instructional process, a qualitative study was conducted in Estonia. Five teachers who…

  18. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information and Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015). The e-Learning 2015…

  19. Hand Society and Matching Program Web Sites Provide Poor Access to Information Regarding Hand Surgery Fellowship.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Richard M; Klifto, Christopher S; Naik, Amish A; Sapienza, Anthony; Capo, John T

    2016-08-01

    The Internet is a common resource for applicants of hand surgery fellowships, however, the quality and accessibility of fellowship online information is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accessibility of hand surgery fellowship Web sites and to assess the quality of information provided via program Web sites. Hand fellowship Web site accessibility was evaluated by reviewing the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) on November 16, 2014 and the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) fellowship directories on February 12, 2015, and performing an independent Google search on November 25, 2014. Accessible Web sites were then assessed for quality of the presented information. A total of 81 programs were identified with the ASSH directory featuring direct links to 32% of program Web sites and the NRMP directory directly linking to 0%. A Google search yielded direct links to 86% of program Web sites. The quality of presented information varied greatly among the 72 accessible Web sites. Program description (100%), fellowship application requirements (97%), program contact email address (85%), and research requirements (75%) were the most commonly presented components of fellowship information. Hand fellowship program Web sites can be accessed from the ASSH directory and, to a lesser extent, the NRMP directory. However, a Google search is the most reliable method to access online fellowship information. Of assessable programs, all featured a program description though the quality of the remaining information was variable. Hand surgery fellowship applicants may face some difficulties when attempting to gather program information online. Future efforts should focus on improving the accessibility and content quality on hand surgery fellowship program Web sites. PMID:27625537

  20. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Best Practices to Enhance Informal Geoscience Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D.; Crowley, K. J.; Steiner, M. A.; Divers, M. T.; Hopkins, K. G.; Giarratani, L.; Gilmore, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    While energy links all living and non-living systems, the integration of energy, the environment, and society is often not clearly represented in 9 - 12 classrooms and informal learning venues. However, objective public learning that integrates these components is essential for improving public environmental literacy. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that uses an Earth Systems Science framework to guide experimental learning for high school students and to improve public learning opportunities regarding the energy-environment-society nexus in a Museum setting. One of the primary objectives of the ENERGY-NET project is to develop a rich set of experimental learning activities that are presented as exhibits at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Here we detail the evolution of the ENERGY-NET exhibit building process and the subsequent evolution of exhibit content over the past three years. While preliminary plans included the development of five "exploration stations" (i.e., traveling activity carts) per calendar year, the opportunity arose to create a single, larger topical exhibit per semester, which was assumed to have a greater impact on museum visitors. Evaluative assessments conducted to date reveal important practices to be incorporated into ongoing exhibit development: 1) Undergraduate mentors and teen exhibit developers should receive additional content training to allow richer exhibit materials. 2) The development process should be distributed over as long a time period as possible and emphasize iteration. This project can serve as a model for other collaborations between geoscience departments and museums. In particular, these practices may streamline development of public presentations and increase the effectiveness of experimental learning activities.

  1. Modeling the Uptake of Scientific Information by the Public and Opinion Flow in Society (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Brown, G. D.; Cook, J.

    2013-12-01

    Improved communication of scientific findings requires knowledge not only of how people process information, but also how such information spreads through society and how people's opinions are shaped by those of others. Recent advances in cognitive science have yielded mathematical modeling techniques that permit the detailed analysis of individuals' cognition as well as the behavior of communities in the aggregate. We present two case studies that highlight the insights that can be derived from mathematical models of cognition: We show how rational processing of information (i.e., Bayesian hypothesis revision) can nonetheless give rise to seemingly 'irrational' belief updating, as for example when acceptance of human-caused global warming decreases among conservatives in response to evidence for human-caused global warming. We also show in an agent-based simulation how social norms can lead to polarization of societies. The model assumes that agents located within a social network observe the behavior of neighbours and infer from their behavior the social distribution of particular attitudes (e.g. towards climate change). Agents are assumed to dislike behaviours that are extreme within their neighbourhood (social extremeness aversion), and hence have a tendency to conform. However, agents are also assumed to prefer choices that are consistent with their own true beliefs (authenticity preference). Expression of attitudes reflects a compromise between these opposing principles. The model sheds light on the role of perceived rather than actual social consensus on attitudes to climate change. This is particularly relevant given the widespread perception among those who reject climate science that the percentage of the public that is sharing their beliefs is much higher than it actually is.

  2. Computer-based manuals for procedural information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, S. H.; Rouse, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Display of procedural information as found in aircraft operating manuals is discussed. The problem of converting hardcopy manuals to a computer-based presentation is considered. The trade-off of faster retrieval and display integration possible with a cathode-ray tube (CRT) versus the limited size of a CRT is emphasized. Nine subjects participated in an experimental study of the effectiveness of three alternative displays. Displays were evaluated for the task of retrieving and carrying out emergency procedures in an environment where task interruptions were prevalent. It was found that an on-line manual which provided considerable user assistance was superior to a hardcopy manual in terms of both task completion time and errors. However, an on-line manual without user assistance was inferior to a hardcopy manual in terms of errors.

  3. PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.

    2007-07-01

    The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable

  4. Dynamic stepping information process method in mobile bio-sensing computing environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Seong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the interest toward human longevity free from diseases is being converged as one system frame along with the development of mobile computing environment, diversification of remote medical system and aging society. Such converged system enables implementation of a bioinformatics system created as various supplementary information services by sensing and gathering health conditions and various bio-information of mobile users to set up medical information. The existing bio-information system performs static and identical process without changes after the bio-information process defined at the initial system configuration executes the system. However, such static process indicates ineffective execution in the application of mobile bio-information system performing mobile computing. Especially, an inconvenient duty of having to perform initialization of new definition and execution is accompanied during the process configuration of bio-information system and change of method. This study proposes a dynamic process design and execution method to overcome such ineffective process. PMID:24704651

  5. Computer use and needs of internists: a survey of members of the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Lacher, D.; Nelson, E.; Bylsma, W.; Spena, R.

    2000-01-01

    The American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine conducted a membership survey in late 1998 to assess their activities, needs, and attitudes. A total of 9,466 members (20.9% response rate) reported on 198 items related to computer use and needs of internists. Eighty-two percent of the respondents reported that they use computers for personal or professional reasons. Physicians younger than 50 years old who had full- or part-time academic affiliation reported using computers more frequently for medical applications. About two thirds of respondents who had access to computers connected to the Internet at least weekly, with most using the Internet from home for e-mail and nonmedical uses. Physicians expressed concerns about Internet security, confidentiality, and accuracy, and the lack of time to browse the Internet. In practice settings, internists used computers for administrative and financial functions. Less than 19% of respondents had partial or complete electronic clinical functions in their offices. Less than 7% of respondents exchanged e-mail with their patients on a weekly or daily basis. Also, less than 15% of respondents used computers for continuing medical education (CME). Respondents reported they wanted to increase their general computer skills and enhance their knowledge of computer-based information sources for patient care, electronic medical record systems, computer-based CME, and telemedicine While most respondents used computers and connected to the Internet, few physicians utilized computers for clinical management. Medical organizations face the challenge of increasing physician use of clinical systems and electronic CME. PMID:11079924

  6. Secure medical information sharing in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhiyi; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Wenzheng; Zhao, Yi; Wu, Zhenqiang; Miao, Meixia

    2015-01-01

    Medical information sharing is one of the most attractive applications of cloud computing, where searchable encryption is a fascinating solution for securely and conveniently sharing medical data among different medical organizers. However, almost all previous works are designed in symmetric key encryption environment. The only works in public key encryption do not support keyword trapdoor security, have long ciphertext related to the number of receivers, do not support receiver revocation without re-encrypting, and do not preserve the membership of receivers. In this paper, we propose a searchable encryption supporting multiple receivers for medical information sharing based on bilinear maps in public key encryption environment. In the proposed protocol, data owner stores only one copy of his encrypted file and its corresponding encrypted keywords on cloud for multiple designated receivers. The keyword ciphertext is significantly shorter and its length is constant without relation to the number of designated receivers, i.e., for n receivers the ciphertext length is only twice the element length in the group. Only the owner knows that with whom his data is shared, and the access to his data is still under control after having been put on the cloud. We formally prove the security of keyword ciphertext based on the intractability of Bilinear Diffie-Hellman problem and the keyword trapdoor based on Decisional Diffie-Hellman problem. PMID:26410315

  7. Health care in the information society. A prognosis for the year 2013.

    PubMed

    Haux, Reinhold; Ammenwerth, Elske; Herzog, Werner; Knaup, Petra

    2002-11-20

    Our society is increasingly influenced by modern information and communication technology (ICT). Health care has profited greatly by this development. How could health care provision look in the near future, in 10 years, or more precisely, in the year 2013? What measures must be undertaken by political and self-governing health institutions, and by medical informatics research, to ensure an efficient, medically advanced and yet affordable future health care system? Three factors will greatly influence the further development of information processing in health care within the near future: the development of the population, medical advances, and advances in informatics. These factors have motivated us to set up 30 theses for health care provision in the year 2013. The theses cover areas of health care, such as its people, its information systems, and its ICT tools. Three major goals requiring achievement have been identified: patient-centered recording and use of medical data for cooperative care, process-integrated decision support through current medical knowledge, comprehensive use of patient data for research and health care reporting. In consequence, political institutions should provide a framework for networked, patient-centered health care. They are called on to regulate the storage and exchange of health care data and of appropriate information system architectures. Finally, the health care institutions themselves must emphasize professional information management more strongly. Relevant research topics in medical informatics are: comprehensive electronic patient records, modern health information system architectures, architectures for medical knowledge centers, specific data processing methods ('medical data mining'), and multi-functional, mobile ICT tools. PMID:12453552

  8. Computer Club Information Kit for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

    A computer club can provide a group of high school students with an opportunity to satisfy their curiosity about computers and computer programing. This guide offers suggestions for organizing and running such a club. The objectives of a computer club and the duties of the club's sponsor are outlined. Some activities for the first few meetings are…

  9. Gauging Information and Computer Skills for Curriculum Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Janice M.; Ha, YooJin

    2012-01-01

    Background: All types of librarians are expected to possess information and computer skills to actively assist patrons in accessing information and in recognizing reputable sources. Mastery of information and computer skills is a high priority for library and information science programs since graduate students have varied multidisciplinary…

  10. The Changing Face of Librarianship in Papua New Guinea: Libraries for Life in the Papua New Guinea Information Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Margaret J.

    "Libraries for life" in Papua New Guinea today is not an impossible goal to strive for to achieve with today's new and old information and communication technologies. However, in order for this to happen, a number of questions will need to be asked. There are three that need immediate attention: (1) What is an "information society" and what is its…

  11. Network selection, Information filtering and Scalable computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Changqing

    This dissertation explores two application scenarios of sparsity pursuit method on large scale data sets. The first scenario is classification and regression in analyzing high dimensional structured data, where predictors corresponds to nodes of a given directed graph. This arises in, for instance, identification of disease genes for the Parkinson's diseases from a network of candidate genes. In such a situation, directed graph describes dependencies among the genes, where direction of edges represent certain causal effects. Key to high-dimensional structured classification and regression is how to utilize dependencies among predictors as specified by directions of the graph. In this dissertation, we develop a novel method that fully takes into account such dependencies formulated through certain nonlinear constraints. We apply the proposed method to two applications, feature selection in large margin binary classification and in linear regression. We implement the proposed method through difference convex programming for the cost function and constraints. Finally, theoretical and numerical analyses suggest that the proposed method achieves the desired objectives. An application to disease gene identification is presented. The second application scenario is personalized information filtering which extracts the information specifically relevant to a user, predicting his/her preference over a large number of items, based on the opinions of users who think alike or its content. This problem is cast into the framework of regression and classification, where we introduce novel partial latent models to integrate additional user-specific and content-specific predictors, for higher predictive accuracy. In particular, we factorize a user-over-item preference matrix into a product of two matrices, each representing a user's preference and an item preference by users. Then we propose a likelihood method to seek a sparsest latent factorization, from a class of over

  12. Collection of Articles on Computers and Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, A. G.; And Others

    Four articles focus on computers, information technology, and education: (1) "Information Technology: Some Implications for Education" (A. G. Shannon, B. S. Thorton, and Gareth Locksley) examines the last phase of technological development, the communication phase, as it relates to computer technology in education; (2) "Computers in the…

  13. The Computer Subroutine in Information Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Donald E.

    Generalized computational subroutines can reduce programing repetitions and wasteful computer storage use. The most useful are those that are flexible enough to handle a wide variety of situations. Subroutines may have details open to change in order to blend into the main program. They may be built into the computer library or supplied by the…

  14. Stories of Change: TieVie - The Support Service for Finnish Universities Toward the Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairamo, Anna-Kaarina; Sinko, Matti

    In this article, the authors discuss and evaluate the TieVie capacity building project for Finnish universities in a larger historical context of strategic developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. The TieVie project was a support service project for the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) which offered training in the educational use of ICT to the staff of Finnish universities in 2001-2008. It was financed by the Ministry of Education as part of the Virtual University project funding till the end of 2006. During 2007-2008, the program was fee-funded. The project was designed and implemented by the educational development support service units of five universities: Universities of Oulu, Turku, Jyväskylä, and Helsinki, and Helsinki University of Technology. The TieVie project was launched on the basis of the need to strengthen the e-Learning skills and expertise among Finnish university staff. This need was recognized in the national strategy for education, training, and research in the information society outlined by the Ministry of Education in 2000.

  15. Defining Information Needs of Computer Users: A Human Communication Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Kenneth L.

    This exploratory investigation of the process of defining the information needs of computer users and the impact of that process on information retrieval focuses on communication problems. Six sites were visited that used computers to process data or to provide information, including the California Department of Transportation, the California…

  16. Population Aging in the European Information Societies: Towards a Comprehensive Research Agenda in eHealth Innovations for Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Vancea, Mihaela; Solé-Casals, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people’s daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy. The authours attempt to propose a research agenda, by exposing various strengts and weaknesses of eHealth innovations for elderly, mainly grounded in secondary sources analysis. PMID:27493837

  17. Population Aging in the European Information Societies: Towards a Comprehensive Research Agenda in eHealth Innovations for Elderly.

    PubMed

    Vancea, Mihaela; Solé-Casals, Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people's daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy. The authours attempt to propose a research agenda, by exposing various strengts and weaknesses of eHealth innovations for elderly, mainly grounded in secondary sources analysis. PMID:27493837

  18. Adapting to a Computer-Oriented Society: The Leadership Role of Business and Liberal Arts Faculties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, David E.

    The need for higher education to take a proactive rather than a reactive stance in dealing with the impact of the computer is considered. The field of computerized video technology is briefly discussed. It is suggested that disparate groups such as the liberal arts and business faculties should cooperate to maximize the use of computer technology.…

  19. Implications of Computer Technology. Harvard University Program on Technology and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taviss, Irene; Burbank, Judith

    Lengthy abstracts of a small number of selected books and articles on the implications of computer technology are presented, preceded by a brief state-of-the-art survey which traces the impact of computers on the structure of economic and political organizations and socio-cultural patterns. A summary statement introduces each of the three abstract…

  20. Computer Human Interaction for Image Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, David Volk

    1991-01-01

    Presents an approach to developing viable image computer-human interactions (CHI) involving user metaphors for comprehending image data and methods for locating, accessing, and displaying computer images. A medical-image radiology workstation application is used as an example, and feedback and evaluation methods are discussed. (41 references) (LRW)

  1. The ABLEDATA System: Instant Information via Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    ABLEDATA, a computerized information database, provides information on commercially available rehabilitation products in 13 major categories, including personal care, mobility, communication, and prosthetics. Product information includes manufacturer's name, availability, cost, and formal evaluation results. The network is accessible to anyone via…

  2. Achieving Engineering Competencies in the Global Information Society through the Integration of On-Campus and Workplace Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Malcolm; Chisholm, Colin U.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering organizations are increasingly under pressure to perform more efficiently with fewer people. To manage this, organizations need to understand what skills, knowledge and behaviours they need from engineers who have to practise in a global information society. Engineering educators, in collaboration with employers, therefore now need to…

  3. Animal Dissection. [Fact Sheet and Resource List Information Packet from the Humane Society of the United States].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcombe, Jonathan

    Killing animals for classroom dissection causes animal suffering, cheapens the value of life, and depletes wild animal populations, yet it remains commonplace. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) addresses the issue in this information packet which includes a fact sheet and three resource lists "on Dissection." The fact sheet discusses…

  4. Careers in an Information Society. Education for the Future: Proceedings of the Bradford Conference (Bradford, England, July 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, Verner, Ed.

    This report presents keynote papers and summaries of panel discussions from a conference dealing with such issues as future career patterns in the United Kingdom (UK), the impact of microelectronic technology on the workforce, and the role of education in preparing persons for careers in an information society. Verner Wheelock describes the growth…

  5. Emotion, Reason, and Information and Communication Technologies in Education: Some Issues in a Post-Emotional Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Vrasidas, Charalambos

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors work across issues of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education to explore the meaning of emotional experience in the context of online learning. In light of Mestrovic's (1997) notion of a "post-emotional" society and the increasing role of ICT in education, it is argued that educators need to…

  6. ACCF/SCCT/ACR/AHA/ASE/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SCMR 2010 Appropriate Use Criteria for Cardiac Computed Tomography. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allen J; Cerqueira, Manuel; Hodgson, John McB; Mark, Daniel; Min, James; O'Gara, Patrick; Rubin, Geoffrey D

    2010-11-23

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac computed tomography (CCT) is frequently considered. The present document is an update to the original CCT/cardiac magnetic resonance appropriateness criteria published in 2006, written to reflect changes in test utilization, to incorporate new clinical data, and to clarify CCT use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Ninety-three clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of CCT angiography for diagnosis and risk assessment in patients with low or intermediate risk or pretest probability for coronary artery disease was viewed favorably, whereas testing in high-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Use of noncontrast computed tomography for calcium scoring was rated as appropriate within intermediate- and selected low-risk patients. Appropriate applications of CCT are also within the category of cardiac structural and functional evaluation. It is anticipated that these results will have an impact on physician decision making, performance, and reimbursement policy, and that they will help guide future research. PMID:20975004

  7. ACCF/SCCT/ACR/AHA/ASE/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SCMR 2010 appropriate use criteria for cardiac computed tomography. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allen J; Cerqueira, Manuel; Hodgson, John McB; Mark, Daniel; Min, James; O'Gara, Patrick; Rubin, Geoffrey D; Kramer, Christopher M; Berman, Daniel; Brown, Alan; Chaudhry, Farooq A; Cury, Ricardo C; Desai, Milind Y; Einstein, Andrew J; Gomes, Antoinette S; Harrington, Robert; Hoffmann, Udo; Khare, Rahul; Lesser, John; McGann, Christopher; Rosenberg, Alan; Schwartz, Robert; Shelton, Marc; Smetana, Gerald W; Smith, Sidney C

    2010-11-23

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac computed tomography (CCT) is frequently considered. The present document is an update to the original CCT/cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) appropriateness criteria published in 2006, written to reflect changes in test utilization, to incorporate new clinical data, and to clarify CCT use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria (1). The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Ninety-three clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of CCT angiography for diagnosis and risk assessment in patients with low or intermediate risk or pretest probability for coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, whereas testing in high-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Use of noncontrast computed tomography (CT) for calcium scoring was rated as appropriate within intermediate- and selected low-risk patients. Appropriate applications of CCT are also within the category of cardiac structural and functional evaluation. It is anticipated that these results will have an impact on physician decision making, performance, and reimbursement policy, and that they will help guide future research. PMID:21087721

  8. ACCF/SCCT/ACR/AHA/ASE/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SCMR 2010 Appropriate Use Criteria for Cardiac Computed Tomography. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allen J; Cerqueira, Manuel; Hodgson, John McB; Mark, Daniel; Min, James; O'Gara, Patrick; Rubin, Geoffrey D

    2010-01-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac computed tomography (CCT) is frequently considered. The present document is an update to the original CCT/cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) appropriateness criteria published in 2006, written to reflect changes in test utilization, to incorporate new clinical data, and to clarify CCT use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria (1). The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Ninety-three clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of CCT angiography for diagnosis and risk assessment in patients with low or intermediate risk or pretest probability for coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, whereas testing in high-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Use of noncontrast computed tomography (CT) for calcium scoring was rated as appropriate within intermediate- and selected low-risk patients. Appropriate applications of CCT are also within the category of cardiac structural and functional evaluation. It is anticipated that these results will have an impact on physician decision making, performance, and reimbursement policy, and that they will help guide future research. PMID:21232696

  9. Computer Software Management and Information Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Computer programs for passive anti-roll tank, earth resources laboratory applications, the NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner derived products, transportable applications executive, plastic and failure analysis of composites, velocity gradient method for calculating velocities in an axisymmetric annular duct, an integrated procurement management system, data I/O PRON for the Motorola exorcisor, aerodynamic shock-layer shape, kinematic modeling, hardware library for a graphics computer, and a file archival system are documented.

  10. Fostering an Informal Learning Community of Computer Technologies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Lu; Carroll, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Computer technologies develop at a challenging fast pace. Formal education should not only teach students basic computer skills to meet current computer needs, but also foster student development of informal learning ability for a lifelong learning process. On the other hand, students growing up in the digital world are often more skilled with…

  11. Information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality and quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Morikoshi, Fumiaki

    2006-05-15

    An information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality is formulated to contrast classical and quantum computations. Any classical algorithm satisfies the inequality, while quantum ones can violate it. Therefore, the violation of the inequality is an immediate consequence of the quantumness in the computation. Furthermore, this approach suggests a notion of temporal nonlocality in quantum computation.

  12. Computer-Based Assessments. Information Capsule. Volume 0918

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    This Information Capsule reviews research conducted on computer-based assessments. Advantages and disadvantages associated with computer-based testing programs are summarized and research on the comparability of computer-based and paper-and-pencil assessments is reviewed. Overall, studies suggest that for most students, there are few if any…

  13. Can computational goals inform theories of vision?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L

    2015-04-01

    One of the most lasting contributions of Marr's posthumous book is his articulation of the different "levels of analysis" that are needed to understand vision. Although a variety of work has examined how these different levels are related, there is comparatively little examination of the assumptions on which his proposed levels rest, or the plausibility of the approach Marr articulated given those assumptions. Marr placed particular significance on computational level theory, which specifies the "goal" of a computation, its appropriateness for solving a particular problem, and the logic by which it can be carried out. The structure of computational level theory is inherently teleological: What the brain does is described in terms of its purpose. I argue that computational level theory, and the reverse-engineering approach it inspires, requires understanding the historical trajectory that gave rise to functional capacities that can be meaningfully attributed with some sense of purpose or goal, that is, a reconstruction of the fitness function on which natural selection acted in shaping our visual abilities. I argue that this reconstruction is required to distinguish abilities shaped by natural selection-"natural tasks" -from evolutionary "by-products" (spandrels, co-optations, and exaptations), rather than merely demonstrating that computational goals can be embedded in a Bayesian model that renders a particular behavior or process rational. PMID:25772207

  14. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2013 (ICILS 2013) is to investigate, in a range of countries, the ways in which young people are developing "computer and information literacy" (CIL) to support their capacity to participate in the digital age. To achieve this aim, the study will assess student…

  15. Computing, Information, and Communications Technology (CICT) Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Program's goal is to enable NASA's Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and Aerospace Technology Missions with greater mission assurance, for less cost, with increased science return through the development and use of advanced computing, information and communication technologies

  16. Informal and Formal Computer Training in a Corporate Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Karen Rosenkrantz

    Experiences with computer education at the Bank of America suggest that, when educating nontechnical people to use computers, formal learning environments are not as effective as informal learning environments. It has become increasingly necessary to use informal training to educate the approximately 4,000 people who need the training because of…

  17. ESTIMATING SUSTAINABILITY OF A SIMPLE HUMAN SOCIETY AND ITS ASSOCIATED ECOSYSTEM USING RESILIENCE AND FISHER INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability applies to integrated systems comprising humans and the rest of nature. To be considered sustainable, human components (society, economy, law, etc.) that interact with ecosystems cannot decrease the resilience of ecosystem structures and functions (trophic linkage...

  18. ESTIMATING SUSTAINABILITY OF A SIMPLE HUMAN SOCIETY AND ITS ASSOCIATED ECOSYTEM USING RESILIENCE AND FISHER INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability applies to integrated systems comprising humans and the rest of nature. To be considered sustainable, human components (society, economy, law, etc.) that interact with ecosystems cannot decrease the resilience of ecosystem structures and functions (trophic linkages...

  19. Proceedings of the 1984 IEEE Computer Society workshop on visual languages

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on programming languages for image processing. Topics considered at the conference included algorithms, satellite pictures, a stereo vision method , a robot vision language, computer graphics, data base technology, remote sensing, man-machine systems, interactive display devices, natural language, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, expert systems, and the nature of visual languages.

  20. Simulated Sustainable Societies: Students' Reflections on Creating Future Cities in Computer Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Elisabet M.; Jakobsson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The empirical study, in this article, involved 42 students (ages 14-15), who used the urban simulation computer game SimCity 4 to create models of sustainable future cities. The aim was to explore in what ways the simulated "real" worlds provided by this game could be a potential facilitator for science learning contexts. The topic investigated is…

  1. Computer Aided Management for Information Processing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Ibrahim; Kocamustafaogullari, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the nature of information processing projects and discusses some project management programming packages. Describes an in-house interface program developed to utilize a selected project management package (TIMELINE) by using Oracle Data Base Management System tools and Pascal programming language for the management of information system…

  2. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  3. Computers and Information Systems in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.; And Others

    In an effort to increase the awareness of educators about the potential of electronic data processing (EDP) in education and acquaint the EDP specialists with current educational problems, this book discusses the routine uses of EDP for business and student accounting, as well as its innovative uses in instruction. A description of computers and…

  4. Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

  5. Simulated Sustainable Societies: Students' Reflections on Creating Future Cities in Computer Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Elisabet M.; Jakobsson, Anders

    2011-02-01

    The empirical study, in this article, involved 42 students (ages 14-15), who used the urban simulation computer game SimCity 4 to create models of sustainable future cities. The aim was to explore in what ways the simulated "real" worlds provided by this game could be a potential facilitator for science learning contexts. The topic investigated is in what way interactions in this gaming environment, and reflections about these interactions, can form a context where the students deal with real world problems, and where they can contextualise and apply their scientific knowledge. Focus group interviews and video recordings were used to gather data on students' reflections on their cities, and on sustainable development. The findings indicate that SimCity 4 actually contributes to creating meaningful educational situations in science classrooms, and that computer games can constitute an important artefact that may facilitate contextualisation and make students' use of science concepts and theories more explicit.

  6. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Public Information Newsletters ACSM Blog ACSM Blog Search By ... Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Home Public Information Newsletters Fit Society Page ACSM Fit Society ® ...

  7. Integrated computational and conceptual solutions for complex environmental information management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückemann, Claus-Peter

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the recent results of the integration of computational and conceptual solutions for the complex case of environmental information management. The solution for the major goal of creating and developing long-term multi-disciplinary knowledge resources and conceptual and computational support was achieved by implementing and integrating key components. The key components are long-term knowledge resources providing required structures for universal knowledge creation, documentation, and preservation, universal multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual conceptual knowledge and classification, especially, references to Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), sustainable workflows for environmental information management, and computational support for dynamical use, processing, and advanced scientific computing with Integrated Information and Computing System (IICS) components and High End Computing (HEC) resources.

  8. Information Dissemination of Public Health Emergency on Social Networks and Intelligent Computation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongzhi; Mao, Huajuan; Hu, Xiaohua; Hu, Feng; Sun, Xuemin; Jing, Zaiping; Duan, Yunsuo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the extensive social influence, public health emergency has attracted great attention in today's society. The booming social network is becoming a main information dissemination platform of those events and caused high concerns in emergency management, among which a good prediction of information dissemination in social networks is necessary for estimating the event's social impacts and making a proper strategy. However, information dissemination is largely affected by complex interactive activities and group behaviors in social network; the existing methods and models are limited to achieve a satisfactory prediction result due to the open changeable social connections and uncertain information processing behaviors. ACP (artificial societies, computational experiments, and parallel execution) provides an effective way to simulate the real situation. In order to obtain better information dissemination prediction in social networks, this paper proposes an intelligent computation method under the framework of TDF (Theory-Data-Feedback) based on ACP simulation system which was successfully applied to the analysis of A (H1N1) Flu emergency. PMID:26609303

  9. Information Dissemination of Public Health Emergency on Social Networks and Intelligent Computation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongzhi; Mao, Huajuan; Hu, Xiaohua; Hu, Feng; Sun, Xuemin; Jing, Zaiping; Duan, Yunsuo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the extensive social influence, public health emergency has attracted great attention in today's society. The booming social network is becoming a main information dissemination platform of those events and caused high concerns in emergency management, among which a good prediction of information dissemination in social networks is necessary for estimating the event's social impacts and making a proper strategy. However, information dissemination is largely affected by complex interactive activities and group behaviors in social network; the existing methods and models are limited to achieve a satisfactory prediction result due to the open changeable social connections and uncertain information processing behaviors. ACP (artificial societies, computational experiments, and parallel execution) provides an effective way to simulate the real situation. In order to obtain better information dissemination prediction in social networks, this paper proposes an intelligent computation method under the framework of TDF (Theory-Data-Feedback) based on ACP simulation system which was successfully applied to the analysis of A (H1N1) Flu emergency. PMID:26609303

  10. Computers and the Learning Society. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning, Analysis and Cooperation of the Committee on Science and Technology. Report No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    The utilization and impact of computer terminology on various modes of learning in our society was the focus of six hearings which included testimony from experts, supporting papers, reports, and additional commentaries. A successful application of computer assisted instruction for drill and practice in the basic skills was described in the…

  11. Sediment transport processes and their resulting stratigraphy: informing science and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    decades, there have been numerous scientific advances pertaining to the coupling of sediment transport and hydrodynamics. This research has produced new theory about how sediments accumulating in many unique environments shape the stratigraphic record. Recent studies have taken advantage of novel methods for acquiring observational data, which in turn have been used to advance numerical modeling schemes as well as experimental designs. As an example, consider fluvial deltas: here, hydrodynamics are constantly evolving over space and time. Patterns of sediment deposition and erosion (from dune to delta-lobe scales), resolved using high-resolution 3-D acoustic data, are used as input data to construct models that further show how channel dynamics (e.g., avulsions) and kinematics (e.g., lateral migration) evolve due to sediment and hydrodynamic coupling. This information is used to propose new theories of delta stratigraphy, which are then tested by examining ancient fluvial-delta systems. Finally, research efforts evaluating modern sediment-transport and depositional processes offer significant benefits to society. For example, fluvial deltas are heavily relied upon for societal welfare and yet are among the most dynamic landscapes on Earth's surface. Therefore, research examining the evolution of these landscapes not only advances basic science, but also doubles as an exercise in applied geomorphology.

  12. Industrial information database service by personal computer network 'Saitamaken Industrial Information System'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Keiji

    Saitamaken Industrial Information System provides onlined database services, which does not rely on computers for the whole operation, but utilizes computers, optical disk files or facsimiles for certain operations as we think fit. It employes the method of providing information for various, outputs, that is, image information is sent from optical disk files to facsimiles, or other information is provided from computers to terminals as well as facsimiles. Locating computers as a core in the system, it enables integrated operations. The system at terminal side was developed separately with functions such as operation by turnkey style, down-loading of statistical information and the newest menu.

  13. ACCF/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2013 multimodality appropriate use criteria for the detection and risk assessment of stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Ronan, Grace; Wolk, Michael J; Bailey, Steven R; Doherty, John U; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Min, James K; Patel, Manesh R; Rosenbaum, Lisa; Shaw, Leslee J; Stainback, Raymond F; Allen, Joseph M; Brindis, Ralph G; Kramer, Christopher M; Shaw, Leslee J; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Dean, Larry S; Fazel, Reza; Hundley, W Gregory; Itchhaporia, Dipti; Kligfield, Paul; Lockwood, Richard; Marine, Joseph Edward; McCully, Robert Benjamin; Messer, Joseph V; O'Gara, Patrick T; Shemin, Richard J; Wann, L Samuel; Wong, John B; Patel, Manesh R; Kramer, Christopher M; Bailey, Steven R; Brown, Alan S; Doherty, John U; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Lindsay, Bruce D; Min, James K; Shaw, Leslee J; Stainback, Raymond F; Wann, L Samuel; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M

    2014-02-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical presentations for stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) to consider use of stress testing and anatomic diagnostic procedures. This document reflects an updating of the prior Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) published for radionuclide imaging (RNI), stress echocardiography (Echo), calcium scoring, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and invasive coronary angiography for SIHD. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine the AUC on a frequent basis. A major innovation in this document is the rating of tests side by side for the same indication. The side-by-side rating removes any concerns about differences in indication or interpretation stemming from prior use of separate documents for each test. However, the ratings were explicitly not competitive rankings due to the limited availability of comparative evidence, patient variability, and range of capabilities available in any given local setting. The indications for this review are limited to the detection and risk assessment of SIHD and were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Eighty clinical scenarios were developed by a writing committee and scored by a separate rating panel on a scale of 1-9, to designate Appropriate, May Be Appropriate, or Rarely Appropriate use following a modified Delphi process following the recently updated AUC development methodology. The use of some modalities of testing in the initial evaluation of patients with symptoms representing ischemic equivalents, newly diagnosed heart failure, arrhythmias, and syncope was generally found to be Appropriate or May Be Appropriate, except in cases where low pre-test probability or low risk limited the benefit of most testing except exercise electrocardiogram (ECG

  14. ACCF/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2013 multimodality appropriate use criteria for the detection and risk assessment of stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Wolk, Michael J; Bailey, Steven R; Doherty, John U; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Min, James K; Patel, Manesh R; Rosenbaum, Lisa; Shaw, Leslee J; Stainback, Raymond F; Allen, Joseph M

    2014-02-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical presentations for stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) to consider use of stress testing and anatomic diagnostic procedures. This document reflects an updating of the prior Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) published for radionuclide imaging (RNI), stress echocardiography (Echo), calcium scoring, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and invasive coronary angiography for SIHD. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine the AUC on a frequent basis. A major innovation in this document is the rating of tests side by side for the same indication. The side-by-side rating removes any concerns about differences in indication or interpretation stemming from prior use of separate documents for each test. However, the ratings were explicitly not competitive rankings due to the limited availability of comparative evidence, patient variability, and range of capabilities available in any given local setting. The indications for this review are limited to the detection and risk assessment of SIHD and were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Eighty clinical scenarios were developed by a writing committee and scored by a separate rating panel on a scale of 1 to 9, to designate Appropriate, May Be Appropriate, or Rarely Appropriate use following a modified Delphi process following the recently updated AUC development methodology. The use of some modalities of testing in the initial evaluation of patients with symptoms representing ischemic equivalents, newly diagnosed heart failure, arrhythmias, and syncope was generally found to be Appropriate or May Be Appropriate, except in cases where low pre-test probability or low risk limited the benefit of most testing except exercise electrocardiogram

  15. Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

  16. The Digital Divide as Cultural Practice: A Cognitive Anthropological Exploration of Japan as an "Information Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Tadamasa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the socio-cultural contextualization of the digital divide in Japanese society. I undertake this task by developing a theoretical and methodological framework based on the notion of "culture as models," while explicating the cultural dimensions of the digital divide and the dynamics of ICTs,…

  17. Paths towards the Informational Society: Employment Structure in G-7 Countries, 1920-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castells, Manuel; Aoyama, Yuko

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of occupational structures in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States shows divergent paths toward postindustrial society, with different forms of knowledge-based production (service-economy and info-industrial) that reflect cultural and institutional diversity. (SK)

  18. Informal Agencies of Socialization and the Integration of Immigrant Youth Into Society: An Example from Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahane, Reuven

    1986-01-01

    Socialization agencies which are less formal and more voluntaristic seem to facilitate the absorption of immigrant youths into Israeli society more effectively. Agency structural characteristics such as symmetry and voluntarism allow newcomers to maintain their sense of dignity and increase their capacity to integrate economically and politically…

  19. CICT Computing, Information, and Communications Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Lawrence; Tu, Eugene (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CICT Program is part of the NASA Aerospace Technology Enterprise's fundamental technology thrust to develop tools. processes, and technologies that enable new aerospace system capabilities and missions. The CICT Program's four key objectives are: Provide seamless access to NASA resources- including ground-, air-, and space-based distributed information technology resources-so that NASA scientists and engineers can more easily control missions, make new scientific discoveries, and design the next-generation space vehicles, provide high-data delivery from these assets directly to users for missions, develop goal-oriented human-centered systems, and research, develop and evaluate revolutionary technology.

  20. Computer Center: BASIC String Models of Genetic Information Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, James D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses some of the major genetic information processes which may be modeled by computer program string manipulation, focusing on replication and transcription. Also discusses instructional applications of using string models. (JN)

  1. Information Security in the Age of Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, J. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Information security has been a particularly hot topic since the enhanced internal control requirements of Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) were introduced in 2002. At about this same time, cloud computing started its explosive growth. Outsourcing of mission-critical functions has always been a gamble for managers, but the advantages of cloud computing are…

  2. "Computer" and "Information and Communication Technology": Students' Culture Specific Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine; Sarfo, Frederick Kwaku; Louw, Lambertus Philippus; Poysa-Tarhonen, Johanna; Stassens, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Given the use of information and communication technology (ICT) and computer as synonyms in ICT-integration research on the one hand, and the potential problems in doing so on the other, this contribution tries to gain insight in the understanding of the words computer and ICT in different settings. In five different countries (Belgium, Finland,…

  3. Computer Conference in Information Service. Research Report 191.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repo, Aatto J.

    This document describes the development of computer conferencing (CC) and its role within information service communities, particularly in Finland and Sweden. CC is defined as a computer-based messaging (CBM) system providing an asynchronous communications structure for group work. It is noted that CC differs from electronic mail and that CC…

  4. Selective Bibliography on the History of Computing and Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspray, William

    1982-01-01

    Lists some of the better-known and more accessible books on the history of computing and information processing, covering: (1) popular general works; (2) more technical general works; (3) microelectronics and computing; (4) artificial intelligence and robotics; (5) works relating to Charles Babbage; (6) other biographical and personal accounts;…

  5. Computer Informational Retrieval in China: Current Situation and Future Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Wang

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the background and the current situation of computer information retrieval systems in China. Problem areas considered include: (1) lack of coordination of activities; (2) lack of data on user demand; and (3) shortages of personnel in computer science, mathematics, and systems engineering. An agenda for the future is outlined. (MES)

  6. The possibility of coexistence and co-development in language competition: ecology-society computational model and simulation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jian; Shang, Song-Chao; Wei, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Shuang; Li, Zhi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Language is characterized by both ecological properties and social properties, and competition is the basic form of language evolution. The rise and decline of one language is a result of competition between languages. Moreover, this rise and decline directly influences the diversity of human culture. Mathematics and computer modeling for language competition has been a popular topic in the fields of linguistics, mathematics, computer science, ecology, and other disciplines. Currently, there are several problems in the research on language competition modeling. First, comprehensive mathematical analysis is absent in most studies of language competition models. Next, most language competition models are based on the assumption that one language in the model is stronger than the other. These studies tend to ignore cases where there is a balance of power in the competition. The competition between two well-matched languages is more practical, because it can facilitate the co-development of two languages. A third issue with current studies is that many studies have an evolution result where the weaker language inevitably goes extinct. From the integrated point of view of ecology and sociology, this paper improves the Lotka-Volterra model and basic reaction-diffusion model to propose an "ecology-society" computational model for describing language competition. Furthermore, a strict and comprehensive mathematical analysis was made for the stability of the equilibria. Two languages in competition may be either well-matched or greatly different in strength, which was reflected in the experimental design. The results revealed that language coexistence, and even co-development, are likely to occur during language competition. PMID:27386304

  7. How to Sell Nothing and Get Rich--or--Wealth Creation in an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gordon B.

    Unlike other economic goods whose worth can be determined through market research, the market place for information denies the creator of that information the preferences of consumers. Copyright may be considered partial compensation. Copyright, however, is not an aspect of information per se, but rather a result of the way the information is…

  8. Computer Self-Efficacy among Health Information Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Dorothy Marie

    2011-01-01

    Roles and functions of health information professionals are evolving due to the mandated electronic health record adoption process for healthcare facilities. A knowledgeable workforce with computer information technology skill sets is required for the successful collection of quality patient-care data, improvement of productivity, and…

  9. The Human-Computer Interface for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Debora

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the human-computer interface as it relates to information technology and retrieval. Principles of interface design are examined, including visual display features and help messages; information retrieval applications are described, including online searching, CD-ROM, online public access catalogs (OPACs), and full-text databases; and…

  10. Information Mapping for Computer-Based Learning and Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Robert E.; And Others

    A new conception of computer-based instructional systems is presented in this design of a system that can deliver individualized information sequences not only to learners and trainees, but to reference workers, reviewers, etc. Underlying the system is a flexible data base organized into labelled, movable information blocks according to the…

  11. Splash, pop, sizzle: Information processing with phononic computing

    SciTech Connect

    Sklan, Sophia R.

    2015-05-15

    Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics) have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information processing are examined. Given the relative similarity of vibrational transport at different length scales, the related fields of acoustic, phononic, and thermal information processing are all included, as are quantum and classical computer implementations. Connections are made between the fundamental questions in phonon transport and phononic control and the device level approach to diodes, transistors, memory, and logic. .

  12. Hanford site Computer Automated Mapping Information System (CAMIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, S.F.

    1995-09-01

    The Computer Automated Mapping Information System (CAMIS) provides sitewide, networked access to CAD based geographically referenced data. CAMIS allows multiple organizations to maintain and share their data. Information collected and managed according to site-wide standards, enables each organization to focus their limited resources on data issues tied to their own discipline without having to collect or manage reference data outside their respective domains. Sharing information also minimizes redundant data and helps improve the overall quality of the sites` data resources.

  13. Proceedings of the International Conference e-Learning 2014. Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Lisbon, Portugal, July 15-19, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista Nunes, Miguel, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2014, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Lisbon, Portugal July 15-19, 2014). The e-Learning 2014 conference aims to address the…

  14. Information engineering: Sandia's Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) database

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    The activities involved in establishing a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) database at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are part of a common effort to implement a proactive data administration function across administrative and technical databases. Data administration activities include the establishment of corporate data dictionary, a corporate information model, and a library of important objects and their relationships with other objects. Processes requiring information will be identified and supported with future information systems that share administrative and technical data. The process to create databases is being established based upon accepted engineering design practices. This paper discusses the CIM database, presents the selected information modeling technique and describes the information engineering process. 9 refs.

  15. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Its Intense Demands New Website from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Puts the Power of Information ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. All rights reserved. Expanded Proprietary ...

  16. Understanding How to Use Machines to Work Smarter in an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Andrew R.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the need to improve computer literacy, primarily by the education community, throughout every segment of the population in order to take advantage of technological advancements, ultimately so that worker productivity can be increased. (TG)

  17. Don't Give Us the Grand Canyon to Cross. Participatory Literacy and the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, Juliet; Bell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Computer technology is not the be-all and end-all in adult literacy education. Although it will not solve all problems, using technology to its fullest potential can help students and teachers work smarter and "deeper." (JOW)

  18. ACCF/ASE/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR 2011 Appropriate Use Criteria for Echocardiography. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance American College of Chest Physicians.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Garcia, Mario J; Haines, David E; Lai, Wyman W; Manning, Warren J; Patel, Ayan R; Picard, Michael H; Polk, Donna M; Ragosta, Michael; Parker Ward, R; Weiner, Rory B

    2011-03-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), in partnership with the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted a review of common clinical scenarios where echocardiography is frequently considered. This document combines and updates the original transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography appropriateness criteria published in 2007 (1) and the original stress echocardiography appropriateness criteria published in 2008 (2). This revision reflects new clinical data, reflects changes in test utilization patterns,and clarifies echocardiography use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria.The indications (clinical scenarios)were derived from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines and results of studies examining the implementation of the original appropriate use criteria (AUC).The 202 indications in this document were developed by a diverse writing group and scored by a separate independent technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9,to designate appropriate use(median 7 to 9), uncertain use(median 4 to 6), and inappropriate use (median 1 to 3). Ninety-seven indications were rated as appropriate, 34 were rated as uncertain, and 71 were rated as inappropriate. In general,the use of echocardiography for initial diagnosis when there is a change in clinical status or when the results of the echocardiogram are anticipated to change patient management were rated appropriate. Routine testing when there was no change in clinical status or when results of testing were unlikely to modify management were more likely to be inappropriate than appropriate/uncertain.The AUC for echocardiography have the potential to impact physician decision making,healthcare delivery, and reimbursement policy. Furthermore,recognition of uncertain clinical scenarios facilitates identification of areas that would benefit from future research. PMID

  19. AGIS: Evolution of Distributed Computing information system for ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisenkov, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Alandes, M.; Karavakis, E.

    2015-12-01

    ATLAS, a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, produces petabytes of data annually through simulation production and tens of petabytes of data per year from the detector itself. The ATLAS computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and a high degree of decentralization of computing resources in order to meet the ATLAS requirements of petabytes scale data operations. It has been evolved after the first period of LHC data taking (Run-1) in order to cope with new challenges of the upcoming Run- 2. In this paper we describe the evolution and recent developments of the ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), developed in order to integrate configuration and status information about resources, services and topology of the computing infrastructure used by the ATLAS Distributed Computing applications and services.

  20. ACCF/SCAI/STS/AATS/AHA/ASNC 2009 Appropriateness Criteria for Coronary Revascularization: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriateness Criteria Task Force, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology: Endorsed by the American Society of Echocardiography, the Heart Failure Society of America, and the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Dehmer, Gregory J; Hirshfeld, John W; Smith, Peter K; Spertus, John A

    2009-03-10

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriateness review of common clinical scenarios in which coronary revascularization is frequently considered. The clinical scenarios were developed to mimic common situations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, extent of medical therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, and coronary anatomy. Approximately 180 clinical scenarios were developed by a writing committee and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization was considered appropriate and likely to improve health outcomes or survival. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate revascularization was considered inappropriate and unlikely to improve health outcomes or survival. The mid range (4 to 6) indicates a clinical scenario for which the likelihood that coronary revascularization would improve health outcomes or survival was considered uncertain. For the majority of the clinical scenarios, the panel only considered the appropriateness of revascularization irrespective of whether this was accomplished by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). In a select subgroup of clinical scenarios in which revascularization is generally considered appropriate, the appropriateness of PCI and CABG individually as the primary mode of revascularization was considered. In general, the use of coronary revascularization for patients with acute coronary syndromes and combinations of significant symptoms and/or ischemia was viewed favorably. In contrast, revascularization of asymptomatic patients or patients with low-risk findings on noninvasive testing and minimal medical therapy were viewed less favorably. It is

  1. ACCF/SCAI/STS/AATS/AHA/ASNC 2009 Appropriateness Criteria for Coronary Revascularization : a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriateness Criteria Task Force, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. Endorsed by the American Society of Echocardiography, the Heart Failure Society of America, and the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Dehmer, Gregory J; Hirshfeld, John W; Smith, Peter K; Spertus, John A; Masoudi, Frederick A; Brindis, Ralph G; Beckman, Karen J; Chambers, Charles E; Ferguson, T Bruce; Garcia, Mario J; Grover, Frederick L; Holmes, David R; Klein, Lloyd W; Limacher, Marian; Mack, Michael J; Malenka, David J; Park, Myung H; Ragosta, Michael; Ritchie, James L; Rose, Geoffrey A; Rosenberg, Alan B; Shemin, Richard J; Weintraub, William S; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Peterson, Eric D

    2009-02-15

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriateness review of common clinical scenarios in which coronary revascularization is frequently considered. The clinical scenarios were developed to mimic common situations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, extent of medical therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, and coronary anatomy. Approximately 180 clinical scenarios were developed by a writing committee and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization was considered appropriate and likely to improve health outcomes or survival. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate revascularization was considered inappropriate and unlikely to improve health outcomes or survival. The mid range (4 to 6) indicates a clinical scenario for which the likelihood that coronary revascularization would improve health outcomes or survival was considered uncertain. For the majority of the clinical scenarios, the panel only considered the appropriateness of revascularization irrespective of whether this was accomplished by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). In a select subgroup of clinical scenarios in which revascularization is generally considered appropriate, the appropriateness of PCI and CABG individually as the primary mode of revascularization was considered. In general, the use of coronary revascularization for patients with acute coronary syndromes and combinations of significant symptoms and/or ischemia was viewed favorably. In contrast, revascularization of asymptomatic patients or patients with low-risk findings on noninvasive testing and minimal medical therapy were viewed less favorably. It is

  2. ACCF/SCAI/STS/AATS/AHA/ASNC 2009 Appropriateness Criteria for Coronary Revascularization: a report by the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriateness Criteria Task Force, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Endorsed by the American Society of Echocardiography, the Heart Failure Society of America, and the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Dehmer, Gregory J; Hirshfeld, John W; Smith, Peter K; Spertus, John A

    2009-02-10

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriateness review of common clinical scenarios in which coronary revascularization is frequently considered. The clinical scenarios were developed to mimic common situations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, extent of medical therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, and coronary anatomy. Approximately 180 clinical scenarios were developed by a writing committee and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization was considered appropriate and likely to improve health outcomes or survival. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate revascularization was considered inappropriate and unlikely to improve health outcomes or survival. The mid range (4 to 6) indicates a clinical scenario for which the likelihood that coronary revascularization would improve health outcomes or survival was considered uncertain. For the majority of the clinical scenarios, the panel only considered the appropriateness of revascularization irrespective of whether this was accomplished by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). In a select subgroup of clinical scenarios in which revascularization is generally considered appropriate, the appropriateness of PCI and CABG individually as the primary mode of revascularization was considered. In general, the use of coronary revascularization for patients with acute coronary syndromes and combinations of significant symptoms and/or ischemia was viewed favorably. In contrast, revascularization of asymptomatic patients or patients with low-risk findings on noninvasive testing and minimal medical therapy were viewed less favorably. It is

  3. Computing and information sciences preliminary engineering design study

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J O; Pearson, E W; Thomas, J J; Brothers, J W; Campbell, W K; DeVaney, D M; Jones, D R; Littlefield, R J; Peterson, M J

    1991-04-01

    This document presents the preliminary design concept for the integrated computing and information system to be included in the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EMSL is scheduled for completion and occupancy in 1994 or 1995 and will support the DOE environmental mission, in particular hazardous waste remediation. The focus of the report is on the Computing and Information Sciences engineering task of providing a fully integrated state-of-the-art computing environment for simulation, experimentation and analysis in support of molecular research. The EMSL will house two major research organizations, the Molecular Sciences Research Center (MSRC) and part of the Environmental Sciences Research Center (ESRC). Included in the report is a preliminary description of the computing and information system to be included. The proposed system architecture is based on a preliminary understanding of the EMSL users' needs for computational resources. As users understand more about the scientific challenges they face, the definition of the functional requirements will change. At the same time, the engineering team will be gaining experience with new computing technologies. Accordingly, the design architecture must evolve to reflect this new understanding of functional requirements and enabling technologies. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. 75 FR 19428 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and... Cassandra Queen at the Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering at...

  5. 76 FR 61118 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting In... Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and.... Contact Person: Carmen Whitson, Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering,...

  6. 76 FR 20051 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information; Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Advisory Committee for Computer and Information; Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: ] Name: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and..., Directorate for Computer and Information, Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, 4201...

  7. 77 FR 24538 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science And Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science And Engineering; Notice of Meeting In... Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and...: Carmen Whitson, Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering, National...

  8. INFORMATION DISPLAY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING COMPUTER-BASED DISPLAY SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA,J.M.; PIRUS,D.; BELTRATCCHI,L.

    2004-09-19

    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work.

  9. Symmetrically private information retrieval based on blind quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling

    2015-05-01

    Universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) is a new secure quantum computing protocol which allows a user Alice who does not have any sophisticated quantum technology to delegate her computing to a server Bob without leaking any privacy. Using the features of UBQC, we propose a protocol to achieve symmetrically private information retrieval, which allows a quantum limited Alice to query an item from Bob with a fully fledged quantum computer; meanwhile, the privacy of both parties is preserved. The security of our protocol is based on the assumption that malicious Alice has no quantum computer, which avoids the impossibility proof of Lo. For the honest Alice, she is almost classical and only requires minimal quantum resources to carry out the proposed protocol. Therefore, she does not need any expensive laboratory which can maintain the coherence of complicated quantum experimental setups.

  10. Computer programs: Information retrieval and data analysis, a compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The items presented in this compilation are divided into two sections. Section one treats of computer usage devoted to the retrieval of information that affords the user rapid entry into voluminous collections of data on a selective basis. Section two is a more generalized collection of computer options for the user who needs to take such data and reduce it to an analytical study within a specific discipline. These programs, routines, and subroutines should prove useful to users who do not have access to more sophisticated and expensive computer software.

  11. Tsunami Disaster Response: A Case Analysis of the Information Society in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aswalap, Supaluk Joy

    2009-01-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami wrecked thousands of lives, homes, and livelihoods--losses that could have been avoided with timely and better information. A resource such as information is needed at a fundamental level much like water, food, medicine, or shelter. This dissertation examines the development of the Thai information…

  12. Measurement and Information Extraction in Complex Dynamics Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Giulio; Montangero, Simone

    Quantum Information processing has several di.erent applications: some of them can be performed controlling only few qubits simultaneously (e.g. quantum teleportation or quantum cryptography) [1]. Usually, the transmission of large amount of information is performed repeating several times the scheme implemented for few qubits. However, to exploit the advantages of quantum computation, the simultaneous control of many qubits is unavoidable [2]. This situation increases the experimental di.culties of quantum computing: maintaining quantum coherence in a large quantum system is a di.cult task. Indeed a quantum computer is a many-body complex system and decoherence, due to the interaction with the external world, will eventually corrupt any quantum computation. Moreover, internal static imperfections can lead to quantum chaos in the quantum register thus destroying computer operability [3]. Indeed, as it has been shown in [4], a critical imperfection strength exists above which the quantum register thermalizes and quantum computation becomes impossible. We showed such e.ects on a quantum computer performing an e.cient algorithm to simulate complex quantum dynamics [5,6].

  13. The radiology informed consent form: recommendations from the European Society of Cardiology position paper.

    PubMed

    Carpeggiani, Clara; Picano, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Every radiological and nuclear medicine examination confers a definite long-term risk of cancer, but most patients undergoing such examinations receive no or inaccurate information about radiation dose and corresponding risk related to the dose received. Informed consent is a procedure to support (not substitute) the physician/patient dialogue and relationship, facilitating a free, informed and aware expression of the patient's will in the principle of patient autonomy. Physicians are responsible for providing patients with all the information on risks, benefits and alternatives useful to the patient to make the decision. In current radiological practice the information on the radiation dose and long-term cancer risks is difficult to find and not easy to understand. The form using plain language should spell-out the type of examination, the effective dose (mSv), the effective dose expressed in number of chest radiographs and the risk of cancer. The current practice clashes against the guidelines and the law. PMID:27269736

  14. New trends in light and optics teaching; building bridges to the information society--the OPTICA XXI project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2002-05-01

    In our emerging Society of Information, Light and Optics have a crucial importance not only in Science and Technology but also in the widest range of aspects of our every day life. In this communication we will present a project presented to the EC program Socrates action Comenius 3. The project aims the establishment of a network, the OPTICA XXI network, involving eighteen educational institutions from seven European countries and a transnational consortium (CoLoS - Conceptual Learning Of Science). Our activities are focused on the development and promotion at European scale of new positive good practices on teaching optics and optics related technologies at basic and secondary schools by leading the students to an active volunteer and committed participation in the teaching/learning process through practice and experimentation, making intensive use of the new instruments and resources of the Information Society. Text and workbooks with electronic interactive versions will be produced in all languages of the countries involved. Educational hands on kits of experiments with different levels of difficulty, from basic optics to photonics and telecommunications, will be produced and commercialized. Interactive web sites and virtual simulation tools and labs will be established. Two international conferences will be held as well as a number of course for schoolteachers and contests and activities for school students.

  15. "Glitch Logic" and Applications to Computing and Information Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method of information processing in digital systems, and discusses its potential benefits to computing and information security. The new method exploits glitches caused by delays in logic circuits for carrying and processing information. Glitch processing is hidden to conventional logic analyses and undetectable by traditional reverse engineering techniques. It enables the creation of new logic design methods that allow for an additional controllable "glitch logic" processing layer embedded into a conventional synchronous digital circuits as a hidden/covert information flow channel. The combination of synchronous logic with specific glitch logic design acting as an additional computing channel reduces the number of equivalent logic designs resulting from synthesis, thus implicitly reducing the possibility of modification and/or tampering with the design. The hidden information channel produced by the glitch logic can be used: 1) for covert computing/communication, 2) to prevent reverse engineering, tampering, and alteration of design, and 3) to act as a channel for information infiltration/exfiltration and propagation of viruses/spyware/Trojan horses.

  16. Computing, information, and communications: Technologies for the 21. Century

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    To meet the challenges of a radically new and technologically demanding century, the Federal Computing, Information, and Communications (CIC) programs are investing in long-term research and development (R and D) to advance computing, information, and communications in the United States. CIC R and D programs help Federal departments and agencies to fulfill their evolving missions, assure the long-term national security, better understand and manage the physical environment, improve health care, help improve the teaching of children, provide tools for lifelong training and distance learning to the workforce, and sustain critical US economic competitiveness. One of the nine committees of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), the Committee on Computing, Information, and Communications (CCIC)--through its CIC R and D Subcommittee--coordinates R and D programs conducted by twelve Federal departments and agencies in cooperation with US academia and industry. These R and D programs are organized into five Program Component Areas: (1) HECC--High End Computing and Computation; (2) LSN--Large Scale Networking, including the Next Generation Internet Initiative; (3) HCS--High Confidence Systems; (4) HuCS--Human Centered Systems; and (5) ETHR--Education, Training, and Human Resources. A brief synopsis of FY 1997 accomplishments and FY 1998 goals by PCA is presented. This report, which supplements the President`s Fiscal Year 1998 Budget, describes the interagency CIC programs.

  17. The Information Infrastructure: Reaching Society's Goals. A Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

    Intended for public comment and discussion, this document is the second volume of papers in which the Information Infrastructure Task Force has attempted to articulate in clear terms, with sufficient detail, how improvements in the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can help meet other social goals. These are not plans to be enacted, but…

  18. Why Adolescents Use a Computer-Based Health Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Robert P.; And Others

    The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN) is a system of interactive computer programs designed to provide adolescents with confidential, nonjudgmental health information, behavior change strategies, and sources of referral. These programs cover five adolescent health areas: alcohol and other drugs, human sexuality, smoking prevention and…

  19. High Performance Computing and Communications: Toward a National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, Washington, DC.

    This report describes the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) initiative of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. This program is supportive of and coordinated with the National Information Infrastructure Initiative. Now halfway through its 5-year effort, the HPCC program counts among its…

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF TELEMATICS: TELECOMMUNICATION, COMPUTATION, AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current important research needs whose results will be critical to Environmental Protection Agency's mission in the next two to three decades with regard to a major expansion in the use of telematics, i.e. telecommunications, computer, and information technology, are identified. ...

  1. Implementation of Computer Based Management Information Systems: A Behavioral Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Edward R.

    In the past decade significant advances have taken place in the development of management information systems (MIS) to support managerial decision making. Recent literature has shown, however, that educators have yet to make full and efficient use of these computer-based systems. A number of authors have discussed factors that may affect…

  2. Computer Business Applications II. Course Two. Information Systems Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Sharon Lund; Everett, Donna R.

    This course is the second of seven in the Information Systems curriculum. The purpose of the course is to build on the skills acquired in the prerequisite course, Computer Business Applications I, through the manipulation of word processing, spreadsheet, database management, and graphics software. An overview of the course sets forth the condition…

  3. Future Information Processing Technology--1983, Computer Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Peg, Ed.; Powell, Patricia, Ed.

    Developed by the Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology and the Defense Intelligence Agency with input from other federal agencies, this detailed document contains the 1983 technical forecast for the information processing industry through 1997. Part I forecasts the underlying technologies of hardware and software, discusses changes in the…

  4. A Survey of Current Computer Information Science (CIS) Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Rios Community Coll. District, Sacramento, CA. Office of Institutional Research.

    This document is a survey designed to be completed by current students of Computer Information Science (CIS) in the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD), which consists of three community colleges: American River College, Cosumnes River College, and Sacramento City College. The students are asked about their educational goals and how…

  5. Three-dimensional geospatial information service based on cloud computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Xi; Yue, Peng; Jiang, Liangcun; Wang, Linnan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies can support high-performance geospatial services in various domains, such as smart city and agriculture. Apache Hadoop, an open-source software framework, can be used to build a cloud environment on commodity clusters for storage and large-scale processing of data sets. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web 3-D Service (W3DS) is a portrayal service for three-dimensional (3-D) geospatial data. Its performance could be improved by cloud computing technologies. This paper investigates how OGC W3DS could be developed in a cloud computing environment. It adopts the Apache Hadoop as the framework to provide a cloud implementation. The design and implementation of the 3-D geospatial information cloud service is presented. The performance evaluation is performed over data retrieval tests running in a cloud platform built by Hadoop clusters. The evaluation results provide a valuable reference on providing high-performance 3-D geospatial information cloud services.

  6. Large-scale temporal analysis of computer and information science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soos, Sandor; Kampis, George; Gulyás, László

    2013-09-01

    The main aim of the project reported in this paper was twofold. One of the primary goals was to produce an extensive source of network data for bibliometric analyses of field dynamics in the case of Computer and Information Science. To this end, we rendered the raw material of the DBLP computer and infoscience bibliography into a comprehensive collection of dynamic network data, promptly available for further statistical analysis. The other goal was to demonstrate the value of our data source via its use in mapping Computer and Information Science (CIS). An analysis of the evolution of CIS was performed in terms of collaboration (co-authorship) network dynamics. Dynamic network analysis covered three quarters of the XX. century (76 years, from 1936 to date). Network evolution was described both at the macro- and the mezo level (in terms of community characteristics). Results show that the development of CIS followed what appears to be a universal pattern of growing into a "mature" discipline.

  7. Computer assisted management of information in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Cereijo, E

    1992-10-01

    In order to use the capability of computers for handling large amounts of information, we developed a program for the acquisition, handling, storage and retrieval of administrative and clinical information generated in the 20 bedded multidisciplinary critical care unit of a University Hospital. At an initial phase a personal computer (PC) was used to collect information from 4362 patients, that included registration data, coded admission problems, techniques and special treatments, and final diagnosis. This information combined with free text provided a discharge report. Complementary programs allowed calculation and storage of hemodynamic and gas exchange parameters. This experience led to a second phase in which a computer with microprocessor Intel 80386 at 25 MHz, 8 MB RAM, 310 MB hard disk and a streamer for 150 MB cartridge tape back up, using UNIX operating system, permitted multiple users working simultaneously through 1 central console and 7 ASCII terminals. Data input included demographic data, previous and admission problems in coded form, present history and physical examination in free text, list of present problems in coded form, comments on evolution, record of special techniques and treatments, laboratory data, treatment, final diagnosis and facility for using all the information to elaborate the final report. Side modules provide help for drugs dosing, protocols for specific conditions and clerical routines. The system is open for connection to other areas of the Hospital. Data from more than 2000 patients have been included so far.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1447538

  8. Reaching Information Society Targets: Do National Culture Attitudes about ICT Acceptance and Use Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to address a gap in the scholarly literature about one of the factors related to the Global Digital Divide by expanding the body of generalizable knowledge about the relationship between national culture attitudes about information and communications technology (ICT) acceptance and use (A&U) and national ICT use…

  9. Personal Privacy in an Information Society: What are the Trade-Offs? Insights into Consumer Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    J.C. Penney Co., Inc., New York, NY.

    Insights into Consumer Issues is one of a group of educational publications and teaching units that J.C. Penney provides for consumer educators as a public service. This folder illustrates that although computerized processing of personal information has brought considerable convenience, the potential risk to personal privacy is of increasing…

  10. Mediating Science and Society in the EU and UK: From Information-Transmission to Deliberative Democracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlili, Anwar; Dawson, Emily

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we critically review recent developments in policies, practices and philosophies pertaining to the mediation between science and the public within the EU and the UK, focusing in particular on the current paradigm of Public Understanding of Science and Technology (PEST) which seeks to depart from the science information-transmission…

  11. Government, Public Relations, and Lobby Groups: Stimulating Critical Reflections on Information Providers in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Suzette

    2003-01-01

    In a management class role-playing activity, students adopt the roles of parents, government representatives, and health providers in a scenario about child immunization. The objective is to develop critical understanding of the creation, management, and dissemination of information on decision making. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  12. NOAA's contribution to an informed society anticipating and responding to climate and its impacts through Climate.gov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepold, F.

    2012-12-01

    Societal concern about the impacts of climate change is growing. Citizens in public and private sectors want easy access to credible climate science information to help them make informed decisions affecting their lives and livelihoods. Weather and climate influences almost every sector of society, and affects up to 40 percent of the United States' 10 trillion annual economy. (NRC report, 2003 entitled "Satellite Observations of the Earth's Environment: Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations"). As the leading provider of climate, weather, and water information to the nation and the world, NOAA is a logical source for citizens to turn to for climate information. NOAA must expand and improve the way it communicates, educates, reaches out to, and engages with public stakeholders to better meet the nation's needs for timely, authoritative climate data and information. Citizens are increasingly going online to seek credible, authoritative climate information. However, users report having difficulty locating and using NOAA's online data products and services. Thus, resolving this online accessibility issue will be one of the Climate Portal's main benefits. The use of portal technology and emerging data integration and visualization tools provide an opportunity for NOAA to bring together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines and sources to deliver a more comprehensive picture of climate in the context of affected resources, communities and businesses. Additional benefits include wider extension of NOAA's data to other media such as television and free-choice learning venues, thereby increasing public exposure and engagement. The Climate Portal teams take an audience-focused approach to promoting climate science literacy among the public. The program communicates the challenges, processes, and results of NOAA-supported climate science through stories and data visualizations on the Web and in popular media. They provide information to a range of

  13. Mobile healthcare information management utilizing Cloud Computing and Android OS.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos; Pliakas, Thomas; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    Cloud Computing provides functionality for managing information data in a distributed, ubiquitous and pervasive manner supporting several platforms, systems and applications. This work presents the implementation of a mobile system that enables electronic healthcare data storage, update and retrieval using Cloud Computing. The mobile application is developed using Google's Android operating system and provides management of patient health records and medical images (supporting DICOM format and JPEG2000 coding). The developed system has been evaluated using the Amazon's S3 cloud service. This article summarizes the implementation details and presents initial results of the system in practice. PMID:21097207

  14. Department of Energy: MICS (Mathematical Information, and Computational Sciences Division). High performance computing and communications program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, {open_quotes}The DOE Program in HPCC{close_quotes}), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW). The information pointed to by the URL is updated frequently, and the interested reader is urged to access the WWW for the latest information.

  15. A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network. PMID:25110738

  16. Computing Information-Theoretic Quantities in Large Climate Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, K. H.; Castle, J. P.; Curry, C. T.; Gotera, A.; Huyser, K. A.; Wheeler, K. R.; Rossow, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    Information-theoretic quantities, such as mutual information, allow one to quantify the amount of information shared by two variables. In large data sets, the mutual information can be used to identify sets of co-informative variables and thus are able to identify variables that can act as predictors of a phenomenon of interest. While mutual information alone does not distinguish a causal interaction between two variables, another information-theoretic quantity called the transfer entropy can indicate such possible causal interactions. Together, these quantities can be used to identify causal interactions among sets of variables in large distributed data sets. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, these useful information-theoretic quantities. Our software tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which are critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. In this presentation we demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  17. InfoFair: an annual computer and information event.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Joan M Marcotte; Le Ber, Jeanne Marie

    2002-01-01

    Since 1983, the Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library has presented InfoFair, an annual event featuring presentations, exhibits, demonstrations, and workshops on computer and information topics of interest to health professionals and health information providers at the University of Utah Health Sciences Center and throughout Utah. The first InfoFair was held in response to an increasing number of inquiries from library users on how to search MEDLINE from their home or office computers. The focus of InfoFair has expanded and changed over the past nineteen years to reflect changes in library users' computer and information needs, concerns, and interests. While themes and programs have changed, a definite set of trends, guidelines, and procedures have developed based on the experience gained each year. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the changes in InfoFair from 1983 to 2001 and to present information for use by other libraries for planning and presenting similar events. PMID:11989276

  18. Assessing the prognoses on Health care in the information society 2013--thirteen years after.

    PubMed

    Knaup, Petra; Ammenwerth, Elske; Dujat, Carl; Grant, Andrew; Hasman, Arie; Hein, Andreas; Hochlehnert, Achim; Kulikowski, Casimir; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Moura, Lincoln; Plischke, Maik; Röhrig, Rainer; Stausberg, Jürgen; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko; Uckert, Frank; Winter, Alfred; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Haux, Reinhold

    2014-07-01

    Health care and information technology in health care is advancing at tremendous speed. We analysed whether the prognoses by Haux et al. - first presented in 2000 and published in 2002 - have been fulfilled in 2013 and which might be the reasons for match or mismatch. Twenty international experts in biomedical and health informatics met in May 2013 in a workshop to discuss match or mismatch of each of the 71 prognoses. After this meeting a web-based survey among workshop participants took place. Thirty-three prognoses were assessed matching; they reflect e.g. that there is good progress in storing patient data electronically in health care institutions. Twenty-three prognoses were assessed mismatching; they reflect e.g. that telemedicine and home monitoring as well as electronic exchange of patient data between institutions is not established as widespread as expected. Fifteen prognoses were assessed neither matching nor mismatching. ICT tools have considerably influenced health care in the last decade, but in many cases not as far as it was expected by Haux et al. in 2002. In most cases this is not a matter of the availability of technical solutions but of organizational and ethical issues. We need innovative and modern information system architectures which support multiple use of data for patient care as well as for research and reporting and which are able to integrate data from home monitoring into a patient centered health record. Since innovative technology is available the efficient and wide-spread use in health care has to be enabled by systematic information management. PMID:24952606

  19. How citizen seismology is transforming rapid public earthquake information and interactions between seismologists and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Rémy; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Roussel, Fréderic; Caroline, Etivant

    2015-04-01

    Historical earthquakes are only known to us through written recollections and so seismologists have a long experience of interpreting the reports of eyewitnesses, explaining probably why seismology has been a pioneer in crowdsourcing and citizen science. Today, Internet has been transforming this situation; It can be considered as the digital nervous system comprising of digital veins and intertwined sensors that capture the pulse of our planet in near real-time. How can both seismology and public could benefit from this new monitoring system? This paper will present the strategy implemented at Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) to leverage this new nervous system to detect and diagnose the impact of earthquakes within minutes rather than hours and how it transformed information systems and interactions with the public. We will show how social network monitoring and flashcrowds (massive website traffic increases on EMSC website) are used to automatically detect felt earthquakes before seismic detections, how damaged areas can me mapped through concomitant loss of Internet sessions (visitors being disconnected) and the benefit of collecting felt reports and geolocated pictures to further constrain rapid impact assessment of global earthquakes. We will also describe how public expectations within tens of seconds of ground shaking are at the basis of improved diversified information tools which integrate this user generated contents. A special attention will be given to LastQuake, the most complex and sophisticated Twitter QuakeBot, smartphone application and browser add-on, which deals with the only earthquakes that matter for the public: the felt and damaging earthquakes. In conclusion we will demonstrate that eyewitnesses are today real time earthquake sensors and active actors of rapid earthquake information.

  20. Cryptozoology Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  1. Doctor-patient relationships in global society. Informed consent in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Katrova, L G; Freed, J R; Coulter, I D

    2001-01-01

    The concept for initiation of treatment only after the explicit consent of the patient, based on preliminary information, is the most important element determining the relationship between patient and doctor nowadays. The application of this concept in dentistry and its inclusion in the professional documents regulating these relationships needs more comprehensive and modern conditions-relevant analysis of ethical, legal and professional aspects of the problem. The purpose of the study was to define the modern view of informed consent and its application in dentistry in different social environment. The general and specific features of the evolution of the problem and the social practice in Bulgaria, The European Community and Northern America are discussed in the context of the global tendency for free movement of patients and mutual recognition of professional qualification. The results suggest that despite the different degree of social and economical development in different countries the interest in the problem grows significantly and harmonization of legislation for health protection is based on the new social decree in the construction of doctor-patient relationships. It is expected that the comparative studies in this field will promote the improvement of dentists' training and improvement of scientific and expert exchange in solving problems of patents' rights and professional ethics. PMID:15354497

  2. The G8-global healthcare applications project (GHAP) - recommendations for the way into the information society

    PubMed

    Dietzel

    1999-12-16

    The Global Healthcare Applications Project has sought to demonstrate the potential of telematics in the field of medicine and healthcare and to promote joint approaches to issues such as the setting of standards. This has been done through 10 sub-projects covering a range of applications and issues: 1. Towards a global public health information network - Coordinator: Germany (Ulrich Laaser, ulaaser@mail.uni-bielefeld.de; URL: http://health.ibs.uni-bielefeld. de/i-jphe/database/documents/abstract/laaser-g7.htm(C45-60_laaser-g7. pdf) 2. Improving prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. - Coordinator: France (Gerard Brugal, gerard. brugal@imag.fr; URL: http://pathconsult.imag.fr/G7/G7_index.html) 3. Improving prevention, diagnosis and treatment of major cardiovascular diseases. - Coordinator: Italy (Attilio Maseri, amaseri@rm.unicatt.it; URL: http://www.g7cardio.org) 4. International concerted action for collaboration in telemedicine. - Coordinator: Canada (Andre Lacroix, lacroixa@ere.umontreal.ca; URL: http:// www.g7sp4.org) 5. Enabling mechanisms for a global healthcare network, including Internet connectivity. - Coordinator: UK (Ray Rogers, r.rogers@mcmail.com; URL: http://www.ehto.be/sp5) 6. International harmonisation of the use of data cards in healthcare: Internet Connectivity Coordinator: USA (Elliot R. Siegel, siegel@nlm.nih.gov; URL: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/) - Smart Cards and information exchange security in health care Joint Coordinators: France, European Commission, Italy and Germany (Jacques Sauret, jacques.sauret@sante.gouv.fr and G8-HC@sesam-vitale.fr; URL: http:/www.sesam-vitale.fr/Projects/Netlink-G7-En/) 7. Evidence and effectiveness. - Coordinator: Canada (Andrew Penn, andrew. penn@ualberta.ca; URL: http://www.medlib.com/spi/web.htm) 8. Multilingual anatomical digital database. - Coordinator: USA (Michael J. Ackermann; URL: http://www.nlm.nih.gov) 9. Medical image reference centre. - Coordinator: Japan (Eturo Kashiwagi

  3. Cross-Informant Agreement between Parent-Reported and Adolescent Self-Reported Problems in 25 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chahed, Myriam; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Minaei, Asghar; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Petot, Djaouida; Petot, Jean-Michel; Pomalima, Rolando; Rudan, Vlasta; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c) How well do parents and adolescents in different…

  4. Learning Societies in the New Millennium: Creativity, Caring & Commitments. International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer Assisted Instruction (Taipei, Taiwan, November 21-24, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. Asia-Pacific Chapter.

    This conference addressed pedagogical, social, and technological issues related to computers in education. The conference theme, "Learning Societies in the New Millennium: Creativity, Caring & Commitments," focused on creative learning, caring for diverse cultures and global issues, and committing oneself to a new way of learning/instruction via…

  5. Information and computer-aided system for structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrashevitch, Ju. G.; Nizametdinov, Sh. U.; Polkovnikov, A. V.; Rumjantzev, V. P.; Surina, O. N.; Kalinin, G. M.; Sidorenkov, A. V.; Strebkov, Ju. S.

    1992-09-01

    An information and computer-aided system for structural materials data has been developed to provide data for the fusion and fission reactor system design. It is designed for designers, industrial engineers, and material science specialists and provides a friendly interface in an interactive mode. The database for structural materials contains the master files: chemical composition, physical, mechanical, corrosion, technological properties, regulatory and technical documentation. The system is implemented on a PC/AT running the PS/2 operating system.

  6. Storing and managing information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device

    DOEpatents

    Pike, William A; Riensche, Roderick M; Best, Daniel M; Roberts, Ian E; Whyatt, Marie V; Hart, Michelle L; Carr, Norman J; Thomas, James J

    2012-09-18

    Systems and computer-implemented processes for storage and management of information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device. The processes and systems can capture a sequence of interactive operation elements that are performed by the information analyst, who is collecting an information artifact from at least one of the plurality of software applications. The information artifact can then be stored together with the interactive operation elements as a snippet on a memory device, which is operably connected to the processor. The snippet comprises a view from an analysis application, data contained in the view, and the sequence of interactive operation elements stored as a provenance representation comprising operation element class, timestamp, and data object attributes for each interactive operation element in the sequence.

  7. A computer-based frozen blood inventory and information system.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S C; Ruess, D T; Camp, F R

    1975-01-01

    A computer-based, time-sharing data processing system was developed to assist in maintaining information regarding units of red blood cells frozen for eventual transfusion. An automated system has been programmed to compile and retrieve data concerning stored units, prepare shipping documents as required, and maintain transfusion records in a retrievable manner for thawed or shipped units. Requests for frozen red blood cells are processed through this system. Units are selected by the computer to meet requirements specified by the operator of a keyboard terminal. These requirements include method of cryopreservation, specific antigenic characteristics required, and the number of units requested. The computer prints out on the keyboard terminal the units meeting the requirements and the keyboard operator then indicates to the computer the name of the requesting facility, if these units are to be shipped. This input initiates a programmed routine that generates a shipping invoice and a new file for these units in a permanent transfusion record which can by acessed by either donor number or the frozen blood cell code. PMID:1129837

  8. ACCF/SCAI/STS/AATS/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/SCCT 2012 appropriate use criteria for coronary revascularization focused update: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, and the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Dehmer, Gregory J; Hirshfeld, John W; Smith, Peter K; Spertus, John A; Masoudi, Frederick A; Dehmer, Gregory J; Patel, Manesh R; Smith, Peter K; Chambers, Charles E; Ferguson, T Bruce; Garcia, Mario J; Grover, Frederick L; Holmes, David R; Klein, Lloyd W; Limacher, Marian C; Mack, Michael J; Malenka, David J; Park, Myung H; Ragosta, Michael; Ritchie, James L; Rose, Geoffrey A; Rosenberg, Alan B; Russo, Andrea M; Shemin, Richard J; Weintraub, William S; Wolk, Michael J; Bailey, Steven R; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Min, James K; Patel, Manesh R; Shaw, Leslee; Stainback, Raymond F; Allen, Joseph M

    2012-04-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an update of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization frequently considered. In the initial document, 180 clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, extent of medical therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, and coronary anatomy. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios the writing group felt to be affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document, and the definition of appropriateness was unchanged. The technical panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate and likely to improve patients' health outcomes or survival. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate revascularization is considered inappropriate and unlikely to improve health outcomes or survival. Scores in the mid-range (4 to 6) indicate a clinical scenario for which the likelihood that coronary revascularization will improve health outcomes or survival is uncertain. In general, as seen with the prior AUC, the use of coronary revascularization for patients with acute coronary syndromes and combinations of significant symptoms and/or ischemia is appropriate. In contrast, revascularization of asymptomatic patients or patients with low-risk findings on noninvasive testing and minimal medical therapy are viewed less favorably. The technical panel felt that based on recent studies, coronary artery bypass grafting remains an appropriate method of revascularization for patients with high burden of coronary artery disease (CAD

  9. ACCF/SCAI/STS/AATS/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/SCCT 2012 Appropriate use criteria for coronary revascularization focused update: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, and the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Dehmer, Gregory J; Hirshfeld, John W; Smith, Peter K; Spertus, John A

    2012-02-28

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an update of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization frequently considered. In the initial document, 180 clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, extent of medical therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, and coronary anatomy. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios the writing group felt to be affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document, and the definition of appropriateness was unchanged. The technical panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate and likely to improve patients' health outcomes or survival. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate revascularization is considered inappropriate and unlikely to improve health outcomes or survival. Scores in the mid-range (4 to 6) indicate a clinical scenario for which the likelihood that coronary revascularization will improve health outcomes or survival is uncertain. In general, as seen with the prior AUC, the use of coronary revascularization for patients with acute coronary syndromes and combinations of significant symptoms and/or ischemia is appropriate. In contrast, revascularization of asymptomatic patients or patients with low-risk findings on noninvasive testing and minimal medical therapy are viewed less favorably. The technical panel felt that based on recent studies, coronary artery bypass grafting remains an appropriate method of revascularization for patients with high burden of coronary artery disease (CAD

  10. Primer on computers and information technology. Part two: an introduction to computer networking.

    PubMed

    Channin, D S; Chang, P J

    1997-01-01

    Computers networks are a way of connecting computers together such that they can exchange information. For this exchange to be successful, system behavior must be planned and specified very clearly at a number of different levels. Although there are many choices to be made at each level, often there are simple decisions that can be made to rapidly reduce the number of options. Planning is most important at the highest (application) and lowest (wiring) levels, whereas the middle levels must be specified to ensure compatibility. Because of the widespread use of the Internet, solutions based on Internet technologies are often cost-effective and should be considered when designing a network. As in all technical fields, consultation with experts (ie, computer networking specialists) may be worthwhile. PMID:9225395

  11. Report of the Panel on Computer and Information Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundstrom, Stephen F.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft have become more and more dependent on computers (information processing) for improved performance and safety. It is clear that this activity will grow, since information processing technology has advanced by a factor of 10 every 5 years for the past 35 years and will continue to do so. Breakthroughs in device technology, from vacuum tubes through transistors to integrated circuits, contribute to this rapid pace. This progress is nearly matched by similar, though not as dramatic, advances in numerical software and algorithms. Progress has not been easy. Many technical and nontechnical challenges were surmounted. The outlook is for continued growth in capability but will require surmounting new challenges. The technology forecast presented in this report has been developed by extrapolating current trends and assessing the possibilities of several high-risk research topics. In the process, critical problem areas that require research and development emphasis have been identified. The outlook assumes a positive perspective; the projected capabilities are possible by the year 2000, and adequate resources will be made available to achieve them. Computer and information technology forecasts and the potential impacts of this technology on aeronautics are identified. Critical issues and technical challenges underlying the achievement of forecasted performance and benefits are addressed.

  12. Department of Energy Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Division: High Performance Computing and Communications Program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, The DOE Program in HPCC), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW).

  13. A Comprehensive Computer-Based Medical Information System

    PubMed Central

    David, Sidney S.

    1977-01-01

    A comupter-based medical information system has been developed for patient care and clinical investigation. It is implemented on a large digital computer and employs techniques consistent with general purpose commercially available data management systems. It has been in operation since 1971 and contains the records of approximately 1600 patients. Incoming data are received from patients and clinical staff utilizing specialized forms. A wide diversity of output, including summaries, searches and statistics are provided. The system enhances the quality of care provided to patients, optimizes physician time spent on clinical management, improves many aspects of the supporting research, and is applicable to other areas of medicine.

  14. Representing spatial information in a computational model for network management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaisdell, James H.; Brownfield, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    While currently available relational database management systems (RDBMS) allow inclusion of spatial information in a data model, they lack tools for presenting this information in an easily comprehensible form. Computer-aided design (CAD) software packages provide adequate functions to produce drawings, but still require manual placement of symbols and features. This project has demonstrated a bridge between the data model of an RDBMS and the graphic display of a CAD system. It is shown that the CAD system can be used to control the selection of data with spatial components from the database and then quickly plot that data on a map display. It is shown that the CAD system can be used to extract data from a drawing and then control the insertion of that data into the database. These demonstrations were successful in a test environment that incorporated many features of known working environments, suggesting that the techniques developed could be adapted for practical use.

  15. Computing Power and Sample Size for Informational Odds Ratio †

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.

    2013-01-01

    The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (i.e., information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder. Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs, analogous to relative risks (RRs) generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. This paper outlines how to compute power and sample size in the simple case of unadjusted IORs. PMID:24157518

  16. [The status of NIHS Information and Computing Infrastructure (NICI)].

    PubMed

    Nakata, K; Nakano, T; Takai, T; Komine, K; Kaminuma, T

    2000-01-01

    From 1999 to 2000, NIHS Information and Computing Infrastructure (NICI) were newly renovated. The purposes of the renovation are (1) the improvement of the communication for business works in NIHS, (2) supporting for the research, (3) supporting for the administration work. The Internet connection speed was upgraded from 256 Kbps to 1.5 Mbps. The high quality network sever machines and database server machines were installed. The large-scale software systems were renewed their versions. Four experimental stations for medical plants at Hokkaido, Izu, Wakayama and Tanegashima connected to NIHS at Tokyo or Osaka branch by ISDN. We describe the providing information on NIHS home page, and how to utilize NICI for our research and official works. PMID:11534109

  17. Computationally Inexpensive Identification of Non-Informative Model Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, J.; Cuntz, M.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.; Samaniego, L. E.; Schaefer, D.; Thober, S.; Rakovec, O.; Musuuza, J. L.; Craven, J. R.; Spieler, D.; Schrön, M.; Prykhodko, V.; Dalmasso, G.; Langenberg, B.; Attinger, S.

    2014-12-01

    Sensitivity analysis is used, for example, to identify parameters which induce the largest variability in model output and are thus informative during calibration. Variance-based techniques are employed for this purpose, which unfortunately require a large number of model evaluations and are thus ineligible for complex environmental models. We developed, therefore, a computational inexpensive screening method, which is based on Elementary Effects, that automatically separates informative and non-informative model parameters. The method was tested using the mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) with 52 parameters. The model was applied in three European catchments with different hydrological characteristics, i.e. Neckar (Germany), Sava (Slovenia), and Guadalquivir (Spain). The method identified the same informative parameters as the standard Sobol method but with less than 1% of model runs. In Germany and Slovenia, 22 of 52 parameters were informative mostly in the formulations of evapotranspiration, interflow and percolation. In Spain 19 of 52 parameters were informative with an increased importance of soil parameters. We showed further that Sobol' indexes calculated for the subset of informative parameters are practically the same as Sobol' indexes before the screening but the number of model runs was reduced by more than 50%. The model mHM was then calibrated twice in the three test catchments. First all 52 parameters were taken into account and then only the informative parameters were calibrated while all others are kept fixed. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies were 0.87 and 0.83 in Germany, 0.89 and 0.88 in Slovenia, and 0.86 and 0.85 in Spain, respectively. This minor loss of at most 4% in model performance comes along with a substantial decrease of at least 65% in model evaluations. In summary, we propose an efficient screening method to identify non-informative model parameters that can be discarded during further applications. We have shown that sensitivity

  18. Automatic generation of computable implementation guides from clinical information models.

    PubMed

    Boscá, Diego; Maldonado, José Alberto; Moner, David; Robles, Montserrat

    2015-06-01

    Clinical information models are increasingly used to describe the contents of Electronic Health Records. Implementation guides are a common specification mechanism used to define such models. They contain, among other reference materials, all the constraints and rules that clinical information must obey. However, these implementation guides typically are oriented to human-readability, and thus cannot be processed by computers. As a consequence, they must be reinterpreted and transformed manually into an executable language such as Schematron or Object Constraint Language (OCL). This task can be difficult and error prone due to the big gap between both representations. The challenge is to develop a methodology for the specification of implementation guides in such a way that humans can read and understand easily and at the same time can be processed by computers. In this paper, we propose and describe a novel methodology that uses archetypes as basis for generation of implementation guides. We use archetypes to generate formal rules expressed in Natural Rule Language (NRL) and other reference materials usually included in implementation guides such as sample XML instances. We also generate Schematron rules from NRL rules to be used for the validation of data instances. We have implemented these methods in LinkEHR, an archetype editing platform, and exemplify our approach by generating NRL rules and implementation guides from EN ISO 13606, openEHR, and HL7 CDA archetypes. PMID:25910958

  19. Revisioning Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) at the Comparative & International Education Society (CIES): A Five-Year Account (2009-2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has evolved as a key topic and research area at the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) conference. The past five years' CIES conference papers with an ICT component are reviewed for common development trends, opportunities,…

  20. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (Lisbon, Portugal, March 14-16, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference on Mobile Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Lisbon, Portugal, March 14-16, 2013. The Mobile Learning 2013 International Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  1. A Colorado Response to the Information Society: The Changing Academic Library. Proceedings of a Conference (Denver, Colorado, October 6-7, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breivik, Patricia Senn, Ed.

    As suggested by a Colorado Academic Library Master Plan developed in 1982, a statewide conference that brought together academicians and librarians was held to explore the role of academic libraries in the information society. People came in teams of three from institutions and included library directors, academic vice presidents, and faculty…

  2. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (11th, Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 11th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015. The Mobile Learning 2015 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  3. Building the Information Society in Candidate Countries? A Prospective Analysis on Potential Trajectories To Realise the Lisbon Goals. IPTS Experts Workshop Report, February 23-25, 2003, Sevilla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanowicz, Marc; Burgelman, Jean-Claude; Centeno, Clara; Gourova, Elisavetta; Carat, Gerard

    Potential policies and strategies for building the information society (IS) in countries that are candidates for admission to the European Union were explored at a workshop attended by 39 experts from the European Commission (EC), the EC's Institute for Prospective and Technological Studies, and outside the EC. The workshop focused on the specific…

  4. Library and Information Science's Ontological Position in the Networked Society: Using New Technology to Get Back to an Old Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kåhre, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper concerns the ontological position of library and informations science in the networked society. The aim of the study is to understand library use and library functions in the age of Internet and artificial intelligent programmed search engines. Theoretical approach: The approach discusses so called sociocognitive tools in…

  5. 78 FR 79014 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: NAME: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science...

  6. 78 FR 61870 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science...

  7. Campus Computing, 1998. The Ninth National Survey of Desktop Computing and Information Technology in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    This report presents findings of a June 1998 survey of computing officials at 1,623 two- and four-year U.S. colleges and universities concerning the use of computer technology. The survey found that computing and information technology (IT) are now core components of the campus environment and classroom experience. However, key aspects of IT…

  8. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  9. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  10. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  11. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  12. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  13. 77 FR 66873 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and... impact of its policies, programs and activities on the Computer and Information Science and...

  14. Advanced information processing system: Inter-computer communication services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Masotto, Tom; Sims, J. Terry; Whittredge, Roy; Alger, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to document the functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Inter-Computer Communications Services (ICCS) of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS). An introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS and to present an overview of the ICCS. An overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a brief description of the AIPS software is given. The guarantees of the ICCS are provided, and the ICCS is described as a seven-layered International Standards Organization (ISO) Model. The ICCS functional requirements, functional design, and detailed specifications as well as each layer of the ICCS are also described. A summary of results and suggestions for future work are presented.

  15. A Cloud Computing Based Patient Centric Medical Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ankur; Henehan, Nathan; Somashekarappa, Vivek; Pandya, A. S.; Kalva, Hari; Furht, Borko

    This chapter discusses an emerging concept of a cloud computing based Patient Centric Medical Information System framework that will allow various authorized users to securely access patient records from various Care Delivery Organizations (CDOs) such as hospitals, urgent care centers, doctors, laboratories, imaging centers among others, from any location. Such a system must seamlessly integrate all patient records including images such as CT-SCANS and MRI'S which can easily be accessed from any location and reviewed by any authorized user. In such a scenario the storage and transmission of medical records will have be conducted in a totally secure and safe environment with a very high standard of data integrity, protecting patient privacy and complying with all Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations.

  16. Automation of Large-scale Computer Cluster Monitoring Information Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magradze, Erekle; Nadal, Jordi; Quadt, Arnulf; Kawamura, Gen; Musheghyan, Haykuhi

    2015-12-01

    High-throughput computing platforms consist of a complex infrastructure and provide a number of services apt to failures. To mitigate the impact of failures on the quality of the provided services, a constant monitoring and in time reaction is required, which is impossible without automation of the system administration processes. This paper introduces a way of automation of the process of monitoring information analysis to provide the long and short term predictions of the service response time (SRT) for a mass storage and batch systems and to identify the status of a service at a given time. The approach for the SRT predictions is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). An evaluation of the approaches is performed on real monitoring data from the WLCG Tier 2 center GoeGrid. Ten fold cross validation results demonstrate high efficiency of both approaches in comparison to known methods.

  17. [Informational approach to radiology department by end user computing].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaya; Katoh, Tsutomu; Murota, Makiko; Kohchi, Hideyuki; Miura, Shinji; Ishikawa, Midori; Ohhiro, Mika

    2009-04-20

    In recent years, due to the advanced computerization of medical institutions, systems such as radiology information system (RIS) and reporting have been used extensively also at radiology departments. However, the introduction of these systems will need a great amount of money, and the systems are not yet introduced in our hospital. On the contrary, thanks to the sophistication and price reduction of personal computers (PCs), there is now found a rapid expansion of end user computing (EUC) in which users of a system actively build and manage the system of their duties. Under these circumstances, in order to assist the duties at low costs, we worked the computerization of duties done at our Radiology Department by using the EUC. Specifically, we used software of general-purpose database to build the system with functions dealing with records on implementing medical examinations and treatments, examination booking and diagnostic imaging report. This system which has been developed according to details of conventional duties and requests from medical personnel makes it possible to alleviate the duties which were done manually. PMID:19420829

  18. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements and Joint Society Statements Member Login Enter Forgot your password? Meetings & ...

  19. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Terms and Conditions Copyright © 2016 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2016 Board Review ... Membership Membership Information Membership in the Heart Failure Society is open to all health care professionals with ...

  20. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  1. The fourth International Conference on Information Science and Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This book comprises the papers accepted by the fourth International Conference on Information Science and Cloud Computing (ISCC), which was held from 18-19 December, 2015 in Guangzhou, China. It has 70 papers divided into four parts. The first part focuses on Information Theory with 20 papers; the second part emphasizes Machine Learning also containing 21 papers; in the third part, there are 21 papers as well in the area of Control Science; and the last part with 8 papers is dedicated to Cloud Science. Each part can be used as an excellent reference by engineers, researchers and students who need to build a knowledge base of the most current advances and state-of-practice in the topics covered by the ISCC conference. Special thanks go to Professor Deyu Qi, General Chair of ISCC 2015, for his leadership in supervising the organization of the entire conference; Professor Tinghuai Ma, Program Chair, and members of program committee for evaluating all the submissions and ensuring the selection of only the highest quality papers; and the authors for sharing their ideas, results and insights. We sincerely hope that you enjoy reading papers included in this book.

  2. The past and future of chemical information - A report of the Chemical Information Division Session of the 200th Meeting of the American Chemical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokizane, Soichi

    At the historical meeting of the ACS CINF Division, the 1990 Herman Skolnik Award was presented to Dr. Ernst Meyer, who at BASF in Germany had developed a computer storage and retrieval system of chemical structures in 1960s. His and his colleagues' speeches in the award symposium were about the history of the development of chemical structure information in Germany. In the symposium of the Markush structure system, a hottest topic in this field, CAS's MARPAT and Markush-DARC co-developed by Questel, INPI, and Derwent were discussed by many papers. Other topics of this meeting were discussed, too.

  3. Evolving the Land Information System into a Cloud Computing Service

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, Paul R.

    2015-02-17

    The Land Information System (LIS) was developed to use advanced flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation frameworks to integrate extremely large satellite- and ground-based observations with advanced land surface models to produce continuous high-resolution fields of land surface states and fluxes. The resulting fields are extremely useful for drought and flood assessment, agricultural planning, disaster management, weather and climate forecasting, water resources assessment, and the like. We envisioned transforming the LIS modeling system into a scientific cloud computing-aware web and data service that would allow clients to easily setup and configure for use in addressing large water management issues. The focus of this Phase 1 project was to determine the scientific, technical, commercial merit and feasibility of the proposed LIS-cloud innovations that are currently barriers to broad LIS applicability. We (a) quantified the barriers to broad LIS utility and commercialization (high performance computing, big data, user interface, and licensing issues); (b) designed the proposed LIS-cloud web service, model-data interface, database services, and user interfaces; (c) constructed a prototype LIS user interface including abstractions for simulation control, visualization, and data interaction, (d) used the prototype to conduct a market analysis and survey to determine potential market size and competition, (e) identified LIS software licensing and copyright limitations and developed solutions, and (f) developed a business plan for development and marketing of the LIS-cloud innovation. While some significant feasibility issues were found in the LIS licensing, overall a high degree of LIS-cloud technical feasibility was found.

  4. Embrittlement Database from the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) is a comprehensive collection of data from surveillance capsules of U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors and from experiments in material test reactors. The collected data are contained in either the Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB) or the Test Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (TR-EDB). The EDB work includes verification of the quality of the EDB, provision for user-friendly software to access and process the data, exploration and/or confirmation of embrittlement prediction models, provision for rapid investigation of regulatory issues, and provision for the technical bases for voluntary consensus standards or regulatory guides. The EDB is designed for use with a personal computer. The data are collected into "raw data files." Traceability of all data is maintained by including complete references along with the page numbers. External data verification of the PR-EDB is the responsibility of the vendors, who were responsible for the insertion and testing of the materials in the surveillance capsules. Internal verification is accomplished by checking against references and checking for inconsistencies. Examples of information contained in the EDBs are: Charpy data, tensile data, reactor type, irradiation environments, fracture toughness data, instrumented Charpy data, pressure-temperature (P-T) data, chemistry data, and material history. The TR-EDB additionally has annealing Charpy data. The current version of the PR-EDB contains the test results from 269 Charpy capsules irradiated in 101 reactors. These results include 320 plate data points, 123 forging data points, 113 standard reference materials (SRMS) or correlation monitor (CM) points, 244 weld material data points, and 220 heat-affected-zone (HAZ) material data points. Similarly, the TR-EDB contains information for 290 SRM or CM points, 342 plate data points, 165 forging data points, 378 welds, and 55 HAZ materials. [copied from http://rsicc.ornl.gov/RelatedLinks.aspx?t=edb

  5. ACCF/ASNC/ACR/AHA/ASE/SCCT/SCMR/SNM 2009 appropriate use criteria for cardiac radionuclide imaging: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hendel, Robert C; Berman, Daniel S; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Heidenreich, Paul A; Henkin, Robert E; Pellikka, Patricia A; Pohost, Gerald M; Williams, Kim A

    2009-06-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac radionuclide imaging (RNI) is frequently considered. This document is a revision of the original Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (SPECT MPI) Appropriateness Criteria, published 4 years earlier, written to reflect changes in test utilization and new clinical data, and to clarify RNI use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine appropriate use criteria (AUC) on a frequent basis. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Sixty-seven clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of cardiac RNI for diagnosis and risk assessment in intermediate- and high-risk patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, while testing in low-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Additionally, use for perioperative testing was found to be inappropriate except for high selected groups of patients. It is anticipated that these results will have a significant impact on physician decision making, test performance, and reimbursement policy, and will help guide future research. PMID:19451357

  6. Meeting at the Crossroads. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE 2001) (18th, Melbourne, Australia, December 9-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Gregor, Ed.; Keppell, Mike, Ed.; McNaught, Carmel, Ed.; Petrovic, Tom, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 63 papers presented at ASCLITE (Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education) 2001. The focus is on the following themes related to the use of computers in higher education: (1) reflection in and on action, for reflective inquiry, for students, for teachers, for design and…

  7. Computers in a Learning Society. Testimony given before the House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Domestic and International Planning, Analysis, and Cooperation (Washington, D.C., October 13, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Goldstein, Ira

    A revolution that will transform learning in our society, altering both the methods and the content of education, has been made possible by harnessing tomorrow's powerful computer technology to serve as intelligent instructional systems. The unique quality of the computer that makes a revolution possible is that it can serve not only as a…

  8. Proceedings of ISCIS III, the third international symposium on computer and information sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Gelenbe, E.; Orhun, E.; Basar, E.

    1988-01-01

    The symposium presented in this book covered the following topics in computer and information sciences: computer networks, computers in education, software engineering, modelling and simulation, concurrency, artificial intelligence, image and signal processing, data base systems, operating systems, parallel processing, robotics, reliability, computer architecture, CAD/CAM, and social and technical applications. Many of the papers presented are studies on computer networks, computers in education, artificial intelligence, software engineering, concurrency, data base systems, image processing, and parallel processing.

  9. Heat. A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development, Grade 9. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    This teacher's manual is one of a series designed to support "general level" program development for intermediate/junior high school science, emphasizing the relationship between science and society. The main body of the manual deals with teaching about heat in the context of home heating systems. In addition, a brief treatment of the particle…

  10. Computers and Information Technology as a Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    Reflects on major advantage of computers as learning devices--interaction--and discusses stages involved in production of materials for computer-based learning. Use of authoring languages is discouraged. A vision of the future includes hardware; producers, distributors, and users of computer-based learning materials; and educational changes…

  11. Simplifying pacemaker follow-up by the implementation of the NASPE standards on computer interface. North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Z M; Furman, S

    1986-11-01

    One of the basic limitations for the development and use of more sophisticated pacemakers is the difficulty to provide adequate instrumentation and methodology for the follow-up in the clinical environment. To address this problem, the NASPE (North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology) Computer Committee has developed an interface standard to allow communication with the pacemaker programmer through many computer systems. The document recommends the use of the RS 232/c (CCITT V.24) interface with baud rates variable from 300 to 19,200, 7 bit word, no parity and Xon/Xoff protocol. The actual message format consists of an SOH code, a function code describing the action to be taken, a variable code defining the parameter on which the action is to be taken, and the actual numerical data. The CHECKSUM is calculated by summing all the ASCII codes beginning after the SOH code and ending with the last byte preceding the checksum itself. The last seven bits so calculated are attached to the message, and a consecutive ETX code ends the communication. At the receiving end, the checksum is recalculated and compared to the value received. If the two match, the message is accepted. Using this format, compatible computer software and pacemaker programmers can be developed independently and function as a unit. The protocol is capable of real-time ECG transmission. PMID:2432546

  12. ACCF/SCAI/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2012 appropriate use criteria for diagnostic catheterization: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Bailey, Steven R; Bonow, Robert O; Chambers, Charles E; Chan, Paul S; Dehmer, Gregory J; Kirtane, Ajay J; Wann, L Samuel; Ward, R Parker

    2012-05-29

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation, in collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted a review of common clinical scenarios where diagnostic catheterization is frequently considered. The indications (clinical scenarios) were derived from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines and results of studies examining the implementation of noninvasive imaging appropriate use criteria. The 166 indications in this document were developed by a diverse writing group and scored by a separate independent technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9, to designate appropriate use (median 7 to 9), uncertain use (median 4 to 6), and inappropriate use (median 1 to 3). Diagnostic catheterization may include several different procedure components. The indications developed focused primarily on 2 aspects of diagnostic catheterization. Many indications focused on the performance of coronary angiography for the detection of coronary artery disease with other procedure components (e.g., hemodynamic measurements, ventriculography) at the discretion of the operator. The majority of the remaining indications focused on hemodynamic measurements to evaluate valvular heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, cardiomyopathy, and other conditions, with the use of coronary angiography at the discretion of the operator. Seventy-five indications were rated as appropriate, 49 were rated as uncertain, and 42 were rated as inappropriate. The appropriate use criteria for diagnostic catheterization have the potential to impact physician decision making, healthcare delivery, and reimbursement policy. Furthermore, recognition of uncertain clinical scenarios facilitates identification of areas that would benefit from future research. PMID:22578925

  13. The Information Society--A Challenge for Education Policies? Five Case Studies: Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This collection of conference papers consists of a series of five case studies conducted in Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. In Denmark, an exploration of computer conferencing in distance education included an examination of the pedagogical motives for using computer conferencing, the availability of computers in study centers, and…

  14. From Both Sides, Now: Librarians Team up with Computer Scientist to Deliver Virtual Computer-Information Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loesch, Martha Fallahay

    2011-01-01

    Two members of the library faculty at Seton Hall University teamed up with a respected professor of mathematics and computer science, in order to create an online course that introduces information literacy both from the perspectives of the computer scientist and from the instruction librarian. This collaboration is unique in that it addresses the…

  15. Campus Computing, 2001: The 12th National Survey of Computing and Information Technology in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The 2001 Campus Computing Survey, the 12th such survey, is the largest continuing study of the role of computing and information technology in U.S. higher education today. The survey results in this report summarize data from 590 two- and four-year, public and private colleges across the United States, representing a 38.4% response rate. The focus…

  16. Campus Computing, 1996. The Seventh National Survey of Desktop Computing and Information Technology in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    This report presents the findings of a June, 1996, survey of computing officials at 660 two- and four-year colleges and universities across the United States concerning the use of computer technology on college campuses. The survey found that instructional integration and user support emerged as the two most important information technology (IT)…

  17. A Comparison of the Computer Technology and Computer and Information Science Curricula at Indiana University and Purdue University at Indianapolis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Kathleen M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes and compares the degree programs in Computer Technology and in Computer and Information Science that are offered in the Purdue University System. Areas of comparison include degrees available; curriculum differences, including mathematics requirements and required and optional courses; faculty; and educational and employment…

  18. 76 FR 37111 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified... contractor, Computer Sciences Corporation of Chantilly, VA and Its Identified Subcontractors, to...

  19. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...

  20. Bioinformatics process management: information flow via a computational journal

    PubMed Central

    Feagan, Lance; Rohrer, Justin; Garrett, Alexander; Amthauer, Heather; Komp, Ed; Johnson, David; Hock, Adam; Clark, Terry; Lushington, Gerald; Minden, Gary; Frost, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the Bioinformatics Computational Journal (BCJ), a framework for conducting and managing computational experiments in bioinformatics and computational biology. These experiments often involve series of computations, data searches, filters, and annotations which can benefit from a structured environment. Systems to manage computational experiments exist, ranging from libraries with standard data models to elaborate schemes to chain together input and output between applications. Yet, although such frameworks are available, their use is not widespread–ad hoc scripts are often required to bind applications together. The BCJ explores another solution to this problem through a computer based environment suitable for on-site use, which builds on the traditional laboratory notebook paradigm. It provides an intuitive, extensible paradigm designed for expressive composition of applications. Extensive features facilitate sharing data, computational methods, and entire experiments. By focusing on the bioinformatics and computational biology domain, the scope of the computational framework was narrowed, permitting us to implement a capable set of features for this domain. This report discusses the features determined critical by our system and other projects, along with design issues. We illustrate the use of our implementation of the BCJ on two domain-specific examples. PMID:18053179

  1. ASCI 2010 contrast media guideline for cardiac imaging: a report of the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging guideline working group

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Kakuya; Tsai, I-Chen; Chan, Carmen; Yu, Wei; Yong, Hwan Seok; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2010-01-01

    The use of contrast media for cardiac imaging becomes increasing as the widespread of cardiac CT and cardiac MR. A radiologist needs to carefully consider the indication and the injection protocol of contrast media to be used as well as the possibility of adverse effect. There are several guidelines for contrast media in western countries. However, these are focusing the adverse effect of contrast media. The Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging, the only society dedicated to cardiovascular imaging in Asia, formed a Working Group and created a guideline, which summarizes the integrated knowledge of contrast media for cardiac imaging. In cardiac imaging, coronary artery evaluation is feasible by non-contrast MR angiography, which can be an alternative examination in high risk patients for the use of iodine contrast media. Furthermore, the body habitus of Asian patients is usually smaller than that of their western counterparts. This necessitates modifications in the injection protocol and in the formula for calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate. This guideline provided fundamental information for the use of contrast media for Asian patients in cardiac imaging. PMID:20931289

  2. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselyova, N. N.; Dudarev, V. A.; Zemskov, V. S.

    2010-02-01

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  3. For operation of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmon, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Computer programs for relational information management data base systems, spherical roller bearing analysis, a generalized pseudoinverse of a rectangular matrix, and software design and documentation language are summarized.

  4. Big data computing: Building a vision for ARS information management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements are needed within the ARS to increase scientific capacity and keep pace with new developments in computer technologies that support data acquisition and analysis. Enhancements in computing power and IT infrastructure are needed to provide scientists better access to high performance com...

  5. Information and Communicative Technology--Computers as Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsani, Mahender Reddy

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of "the electronic age,/electronic cottages/the electronic world" has affected the whole world; particularly the emergence of computers has penetrated everyone's life to a remarkable degree. They are being used in various fields including education. Recent advances, especially in the area of computer technology have…

  6. Thermodynamic cost of computation, algorithmic complexity and the information metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, W. H.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithmic complexity is discussed as a computational counterpart to the second law of thermodynamics. It is shown that algorithmic complexity, which is a measure of randomness, sets limits on the thermodynamic cost of computations and casts a new light on the limitations of Maxwell's demon. Algorithmic complexity can also be used to define distance between binary strings.

  7. Information-preserving models of physics and computation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This research pertains to discrete dynamical systems, as embodied by cellular automata, reversible finite-difference equations, and reversible computation. The research has strengthened the cross-fertilization between physics, computer science and discrete mathematics. It has shown that methods and concepts of physics can be exported to computation. Conversely, fully discrete dynamical systems have been shown to be fruitful for representing physical phenomena usually described with differential equations - cellular automata for fluid dynamics has been the most noted example of such a representation. At the practical level, the fully discrete representation approach suggests innovative uses of computers for scientific computing. The originality of these uses lies in their non-numerical nature: they avoid the inaccuracies of floating-point arithmetic and bypass the need for numerical analysis. 38 refs.

  8. Gendered by Design? Information Technology and Office Systems. Gender and Society: Feminist Perspectives on the Past and Present Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Eileen; And Others

    This international collection of essays brings together two important and growing areas of research and debate: the sociology of gender relations in the workplace and the expanding body of interdisciplinary research into the design of computer systems. Feminists, computer scientists, and sociologists explore the impact of gender relations upon…

  9. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    expert members on the subject to deliver lectures and take part in devising courses in the universities. IVS publishes a quarterly called the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society' since its inception, in which articles on vacuum and related topics are published. NIRVAT, news, announcements, and reports are the other features of the Bulletin. The articles in the Bulletin are internationally abstracted. The Bulletin is distributed free to all the members of the society. The society also publishes proceedings of national/international symposia and seminars, manuals, lecture notes etc. It has published a `Vacuum Directory' containing very useful information on vacuum technology. IVS has also set up its own website http://www.ivsnet.org in January 2002. The website contains information about IVS, list of members, list of EC members, events and news, abstracts of articles published in the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society', utilities, announcements, reports, membership and other forms which can be completed online and also gives links to other vacuum societies. Our Society has been a member of the executive council of the International Union of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications (IUVSTA) and its various committees since 1970. In 1983 IVS conducted an International Symposium on Vacuum Technology and Nuclear Applications in BARC, Mumbai, under the sponsorship of IUVSTA. In 1987 IVS arranged the Triennial International Conference on Thin Films in New Delhi, where more than 200 foreign delegates participated. IVS also hosted the IUVSTA Executive Council Meeting along with the conference. The society organized yet again an International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology and SRS Vacuum Systems at CAT, Indore in1995. IVS arranges the prestigious Professor Balakrishnan Memorial Lecture in memory of its founder vice-president. Leading scientists from India and abroad in the field are invited to deliver the talks. So far 23 lectures have been held in this series. IVS

  10. Information technology of clustering problem situations in computing and office equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchuk, T. O.; Petrishyn, S. I.; Kisała, Piotr; Imanbek, Baglan; Smailova, Saule

    2015-12-01

    The article contains information technology of clustering problem situations in computing and office equipment, which is based on an information model of clustering and modified clustering methods FOREL and K-MEANS such situations.

  11. Paper, Piles, and Computer Files: Folklore of Information Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Laura J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews literature to form a folklore of information workspace and emphasizes the importance of studying folklore of information work environments in the context of the current shift toward removing work from any particular place via information systems, e-mail, and the Web. Discusses trends in workplace design and corporate culture. Contains 84…

  12. Educational Computing and the Ecological Crisis: Some Questions about Our Curriculum Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes that although society is in the "Information Age," humans still must work interdependently with their natural resources. Addresses three question concerning the use of computers and how they relate to society's ecological awareness. (GG)

  13. Human computers: the first pioneers of the information age.

    PubMed

    Grier, D A

    2001-03-01

    Before computers were machines, they were people. They were men and women, young and old, well educated and common. They were the workers who convinced scientists that large-scale calculation had value. Long before Presper Eckert and John Mauchly built the ENIAC at the Moore School of Electronics, Philadelphia, or Maurice Wilkes designed the EDSAC for Manchester University, human computers had created the discipline of computation. They developed numerical methodologies and proved them on practical problems. These human computers were not savants or calculating geniuses. Some knew little more than basic arithmetic. A few were near equals of the scientists they served and, in a different time or place, might have become practicing scientists had they not been barred from a scientific career by their class, education, gender or ethnicity. PMID:11314458

  14. Biotechnology Computing: Information Science for the Era of Molecular Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution from classical genetics to biotechnology, an area of research involving key macromolecules in living cells, is chronicled and the current state of biotechnology is described, noting related advances in computing and clinical medicine. (MSE)

  15. From Information to Experience: Place-Based Augmented Reality Games as a Model for Learning in a Globally Networked Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt D.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: New information technologies make information available just-in-time and on demand and are reshaping how we interact with information, but schools remain in a print-based culture, and a growing number of students are disaffiliating from traditional school. New methods of instruction are needed that are suited to the digital…

  16. Adapting the human-computer interface for reading literacy and computer skill to facilitate collection of information directly from patients.

    PubMed

    Lobach, David F; Arbanas, Jennifer M; Mishra, Dharani D; Campbell, Marci; Wildemuth, Barbara M

    2004-01-01

    Clinical information collected directly from patients is critical to the practice of medicine. Past efforts to collect this information using computers have had limited utility because these efforts required users to be facile with the computerized information collecting system. In this paper we describe the design, development, and function of a computer system that uses recent technology to overcome the limitations of previous computer-based data collection tools by adapting the human-computer interface to the native language, reading literacy, and computer skills of the user. Specifically, our system uses a numerical representation of question content, multimedia, and touch screen technology to adapt the computer interface to the native language, reading literacy, and computer literacy of the user. In addition, the system supports health literacy needs throughout the data collection session and provides contextually relevant disease-specific education to users based on their responses to the questions. The system has been successfully used in an academically affiliated family medicine clinic and in an indigent adult medicine clinic. PMID:15360991

  17. Did Educational Expansion Trigger the Development of an Education Society? Chances and Risks of a New Model of Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haunberger, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of whether educational expansion leads to a new type of society, the education society. Taking into consideration the combined elements of three models of society (the post-industrial society, the knowledge society and the information society)--the chances and risks of an educational society will be elicited…

  18. "TIS": An Intelligent Gateway Computer for Information and Modeling Networks. Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Viktor E.; And Others

    TIS (Technology Information System) is being used at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop software for Intelligent Gateway Computers (IGC) suitable for the prototyping of advanced, integrated information networks. Dedicated to information management, TIS leads the user to available information resources, on TIS or…

  19. Using Personal Computers To Acquire Special Education Information. Revised. ERIC Digest #429.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest offers basic information about resources, available to users of personal computers, in the area of professional development in special education. Two types of resources are described: those that can be purchased on computer diskettes and those made available by linking personal computers through electronic telephone networks. Resources…

  20. 75 FR 70672 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified... contractor, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) of Chantilly, VA and Its Identified Subcontractors, to access... required to support OPPT computer applications; OPPT staff; and their development staff. Specific types...

  1. Group Awareness and Self-Presentation in Computer-Supported Information Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    A common challenge in many situations of computer-supported collaborative learning is increasing the willingness of those involved to share their knowledge with other group members. As a prototypical situation of computer-supported information exchange, a shared-database setting was chosen for the current study. This information-exchange situation…

  2. Ethics and Information Management: How Vulnerable Is Your Campus to Computer Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atcherson, Esther

    1993-01-01

    To minimize breaches of computer security, colleges and universities should (1) establish and disseminate policies and procedures regarding computer security; (2) inform users about what constitutes a criminal act; (3) take measures to protect all information in the organization, beginning with a campus security review; and (4) schedule regular…

  3. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: ICILS 2013 User Guide for the International Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Michael, Ed.; Carstens, Ralph, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) 2013, conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), studied how students in different countries develop the knowledge, understanding, attitudes, dispositions, and skills that comprise computer and information literacy (CIL). The aim…

  4. 78 FR 64255 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Register on October 4, 2013 (FR Doc. 2013-24277, page 61870-61871). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carmen... Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Cancellation of Meeting SUMMARY... issuing this notice to cancel the October 31 to November 1, 2013 Advisory Committee for Computer...

  5. 78 FR 57839 - Request for Information on Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Coordination (78 FR 38949). That Request for Information may be found at https://federalregister.gov/a/2013... National Institute of Standards and Technology Request for Information on Computer Security Incident... submitting comments relating to Computer Security Incident Coordination. NIST experienced...

  6. Meeting the information needs of lower income cancer survivors: results of a randomized control trial evaluating the american cancer society's "I can cope".

    PubMed

    Martin, Michelle Y; Evans, Mary B; Kratt, Polly; Pollack, Lori A; Smith, Judith Lee; Oster, Robert; Dignan, Mark; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Watson, Christopher; Houston, Peter; Andrews, Shiquina; Liwo, Amandiy; Tseng, Tung Sung; Hullett, Sandral; Oliver, Joann; Pisu, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The American Cancer Society is a leader in the development of cancer survivorship resources. One resource of the American Cancer Society is the I Can Cope program, an educational program for cancer survivors and their families. Evaluations of this program indicate that cancer patients highly rate its objectives. Yet, there are gaps in the understanding of the full impact of the program on diverse cancer survivors. In this study, the authors used a randomized trial to evaluate the program. Participants included 140 low-income survivors (79% Black; 38% breast cancer) from community hospitals who were randomized to 4 sessions of I Can Cope (learning about cancer; understanding cancer treatments; relieving cancer pain; and keeping well in mind and body) or 4 sessions of a wellness intervention (humor, meditation, relaxation, and music therapy). The authors' primary outcome was "met information needs." After controlling for covariates, their analysis indicated that I Can Cope was no more effective than the wellness intervention in addressing survivor information needs relative to the learning objectives. Participants provided high overall ratings for both interventions. Self-efficacy for obtaining advice about cancer, age, education, and income were associated with information needs. Educational programs tailored to levels of self-efficacy and patient demographics may be needed. PMID:24433231

  7. Education in a Postindustrial Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Orrin G.

    1982-01-01

    The United States has emerged as the first postindustrial society, that is, one that is organized around information and its codification and the use of that information to guide government employers and the public at large. Because of this evolution, education must change to meet society's changing needs. (JOW)

  8. Design and evaluation of an onboard computer-based information system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, S. H.; Rouse, W. B.; Hammer, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Information seeking by human operators of technical systems is considered. Types of information and forms of presentation are discussed and important issues reviewed. This broad discussion provides a framework within which flight management is considered. The design of an onboard computer-based information system for aircraft is discussed. The aiding possibilities of a computer-based system are emphasized. Results of an experimental evaluation of a prototype system are presented. It is concluded that a computer-based information system can substantially lessen the frequency of human errors.

  9. DPMA Model Curriculum for Undergraduate Computer Information Systems Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, David R., Ed.; Athey, Thomas H., Ed.

    Designed primarily for 4-year undergraduate programs for business applications programmer/analysts offered through schools of business or through applied computer science programs that require a concentration of business courses, these guidelines are based on national and regional conferences, questionnaire surveys, and consultation with computer…

  10. Computational Psychiatry: towards a mathematically informed understanding of mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Quentin J M; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia. Reinforcement learning describes how the brain can choose and value courses of actions according to their long-term future value. Some depressive symptoms may result from aberrant valuations, which could arise from prior beliefs about the loss of agency (‘helplessness’), or from an inability to inhibit the mental exploration of aversive events. Predictive coding explains how the brain might perform Bayesian inference about the state of its environment by combining sensory data with prior beliefs, each weighted according to their certainty (or precision). Several cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia might reduce precision at higher levels of the inferential hierarchy, biasing inference towards sensory data and away from prior beliefs. We discuss whether striatal hyperdopaminergia might have an adaptive function in this context, and also how reinforcement learning and incentive salience models may shed light on the disorder. Finally, we review some of Computational Psychiatry's applications to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and some pitfalls to avoid when applying its methods. PMID:26157034

  11. Learning General Phonological Rules from Distributional Information: A Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja

    2015-01-01

    Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony…

  12. INFORMATION FLOW IN THE BRAIN: COMPUTER REQUIREMENTS (A TUTORIAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper covers mathematical, statistical, and experimental design considerations needed to design a computer system for EEG data acquisition, spectrum, and cross-spectrum analyses. A tutorial approach is used in which no formal proofs are offered. Conclusions are stated simply...

  13. Using Computers for Environmental Education. Information Bulletin No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    This bulletin focuses on the role of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in environmental education programs. The utility of this approach in helping students learn in the cognitive, affective, and/or psychomotor domains is examined and its effectiveness is compared to other instructional devices and methods. Major topics are organized and…

  14. Computational Psychiatry: towards a mathematically informed understanding of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rick A; Huys, Quentin J M; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia. Reinforcement learning describes how the brain can choose and value courses of actions according to their long-term future value. Some depressive symptoms may result from aberrant valuations, which could arise from prior beliefs about the loss of agency ('helplessness'), or from an inability to inhibit the mental exploration of aversive events. Predictive coding explains how the brain might perform Bayesian inference about the state of its environment by combining sensory data with prior beliefs, each weighted according to their certainty (or precision). Several cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia might reduce precision at higher levels of the inferential hierarchy, biasing inference towards sensory data and away from prior beliefs. We discuss whether striatal hyperdopaminergia might have an adaptive function in this context, and also how reinforcement learning and incentive salience models may shed light on the disorder. Finally, we review some of Computational Psychiatry's applications to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and some pitfalls to avoid when applying its methods. PMID:26157034

  15. Hard/Soft, Formal/Informal, Work/Learning: Tenuous/Persistent Binaries in the Knowledge-Based Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubas, Kaela; Butterwick, Shauna

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses insights from a study of women working, or seeking or preparing for work, in the information technology (IT) field. At issue is how and whether alternative career pathways and informally acquired skills and knowledge, as well as the operation of gender in learning and work, are acknowledged by employers, colleagues…

  16. Changes in physicians' computer anxiety and attitudes related to clinical information system use.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S H; Coney, R D

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OVERVIEW: Interns' anxiety about computer use ("computer anxiety") and their attitudes toward medical computer applications were determined by a standardized questionnaire. Participants were surveyed before and after three months of differential exposure to three clinical information systems (CISs), including one with provider-entered encounters. POPULATION: Fifty-one interns completed both surveys. Their average age was 27 years. Thirty-three percent were female, 7% were African American, and 8% were foreign graduates. RESULTS: The most common previous exposures to computers were for literature searching and retrieval of patient information (both 92%). Factors that commonly emerged as predictive of anxiety about computer use included self-rated skills, typing ability, and computer attitudes. Factors predictive of attitudes toward computers included self-rated skills, typing ability, maximal frequency of prior computer use, computer ownership, and computer anxiety. Factors that were not predictive of computer anxiety or attitudes toward computers included age, gender, and physician input of data. CONCLUSION: Identification of markers for negative psychological reactions to computer use may allow development of interventions to improve acceptance of computer base patient records (CBPRs). PMID:7850562

  17. The GASTER project: building a computer network in digestive endoscopy: the experience of the European Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Application for Standards in Telecommunication, Education and Research.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, M M; Crespi, M; Armengol-Miro, J R; Hagenmüller, F; Teuffel, W

    1999-09-01

    Digestive endoscopy is currently the main diagnostic procedure for investigation of the digestive tract whenever a digestive disease is suspected. From 1970 to 1985, digestive endoscopy was performed with endoscopes equipped with fiberoptic bundles, whereas the last decade was marked by the development of electronic endoscopes, characterized by the presence of a CCD (charge coupled device) at the tip of the endoscope. Thus the physician looks at a TV screen to control the procedure and examine in detail the gut wall. Endoscopes examine the foregut until the duodenum and the hindgut, up to the three last intestinal loops. When the endoscopic workstation comprises a computer, it is possible to acquire electronic images during the endoscopy and use these images as support of the information about the results of the procedure. These numeric images can then be stored in databases containing text attached to them. Starting with these images, one may expect many developments in the near future that will change the management of the patient with digestive diseases. Physicians will become able to exchange images and text related to one patient or one procedure, although they are equipped with different workstations. Therefore, it is obvious that the information exchanged must be written in a standard format that makes it understandable by all systems. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy is a scientific society that groups most of the gastroenterologists in Europe. This society has initiated a research program to develop standards for the exchange of images and text. The Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Applications for Standards in Telecommunication, Education, and Research (GASTER) project intends to implement a multimedia database of endoscopic images based on a standard format of images and a standard terminology for descriptive terms. These standards must be validated by use in different endoscopy units. The database will collect images from these centers that

  18. Information seeking, curiosity and attention: computational and neural mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Lopes, Manuel; Baranes, Adrien

    2014-01-01

    Summary Intelligent animals devote much time and energy to exploring and obtaining information, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We review recent developments on this topic that have emerged from the traditionally separate fields of machine learning, eye movements in natural behavior, and studies of curiosity in psychology and neuroscience. These studies show that exploration may be guided by a family of mechanisms that range from automatic biases toward novelty or surprise, to systematic search for learning progress and information gain in curiosity-driven behavior. In addition, eye movements reflect visual information search in multiple conditions and are amenable for cellular-level investigations, suggesting that the oculomotor system is an excellent model system for understanding information sampling mechanisms. PMID:24126129

  19. Japanese printing has been multi-media since its origin! : Rediscovering that development of printing culture is the origin of information society from a talk of Kochi Kabayama, Director, Printing Museum, Tokyo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Utako

    Japanese printing has been multi-media since its origin! : Rediscovering that development of printing culture is the origin of information society from a talk of Kochi Kabayama, Director, Printing Museum, Tokyo.

  20. A Comparison of Baccalaureate Programs in Information Technology with Baccalaureate Programs in Computer Science and Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichgelt, Han; Lunt, Barry; Ashford, Tina; Phelps, Andy; Slazinski, Erick; Willis, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    A number of universities have recently started to add baccalaureate programs in Information Technology (IT) to their existing programs in Computer Science (CS) and (Management) Information Systems (IS). While some have welcomed this development, others have argued that (a) there are significant differences between the baccalaureate programs in IT…

  1. The Information Science Experiment System - The computer for science experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, Edwin C.; Husson, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the Information Science Experiment System (ISES), potential experiments, and system requirements are reviewed. The ISES is conceived as a computer resource in space whose aim is to assist computer, earth, and space science experiments, to develop and demonstrate new information processing concepts, and to provide an experiment base for developing new information technology for use in space systems. The discussion covers system hardware and architecture, operating system software, the user interface, and the ground communication link.

  2. The Information Utility and Social Choice; Papers Prepared for a Conference Sponsored Jointly by the University of Chicago, Encyclopedia Britannica and the American Federation of Information Processing Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackman, Harold, Ed.; Nie, Norman, Ed.

    The introduction, part I, is composed of three sections: (1) Social Prospects of Information Utilities, (2) The Emerging Technology of Information Utilities and (3) Information Utilities and Mass Communication. Part II covers social direction under the following headings: (1) The Regulatory Context of Information Utilities: Varieties in Law and…

  3. Open Learning in Primary and Secondary Schools--Towards the School of Tomorrow in the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringsted, Mette

    1998-01-01

    Examines the implications of information technology and networking for schools in the future. Highlights include qualitative and quantitative challenges; demographic changes; lifelong learning; strategic alliances between schools and other organizations; and teachers' roles and skills, including continuing education. (LRW)

  4. Computers in medical education: information and knowledge management, understanding, and learning.

    PubMed

    Henry, J B

    1990-10-01

    Desktop computers have evolved to permit physicians in practice and/or training to access and manage information to enhance knowledge, understanding, and learning. There are compelling reasons why the personal computer is key to learning and important in medical education. Above all, the computer enhances and amplifies the learning process. Using the desktop computer effectively is relatively easy. We teach our students to research information in books and journals and hope that, as practicing physicians, they do it even more to be current and maintain their competency. Why not a desktop computer to access and manage information, analyze it, and present findings? Computer technology is available to do virtually all of these tasks. Some tools are critical for medical students. For some time, all medical students have needed a black bag and microscope. Now every medical student needs a computer. Ample courseware is available and expanding rapidly for basic sciences and clinical disciplines. The explosion in biomedical information will continue. Finding information is key to understanding and learning rather than depending solely on memory, recall, or library trips for information. The desktop computer will benefit students, faculty, and future physicians and other health professionals as life-long learners. PMID:2210737

  5. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  6. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  7. The Computer Applications in Some Libraries and Information Institutes in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiang, Dong, Jiang; Xiao-Quing, Liu

    1983-01-01

    Provides a brief introduction to computer applications in information organizations in China. Highlights include information retrieval (personnel, equipment, bibliographic databases, information retrieval programs and systems, service status); library management; and Chinese character processing (code method, character root method). History,…

  8. Dissemination of Information in Developing Countries: The Personal Computer and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wai-Man

    2005-01-01

    With the blooming of information in digital format, dissemination of information is becoming a big challenge for developing countries. It is not only due to the limited provision of personal computers--in addition, the technological infrastructure and the ability to access information are also becoming major concerns in developing countries. This…

  9. Analysis of Technological Information Transfer among Japanese Computer Scientists at a Research Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Masaya

    1986-01-01

    Describes the methodology and results of a study that examined information flow at the technological research front by analyzing a Japanese national project in computer technology. Various formats of information dissemination are identified, and a classification of researchers and engineers by information transfer activities is presented. (4…

  10. A Computer Based Biomedical Information System. I. Logic Foundation and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syner, James C.

    A digital computer based biomedical information system was designed to service the needs of physicians engaged in patient care and clinical research, and scientists engaged in laboratory research. The system embraces all functions of information processing which include information collection, storage, retrieval, analyses and display. The…

  11. Information Retrieval: Presentation and Demonstration of an Interactive Computer-Based Search Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Dennis W.; And Others

    A symposium with four major presentations centering on the topic of computer-based information retrieval. Also highlighted are several features of the Wisconsin Information System for Education (WISE-ONE) and the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system. The first paper in the series discusses the development, current capabilities…

  12. INIS: A Computer-Based International Nuclear Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balakrishnan, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Description of the International Nuclear Information System includes its history, organizational structure, subject classification scheme, thesaurus, input standards, and various products and services generated by the system. Appendices provide a list of participating countries, subjects covered by the system, and a sample output record.…

  13. School Librarians Teach Subject Area 10: Computer and Information Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Mirah J. Ingram

    2010-01-01

    School librarians currently speak about school libraries as the largest classroom in the building. If so, how can these librarians describe what they teach? This article explains the user-centered instructional role of secondary school librarians in teaching information and technology literacy skills, as well as how they can authoritatively ensure…

  14. 11 CFR 9003.6 - Production of computer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR... disbursements; (2) Receipts by and disbursements from a legal and accounting compliance fund under 11 CFR 9003.3... under 11 CFR 9003.3 (b) or (c) to defray the costs of soliciting contributions or to defray the costs...

  15. 11 CFR 9003.6 - Production of computer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR... disbursements; (2) Receipts by and disbursements from a legal and accounting compliance fund under 11 CFR 9003.3... under 11 CFR 9003.3 (b) or (c) to defray the costs of soliciting contributions or to defray the costs...

  16. 11 CFR 9003.6 - Production of computer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR... disbursements; (2) Receipts by and disbursements from a legal and accounting compliance fund under 11 CFR 9003.3... under 11 CFR 9003.3 (b) or (c) to defray the costs of soliciting contributions or to defray the costs...

  17. 11 CFR 9003.6 - Production of computer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR... disbursements; (2) Receipts by and disbursements from a legal and accounting compliance fund under 11 CFR 9003.3... under 11 CFR 9003.3 (b) or (c) to defray the costs of soliciting contributions or to defray the costs...

  18. 11 CFR 9003.6 - Production of computer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR... disbursements; (2) Receipts by and disbursements from a legal and accounting compliance fund under 11 CFR 9003.3... under 11 CFR 9003.3 (b) or (c) to defray the costs of soliciting contributions or to defray the costs...

  19. 10 CFR 727.5 - What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... information on DOE computers? 727.5 Section 727.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONSENT FOR ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPUTERS § 727.5 What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers? An individual may not be granted access to information on a...

  20. 10 CFR 727.5 - What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... information on DOE computers? 727.5 Section 727.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONSENT FOR ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPUTERS § 727.5 What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers? An individual may not be granted access to information on a...

  1. 10 CFR 727.5 - What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information on DOE computers? 727.5 Section 727.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONSENT FOR ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPUTERS § 727.5 What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers? An individual may not be granted access to information on a...

  2. 10 CFR 727.5 - What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... information on DOE computers? 727.5 Section 727.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONSENT FOR ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPUTERS § 727.5 What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers? An individual may not be granted access to information on a...

  3. 10 CFR 727.5 - What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information on DOE computers? 727.5 Section 727.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONSENT FOR ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPUTERS § 727.5 What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers? An individual may not be granted access to information on a...

  4. Improving reversal median computation using commuting reversals and cycle information.

    PubMed

    Arndt, William; Tang, Jijun

    2008-10-01

    In the past decade, genome rearrangements have attracted increasing attention from both biologists and computer scientists as a new type of data for phylogenetic analysis. Methods for reconstructing phylogeny from genome rearrangements include distance-based methods, MCMC methods, and direct optimization methods. The latter, pioneered by Sankoff and extended with the software suites GRAPPA and MGR, is the most accurate approach, but is very limited due to the difficulty of its scoring procedure--it must solve multiple instances of the reversal median problem to compute the score of a given tree. The reversal median problem is known to be NP-hard and all existing solvers are extremely slow when the genomes are distant. In this paper, we present a new reversal median heuristic for unichromosomal genomes. The new method works by applying sets of reversals in a batch where all such reversals both commute and do not break the cycle of any other. Our testing using simulated datasets shows that this method is much faster than the leading solver for difficult datasets with only a slight accuracy penalty, yet retains better accuracy than other heuristics with comparable speed, and provides the additional option of searching for multiple medians. This method dramatically increases the speed of current direct optimization methods and enables us to extend the range of their applicability to organellar and small nuclear genomes with more than 50 reversals along each edge. PMID:18774904

  5. Operation of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The major operational areas of the COSMIC center are described. Quantitative data on the software submittals, program verification, and evaluation are presented. The dissemination activities are summarized. Customer services and marketing activities of the center for the calendar year are described. Those activities devoted to the maintenance and support of selected programs are described. A Customer Information system, the COSMIC Abstract Recording System Project, and the COSMIC Microfiche Project are summarized. Operational cost data are summarized.

  6. INFORM: European survey of computers in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Ambroso, C; Bowes, C; Chambrin, M C; Gilhooly, K; Green, C; Kari, A; Logie, R; Marraro, G; Mereu, M; Rembold, P

    1992-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to survey and evaluate the impact of information technology applications in High Dependency Environments (HDEs) on organizational, psychological and cost-effectiveness factors, (b) to contribute information and design requirements to the other workpackages in the INFORM Project, and (c) to develop useful evaluation methodologies. The evaluation methodologies used were: questionnaires, case studies, objective findings (keystroke) and literature search and review. Six questionnaires were devised covering organizational impact, cost-benefit impact and perceived advantages and disadvantages of computerized systems in HDE (psychological impact). The general conclusion was that while existing systems have been generally well received, they are not yet designed in such a developed and integrated way as to yield their full potential. Greater user involvement in design and implementation and more emphasis on training emerged as strong requirements. Lack of reliability leading to parallel charting was a major problem with the existing systems. It proved difficult to assess cost effectiveness due to a lack of detailed accounting costs; however, it appeared that in the short term, computerisation in HDEs tended to increase costs. It is felt that through a better stock control and better decision making, costs may be reduced in the longer run and effectiveness increased; more detailed longitudinal studies appear to be needed on this subject. PMID:1402304

  7. Computer Management of Information and Structure in Computer-Supported Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Milton D.; MacDougall, Mary Ann

    1970-01-01

    "This paper reports the use of readability analysis as an evaluative model of programming techniques, where program adaptations can be evaluated both in relationship to student performance and to the program structure (frame, response, content presentation and organization variables) of a computer-based system." (Authors)

  8. UNIVIEW: A computer graphics platform bringing information databases to life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnstam, J.

    2008-06-01

    Uniview is a PC-based software platform for three-dimensional exploration of the Universe and the visualisation of information that is located at any position in this Universe, be it on the surface of the Earth or many light-years away from home. What began as a collaborative project with the American Museum of Natural History1 in New York in 2003 has now evolved into one of the leading visualisation platforms for the planetarium and science centre market with customers in both Europe and USA.

  9. Access to Max '91 information via computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiplinger, Alan L.

    1989-01-01

    Various types of flare information, activity, active region reports, x ray plots and daily Campaign Action notices are now available on SPAN, and INTERNET. Although this system was developed for use by Max '91 participants during campaigns, it is updated daily and maintained at times outside of campaigns. Thus it is available for general use outside of campaigns. The Space Environment Laboratory maintains VAX and Apollo systems, both of which are on INTERNET. The VAX is also on the SPAN network as node SELVAX or 9555. Details of access to files on the VAX are given.

  10. The role of computer software in presenting information.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jane

    2009-07-01

    An ability to communicate ideas and concepts is a key skill for senior nurses, and many use presentation software to help them do this. However, there is evidence that multimedia presentations can obscure messages and hinder the transfer of ideas. This article examines academic and popular literature to assess the ability of presentation software to present information, and considers the reasons why it is so widely used and the implications for managers who use it. It also suggests that managers should consider rejecting the use of presentation software except for the display of images, and instead develop their skills in rhetoric. PMID:19639908

  11. Web application for simplifying access to computer center resources and information.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-01

    Lorenz is a product of the ASC Scientific Data Management effort. Lorenz is a web-based application designed to help computer centers make information and resources more easily available to their users.

  12. For operation of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmon, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Progress report on current status of computer software management and information center (COSMIC) includes the following areas: inventory, evaluation and publication, marketing, customer service, maintenance and support, and budget summary.

  13. A Psychiatric Assessment-Treatment-Outcome Information System: Evaluation with Computer Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Angle, Hugh V.; Ellinwood, Everett H.

    1978-01-01

    The prediction of treatment outcome will require a clinically dedicated and comprehensive information system to gather a sizable data file on each individual, covering patient assessment, treatment and treatment outcome. The computer interview represents an information system capable of routinely gathering a large portion of this information. However, current methods of data analysis cannot adequately handle the information complexity associated with psychiatric treatment. Computer simulation is a method ideally suited to the investigation of complex subject matter and is proposed as a means to forecast the treatment outcome of actual patients under various conditions of treatment.

  14. THE RADIATION SAFETY INFORMATION COMPUTATIONAL CENTER: A RESOURCE FOR REACTOR DOSIMETRY SOFTWARE AND NUCLEAR DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue

    2009-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) was established in 1963 to collect and disseminate computational nuclear technology in the form of radiation transport, shielding and safety software and corresponding nuclear cross sections. Approximately 1700 nuclear software and data packages are in the RSICC collection, and the majority are applicable to reactor dosimetry.

  15. The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center:. a Resource for Reactor Dosimetry Software and Nuclear Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, B. L.

    2009-08-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) was established in 1963 to collect and disseminate computational nuclear technology in the form of radiation transport, shielding and safety software and corresponding nuclear cross sections. Approximately 1700 nuclear software and data packages are in the RSICC collection, and the majority are applicable to reactor dosimetry.

  16. Mental Health Computing in the 1980s: I. General Information Systems and Clinical Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, James L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This is the first of a two-part state-of-the-art review concerning current trends in mental health computing. It deals principally with general mental health information systems, the emerging role of microcomputers and general applications software, computerizing medical records, and computer support for quality assurance programs. (Author)

  17. An Information and Technical Manual for the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, Melvyn I.; And Others

    The manual presents technical information on the computer assisted teacher training system (CATTS) which aims at developing a versatile and economical computer based teacher training system with the capability of providing immediate analysis and feedback of data relevant to teacher pupil transactions in a classroom setting. The physical…

  18. THE FUTURE OF COMPUTER-BASED TOXICITY PREDICTION: MECHANISM-BASED MODELS VS. INFORMATION MINING APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Future of Computer-Based Toxicity Prediction:
    Mechanism-Based Models vs. Information Mining Approaches

    When we speak of computer-based toxicity prediction, we are generally referring to a broad array of approaches which rely primarily upon chemical structure ...

  19. Spacecraft On-Board Information Extraction Computer (SOBIEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenman, David; Decaro, Robert E.; Jurasek, David W.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the Technical Monitor on an SBIR Program issued for Irvine Sensors Corporation to develop a highly compact, dual use massively parallel processing node known as SOBIEC. SOBIEC couples 3D memory stacking technology provided by nCUBE. The node contains sufficient network Input/Output to implement up to an order-13 binary hypercube. The benefit of this network, is that it scales linearly as more processors are added, and it is a superset of other commonly used interconnect topologies such as: meshes, rings, toroids, and trees. In this manner, a distributed processing network can be easily devised and supported. The SOBIEC node has sufficient memory for most multi-computer applications, and also supports external memory expansion and DMA interfaces. The SOBIEC node is supported by a mature set of software development tools from nCUBE. The nCUBE operating system (OS) provides configuration and operational support for up to 8000 SOBIEC processors in an order-13 binary hypercube or any subset or partition(s) thereof. The OS is UNIX (USL SVR4) compatible, with C, C++, and FORTRAN compilers readily available. A stand-alone development system is also available to support SOBIEC test and integration.

  20. To follow or not? How animals in fusion-fission societies handle conflicting information during group decision-making.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Jerod A; Sigaud, Marie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    When group members possess differing information about the environment, they may disagree on the best movement decision. Such conflicts result in group break-ups, and are therefore a fundamental driver of fusion-fission group dynamics. Yet, a paucity of empirical work hampers our understanding of how adaptive evolution has shaped plasticity in collective behaviours that promote and maintain fusion-fission dynamics. Using movement data from GPS-collared bison, we found that individuals constantly associated with other animals possessing different spatial knowledge, and both personal and conspecific information influenced an individual's patch choice decisions. During conflict situations, bison used group familiarity coupled with their knowledge of local foraging options and recently sampled resource quality when deciding to follow or leave a group - a tactic that led to energy-rewarding movements. Natural selection has shaped collective behaviours for coping with social conflicts and resource heterogeneity, which maintain fusion-fission dynamics and play an essential role in animal distribution. PMID:26013202

  1. A new distributed computing model of mobile spatial information service grid based on mobile agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gen; Liu, Miao-long

    2009-10-01

    A new distributed computing model of mobile spatial information service is studied based on grid computing environment. Key technologies are presented in the model, including mobile agent (MA) distributed computing, grid computing, spatial data model, location based service (LBS), global positioning system (GPS), code division multiple access (CDMA), transfer control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP), and user datagram protocol (UDP). In order to deal with the narrow bandwidth and instability of the wireless internet, distributed organization of tremendous spatial data, limited processing speed and low memory of mobile devices, a new mobile agent based mobile spatial information service grid (MSISG) architecture is further proposed that has good load balance, high processing efficiency, less network communication and thus suitable for mobile distributed computing environment. It can provide applications of spatial information distributed computing and mobile service. The theories and technologies architecture of MSISG are built originally from the base, including spatial information mobile agent model, distributed grid geographic information system (GIS) server model, mobile agent server model and mobile GIS client model. An application system for MSISG is therefore developed authorship by visual c++ and embedded visual c++. A field test is carried out through this system in Shanghai, and the results show that the proposed model and methods are feasible and adaptable for mobile spatial information service.

  2. A new distributed computing model of mobile spatial information service grid based on mobile agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gen; Liu, Miao-long

    2008-10-01

    A new distributed computing model of mobile spatial information service is studied based on grid computing environment. Key technologies are presented in the model, including mobile agent (MA) distributed computing, grid computing, spatial data model, location based service (LBS), global positioning system (GPS), code division multiple access (CDMA), transfer control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP), and user datagram protocol (UDP). In order to deal with the narrow bandwidth and instability of the wireless internet, distributed organization of tremendous spatial data, limited processing speed and low memory of mobile devices, a new mobile agent based mobile spatial information service grid (MSISG) architecture is further proposed that has good load balance, high processing efficiency, less network communication and thus suitable for mobile distributed computing environment. It can provide applications of spatial information distributed computing and mobile service. The theories and technologies architecture of MSISG are built originally from the base, including spatial information mobile agent model, distributed grid geographic information system (GIS) server model, mobile agent server model and mobile GIS client model. An application system for MSISG is therefore developed authorship by visual c++ and embedded visual c++. A field test is carried out through this system in Shanghai, and the results show that the proposed model and methods are feasible and adaptable for mobile spatial information service.

  3. Interactions and Interventions: Current Research on Improving Informal Astronomy Education via the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, James G.; Gurton, S.; Hurst, A.; Berendsen, M.; Storksdieck, M.; Haley-Goldman, K.; Stein, J.; Pompea, S.; Garmany, C.; Sparks, R.; Pollock, W.

    2007-12-01

    In building national capacity for better informal astronomy education and public outreach (EPO), what sorts of professional development interactions are most effective in what situations--and what interventions for improvement can be effectively applied? Building on previous experience, the ASP, in conjunction with its partners, is conducting two National Science Foundation (NSF) funded projects investigating astronomy teaching and learning in informal contexts to explore these questions in both museum-based and amateur astronomy club settings. "Astronomy from the Ground Up" (AfGU) develops capacity for hands-on astronomy education in small and medium-sized science centers and nature centers through on-site and online professional development workshops and the establishment of a "community of practice" network. The ASP, in collaboration with the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) and the Association of Science and Technology Centers (ASTC), is investigating which model--face-to-face or online professional development--works best and will be sustainable for that target group. "Sharing the Universe" (STU) builds on the Night Sky Network in which amateur astronomy clubs, through the ASP with financial and logistical support from NASA and its missions, are provided tools and training to conduct EPO activities with their public audiences. The ASP, in collaboration with the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI), launched a national survey in late 2007 to investigate the factors that either support or discourage sustained amateur astronomer EPO efforts, followed by an in-depth study of a subset of both successful and struggling clubs, and leading to the development of interventions that support amateur astronomy outreach within the context of a nurturing club environment. The presentation will offer some early and initial results of the AfGU project--which reveal some interesting and unforeseen advantages of the online model over the on-site model--and some

  4. Seamless personal health information system in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wan-Young; Fong, Ee May

    2014-01-01

    Noncontact ECG measurement has gained popularity these days due to its noninvasive and conveniences to be applied on daily life. This approach does not require any direct contact between patient's skin and sensor for physiological signal measurement. The noncontact ECG measurement is integrated with mobile healthcare system for health status monitoring. Mobile phone acts as the personal health information system displaying health status and body mass index (BMI) tracking. Besides that, it plays an important role being the medical guidance providing medical knowledge database including symptom checker and health fitness guidance. At the same time, the system also features some unique medical functions that cater to the living demand of the patients or users, including regular medication reminders, alert alarm, medical guidance, appointment scheduling. Lastly, we demonstrate mobile healthcare system with web application for extended uses, thus health data are clouded into web server system and web database storage. This allows remote health status monitoring easily and so forth it promotes a cost effective personal healthcare system. PMID:25570784

  5. Photonic information processing beyond Turing: an optoelectronic implementation of reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Larger, L; Soriano, M C; Brunner, D; Appeltant, L; Gutierrez, J M; Pesquera, L; Mirasso, C R; Fischer, I

    2012-01-30

    Many information processing challenges are difficult to solve with traditional Turing or von Neumann approaches. Implementing unconventional computational methods is therefore essential and optics provides promising opportunities. Here we experimentally demonstrate optical information processing using a nonlinear optoelectronic oscillator subject to delayed feedback. We implement a neuro-inspired concept, called Reservoir Computing, proven to possess universal computational capabilities. We particularly exploit the transient response of a complex dynamical system to an input data stream. We employ spoken digit recognition and time series prediction tasks as benchmarks, achieving competitive processing figures of merit. PMID:22330562

  6. A Study to Compare Curriculum of Computer Information Systems and Computer Education and Instructional Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2008-01-01

    Today, developments of information and communication technologies have been developing very fast all over the world. These new technologies were taking an important place in education like other sciences. For this reason, education was developing parallel to new developments on the new technologies. Departments which cover curriculum of new…

  7. Planckian Information (Ip): A New Measure of Order in Atoms, Enzymes, Cells, Brains, Human Societies, and the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Sungchul

    A new mathematical formula referred to as the Planckian distribution equation (PDE) has been found to fit long-tailed histograms generated in various fields of studies, ranging from atomic physics to single-molecule enzymology, cell biology, brain neurobiology, glottometrics, econophysics, and to cosmology. PDE can be derived from a Gaussian-like equation (GLE) by non-linearly transforming its variable, x, while keeping the y coordinate constant. Assuming that GLE represents a random distribution (due to its symmetry), it is possible to define a binary logarithm of the ratio between the areas under the curves of PDE and GLE as a measure of the non-randomness (or order) underlying the biophysicochemical processes generating long-tailed histograms that fit PDE. This new function has been named the Planckian information, IP, which (i) may be a new measure of order that can be applied widely to both natural and human sciences and (ii) can serve as the opposite of the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy, S, which is a measure of disorder. The possible rationales for the universality of PDE may include (i) the universality of the wave-particle duality embedded in PDE, (ii) the selection of subsets of random processes (thereby breaking the symmetry of GLE) as the basic mechanism of generating order, organization, and function, and (iii) the quantity-quality complementarity as the connection between PDE and Peircean semiotics.

  8. A Computer-Assisted Approach for Conducting Information Technology Applied Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Pei Jin; Yang, Tzu-Chi

    2009-01-01

    The growing popularity of computer and network technologies has attracted researchers to investigate the strategies and the effects of information technology applied instructions. Previous research has not only demonstrated the benefits of applying information technologies to the learning process, but has also revealed the difficulty of applying…

  9. U. S. EPA Nonpoint-Source Information Exchange Computer Bulletin Board System (BBS). User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Nonpoint Source (NPS) Information Exchange Bulletin Board System (BBS) will provide state and local agencies, private organizations, businesses, and concerned individuals with timely, relevant NPS information, a forum for open discussion, and the ability to exchange computer text and program files.

  10. Learning and Teaching Information Technology--Computer Skills in Context. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael B.; Johnson, Doug

    This digest describes an integrated approach to teaching computer skills in K-12 schools. The introductory section discusses the importance of integrating information skills into the curriculum. "Technology Skills for Information Problem Solving: A Curriculum Based on the Big6 Skills Approach" (Michael B. Eisenberg, Doug Johnson, and Robert E.…

  11. Computer/information security design approaches for Complex 21/Reconfiguration facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.J.; Zack, N.R.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1993-08-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories have been designated the technical lead laboratories to develop the design of the computer/information security, safeguards, and physical security systems for all of the DOE Complex 21/Reconfiguration facilities. All of the automated information processing systems and networks in these facilities will be required to implement the new DOE orders on computer and information security. The planned approach for a highly integrated information processing capability in each of the facilities will require careful consideration of the requirements in DOE Orders 5639.6 and 1360.2A. The various information protection requirements and user clearances within the facilities will also have a significant effect on the design of the systems and networks. Fulfilling the requirements for proper protection of the information and compliance with DOE orders will be possible because the computer and information security concerns are being incorporated in the early design activities. This paper will discuss the computer and information security addressed in the integrated design effort, uranium/lithium, plutonium, plutonium high explosive/assembly facilities.

  12. Information Systems Security and Computer Crime in the IS Curriculum: A Detailed Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, C. Bryan; Renwick, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which information systems (IS) security and computer crime are covered in information systems programs. Results suggest that IS faculty believe security coverage should be increased in required, elective, and non-IS courses. However, respondent faculty members are concerned that existing curricula leave little…

  13. Computer User's Guide to the Protection of Information Resources. NIST Special Publication 500-171.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsing, Cheryl; And Others

    Computers have changed the way information resources are handled. Large amounts of information are stored in one central place and can be accessed from remote locations. Users have a personal responsibility for the security of the system and the data stored in it. This document outlines the user's responsibilities and provides security and control…

  14. Learners' Perceived Information Overload in Online Learning via Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chun-Ying; Pedersen, Susan; Murphy, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students…

  15. Computers in Education. Inventory of Training Institutions, Publications, Societies in Asia and the Pacific: Australia, Bangladesh, China, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This directory provides a listing of computer training institutions, computer associations, and computer publications in 14 nations of Asia and the Pacific Region. The listing of 70 training institutions provides contact information and details on programs, research, and major innovations for each institution. The listing of 15 computer…

  16. A fluorescent-switch-based computing platform in defending information risk.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhou, Can; Xu, Chun-Hu; Fang, Chen-Jie; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zhan-Xian; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2008-01-01

    A molecular computing platform to defend against illegal information theft and invasion is obtained by the rational control of chemical reaction sequences in a newly prepared multiswitchable fluorophore 2-(4-aminophenylethylyl)-5-methoxy-2-(2-pyridyl)thiazole. Some of the fluorescent states with distinct recognition features are only activated through input-sequence-sensitive conversions. Chemically encoded user identity information can then be transmitted from a sequential logic unit to a combinational logic circuit, and hence, result in user-specific digital functionalities. The user's password entry is authorized prior to each computing step to check not only the user's identity, but also to reconfigure the molecular platform from the standby state to the corresponding operational state. Illegal accesses to the molecular computing platform are unable to activate the operation of the trusted users due to the incorrect activation processes, thereby ensuring the information is secured against information invasions. PMID:18553327

  17. An integrated clinical computer system: implications for a medical information services department.

    PubMed

    Walker, N S

    1994-12-01

    The hybrid record--both paper and electronic--is a cumbersome byproduct of the evolution to the computer-based patient record. Nancy Walker describes how William Beaumont Hospital managed its information services with this mixed media record. Her article provides practical solutions for health information managers including downtime procedures, report distribution plans, release of information steps, and audit procedures for maintaining confidentiality. PMID:10138514

  18. In-silico design of computational nucleic acids for molecular information processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years nucleic acids have become a focus of interest for prototype implementations of molecular computing concepts. During the same period the importance of ribonucleic acids as components of the regulatory networks within living cells has increasingly been revealed. Molecular computers are attractive due to their ability to function within a biological system; an application area extraneous to the present information technology paradigm. The existence of natural information processing architectures (predominately exemplified by protein) demonstrates that computing based on physical substrates that are radically different from silicon is feasible. Two key principles underlie molecular level information processing in organisms: conformational dynamics of macromolecules and self-assembly of macromolecules. Nucleic acids support both principles, and moreover computational design of these molecules is practicable. This study demonstrates the simplicity with which one can construct a set of nucleic acid computing units using a new computational protocol. With the new protocol, diverse classes of nucleic acids imitating the complete set of boolean logical operators were constructed. These nucleic acid classes display favourable thermodynamic properties and are significantly similar to the approximation of successful candidates implemented in the laboratory. This new protocol would enable the construction of a network of interconnecting nucleic acids (as a circuit) for molecular information processing. PMID:23647621

  19. In-silico design of computational nucleic acids for molecular information processing.

    PubMed

    Ramlan, Effirul Ikhwan; Zauner, Klaus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years nucleic acids have become a focus of interest for prototype implementations of molecular computing concepts. During the same period the importance of ribonucleic acids as components of the regulatory networks within living cells has increasingly been revealed. Molecular computers are attractive due to their ability to function within a biological system; an application area extraneous to the present information technology paradigm. The existence of natural information processing architectures (predominately exemplified by protein) demonstrates that computing based on physical substrates that are radically different from silicon is feasible. Two key principles underlie molecular level information processing in organisms: conformational dynamics of macromolecules and self-assembly of macromolecules. Nucleic acids support both principles, and moreover computational design of these molecules is practicable. This study demonstrates the simplicity with which one can construct a set of nucleic acid computing units using a new computational protocol. With the new protocol, diverse classes of nucleic acids imitating the complete set of boolean logical operators were constructed. These nucleic acid classes display favourable thermodynamic properties and are significantly similar to the approximation of successful candidates implemented in the laboratory. This new protocol would enable the construction of a network of interconnecting nucleic acids (as a circuit) for molecular information processing. PMID:23647621

  20. Using information communication technologies to increase the institutional capacity of local health organisations in Africa: a case study of the Kenya Civil Society Portal for Health

    PubMed Central

    Juma, Charles; Sundsmo, Aaron; Maket, Boniface; Powell, Richard; Aluoch, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Achieving the healthcare components of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals is significantly premised on effective service delivery by civil society organisations (CSOs). However, many CSOs across Africalack the necessary capacity to perform this role robustly. This paper reports on an evaluation of the use, and perceived impact, of aknowledge management tool upon institutional strengthening among CSOs working in Kenya's health sector. Methods Three methods were used: analytics data; user satisfaction surveys; and a furtherkey informant survey. Results Satisfaction with the portal was consistently high, with 99% finding the quality and relevance of the content very good or good for institutional strengthening standards, governance, and planning and resource mobilisation. Critical facilitators to the success of knowledge management for CSO institutional strengthening were identified as people/culture (developed resources and organisational narratives) and technology (easily accessible, enabling information exchange, tools/resources available, access to consultants/partners). Critical barriers were identified as people/culture (database limitations, materials limitations, and lack of active users), and process (limited access, limited interactions, and limited approval process). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated the perceived utility of a web-based knowledge management portal among developing nations’ CSOs, with widespread satisfaction across multiple domains, which increased over time. Providing increased opportunities for collective mutual learning, promoting a culture of data use for decision making, and encouraging all health organisations to be learning institutions should be a priority for those interested in promoting sustainable long-term solutions for Africa. PMID:26401217

  1. Computer Discourse: Classroom Conversations with a Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emihovich, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the scribal society, computer discourse, and computer literacy in the information age. Describes issues related to classroom dynamics, including new textual forms of knowledge, equity in access for children to acquire knowledge of multiple computer discourses, and necessary changes in instructional strategies to accommodate new discourse…

  2. Learning in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaias, Pedro; McPherson, Maggie

    2006-01-01

    Despite some spectacular e-learning failures in recent years, e.g. the British government's "e University", educational technologies have continued developing and have made advances in several learning paradigms. These new learning paradigms appear as new ways to deal with the old traditional learning concepts and philosophies throughout the…

  3. North American Fuzzy Logic Processing Society (NAFIPS 1992), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the NAFIPS '92 North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Conference. More than 75 papers were presented at this Conference, which was sponsored by NAFIPS in cooperation with NASA, the Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, the Indian Society for Fuzzy Mathematics and Information Processing (ISFUMIP), the Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), the International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA), the Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Systems, and the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC). The fuzzy set theory has led to a large number of diverse applications. Recently, interesting applications have been developed which involve the integration of fuzzy systems with adaptive processes such a neural networks and genetic algorithms. NAFIPS '92 was directed toward the advancement, commercialization, and engineering development of these technologies.

  4. North American Fuzzy Logic Processing Society (NAFIPS 1992), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the NAFIPS '92 North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Conference. More than 75 papers were presented at this Conference, which was sponsored by NAFIPS in cooperation with NASA, the Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, the Indian Society for Fuzzy Mathematics and Information Processing (ISFUMIP), the Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), the International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA), the Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Systems, and the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC). The fuzzy set theory has led to a large number of diverse applications. Recently, interesting applications have been developed which involve the integration of fuzzy systems with adaptive processes such as neural networks and genetic algorithms. NAFIPS '92 was directed toward the advancement, commercialization, and engineering development of these technologies.

  5. Improving access to computer-based library and drug information services in patient-care areas.

    PubMed

    Tobia, R C; Bierschenk, N F; Knodel, L C; Bowden, V M

    1990-01-01

    A project to increase access to drug and biomedical information through electronic linkage of drug information and library services to three patient-care areas is described. In February 1987, microcomputer work stations were installed in the Bexar County Hospital District's hospital emergency department, medical residents' office, and ambulatory-care clinic, as well as in The University of Texas Health Science Center's library reference area and drug information service office. Drug information was available on compact disk through the Micromedex Computerized Clinical Information System (CCIS) database, which includes DRUGDEX, POISINDEX, EMERGINDEX, and IDENTIDEX. Each work station was also connected to the library's computer via modem, allowing access to the Library Information System, books, journals, audiovisual materials, miniMEDLINE, and an electronic mail system. During the six-month project, the system was used 5487 times by 702 people. The system was successful in providing drug and other information in clinical settings and in introducing clinical staff members to new information technology. To increase access to the system after the project ended, the CD-ROM version was discontinued, and the distributed tape version of CCIS for VAX computers was added to the library's online information system, making drug information more available throughout the campus and teaching hospitals. In 1988-89 an average of 200 people accessed the tape version of CCIS each month. Although it is difficult to replace the convenience of an onsite library, at least some drug and biomedical information needs in the clinical setting can be met through computer networking. PMID:2405657

  6. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart H of... - Information on Computing Certain Common Deductions From Back Pay Awards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Information on Computing Certain Common.... A Appendix A to Subpart H of Part 550—Information on Computing Certain Common Deductions From Back... deductions. (See § 550.805(e)(3).) To compute these deductions, an agency must determine the appropriate...

  7. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart H of... - Information on Computing Certain Common Deductions From Back Pay Awards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information on Computing Certain Common.... A Appendix A to Subpart H of Part 550—Information on Computing Certain Common Deductions From Back... deductions. (See § 550.805(e)(3).) To compute these deductions, an agency must determine the appropriate...

  8. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart H of... - Information on Computing Certain Common Deductions From Back Pay Awards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information on Computing Certain Common.... A Appendix A to Subpart H of Part 550—Information on Computing Certain Common Deductions From Back... deductions. (See § 550.805(e)(3).) To compute these deductions, an agency must determine the appropriate...

  9. Selective Dissemination of Information and Retrospective Searches. Computer Based Information Services from RIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluchowicz, Zofia

    The purpose of this guide is to give an up-to-date presentation of the information service offered by the documentation center at the Royal Institute of Technology (RIT) and to facilitate the utilization of the service. The guide gives a general account of the multidisciplinary computerized current awareness service (SDI) and a detailed…

  10. An Evaluation of Personal Health Information Remnants in Second-Hand Personal Computer Disk Drives

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Emilio; Jonker, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background The public is concerned about the privacy of their health information, especially as more of it is collected, stored, and exchanged electronically. But we do not know the extent of leakage of personal health information (PHI) from data custodians. One form of data leakage is through computer equipment that is sold, donated, lost, or stolen from health care facilities or individuals who work at these facilities. Previous studies have shown that it is possible to get sensitive personal information (PI) from second-hand disk drives. However, there have been no studies investigating the leakage of PHI in this way. Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which PHI can be obtained from second-hand computer disk drives. Methods A list of Canadian vendors selling second-hand computer equipment was constructed, and we systematically went through the shuffled list and attempted to purchase used disk drives from the vendors. Sixty functional disk drives were purchased and analyzed for data remnants containing PHI using computer forensic tools. Results It was possible to recover PI from 65% (95% CI: 52%-76%) of the drives. In total, 10% (95% CI: 5%-20%) had PHI on people other than the owner(s) of the drive, and 8% (95% CI: 7%-24%) had PHI on the owner(s) of the drive. Some of the PHI included very sensitive mental health information on a large number of people. Conclusions There is a strong need for health care data custodians to either encrypt all computers that can hold PHI on their clients or patients, including those used by employees and subcontractors in their homes, or to ensure that their computers are destroyed rather than finding a second life in the used computer market. PMID:17942386

  11. The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC): A Resource for Nuclear Science Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue

    2009-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) has been in existence since 1963. RSICC collects, organizes, evaluates and disseminates technical information (software and nuclear data) involving the transport of neutral and charged particle radiation, and shielding and protection from the radiation associated with: nuclear weapons and materials, fission and fusion reactors, outer space, accelerators, medical facilities, and nuclear waste management. RSICC serves over 12,000 scientists and engineers from about 100 countries.

  12. Informed public choices for low-carbon electricity portfolios using a computer decision tool.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Lauren A Fleishman; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-04-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions from the electricity sector will likely require policies that encourage the widespread deployment of a diverse mix of low-carbon electricity generation technologies. Public discourse informs such policies. To make informed decisions and to productively engage in public discourse, citizens need to understand the trade-offs between electricity technologies proposed for widespread deployment. Building on previous paper-and-pencil studies, we developed a computer tool that aimed to help nonexperts make informed decisions about the challenges faced in achieving a low-carbon energy future. We report on an initial usability study of this interactive computer tool. After providing participants with comparative and balanced information about 10 electricity technologies, we asked them to design a low-carbon electricity portfolio. Participants used the interactive computer tool, which constrained portfolio designs to be realistic and yield low CO2 emissions. As they changed their portfolios, the tool updated information about projected CO2 emissions, electricity costs, and specific environmental impacts. As in the previous paper-and-pencil studies, most participants designed diverse portfolios that included energy efficiency, nuclear, coal with carbon capture and sequestration, natural gas, and wind. Our results suggest that participants understood the tool and used it consistently. The tool may be downloaded from http://cedmcenter.org/tools-for-cedm/informing-the-public-about-low-carbon-technologies/ . PMID:24564708

  13. In the Clouds: The Implications of Cloud Computing for Higher Education Information Technology Governance and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulaney, Malik H.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies challenge the management of information technology in organizations. Paradigm changing technologies, such as cloud computing, have the ability to reverse the norms in organizational management, decision making, and information technology governance. This study explores the effects of cloud computing on information technology…

  14. Computer-Based Information Services for Education and the Social Sciences in New Zealand: A Review of Recent Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of computer-based information services in New Zealand for education and the social sciences. Highlights include national systems; the influence of personal computer technology on the development of information services; the lack of a national information policy; and the lack of standardized software. (13 references) (LRW)

  15. Are Computer Science and Information Technology Still Masculine Fields? High School Students' Perceptions and Career Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastergiou, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated Greek high school students' intentions and motivation towards and against pursuing academic studies in Computer Science (CS), the influence of the family and the scholastic environment on students' career choices, students' perceptions of CS and the Information Technology (IT) profession as well as students' attendance at…

  16. Assessing Information-Seeking Behavior of Computer Science and Engineering Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucci, Valerie K.

    2011-01-01

    This study, the first phase of a multi-phase effort, was undertaken to assess and provide for the information needs of the Faculty of the Schools of Science and Engineering at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ) in the digital age. The objectives of this phase were to: 1) gain an in-depth understanding of how computer science and engineering faculty…

  17. Factors that Influence Students' Plans to Take Computing and Information Technology Subjects in Senior Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Toni; Looker, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    This article explores factors that contribute to low participation rates in computing and information technology (CIT) courses in senior secondary school, particularly for females. Partly drawing on the Values-Expectancy Theory the following variables are explored separately and within a single model: gender, ability and values beliefs, access and…

  18. A Compilation of Information on Computer Applications in Nutrition and Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casbergue, John P.

    Compiled is information on the application of computer technology to nutrition food service. It is designed to assist dieticians and nutritionists interested in applying electronic data processing to food service and related industries. The compilation is indexed by subject area. Included for each subject area are: (1) bibliographic references,…

  19. Beyond 1984: The Positive and Negative Potential of Computer Supported School Focused Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan S.

    Although educators' use of computers to track student and school information with the attendant positive and negative outcomes is still in an early stage of development, accessible data from such systems could improve the objective rationality of educational and instructional decision-making as long as no one places unwarranted credibility in the…

  20. Developing a Computer Information Systems Curriculum Based on an Industry Needs Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafarian, Ahmad; Sisk, Kathy A.

    This paper details experiences in developing an undergraduate Computer Information Systems (CIS) curriculum at a small liberal arts school. The development of the program was based on the study of needs assessment. Findings were based on the analysis of four sources of data: the results of an industry needs survey, data from a needs assessment…

  1. A brief description about the fathers of computer and information sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Majid; Shah, Tariq; Shahab, Ali

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we are mainly presenting a tribute to the fathers of computer and information sciences, George Boole and Claude Elwood Shannon with their hardships and achievements. This piece of writing also elaborates the applications of George Boole's and Claude Shannon's works in different disciplines.

  2. Attention Paid to Feedback Provided by a Computer-Based Assessment for Learning on Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmers, Caroline; Veldkamp, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Three studies are presented on attention paid to feedback provided by a computer-based assessment for learning on information literacy. Results show that the attention paid to feedback varies greatly. In general the attention focuses on feedback of incorrectly answered questions. In each study approximately fifty percent of the respondents paid…

  3. An Exploratory Study of Malaysian Publication Productivity in Computer Science and Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Yinian

    2002-01-01

    Explores the Malaysian computer science and information technology publication productivity as indicated by data collected from three Web-based databases. Relates possible reasons for the amount and pattern of contributions to the size of researcher population, the availability of refereed scholarly journals, and the total expenditure allocated to…

  4. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  5. For operation of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmon, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    During the month of June, the Survey Research Center (SRC) at the University of Georgia designed new benefits questionnaires for computer software management and information center (COSMIC). As a test of their utility, these questionnaires are now used in the benefits identification process.

  6. Computer Security in the Introductory Business Information Systems Course: An Exploratory Study of Textbook Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Kenneth J.; MacDonald, Laurie E.; Fougere, Kenneth T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of Management Information Systems (MIS) textbooks and found that computer security receives very little in-depth coverage. The textbooks provide, at best, superficial treatment of security issues. The research results suggest that MIS faculty need to provide material to supplement the textbook to provide…

  7. Facilitating Place-Based Learning in Outdoor Informal Environments with Mobile Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Land, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper advocates for place-based education to guide research and design for mobile computers used in outdoor informal environments (e.g., backyards, nature centers and parks). By bringing together research on place-based education with research on location awareness, we developed three design guidelines to support learners to develop robust…

  8. The Relationship between Chief Information Officer Transformational Leadership and Computing Platform Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, George W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate the strength of Chief Information Officer (CIO) transformational leadership behaviors to 1 of 5 computing platform operating systems (OSs) that may be selected for a firm's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) business system. Research shows executive leader behaviors may promote innovation through the use of…

  9. Computer-Based Storage and Retrieval of Geoscience Information: Bibliography 1970-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, C. F., Jr.

    The publication of papers describing activity in computer-based storage and retrieval and geoscience information has continued at a vigorous pace since release of the last bibliography, which covered the period 1946-69 (ED 076 203). A total of 211 references are identified, nearly all of which were published during the three-year period 1970-72…

  10. Assessment of the Accounting and Joint Accounting/Computer Information Systems Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appiah, John; Cernigliaro, James; Davis, Jeffrey; Gordon, Millicent; Richards, Yves; Santamaria, Fernando; Siegel, Annette; Lytle, Namy; Wharton, Patrick

    This document presents City University of New York LaGuardia Community College's Department of Accounting and Managerial Studies assessment of its accounting and joint accounting/computer information systems programs report, and includes the following items: (1) description of the mission and goals of the Department of Accounting and Managerial…

  11. Maintenance Training and Performance: A Computer-Based Management Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobko, Douglas J.; Hayes, John F.

    1983-01-01

    The Army Research Institute developed and made operational a computer-based maintenance performance management information system that monitors technical activities of maintenance personnel. The implications of data from eight months of system operation for training programs, training material development, estimating manning requirements,…

  12. The Impact of a Computer Based Information System (CBIS) on Foreign Investments Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Chester

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact that computer based information systems (CBIS) could have on U.S. multinational corporations operating in Canada, particularly in the province of Quebec, and the implications for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that went into effect on January 1, 1994. The study focused on how the…

  13. The Use of Information Technologies for Education in Science, Mathematics, and Computers. An Agenda for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Technology Center, Cambridge, MA.

    Developed to guide the research of the Educational Technology Center, a consortium based at Harvard Graduate School of Education, this report addresses the use of new information technologies to enrich, extend, and transform current instructional practice in science, mathematics, and computer education. A discussion of the basic elements required…

  14. Methods and apparatuses for information analysis on shared and distributed computing systems

    DOEpatents

    Bohn, Shawn J [Richland, WA; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar [Richland, WA; Cowley, Wendy E [Richland, WA; Nieplocha, Jarek [Richland, WA

    2011-02-22

    Apparatuses and computer-implemented methods for analyzing, on shared and distributed computing systems, information comprising one or more documents are disclosed according to some aspects. In one embodiment, information analysis can comprise distributing one or more distinct sets of documents among each of a plurality of processes, wherein each process performs operations on a distinct set of documents substantially in parallel with other processes. Operations by each process can further comprise computing term statistics for terms contained in each distinct set of documents, thereby generating a local set of term statistics for each distinct set of documents. Still further, operations by each process can comprise contributing the local sets of term statistics to a global set of term statistics, and participating in generating a major term set from an assigned portion of a global vocabulary.

  15. Optimal nonlinear information processing capacity in delay-based reservoir computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced brain-inspired machine learning paradigm capable of excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We focus in a particular kind of time-delay based reservoir computers that have been physically implemented using optical and electronic systems and have shown unprecedented data processing rates. Reservoir computing is well-known for the ease of the associated training scheme but also for the problematic sensitivity of its performance to architecture parameters. This article addresses the reservoir design problem, which remains the biggest challenge in the applicability of this information processing scheme. More specifically, we use the information available regarding the optimal reservoir working regimes to construct a functional link between the reservoir parameters and its performance. This function is used to explore various properties of the device and to choose the optimal reservoir architecture, thus replacing the tedious and time consuming parameter scannings used so far in the literature.

  16. Optimal nonlinear information processing capacity in delay-based reservoir computers

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced brain-inspired machine learning paradigm capable of excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We focus in a particular kind of time-delay based reservoir computers that have been physically implemented using optical and electronic systems and have shown unprecedented data processing rates. Reservoir computing is well-known for the ease of the associated training scheme but also for the problematic sensitivity of its performance to architecture parameters. This article addresses the reservoir design problem, which remains the biggest challenge in the applicability of this information processing scheme. More specifically, we use the information available regarding the optimal reservoir working regimes to construct a functional link between the reservoir parameters and its performance. This function is used to explore various properties of the device and to choose the optimal reservoir architecture, thus replacing the tedious and time consuming parameter scannings used so far in the literature. PMID:26358528

  17. Adaptive information interchange system of the fiber-optic measuring networks with the computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Igor V.; Drozdov, Roman S.; Sedov, Victor A.

    2005-06-01

    In the present paper the characteristics and opportunities of application of the system of parallel input-output of information from the fiber-optical measuring network into computer are considered. The system consists of two pars: on manframe and several expansion blocks. The first part is internal, is connected directly in the socket of the motherboard of the personal computer. It is designed for buffering system signals and development of cojmands of controlling by the system for input-output of signals into personal computer and signals generation onto expansion blocks. The second part is external, connects to the mainframe by means of cables. It designed for transformation of information from the fiber-optical measuring network into signalsof rthe mainframe and instrument settings adaptation. The analysis of speed of procesing of analog and digital data by system is presented. The possible schemes of use of the system for processing quasistationary and dynamic fields are considered.

  18. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (Fort Worth, Texas, October 22-24, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the IADIS International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2013), October 22-24, 2013, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by The University of North Texas (UNT), sponsored by the…

  19. Results from Five Task Forces Appointed by the American Council of Learned Societies and the Council on Library and Information Resources. Scholarship, Instruction, and Libraries at the Turn of the Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Council of Learned Societies and the Council on Library and Information Resources appointed 36 scholars, librarians, and leaders of various academic enterprises to five task forces "to consider changes in the process of scholarship and instruction that will result from the use of digital technology and to make recommendations to…

  20. Database Management: Building, Changing and Using Databases. Collected Papers and Abstracts of the Mid-Year Meeting of the American Society for Information Science (15th, Portland, Oregon, May 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Information Science, Washington, DC.

    This document contains abstracts of papers on database design and management which were presented at the 1986 mid-year meeting of the American Society for Information Science (ASIS). Topics considered include: knowledge representation in a bilingual art history database; proprietary database design; relational database design; in-house databases;…

  1. Knowledge: Creation, Organization and Use. ASIS '99: Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science (ASIS) Annual Meeting (62nd, Washington, DC, October 31-November 4, 1999). Volume 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Larry, Ed.

    The 1999 American Society for Information Science (ASIS) conference explored current knowledge creation, acquisition, navigation, correlation, retrieval, management, and dissemination practicalities and potentialities, their implementation and impact, and the theories behind the developments. Speakers reviewed processes, technologies, and tools,…

  2. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  3. A Latency-Tolerant Partitioner for Distributed Computing on the Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biwas, Rupak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG) is an infrastructure designed to harness the power of graphically distributed computers, databases, and human expertise, in order to solve large-scale realistic computational problems. This type of a meta-computing environment is necessary to present a unified virtual machine to application developers that hides the intricacies of a highly heterogeneous environment and yet maintains adequate security. In this paper, we present a novel partitioning scheme. called MinEX, that dynamically balances processor workloads while minimizing data movement and runtime communication, for applications that are executed in a parallel distributed fashion on the IPG. We also analyze the conditions that are required for the IPG to be an effective tool for such distributed computations. Our results show that MinEX is a viable load balancer provided the nodes of the IPG are connected by a high-speed asynchronous interconnection network.

  4. Scalable Evolutionary Computation for Efficient Information Extraction from Remote Sensed Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almutairi, L. M.; Shetty, S.; Momm, H. G.

    2014-11-01

    Evolutionary computation, in the form of genetic programming, is used to aid information extraction process from high-resolution satellite imagery in a semi-automatic fashion. Distributing and parallelizing the task of evaluating all candidate solutions during the evolutionary process could significantly reduce the inherent computational cost of evolving solutions that are composed of multichannel large images. In this study, we present the design and implementation of a system that leverages cloud-computing technology to expedite supervised solution development in a centralized evolutionary framework. The system uses the MapReduce programming model to implement a distributed version of the existing framework in a cloud-computing platform. The proposed system has two major subsystems; (i) data preparation: the generation of random spectral indices; and (ii) distributed processing: the distributed implementation of genetic programming, which is used to spectrally distinguish the features of interest from the remaining image background in the cloud computing environment in order to improve scalability. The proposed system reduces response time by leveraging the vast computational and storage resources in a cloud computing environment. The results demonstrate that distributing the candidate solutions reduces the execution time by 91.58%. These findings indicate that such technology could be applied to more complex problems that involve a larger population size and number of generations.

  5. Sharing personal health information via service-oriented computing: a case of long-term care.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Hsiu; Chen, Rong-Rong; Guo, Sophie Huey-Ming; Chiang, Su-Chien; Chang, Her-Kun

    2012-12-01

    Sharing personal health information among healthcare providers is a crucial business process not only for saving limited healthcare resources but also for increasing patient's healthcare quality. Building an effective personal health information sharing process from established healthcare systems is a challenge in terms of coordination different business operations among healthcare providers and restructuring technical details existed in different healthcare information systems. This study responds this challenge with a service-oriented approach and develops a business software application to describe how the challenge can be alleviated from both managerial and technical perspectives. The software application in this study depicts personal health information sharing process among different providers in a long-term care setting. The information sharing scenario is based on an industrial initiative, such as Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) from healthcare domain and the technologies for implementing the scenario are Web Service technologies from Service-oriented computing paradigm. The implementation in this study can inform healthcare researchers and practitioners applying technologies from service-oriented computing to design and develop healthcare collaborative systems to meet the increasing need for personal health information sharing. PMID:22366977

  6. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Computer Information Systems Technology. Computer Information Systems Technology (Program CIP: 52.1201--Management Information Systems & Business Data). Computer Programming (Program CIP: 52.1201). Network Support (Program CIP: 52.1290--Computer Network Support Technology). Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for two programs in the state's postsecondary-level computer information systems technology cluster: computer programming and network support. Presented in the introduction are program descriptions and suggested course…

  7. The High-Performance Computing and Communications program, the national information infrastructure and health care.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, D A; Humphreys, B L

    1995-01-01

    The High-Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program is a multiagency federal effort to advance the state of computing and communications and to provide the technologic platform on which the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can be built. The HPCC program supports the development of high-speed computers, high-speed telecommunications, related software and algorithms, education and training, and information infrastructure technology and applications. The vision of the NII is to extend access to high-performance computing and communications to virtually every U.S. citizen so that the technology can be used to improve the civil infrastructure, lifelong learning, energy management, health care, etc. Development of the NII will require resolution of complex economic and social issues, including information privacy. Health-related applications supported under the HPCC program and NII initiatives include connection of health care institutions to the Internet; enhanced access to gene sequence data; the "Visible Human" Project; and test-bed projects in telemedicine, electronic patient records, shared informatics tool development, and image systems. PMID:7614116

  8. Public library computer training for older adults to access high-quality Internet health information

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Bugg, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at a state university. One hundred and thirty-one older adults aged 54–89 participated in the study between September 2007 and July 2008. Key findings include: a) participants had overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the training program; b) after learning about two NIH websites (http://nihseniorhealth.gov and http://medlineplus.gov) from the training, many participants started using these online resources to find high quality health and medical information and, further, to guide their decision-making regarding a health- or medically-related matter; and c) computer anxiety significantly decreased (p < .001) while computer interest and efficacy significantly increased (p = .001 and p < .001, respectively) from pre- to post-training, suggesting statistically significant improvements in computer attitudes between pre- and post-training. The findings have implications for public libraries, LIS academic programs, and other organizations interested in providing similar programs in their communities. PMID:20161649

  9. Computer information project for monographs at the Medical Research Library of Brooklyn.

    PubMed

    Koch, M S; Kovacs, H

    1973-07-01

    The article describes a resource library's computer-based project that provides cataloging and other bibliographic services and promotes greater use of the book collection. A few studies are cited to show the significance of monographic literature in medical libraries. The educational role of the Medical Research Library of Brooklyn is discussed, both with regard to the parent institution and to smaller medical libraries in the same geographic area. Types of aid given to smaller libraries are enumerated. Information is given on methods for providing machine-produced catalog cards, current awareness notes, and bibliographic lists. Actualities and potentialities of the computer project are discussed. PMID:4579767

  10. Psychopathy-related traits and the use of reward and social information: a computational approach

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, Inti A.; Hunt, Laurence T.; Bulten, Berend H.; Kessels, Roy P. C.; de Bruijn, Ellen R. A.; Mars, Rogier B.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is often linked to disturbed reinforcement-guided adaptation of behavior in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Recent work suggests that these disturbances might be due to a deficit in actively using information to guide changes in behavior. However, how much information is actually used to guide behavior is difficult to observe directly. Therefore, we used a computational model to estimate the use of information during learning. Thirty-six female subjects were recruited based on their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a self-report psychopathy list, and performed a task involving simultaneous learning of reward-based and social information. A Bayesian reinforcement-learning model was used to parameterize the use of each source of information during learning. Subsequently, we used the subscales of the PPI to assess psychopathy-related traits, and the traits that were strongly related to the model's parameters were isolated through a formal variable selection procedure. Finally, we assessed how these covaried with model parameters. We succeeded in isolating key personality traits believed to be relevant for psychopathy that can be related to model-based descriptions of subject behavior. Use of reward-history information was negatively related to levels of trait anxiety and fearlessness, whereas use of social advice decreased as the perceived ability to manipulate others and lack of anxiety increased. These results corroborate previous findings suggesting that sub-optimal use of different types of information might be implicated in psychopathy. They also further highlight the importance of considering the potential of computational modeling to understand the role of latent variables, such as the weight people give to various sources of information during goal-directed behavior, when conducting research on psychopathy-related traits and in the field of forensic psychiatry. PMID:24391615

  11. Psychopathy-related traits and the use of reward and social information: a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Inti A; Hunt, Laurence T; Bulten, Berend H; Kessels, Roy P C; de Bruijn, Ellen R A; Mars, Rogier B

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is often linked to disturbed reinforcement-guided adaptation of behavior in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Recent work suggests that these disturbances might be due to a deficit in actively using information to guide changes in behavior. However, how much information is actually used to guide behavior is difficult to observe directly. Therefore, we used a computational model to estimate the use of information during learning. Thirty-six female subjects were recruited based on their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a self-report psychopathy list, and performed a task involving simultaneous learning of reward-based and social information. A Bayesian reinforcement-learning model was used to parameterize the use of each source of information during learning. Subsequently, we used the subscales of the PPI to assess psychopathy-related traits, and the traits that were strongly related to the model's parameters were isolated through a formal variable selection procedure. Finally, we assessed how these covaried with model parameters. We succeeded in isolating key personality traits believed to be relevant for psychopathy that can be related to model-based descriptions of subject behavior. Use of reward-history information was negatively related to levels of trait anxiety and fearlessness, whereas use of social advice decreased as the perceived ability to manipulate others and lack of anxiety increased. These results corroborate previous findings suggesting that sub-optimal use of different types of information might be implicated in psychopathy. They also further highlight the importance of considering the potential of computational modeling to understand the role of latent variables, such as the weight people give to various sources of information during goal-directed behavior, when conducting research on psychopathy-related traits and in the field of forensic psychiatry. PMID:24391615

  12. Bio-Inspired Computing, Information Swarms, and the Problem of Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmann, Brian

    The problem of information overload becomes a huge challenge, particularly when attempting to understanding how to introduce more and more disparate data streams into a data system. Little has been done on how to make those data streams understandable and usable by an analyst. A new paradigm is constructed here, unconstrained by the limits of the current desktop computer, to develop new ways of processing and analyzing data based on the behavior of cellular scale organisms. The additional issue of analytic "groupthink" or "information swarms" is also addressed, with potential solutions to the problem of "paralysis by analysis."

  13. The Operation of a Specialized Scientific Information and Data Analysis Center With Computer Base and Associated Communications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, William B.; And Others

    The Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) is a highly sophisticated scientific information center operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Its information file, which consists of both data and bibliographic information, is computer stored and numerous programs have been developed to facilitate the…

  14. Science, Technology and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgstock, Martin; Burch, David; Forge, John; Laurent, John; Lowe, Ian

    1998-03-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the human, social and economic aspects of science and technology. It examines a broad range of issues from a variety of perspectives, using examples and experiences from around the world. The authors present complex issues, including the responsibilities of scientists, ethical dilemmas and controversies, the Industrial Revolution, economic issues, public policy, and science and technology in developing countries. The book ends with a thoughtful and provocative look toward the future. It features extensive guides to further reading, as well as a useful section on information searching skills. This book will provoke, engage, inform and stimulate thoughtful discussion about culture, society and science. Broad and interdisciplinary, it will be of considerable value to both students and teachers.

  15. The organization of intrinsic computation: Complexity-entropy diagrams and the diversity of natural information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, David P.; McTague, Carl S.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2008-12-01

    Intrinsic computation refers to how dynamical systems store, structure, and transform historical and spatial information. By graphing a measure of structural complexity against a measure of randomness, complexity-entropy diagrams display the different kinds of intrinsic computation across an entire class of systems. Here, we use complexity-entropy diagrams to analyze intrinsic computation in a broad array of deterministic nonlinear and linear stochastic processes, including maps of the interval, cellular automata, and Ising spin systems in one and two dimensions, Markov chains, and probabilistic minimal finite-state machines. Since complexity-entropy diagrams are a function only of observed configurations, they can be used to compare systems without reference to system coordinates or parameters. It has been known for some time that in special cases complexity-entropy diagrams reveal that high degrees of information processing are associated with phase transitions in the underlying process space, the so-called "edge of chaos." Generally, though, complexity-entropy diagrams differ substantially in character, demonstrating a genuine diversity of distinct kinds of intrinsic computation.

  16. The organization of intrinsic computation: complexity-entropy diagrams and the diversity of natural information processing.

    PubMed

    Feldman, David P; McTague, Carl S; Crutchfield, James P

    2008-12-01

    Intrinsic computation refers to how dynamical systems store, structure, and transform historical and spatial information. By graphing a measure of structural complexity against a measure of randomness, complexity-entropy diagrams display the different kinds of intrinsic computation across an entire class of systems. Here, we use complexity-entropy diagrams to analyze intrinsic computation in a broad array of deterministic nonlinear and linear stochastic processes, including maps of the interval, cellular automata, and Ising spin systems in one and two dimensions, Markov chains, and probabilistic minimal finite-state machines. Since complexity-entropy diagrams are a function only of observed configurations, they can be used to compare systems without reference to system coordinates or parameters. It has been known for some time that in special cases complexity-entropy diagrams reveal that high degrees of information processing are associated with phase transitions in the underlying process space, the so-called "edge of chaos." Generally, though, complexity-entropy diagrams differ substantially in character, demonstrating a genuine diversity of distinct kinds of intrinsic computation. PMID:19123616

  17. Modeling and optimization of transmission and processing of data in an information computer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, A.; Boriev, Z.; Nyrkov, A.; Sokolov, S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a comparative analysis of the routing algorithms that allows optimizing the process of transmission and processing of data in information computer networks. A special attention is paid to multipath methods of data transmission coupled with the number of operations necessary for their performance. In addition the authors have raised the question of a linear programming method for the purpose of the solution of the above-mentioned problem.

  18. Thermal management of closed computer modules utilizing high density circuitry. [in Airborne Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents data on a preliminary analysis of the thermal dynamic characteristics of the Airborne Information Management System (AIMS), which is a continuing design project at NASA Dryden. The analysis established the methods which will be applied to the actual AIMS boards as they become available. The paper also describes the AIMS liquid cooling system design and presents a thermodynamic computer model of the AIMS cooling system, together with an experimental validation of this model.

  19. A brief description of the Medical Information Computer System (MEDICS). [real time minicomputer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    The Medical Information Computer System (MEDICS) is a time shared, disk oriented minicomputer system capable of meeting storage and retrieval needs for the space- or non-space-related applications of at least 16 simultaneous users. At the various commercially available low cost terminals, the simple command and control mechanism and the generalized communication activity of the system permit multiple form inputs, real-time updating, and instantaneous retrieval capability with a full range of options.

  20. Trip Report: Second World Conference on Computers in Education of the International Federation for Information Processing (Marseille, France, September 1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Diane D.

    At the Second World Conference on Computers in Education nearly 150 papers were presented. The author gives an overview of the conference, and selects a few of the papers for further discussion. Vendor-supplied computer education, "information science" as a high school elective, and computer-assisted instruction in a broader spectrum of course…

  1. Computer and online health information literacy among Belgrade citizens aged 66-89 years.

    PubMed

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Kurtagic, Ilma; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Nurkovic, Selmina; Kovacevic, Nikolina; Gazibara, Teodora; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2016-06-01

    Computer users over 65 years of age in Serbia are rare. The purpose of this study was to (i) describe main demographic characteristics of computer users older than 65; (ii) evaluate their online health information literacy and (iii) assess factors associated with computer use in this population. Persons above 65 years of age were recruited at the Community Health Center 'Vračar' in Belgrade from November 2012 to January 2013. Data were collected after medical checkups using a questionnaire. Of 480 persons who were invited to participate 354 (73.7%) agreed to participate, while 346 filled in the questionnaire (72.1%). A total of 70 (20.2%) older persons were computer users (23.4% males vs. 17.7% females). Of those, 23.7% explored health-related web sites. The majority of older persons who do not use computers reported that they do not have a reason to use a computer (76.5%), while every third senior (30.4%) did not own a computer. Predictors of computer use were being younger [odds ratio (OR) = 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-4.04; p = 0.019], having less members of household (OR = 2.97, 95% CI 1.45-6.08; p = 0.003), being more educated (OR = 3.53, 95% CI 1.88-6.63; p = 0.001), having higher income (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.17-4.58; p = 0.016) as well as fewer comorbidities (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.79; p = 0.007). Being male was independent predictor of online health information use at the level of marginal significance (OR = 4.43, 95% CI 1.93-21.00; p = 0.061). Frequency of computer and Internet use among older adults in Belgrade is similar to other populations. Patterns of Internet use as well as non-use demonstrate particular socio-cultural characteristics. PMID:25576152

  2. SIGI: Field Test and Evaluation of a Computer-Based System of Interactive Guidance and Information. Volume I: Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Warren; And Others

    The computer-based System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI) was field tested and evaluated at five community colleges and one university. Developed by Educational Testing Service, SIGI assists students in the process of informed and rational career decision making. Interacting at a cathode-ray tube terminal with a computer, students…

  3. SIGI: Field Test and Evaluation of a Computer-Based System of Interactive Guidance and Information. Summary of Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Warren; And Others

    The computer-based System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI) was field tested and evaluated at five community colleges and one university. Developed by Educational Testing Service, SIGI assists students in the process of informed and rational career decision making. Interacting at a cathode-ray tube terminal with a computer, students…

  4. Personal computers on campus.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, M M

    1985-04-26

    Colleges and universities are becoming test beds for the much-heralded "information society" as they incorporate a new series of information technologies. These include on-line databases, magnetic and optical data storage, digital telecommunications, computer networks, and, most visibly and dramatically, personal computers. The transition is presenting administrators and faculty with major challenges, however. This article discusses some of the issues involved, including access to computers and to computer networking, managing the transition, and the educational uses of personal computers. A final section discusses efforts at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Brown University, and Camegie-Mellon University to shape a new-generation personal computer, the so-called "scholar's workstation." PMID:17746874

  5. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  6. Accessing picture archiving and communication system text and image information through personal computers.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, M R; Wong, A W; Lee, J K; Huang, H K

    1994-11-01

    Recent advances in storage technology have made possible the archiving of tremendous amounts of text and image information within a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). However, a radiologist's access to this information typically has been limited to viewing workstations designed primarily to support clinical activities. Unfortunately, these workstations often overlook the benefits of PACS in teaching and research applications, which are of significant importance in an academic institution. To support such activities at our own institution, we have included two major objectives in our second-generation PACS development: (1) to provide access to text and image information archived within our PACS in an environment that is easily accessible to and comfortable for our radiologists, namely, their own Macintosh (Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA) personal computers; and (2) to provide this information in standard Macintosh formats, so that tools with which radiologists are already familiar can be used in frequently performed teaching activities--the production of slides and prints, the maintenance of personal teaching and research files, and specialized image analysis and processing. PMID:7976909

  7. The Big Society Must Be a Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubb, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The UK coalition government has stated its ambition to create a "Big Society". This represents an attempt to alter the relationship between citizen and state, loosening the vertical ties that exist between government and the individual while strengthening the informal bonds of neighbourhoods and communities. This agenda runs through the…

  8. Computer Literacy for Elementary and Secondary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John J., Jr.

    A discussion on the impact of the information explosion on society provides the context for this paper's examination of procedures for designing the first stage of a systematic plan to incorporate computer technologies in elementary and secondary schools. Based on the rationale that a computer literate faculty must be available to make decisions…

  9. Educational Computing Course. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bump, Wren, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on the educational computing course from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Using a Flexible Format To Create a Constructivist Learning Environment in the Educational Computing Course" (Wren M. Bump); "Technological Diversity: Managing Differing Technology…

  10. Managing facts and concepts: computer graphics and information graphics from a graphic designer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.

    1983-01-01

    This book emphasizes the importance of graphic design for an information-oriented society. In an environment in which many new graphic communication technologies are emerging, it raises some issues which graphic designers and managers of graphic design production should consider in using the new technology effectively. In its final sections, it gives an example of the steps taken in designing a visual narrative as a prototype for responsible information-oriented graphic design. The management of complex facts and concepts, of complex systems of ideas and issues, presented in a visual as well as verbal narrative or dialogue and conveyed through new technology will challenge the graphic design community in the coming decades. This shift to visual-verbal communication has repercussions in the educational system and the political/governance systems that go beyond the scope of this book. If there is a single goal for this book, it is to stimulate the reader and then to provide references that will help you learn more about graphic design in an era of communication when know business is show business.

  11. Separation of Substances: A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development, Grade 9. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    Recognizing the problems and challenges associated with teaching general level or non-academic science courses in junior high school, a series of manuals was written to assist teachers in developing programs which focus on issues related to science and society. In the first in the series, how to make water fit to drink is investigated. Eight…

  12. Bridging the digital divide through the integration of computer and information technology in science education: An action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gail Laverne

    The presence of a digital divide, computer and information technology integration effectiveness, and barriers to continued usage of computer and information technology were investigated. Thirty-four African American and Caucasian American students (17 males and 17 females) in grades 9--11 from 2 Georgia high school science classes were exposed to 30 hours of hands-on computer and information technology skills. The purpose of the exposure was to improve students' computer and information technology skills. Pre-study and post-study skills surveys, and structured interviews were used to compare race, gender, income, grade-level, and age differences with respect to computer usage. A paired t-test and McNemar test determined mean differences between student pre-study and post-study perceived skills levels. The results were consistent with findings of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (2000) that indicated the presence of a digital divide and digital inclusion. Caucasian American participants were found to have more at-home computer and Internet access than African American participants, indicating that there is a digital divide by ethnicity. Caucasian American females were found to have more computer and Internet access which was an indication of digital inclusion. Sophomores had more at-home computer access and Internet access than other levels indicating digital inclusion. Students receiving regular meals had more computer and Internet access than students receiving free/reduced meals. Older students had more computer and Internet access than younger students. African American males had been using computer and information technology the longest which is an indication of inclusion. The paired t-test and McNemar test revealed significant perceived student increases in all skills levels. Interviews did not reveal any barriers to continued usage of the computer and information technology skills.

  13. High performance computing and communications: Advancing the frontiers of information technology

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report, which supplements the President`s Fiscal Year 1997 Budget, describes the interagency High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The HPCC Program will celebrate its fifth anniversary in October 1996 with an impressive array of accomplishments to its credit. Over its five-year history, the HPCC Program has focused on developing high performance computing and communications technologies that can be applied to computation-intensive applications. Major highlights for FY 1996: (1) High performance computing systems enable practical solutions to complex problems with accuracies not possible five years ago; (2) HPCC-funded research in very large scale networking techniques has been instrumental in the evolution of the Internet, which continues exponential growth in size, speed, and availability of information; (3) The combination of hardware capability measured in gigaflop/s, networking technology measured in gigabit/s, and new computational science techniques for modeling phenomena has demonstrated that very large scale accurate scientific calculations can be executed across heterogeneous parallel processing systems located thousands of miles apart; (4) Federal investments in HPCC software R and D support researchers who pioneered the development of parallel languages and compilers, high performance mathematical, engineering, and scientific libraries, and software tools--technologies that allow scientists to use powerful parallel systems to focus on Federal agency mission applications; and (5) HPCC support for virtual environments has enabled the development of immersive technologies, where researchers can explore and manipulate multi-dimensional scientific and engineering problems. Educational programs fostered by the HPCC Program have brought into classrooms new science and engineering curricula designed to teach computational science. This document contains a small sample of the significant HPCC Program accomplishments in FY 1996.

  14. Large-Scale Distributed Computational Fluid Dynamics on the Information Power Grid Using Globus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Stephen; Biswas, Rupak; Saini, Subhash; VanderWijngaart, Robertus; Yarrow, Maurice; Zechtzer, Lou; Foster, Ian; Larsson, Olle

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment in which a large-scale scientific application development for tightly-coupled parallel machines is adapted to the distributed execution environment of the Information Power Grid (IPG). A brief overview of the IPG and a description of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) algorithm are given. The Globus metacomputing toolkit is used as the enabling device for the geographically-distributed computation. Modifications related to latency hiding and Load balancing were required for an efficient implementation of the CFD application in the IPG environment. Performance results on a pair of SGI Origin 2000 machines indicate that real scientific applications can be effectively implemented on the IPG; however, a significant amount of continued effort is required to make such an environment useful and accessible to scientists and engineers.

  15. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development and advancement ... PENS@kellencompany.com • Copyright © 2016 Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society • ALL RIGHTS RESERVED • Privacy Policy • Admin

  16. American Cancer Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved Find Local ACS How the American Cancer Society Fights Childhood Cancer Advances in treatment have improved ... long lasting consequences. Learn how the American Cancer Society is working to save more lives from cancer ...

  17. American Urogynecologic Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Society of Interventional Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... how interventional radiology research improves patients’ lives at Society of Interventional Radiology’s 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting; read ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ...

  19. American Society of Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials in Transplantation September 13, 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and its Transplantation & Immunology Research Network ... Learn More Donate Donate Donate to the American Society of Transplantation Advertisement member spotlight View all Joanna ...

  20. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History ... Message Boards Patient Resource Library The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Loose Connections ...